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Title: Australian social sciences abstracts
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Title: Australian social sciences abstracts
Physical Description: 18 no. : ;
Language: English
Creator: Australian National Research Council -- Committee on Research in the Social Sciences
Publisher: Australian National Research Council, Committee on Research in the Social Sciences.
Place of Publication: Melbourne
Publication Date: November 1954
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Subject: Social sciences -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1-18; Mar. 1946-Nov. 1954.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00076572
Volume ID: VID00018
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page 525
        Page 526
    Main
        Page 527
        Page 528
        Page 529
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        Page 531
        Page 532
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        Page 543
        Page 544
        Page 545
        Page 546
        Page 547
        Page 548
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
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S: AUSTRALIAN SOCIAL SCIENCE






Dr F. Schnieret, Faculty of Economics and Com
Carlton, N.3, Melbourne, Victor
SHONTORARY ABSTRACTED
AccouNA recy -Me'Dr. AK. Barton L. Goldberg and W




AaicuIzTuRE AmN RURAL PuoLmEs-Professor S.
L. C. Dianey
Ecowomrcs-Assoc. Professor 0. de R. Foenander, D
G. C. Harcourt and R. J. A. Harper
GrocAnwwY-Messrs. E. J. Doqpth and D. W. Fryer, D
H e.roafessor R M Crawford, ro r A. A. Oeser,






and L. F. Fitzhardinge
-Dr R. N. MorriWhite






Pumnnsornr-Profcssor A. Boyce Gibson
P cL Sc -Professor W. Macmahon BalEDITOR
A.Dr F. Shnaviesre, F. Encl and C. A. Wolfsohn
:: :... *" ."Carlton, N.3, Melbourne, Victor
i !';':'* ". HONORARY ABSTRACTORS






Ps AOUNTANC-Professor 0. A. Oeser, L. older P. d W S
T:R A CULTIE AND ARURI PaOBLEMS---PDr L. A S.






All communications should be addressed to the
Subscripio: s. 6d. annum post free in Australlaney






within the Sterling area; 5i.So outside the:

CONTENTS
EconomicAsso. Professor de R. Fonander, D
I., G. C. Harcourt and R. Jic Harper
Industry, Trade and Commercth and D. W. ryer,
General WIT-Prof orks. d, Dr A. Ser







( Individual Industries
Monetary Policy, Banking, Insurance
Pu and L. F. Financetzhdinge
I.:.. Law--Dr R. ccot Morris
PTransp-P essor A. Bmmunications
Labour and Industrial RelationsW. Macmahon Ball,
Agriculture, Land and Rural ProblemWolsohn
i:, PSY.Political Science-sso . Oee M
:',:' T arGovernment and Politics -Dr L. Adam
nteAll communical Relations ld be addressed to th








Social Conditions-
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Ho; CONTENTSS
;:. Economics--






S..:Economics and Economic Plic Health
,-,..:.'. : Industry, Trade and Commrce--
::"., ..( General Works ..





Socndividual Indus ies ..
^*.'.': :". .. Monetary Policy, Banking, Insurance
:.iE Public Finance ..
.:, ., ....' Accountancy




Transport and Communications
EdLabour and Indusation





History ,..
Philosophy
Psychology .. ..
'.Ter rictories Land Native rural Problems
Political Pubc A rs Inormaion Service, or A.







magazine articles and government documents on Austi
;; *lntenational Relations













and social Condaffairs. It ioublised monthly by theitio
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Social Surveys
Population and igtio be sent free upon request t..
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* .Law' .. ... .
" {; LPhilosopbh
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'!:,' magazine articles and government documents on Ausn,
and social affairs. It Is published monthly by the C
S" ." Library and will be sent free upon request tt


'T~" ~ ~" -.~


ABSTRACTS


in)
Professor W. Prest,


merce. University,
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AUSTRALIAN


SOCIAL SCIENCE


ABSTRACTS








The SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL OF AUSTRALIA was
established in 1952 to extend the scope and functions of
the former Committee for Research in the Social Sciences
of the Australian National Research Council.
The scope of the Council's work includes the sociological
aspects of anthropology, economics, education, history,
human geography, jurisprudence, medicine, philosophy,
political science, psychology, public administration and
statistics.




*


SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL OF AUSTRALIA





















T HIS publication of abstracts in the social sciences is intended to provide a survey
of important material, published. in, or related to Australia, New Zealand and
their territories, dealing with the various social sciences. The field of the survey dealt
with in these Abstracts is indicated by the classification of the subjects on the inside
cover.
The aim is to provide the specialist in any particular field with a survey of recent
publications in his own field, and to indicate to other workers in allied fields what is
being done. For these purposes it has been decided that the abstracts shall be genuine
precis of the works included.
At present it is intended to publish the Abstracts half yearly; but if, in the future,
a larger volume of original work is produced, it is hoped to publish the Abstracts
more frequently so that all deserving work may be covered as soon after publication
as possible.
Copies of this and subsequent issues of the Abstracts will be sent on application
(enclosing subscription of 7s. 6d. in Australian currency, i dollar 50 cents per annum)
to the Editor, Faculty of Economics and Commerce, University of Melbourne,
Carlton, N.3, Victoria.










AUSTRALIAN SOCIAL SCIENCE ABSTRACTS
A publication of the Social Science Research Council of Australia.
All communications should be addressed to the Editor, Faculty of Economics
and Commerce, University of Melbourne, Carlton, N.3, Victoria, Australia.


November 1954


7s. 6d. or $1.50 per annum


ABSTRACTS
Where the size of a Government publication or Parliamentary Paper (P.P.) is not given, it is 84 ins. x 134 ins.


ECONOMICS
(A) Economics and Economic Policy
2988. The Making of Economic Policy. I.P.A. Review,
pp- 33-40, April-June 1954.
In a modern planned economy the trend towards gov-
ernment by experts who advise the Cabinet, is inevitable,
but this policy-making should be carried out in the
most democratic and effective way. The public and
specialists outside the government (in business, edu-
cational institutions and the press) should have the
opportunity to discuss and criticize the decisions to
be made. The facts must be available to them in a
comprehensible and comprehensive way. In U.S.A.
this is being done through the President's periodic
report to Congress, largely based on the advice of the
Council of Economic Advisers, and this report is sub-
ject to scrutiny by the Congressional Joint Committee
on the Economic Report. Its hearings are an open
forum for experts outside the Government. At present
their efforts are centred around the question how to
avoid a recession.

2989. Gordon L. Wood: An Appreciation. F. R. E.
Mauldon. Economic Record, pp. 1-6, May 1954.
This is a short biographical sketch of the late Pro-
fessor Wood's life-work as university-teacher with par-
ticular stress on the university's contact with business
and government. Of his many other activities his 17
years' work as member of the Commonwealth Grants
Commission, of delivering addresses, publishing articles,
lectures, reports, of three books in his own name and
"Land Utilization in Australia" together with Prof.
Wadham, largely on the borderline between geography
and economics, are outlined. Professor Wood's kindliness
and human understanding is duly emphasized.

2990. Input-Output Analysis. B. Cameron. Economic
Record, pp. 33-47, May 1954.
Past input-output analysis has worked under very
restrictive assumptions. The five main aspects of the
industrial structure are: The technique of its productive
process; the conditions of entry into the industry; equi-
marginal productivity; intersector condition (output of
a commodity equals demand for it); total receipts equal
total costs. The Keynesian case assumes a single con-
solidated industry and five equations concerning these
five aspects are reduced to two: the consumption func-
tion and the intersector condition. Leontief's analysis is
an extension of the Keynesian argument to a many-in-
dustries case, but still with labour as the only variable
resource, fixed technical coefficients and the expenditure
of an unchanging proportion of total real income on each
commodity. In the author's method consumer's demand
depends not only on income, but also on the price of


the good and competing goods, intersector equilibrium
requires that employment of labour equals total demand
for labour services. He gives a five-industries example
for his solution with labour and land as homogeneous
resources. This is different from Keynes in degree
rather than in kind. There is still some aggregation of
industries.

2991. The Research Policy of the Firm. J. C. Harsanyi.
Economic Record, pp. 48-60, May 1954.
On the assumption that a firm's research policy de-
pends on return and cost considerations, the author
first examines the use value of inventions and distin-
guishes expansive innovations (raising the firm's revenue)
and non-expansive innovations (reducing its costs). In
any case research is undertaken more easily by larger
firms. The development costs of invention depends on the
degree of indeterminacy and the degree of complexity of
the research project. The largest single item in research
expenditure is wages and salaries, while interest costs are
rather less important and allowances for risks are con-
siderable. In a section on total research expenditure it is
shown how that particular research expenditure is chosen
which corresponds to the highest net gain. Other chap-
ters deal with specialization in research and the inter-
dependence of research activities between various com-
peting firms. Finally the limits to the number of inven-
tions that can be used, are discussed.
2992. (a) Do Costs Matter? (b) How High are Costs?
I.P.A. Review, October-December 1953, (a) pp.
103-8; (b) pp. o09-18.
(a) Neo-Keynesian economics contrary to the classical
doctrine of the gold standard have led to the philosophy
that "costs do not matter" and to the "attitude of in-
difference to soaring costs in Australia". In fact, costs in
different countries must be kept reasonably in line,
otherwise economic autarchy with a catastrophic reduc-
tion in the living standard occurs. Import restrictions
and exchange devaluations cannot be repeated with im-
punity. Australia's high cost structure is bearable only
as long as wool export prices are very high.
(b) Not average costs, but costs in individual indus-
tries are all-important. Secondary industries are largely
non-competing, but Australian textiles and clothing,
many engineering products, paper, electrical and house-
hold goods are vulnerable. Our export outlets for many
manufactured goods have already been lost by costs ris-
ing higher than in U.K. Wool production costs have
risen so much that despite the high export prices the
profit margins of the wool-grower are falling. The wheat
industry could not cope with a drought circle and fall-
ing prices, it is even worse with the dairying and meat
industries. Of services industries the costs of building
have risen so much as to make housing a very thorny
problem.


No. 18








2993. Foreign Economic Policy of Australia. C. W.
James. Australian Outlook, pp. 153-63, September
1953; pp. 213-22, December 1953.
Foreign economic policy is defined as the application
of economic means to the pursuit of foreign policy objec-
tives. Before 1939 there was virtually no such policy in
Australia. In the post-war years there are two periods:
before, 1948-49 the need for international economic co-
operation was paramount, therefore Australia joined
UNRRA, FAO and IMF. Non-discrimination for poli-
tical reasons was essential, exceptions were Australia's
attitude to Japan which was feared as potential enemy,
and our special relationship to N.Z. The second period
was characterized by the sharp ct eonflit between non-
communists and communists, discrimination against the
latter was practised, while there was economic co-opera-
tion with U.K. and S.E. Asia (Colombo plan). The quest
for full employment went on throughout the post-war
period. Grant aid was the predominant element. Special
atures were the movement of long and short-term
capital, commodity trade and the exchange of services.


2994. Full Employment in International Affairs. R. A.
Byrnes. Australian Outlook, pp. 44-50, March 1954.
The depression and Keynesian analysis brought gov-
ernmental acceptance of responsibility for maintaining
full employment. Attempts were made to bind Govern-
ments to international obligations in this regard. Un-
fortunately Articles 55, 56 of the U.N. Charter only
asked for domestic action in co-operation with the U.N.
while other post-war international agreements and in-
stitutions were ineffective. The U.N. Economic and Em-
ployment Commission following the 1949 American Re-
cession, set up comprehensive standards and measures,
but was unable to implement them. The Korean War
removed the necessity, inflation becoming the world
problem. Prospects seem to be cyclical fluctuations with
unemployment and lower living standards in the near
future, despite the Eisenhower Administration's pledge.
This might put strains on "Free World" alliances, but
Soviet action, consequent on this, would bring rearma-
ment and a return to full employment.-G. C. H.


2995. Research Studies in Community Income. Uni-
versity of Western Australia, Department of Eco-
nomics.
(a) A Preliminary Investigation into the Possibility of
Estimating Regional Incomes for Western Australia.
W. E. G. Salter and R. W. Peters, 30 October 1953, pp.
6 roneoedd).
(b) The Measurement of Factor Income Generated by
Productive Sectors. W. E. G. Salter, i September 1953,
pp. 55 roneoedd).
(c) The Measurement of Regional Incomes in Western
Australia. R. W. Peters, i May 1954, pp. 60 roneoedd).
The Preliminary Report sets out some of the problems
which occur in the calculation of regional incomes and
the allocation of these problems between the two workers.
Reasons for their approach to the problem are given.
The writers consider that regional income measures are
only practicable after State Income has been broken
down into a series of productive sector incomes.
Mr Salter's report is concerned mainly with the tech-
nical problems involved in measuring the factor income
originating from a productive sector.
Mr Peters' report is concerned with the problem to be
found in breaking the State up into a number of sub-
regions that appear to be meaningful for income studies;
and to derive from the State totals the comparable
estimates for the selected set of regions.-R. J. A. H.


2996. Recession in the United States. J. B. Condliffe.
I.P.A. Review, pp. 126-32, October-December
'953-
The worst post-world war II crisis in U.S. was a set-
back in '949 when the national income dropped by 3%.
But even then the U.S. index of industrial activity fell
by 8%, imports by 7% and those from U.K. by 21%.
For 1954 there is widespread expectation, reflected in the
stock exchange, of recession of 8-io% in national income
and a greater decline in industrial activity and imports.
The Federal Reserve Board isi trying the old means of
monetary policy; lower prices of gilt-edged securities,
rising discount rate, open market policy, which will
result in tightened credit.. These monetary measures
affect the private sector's expectations rather than public
spending and bring about some recession. But this will
not be allowed to develop into a major depression. Public
work projects, lower taxes, the U.S. long-run trend to
freer trade are the remedies.

2997. If there were an American Recession. I.P.A. Re-
view, pp. ro-i5, March 1954.
Depression (economic collapse) is to be distinguished
from recession (temporary indisposition). A recession in
U.S.-which is not predicted-might not be very serious
for the U.S. people, but it would be for the rest of the
world. In the recession of 1938 U.S. gross national pro-
duct fell by 4%, but the value of her imports fell by
36%, of those from U.K. by 41%. In 1949 the pause in
U.S. expansion caused a fall in imports from U.K. by
over 20%, from the overseas Stg. area by 15%. A new
U.S. recession would not be so much directly important
to U.K., a small section of whose exports goes to U.S., but
very important to Malaya which largely depends on ex-
ports to U.S., also to Australia because of wool exports.
In addition the psychological effect of a U.S. recession on
the rest of the world would be enormous. U.K. would be
mainly affected by the loss of income in countries with
which she trades and on which she depends for vital im-
ports, such as Australia.

2998. A Summary of Economic Developments in Aus-
tralia in 1953. 0. M. May. Economic News, pp. x-6,
December 1953.
A survey mainly concerned with the recovery from the
1951-52 recession. With a somewhat smaller work force
production expanded in 1952-53 thanks to higher output
per manhour. In manufacturing lighter industries ex-
perienced a better recovery than heavy industries. In
primary industries wool production and prices rose after
the heavy price fall of the preceding year, wheat, dairy
and meat output increased too. In employment there was
an upturn since January 1953. Consumer prices varied
little, wholesale prices still rose, but most world prices
of commodities except wool followed a downward trend
(increased production, lower stocks, fear of an U.S. reces-
sion). Our international reserves have gone up, we had a
large export surplus so that import restrictions could be
relaxed. Gross private investment fell, but building
activity somewhat recovered.


(B) Industry, Trade and Commerce

(a) General Works
2999. Survey of Manufacturing Activity in Australia.
April 1954. Division of Industrial Development.
Department of National Development, pp. xxxv,
124 roneoedd).
This survey is arranged similarly to that of October
1953 (see Abstract No. 2948 in No. 17 of this journal). In
addition to manufacturers a few retail and wholesale








traders and representatives of banking and transport were
consulted. There was further recovery from the recession,
but least of all in heavy industry. Prices of manufactures
showed a slight tendency to decline because of lower raw
material prices, manufacturers' costs were slightly falling
because of higher labour productivity and lower over-
head costs with rising output. The best prospects for
further falls in cost are through managerial effort and
modernization of old equipment. Continued major pro-
duction rises may be hampered by the shortage, parti-
cularly of skilled labour and the increased volume of
imports. The necessary post-inflation readjustment of
our manufacturing to world competition depends on
steady reduction of costs and prices. Separate sections
deal with production (average 6-9% rise in last year),
stocks, sales, future demands, costs and prices, produc-
tivity, capital development, differences between states.
Reports on selected industries are made in the same way
as in the October 1953 survey.

3000. Defence and Development 1950-53. A Report on
Australia by the National Security Resources
Board, Melbourne, 1954, pp. 64.
A survey of the last three years' development of our
resources, beginning with population (labour force and
immigration). A chapter on national development deals
with public and private investment; the proportion of the
former is slightly, but steadily, rising. This is followed by
a section on defence (men, equipment, ammunitions
production and research). A section on agriculture men-
tions agricultural targets set and investigates basic re-
sources (land, labour, materials and equipment, capital,
pasture development, etc.), and efficiency in the use of
agricultural resources. Another section discusses sup-
plies (stock-piling, supplies for civilians, retail sales, im-
ports, supplies of particular commodities; lead and zinc,
copper, tin, aluminium, iron and steel, etc.). A chapter on
fuel and power examines the changed coal supply and
demand position, petroleum products, electricity, etc. In
conclusion transport and communications, manufactur-
ing, building and building materials are surveyed.

3001. Australian Industry. Suggestions for Raising Effi-
ciency. F. Kreide. Manufacturing and Manbge-
ment, pp. 273-5, February 1954.
A report prepared by the author after visits to about
300 factories in all states of the Australian mainland.
The market for Australian manufactured goods is largely
determined by the size of the internal market, so that
often English and German methods are more appro-
priate in Australia than U.S. methods. Suggestions for
raising efficiency are concerned with new processes and
techniques, production planning, low labour efficiency
(faults in training, high labour turnover, etc.), foremen
(too much administrative work for them). Inspection
techniques in larger factories should deal with the con-
trol of raw materials and incoming goods, inspection dur-
ing production, inspection and testing of the finished
product. Some general suggestions given refer to rejects,
off-cut, lubricating oil, power, preheaters.

3002. The Place of the Factory in New Zealand. A.N.Z.
Quarterly Survey, pp. 9-12, July 1954.
N.Z. manufacturing has grown out of N.Z. primary
industries by processing their output or supplying their
needs. This is shown for forest products (saw-milling,
furniture, paper, etc.)-value added in these industries
rose from N.Z.x1-9m. in 1949-50 to i8-im. in 1952-53;
pastoral products: meat processing, footwear, woollen
mills, etc.-value added rose from 7-7m. in 1939-40 to
23-6m. in 1952-53; dairy products (butter, cheese, etc.)-
value added in the same period grew from 2-5m. to


17-8m.-; minor processing industries (grain milling,
baking, jam manufacture, etc.), tobacco industry which
has greatly expanded; bricks and ceramics. Industries
supplying farms have also much developed; agricultural
and dairy machinery, fertilizer manufacture; hydro-
electric power generation.

3003. Nuclear Power for Australian Industry. H. Messel.
Australian Quarterly, pp. 7-12, December 1953.
As coal and oil reserves will be exhausted in half to
one century, nuclear power will be increasingly import-
ant not only for war, but also for industry. According
to U.S. research dual-purpose reactors generating elec-
tricity and breeding plutonium might be a paying
proposition in U.S.; power from nuclear reactors is not
yet competitive in U.S. with power from conventional
steam plant, but might soon become so with further
technological advances; capital costs of nuclear power
plants are 2-3 times as high as of steam plant. In Aus-
tralia conditions are different from U.S. because of the
costs of transportation of coal and oil being much higher
than those of uranium. Australia's power needs would
be met with a consumption of 20 to 80 tons of uranium
p.a. assuming a 5-20% utilization of uranium. Within
30-40 years we could have a nuclear power industry in
Australia.

3004. The Measurement of Movement in Prices Received
and Paid by Primary Producers. E. A. Saxon.
Paper presented to Section G of A.N.Z.A.A.S.
Canberra Meeting, January 1954, pp. 29, x1 Tables
roneoedd) 6 Graphs.
After a short discussion of the reasons why we measure
price movements, reference is made to the first price
indexes calculated for N.S.W. (see abstracts Nos. 2076
in No. 13 and 2363 in No. 15 of this journal) and to
similar studies overseas (U.S., Canada, Belgium). Among
the problems in constructing a new index was the col-
lection of basic data (now there are about 200 correspon-
dents), and the choice of a base period. In Australia the
average of the 5 years from 1945-46 to 1949-50 was
selected as base. The choice of a regimen and the weight-
ing of individual items were further problems. Tables
show the relative importance of different rural industries
(percentage contribution to gross value of rural produc-
tion in various Australian states, the composition of
farmers' receipts and expenditures (with international
comparisons), indexes of prices received and paid by
farmers in Australia and other countries. A summary of
this paper is given in an article of the same title in the
Quarterly Review of Agricultural Economics, pp. 107- 14,
July 1954.
An article by the same author "Movements in Prices
Received and Paid by Farmers" in the same issue of that
journal, p. 143, sets out more recent movements in the
indexes in the quarters from June 1953 to June 1954.

3005. Estimating Production Costs on Mixed Farms.
K. L. Kinsman. Paper presented to Section G of
A.N.Z.A.A.S. Meeting, January 1954, Canberra,
pp. 34 roneoedd), 12 Graphs.
It is the usual practice to assume that the income
from sideline production equals costs, i.e., that there
is no profit on sidelines. This is appropriate for fixing
a guaranteed return to producers, but not for estimating
the full net costs. Part A of the paper deals with the
allocation of costs on mixed farms. The usual "sideline
deduction method" has been described as arbitrary. The
lecturer takes wheat as example and tries on the basis
of the wheat farm survey of 1950 to estimate wheat and
sideline costs by multiple regression analysis. He comes
to a sideline profit rate of 55%, but it is not asserted








that this is really the correct rate, the aim of the paper
is methodological. Part B of the lecture sets forth in
detail how the allocation of costs on wheat farms with
sidelines is done by this regression analysis with a set
of three variables.

3006. Falling Consumption of Foodstuffs in Australia.
A. G. Lloyd. Rev. Marketing & Agricultural
Economics, pp. 204-209. September-December
1953-
Tables are presented showing trends in per capital
consumption of various foodstuffs in Australia. Com-
parison is made with the data of the pre-war period and
for 1949-50. Where the local market supports less profit-
able exports decreases in local consumption are impor-
tant. A comparison with a group of other nations sug-
gests that the Australian diet is generally satisfactory.
-S.M.W.

3007. Rural Prices, Investment and Production. G. O.
Gutman. Quarterly Review of Agricultural Eco-
nomics, pp. i5-18. January 1954.
Indexes of Australian farm investment, farm produc-
tion and farm prices from 1923 to 1945 are shown in a
graph, computed as five-year moving averages. The in-
vestment index is based on separate measures for farm
improvement, for machinery and implements, irrigation
works and livestock. The production index is a net index
avoiding double counting. The price index is deflated
by the Statistician's C series. The decline in prices from
about 1925 to 1935 was after a time-lag followed by a
decline in investment. Early in the war disinvestment
started despite rising prices. Production is in close
relation to investment, although subject to more random
fluctuations. Production expanded in the 30's reaching
a peak shortly before the war.

3008. Australian Rural Productivity. Measurement of
Labour, Land and Livestock Contributions. E. S.
Hoffman and P. Tillyard. Quarterly Review of
Agricultural Economics, pp. 18-24, January 1954.
Primary production figures are calculated and shown
in graphs in relation to unit of labour, standard crop
acre and livestock unit from 1928-29 to 1951-52. As to
labour, production per worker is also worked out in re-
lation to the index of rural employment, for land in
relation to the index of standard crop acreages, for lives-
stock in relation to the index of livestock numbers. The
quantity index of crop production is computed for
wheat, oats, barley, maize, pasture hay, potatoes, onions,
sugar cane, hops and grapes with appropriate weighting.
The livestock numbers cover sheep, beef cattle, dairy
cattle and pigs, again with weighting. The trends of
productivity are on the whole steadily upwards, although
with some setbacks.

3009. Australian Rural Production and Exports. Fore-
cast of Values for 1953-54. Quarterly Review of
Agricultural Economics, pp. 84-91, April 1954.
The volume of rural production in 1953-54 is within
1% of last year's level and more than 30% above the out-
put at the end of the war, about 20% above pre-war.
However export earnings have fallen by 6% since last
year, partly because of declining wool exports and rising
home consumption, but mainly owing to the difficulties
of wheat export. Compared with the last three pre-war
years' average the volume of rural exports will be 17%
higher while it was 8% lower in 1951-52. Per head of
population export volume is lower than pre-war on
account of the big rise in population. A table shows
value of production and of exports in the last 3 pre-war
years, in 1951-52, 1952-53 and in 1953-54 separately


for agricultural, pastoral, farmyard and dairy indus-
tries. The production of beef, sugar cane and barley
increased to new records.

3010. Subsidizing Approved Farm Practices. A. G.
Lloyd. Review of Marketing and Agricultural
Economics, pp. 71-86, June 1954.
The rate of adoption of improved farm practices in
Australia could certainly be doubled which would add
fiim. p.a. to the net value of our agricultural output.
The author distinguishes conservation payments to help
in conservation of exhaustible resources and efficiency
subsidies. Conservation and higher efficiency are often
hampered by the lack of finance and credit, the lack of
knowledge, inertia, or because they are uneconomic for
the individual farmer. Methods of payment are price
subsidies, e.g. for fertilizer, direct cash payments to
producers according to efficiency, and supplying of
materials, equipment or labour free or at reduced costs.
Objections raised are the cost and difficulties of adminis-
tration and supervision, and that the subsidies are an
unjustifiable re-distribution of income. However, con-
sumer and treasury benefit from increased efficiency.
Much research is needed to find out which practices
deserve subsidies.

3011. The "Peak Downs" Scheme. H. W. Herbert. Aus-
tralian Quarterly, pp. 13-24, December 1953.
The Queensland British Food Corporation, known as
"Peak Downs" Scheme, started in 1948 and now dis-
solving, suffered a loss of 9oo,ooo in 4 years on sorghum
growing on a 21m. investment. Its lands were 6 former
grazing properties of nearly m. acres, 170 miles from
Rockhampton. The largest crop was grain sorghum, be-
sides 20,000 cattle and 2,000 pigs were fattened. The
economic advantages of large-scale enterprise: spreading
of overheads, greater specialization of labour, mass pro-
duction, ability to use machinery, helped very little. The
disadvantages: Shortage of capable organizers, volume
of paper work on stores and accounts and in manage-
ment, difficulties of co-ordinating departments, lack of
inducements for employees, proved of overwhelming
importance. However, the scheme brought rapid develop-
ment to Central Queensland grain growing and in-
tensified stock-raising.

3012. Thoughts on the A.M.P. Land Development Pro-
ject. W. F. Edgerley. Australian Quarterly, pp.
25-32, December 1953.
The project is based on C.S.I.R.O. experiments which
have proved that an addition of trace elements is the
key to the development of certain hitherto unfertile
lands in the upper S.E. of S.A. The A.M.P. acquired
about Jm. acres in the "Coonalpyn Downs" (Ninety Mile
Desert) in S.A. and Jm. acres in adjacent Vie., consisting
chiefly of sand over clay and deep sand. The aim is to
develop the land to pasture and to sell it to the men
who have worked on it, in blocks carrying 1,200 to 1,400
dry sheep. The methods of clearing, ploughing and seed-
ing are described in some detail. In the economics of
the scheme income tax concessions, provision of roads,
discovery how to grow enduring pastures, play important
parts.

3013. How to Determine Markets and Set Sales Quotas.
E. E. Dunshea. Manufacturing and Management,
pp. 269-72, February 1954.
There is a distinction between forecasting and bud-
getting. Forecasting should provide information on sales
by units (products, sizes), sales by states or territories,
sales by groups of customers, sales by months and weeks.
The forecaster uses analysis of past sales, records of








external data, sales plans and policies, general and
special business conditions (secular trend, climatic
factors, activities of competing and complementary in-
dustries), national and international conditions. Among
the methods of forecasting are those of the percentage
of industry, of historical analogy, of the general business
trend. The forecasting can originate from branch offices
or from the head office or from both sides combined.
Sales budgets are distinct from sales objectives. Bud-
getary control is most important.

3014. Fictitious Accuracy of Management Statistics.
W. Tauss, Manufacturing and Management pp.
335-7, April 1954-
Statistical Reports, Graphs, and Tables should be
presented clearly and concisely. Reports should be
designed with their reader's needs in mind. Approxima-
tions are legitimate and accuracy should never be more
than the measurement permits. Graphs should give
quick pictures in perspective of situations they represent
but need not be over accurate the figures can always be
consulted. Statistical measures should only be given if
relevant to the purpose they serve, and then only in the
report's full context. If they are to be useful, all inde-
pendent variables but the one under consideration must
be eliminated. Data must be shown in its proper pro-
portions or it misleads. Readers of reports must be
critical while writers should include all relevant data
in a logical, clear way. It is then easy enough for all
management levels to make statistics understandable
and useful.-G.C.H.

3015. The Economics of Hire Purchase. V. L. Gole.
Australian Accountant, pp. 182-9, May 1954.
Hire purchase started with necessities and later ex-
tended to many other consumer goods. It provides credit
to persons who otherwise would not be a safe credit risk.
Before 1939 Australian hire purchase business was about
loo m. p.a., in 1953 according to Commonwealth Bureau
of Census and Statistics figures restricted to finance
companies' credits 16im. By stimulating demand hire
purchase may reduce the cost per unit and raise em-
ployment. It was a great help in the liquidity crisis of
1952-53. The findings of a Board of Enquiry into hire
purchase held in 1941 are summarized. Finance Com-
panies tend to replace bank overdraft financing by
debentures and by developing a short term money mar-
ket. Repossession is avoided when possible. The Com-
monwealth Bank and the English Scottish and Aus-
tralian Bank have recently entered hire purchase.
Further sections deal with statistics, results and risk.

3016. The Reserve Bank of New Zealand Survey of
Retail Trade. K. 0. Clark. Paper presented to
A.N.Z.A.A.S. Meeting Canberra, January 1954,
pp. 6, 3 Tables.
Until recently there were no statistics of N.Z. distri-
bution. In 195i the Reserve Bank prepared a plan for
monthly reports on sales and stocks limited to 40 shops
of 7 non-food commodity groups in the three main shop-
ping districts of Wellington (Central Wellington, Petone
and Lower Hutt). All department stores were included
and all firms questioned were able to give both sales and
stock figures. For weighting the relative importance in
consumers' expenditure was decisive. In 1953 the N.Z.
Census and Statistics Department carried out a census
of distribution which included suburban shops. The
Bank survey did not cover fruit and vegetable shops
which are mostly in Chinese hands, and the automotive
and hardware trade because it deals largely with capital
assets. The result of the survey are shown in tables.


3017. Island Partner. A.N.Z Quarterly Survey, pp. 8-12,
January 1954.
New Guinea-Papua is in many ways complementary
to Australia. It has an entirely tropical climate with
high rainfall. Many essential imports to Australia could
be and partly are supplied by N.G., among them alu-
minium which might be produced on the island, and
petrol if the search for oil should be successful. i2%of
our rubber imports in 1952-53 have been supplied by
N.G., our copra needs of 30,000 tons p.a. are wholly sup-
plied by N.G. production. Jute, Manila hemp, sisal, kenaf
could be produced in N.G. Of timbers pine, eucalypt and
cedar are grown in N.G. The most important mineral is
gold, largely based on extensive air transport. Coffee and
particularly cocoa growing is now prosperous. Native
labour is scarce, its employment is carefully supervised.
Of 183,ooo sq. miles of Australian N.G. 15% are capable
of cultivation.

3018. Japanese Trade and Australian Industry, Aus-
tralasian Manufacture, pp. 44-7, 31 October
1953-
A statement prepared by the Associated Chambers of
Manufacturers of Australia, Canberra, concerning the
dangers involved in the admission of Japan to GATT.
Under GATT rules "bound" tariff items cannot be in-
creased. The escape clauses of Art. XIX to negotiate a
release from these obligations require a very complicated
procedure. Trade from Japan is not ordinary business
competition, as the new Japanese drive for efficiency
based on large U.S. investment in machinery for Japan
has already proved a menace to U.S. and U.K. manu-
facturers. Japan's low cost of production, long hours
of work and high productivity constitute a threat to
Australian manufacturing industry and prosperity. It
has even been claimed that we should import some
Japanese consumption goods we don't need, because
Japan buys our wool she does need.

3019. The Character and Relative Significance of
Malayan Trade with Western Australia, 1946-
1950. P. C. K. Tan. University Studies in History
and Economics, Perth, May 1953, pp. 99-133.
After a general survey of the Malayan (including
Singapore) post-war economy, imports and exports and
of the Malayan pattern of consumption and living
standards separate for the various communities (Malays,
Chinese, Indians, Europeans) special sections deal with
individual industries in connection with W.A. exports:
first with wheaten flour and oats, then with frozen meat,
poultry and livestock (mainly sheep), with fresh fruit
(apples, grapes and oranges), vegetables (potatoes, onions,
tomatoes), eggs,, condensed milk (important for the
Chinese). Separate chapters discuss shipping facilities
and advertising. In conclusion the importance of accu-
rate information at both ends is stressed.


(b) Individual Industries

3020. Industrial Fibres. A summary of Figures of
Production, Trade and Consumption relating to
Cotton, Wool, Silk, Flax, Jute, etc. Common-
wealth Economic Committee, London 1954, pp.
166, price 5s.
This report summarizes the information on these
fibres from the world view point, and from the aspect
of classification of the world's nations into chief pro-
ducers, exporters, and importers of these fibres. There
are two appendices to the main report. (i) Government
Measures affecting Industrial Fibres in certain countries
and (2) Import Duties in Principal Countries. There are
many references to Australia in the sections on Cotton,








Wool, Silk, Flax, Hemp, Jute, Coir, Kapok, and Rayon,
in the main up to provisional data for 1952-53.
-G.C.H.

3021. Lipson, E. A short History of Wool and it Manu-
facture. Heinemann, London, 1953, pp. 205. Price
15s. 6d.
A comprehensive account of the development and
present condition of wool production and the manu-
facture of wool textiles in Britain and the Dominions.
(One chapter dealing with merino and crossbred wool).
-E.J.D.

3022. Wool Costs in New South Wales. Trends, pp. 1-5,
June 1954.
After the first attempt at measuring wool costs, as
summarized in abstract No. 2531 in No. 16 of this
periodical, the Rural Bank of N.S.W. undertook a second
survey covering 47 properties in four categories: (a)
wool breeding replacements; (b) wool buying replace-
ments; (c) wool and lambs; (d) wool lambs and cash
crops (wheat). In many properties cattle were also run.
The average size of properties in the four categories was
3,744, 3,749, 1,307 and 1,722 acres, the average capital
flock 2,1o9, 2,182, 970 and 968, income from wool was
83, 83, 48 and 37% of total income, the average prices
per lb. of wool were 7/- in categories (a), (b) and (d),
under 6/- in category (c). The operating costs decline
with the number of sheep shorn. The margin between
cost and return ranged between 20 and 45%. The post-
war increase in wool costs seems to have been halted.

3023. Trends in the Demand for Apparel Fibres. R. B.
McMillan. Quarterly Review of Agricultural
Economics, pp. 51-8, April 1954.
The high prices of wool in 1951 forced manufac-
turers even those of conservative disposition, to use
blends of fibres. This revolution and the continuing
high prices have impelled many fabric producers to
continue the practice. The public is not yet able to
judge the merits of the new fibres in everyday use.
Some fabrics made of blends will certainly be pre-
ferred to those of the pure fibres previously used. At
present wool is not seriously threatened because its
price is competitive with those of the high cost artificial
and demands exceeds supply. But the out-turn of the
artificial is increasing steadily and time will show how
far their prices can be reduced in competition with wool
without making their production unprofitable.
-S.M.W.

3024. (a) The International Wheat Agreement (Notes
for a Case Study of Post-War Commodity Con-
trol). G. Warwick Smith and A. J. Campbell. Paper
presented to Section G of A.N.Z.A.A.S. Meeting,
Canberra, January 1954, pp. 26, 2 appendices
roneoedd). (b) Comments on (a) K. O. Campbell,
pp. 2 roneoedd).
(a) After an outline of the historical background: the
first International Wheat Agreement (I.W.A.) negotiated
in London 1933, the Draft Convention of 1942, the Wheat
Conference in London 1947, details of the 1949 and 1953
I.W.A.'s and their operation are set out. Then the lec-
turers discuss the effect of devaluation, the price equiva-
lent to No. I Manitoba Northern in store Port William,
the recording of transactions, carrying charges. A
section on some analytical question deals with the fixa-
tion of prices, with price fluctuations and the stabilizing
and destabilizing effects of the I.W.A. These largely
depend on domestic price policies (guaranteed high
prices to U.S. farmers, low domestic prices in Australia)
and on the proportion of total exports and imports
covered by I.W.A.


(b) K. O. Campbell calls (a) an uncritical summary of
points made in the literature of the last 5 years. More
stress should be laid on the securing of appropriate
national policies.

3025. (a) World Wheat Prices. T. H. Strong, pp. 59-60.
(b) Wheat Price Guarantees and Actual Grower
Returns Compared. J. M. Clark. pp. 60-64; (a) and
(b). Quarterly Review of Agricultural Economics,
April 1954.
(a) In Australia and other important wheat export and
import countries prices are guaranteed to local wheat-
growers at much higher levels than present world
market prices. The need to conserve scarce currencies,
the dependence of economic and political internal sta-
bility on rural prosperity and defence are reasons for this
discrepancy. In open competition Australia would enjoy
a comparative advantage.
(b) The Australian system: Wheat Prices Stabilization
Fund (Tax on exports set aside to meet price guarantees)
is compared with that in U.S. ("parity price" to main-
tain the wheat-grower's purchasing power, support of
U.S. wheat prices by means of loans); in Canada (pur-
chase of wheat by a board at a stipulated price, initial
advance); Argentina (similar to Canada, but without
growers' participation in the board's profits); U.K.
(deficiency payments scheme since 1954). The move-
ments of guaranteed wheat prices and growers' returns
are shown in a graph and a table.

3026. A Review of the International Wheat Situation.
P. C. Druce. Review of Marketing and Agricul-
tural Economics, pp. 165-81, June 1954.
The accumulation of stocks and a gradual decline in
prices has changed the wheat industry position, but
prices still remain at a reasonable level. Further restric-
tions on U.S. wheat production seem likely. A solution is
made easier as in the four main exporting countries:
U.S., Canada, Australia, Argentine, wheat exports are
controlled. Surplus stocks have risen to about iooom.
bushels because of very large crops in the last two years
in the main exporting countries and a fall in world
wheat trade. The situation in the four main export
countries, the future volume of trade, the problem of
existing stocks and the International Wheat Agreement
are discussed in some detail, particularly the position
in U.S. with her support prices. Final sections deal with
the Australian situation, carry-over stocks and Sterling
wheat.

3027. Marketing of Australian Wheat. E. J. Donath.
Australian Quarterly, pp. 36-42, June 1954.
The author presents a brief survey of the history of
Australian wheat marketing which has been conducted
through merchants, compulsory state pools and voluntary
pools, with reference to the special features of W.A.
and Queensland. He then discusses the controversy
whether compulsory pooling or open trading is to be
preferred and examines the merits and demerits of the
International Wheat Agreement for Australia. As shown
by a graph, under the I.W.A. of 1949 the free market
prices were always higher than the I.W.A. prices, so that
Australia lost about 6om. through her participation in
the Agreement.

3028. Marketing and Classification of Australian Wheat.
E. J. Donath. Baker, Miller & Pastrycook, pp.
6-ii, March 1954.
The article deals mainly with the problems of F.A.Q.
versus Grading of Australian wheat. The great advan-
tages of our present system are stressed, especially for
overseas selling, and some suggestions are made for








obtaining flour of good bread making quality for local
demand and for a few minor customers of Australia.
"Everything possible should be done to increase the
yield of wheat as nearly all our overseas customers are
well satisfied with the present product." A grading sys-
tem is unnecessary and would be very expensive.
-E. J. D.

3029. Mechanization on Wheat Farms. Recent Com-
monwealth Survey. Quarterly Review of Agricul-
tural Economics, pp. 73-80, April 1954.
According to the last general wheat cost survey in
1950 the average value of farm plant on wheat farms
was 1,375 in 1948-49. In 1953 questionnaires were sent
to the same 241 farmers whose accounts had been used
in 1950, 131 of the answers could be used again. The
depreciated average value of plant per farm was 3,445,
134-4% more than in 1948-49. The paper examines the
factors responsible for this increase: the rise in agri-
cultural machinery prices; quantity (number of tractors);
trucks, etc. in 1950 and 1953); size (e.g., H.P. of trac-
tors); change in age composition and technology. A
further analysis is made according to states and to
regions defined on an effective rainfall basis. The average
value rose in W.A. more than in any other state. Changes
in value of plant, purchases of tractors since 1950 and
changes in areas sown to wheat are also set out.


3030. Seasonal Nature of Australian Beef Production.
T. L. Phillip. Quarterly Review of Agricultural
Economics, pp. 136-8, October 1953.
U.K. beef production is expanding since the 1947
Agriculture Act and shows a marked seasonality, being
low between January and June, high between July and
December, particularly in September and October. U.K.
is the main market for Australian beef exports, and
unlike Argentine exports of beef to U.K. which are
evenly spread, Australian exports are at their peak
between July and October when U.K. beef production is
at its highest. The reason for this extreme seasonality is
that our beef exports mainly come from northern Aus-
tralia where beef production is at its peak in August.
From north to south the seasonality of Australian beef
production declines. A change of emphasis is suggested
from the fattening of stock for immediate export after
slaughter to supply of stores for southern areas.


3031. Australian Beef Cattle Industry. Some Economic
Aspects of Future Development. R. A. Patterson.
Quarterly Review of Agricultural Economics, pp.
65-70, April 1954.
In March 1953 our total beef cattle population was
iso5m., the same as in 1894, but the percentage turn-off
and the volume of beef marketed had much increased.
For the absence of an increase in the beef cattle popu-
lation insecure markets and low prices were responsible.
From the 1920's to the mid 40's the returns were too
small and credit facilities restricted. After the war ris-
ing Australian population and assured demand for the
exportable surplus led to expanding production. Of 73
properties investigated in Queensland in 1951-52 69 had
plans for new development. In North Queensland beef
prices from 1929 to 1952 have gone up more than costs.
Despite bad droughts our beef cattle population was
30% greater in 1953 than in 1939. Future markets may
become doubtful because of greater U.K. home produc-
tion and competition in exports to U.K. from Argentine.
More attention to good quality, to a greater continuity
of the export season and to killing facilities in Aus-
tralia is desirable.


3032. Dairy Grant Demonstrations in New South Wales.
-Five Case Studies. G. C. McFarlane. Review of
Marketing and Agricultural Economics,, pp. 165-
203, September-December 1953.
In 1948 the Commonwealth Government made an
annual grant of 25o,ooo for five years (1953 extended
for another 5 years) for promoting improved practices
in dairying by way of herd recording, sire surveys,
demonstration farms and plots, feeding demonstrations,
films and literature and dairy farm competitions. In
N.S.W. 16o demonstrations were completed by October
1953. Case studies show increased productivity and
profitability because of technical assistance, adequate
investment, improved pastures, controlled grazing fol-
lowing division of large paddocks, use of lime and super-
phosphate, efficient management, herd improvement, sup-
plementary fodder. The case histories concerning farms
in the Glen Innes, Taree (two farms), Gerringong, Cam-
boyne districts show changes in the organization of
farm enterprises, the improvement programme, live-
stock management, soil and fodder conservation, labour
and management, financial results and causes of in-
creased production.

3033. Dairy Farming in the Berriquin and Denimein
Irrigation Districts. J. Rutherford and L. Dillon.
Review of Marketing and Agricultural Econo-
mics, pp. 87-164, June 1954.
A report on a survey made in the latter part of 1953
of 43 farms in the two districts, situated in the Southern
Riverina (Central Murray Valley). In a preliminary sec-
tion the geography and agricultural history of the area
is presented. This is followed by a section on land use
on the survey farms, the types of farm activities, acreage,
labour force needed, pastures, farm equipment. Herd
management and production, financial analysis and
future development are the subjects of further chapters.
A comparison with other dairying areas shows that the
average dairy farm in this area yields a higher produc-
tion than the average in the coastal areas of N.S.W.
where most of the state's dairying is conducted, also
more than farms in a Victorian irrigation district. The
average per cow in 1952-53 was 249 lb. of butter in the
two districts surveyed, 170 and 171 in two coastal regions
surveyed.

3034. Fat Lamb Production. Recent Development in the
Industry. H. G. McConnell and Margaret Fead.
Quarterly Review of Agricultural Economics, pp.
80-3, April 1954.
From July 1953 to March 1954 18% less fat lambs were
slaughtered in Australia than in 1949-50. The Bureau of
Agricultural Economics therefore sent questionnaires to
the same 200 farmers whose fat lamb production in
1949-50 had been surveyed. 1oo answers could be used
and the average number of fat lambs sold was 668 (662
in the previous sample). Since the last survey the pro-
portion of the area under improved pasture had increased
from 22 to 28%. Supplementary feeding in these 4 years
had substantially increased, total farm production by
io%. The number of fat lambs sold by the sample farms
had fallen by 9%, but some of the fat lambs sold were
bought by restockers, not for slaughtering. Fat lamb
production has partly been replaced by wool-growing, the
acreage on these farms sown to wheat has risen by 3%, to
oats by 50%, to barley by 15%.

3035. Queensland Sugar Prices. Cane Growers' and
Millers' Returns. J. M. Clark. Quarterly Review of
Agricultural Economics, pp. 32-7, January 1954.
Sugar prices are usually quoted at mill basis. The
division between growers and millers is popularly as-
sumed at a ratio of 2:1. In fact the division has been








regulated by Queensland law since 1915. Raw sugar has
to be delivered to the Queensland Sugar Board; for
payment the recoverable sugar content is taken into
account. This content is measured by the C.C.S. (Com-
mercial Cane Sugar Standard), the formula for determin-
ing C.C.S. is explained. Raw sugar corresponding to
C.C.S. (on the average 97) is the "net titre". The mea-
sure of a mill's efficiency is the percentage ratio of tons
of 94 net titre sugar produced to tons of C.C.S. used,
called the mill's "co-efficient of work". The proportions
received by growers and millers are determined by local
Prices Boards and a Central Board according to C.C.S.
and co-efficient of work. The returns to grower and
miller are shown in tables from 1930 to 1951.

3036. D. H. Grist: Rice,, 1953. Longmans, Green and
Co. London. pp. 331. Price 35s. (English).
This is a comprehensive survey of rice production deal-
ing with the characteristics of the plant, its botany,
classification, climatic and soil requirements, cultivation
methods, pests, diseases, storing, milling and economic
aspects; the introduction of rice to Australia, soil and
climate of the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area, future
developments in Tropical Australia, and Australian
methods of cultivation are discussed. A world-wide
bibliography of nearly 200 titles, and 68 photos in colour
and in black and white.-E. J. D.


3037. Irrigated Vineyards Australia. N. J. Thomson.
Quarterly Review of Agricultural Economics, pp.
117-22, July i954.
A review of the post war discussion regarding expan-
sion of the irrigated acreage of vineyards for dried fruits
and wine. An analysis by states and a record of the acre-
age actually planted are given.-S.M.W.

3038. Factory Utilization of Australian Tobacco Leaf.
J. M. Clark. Quarterly Review of Agricultural
Economics, pp. 143-8, October 1953.
This article examines the influence of concessional
duties payable on imported tobacco, on Australian
tobacco production. Since 1936 lower rates of duties have
been paid provided the imported tobacco is blended in
manufacture with a prescribed minimum percentage of
Australian tobacco. Large importing manufacturers of
better known brands of cigarettes and tobacco adhere
closely to the customs percentages, smaller manufac-
turers use a much higher proportion of Australian leaf,
mainly of the lower grades. For other reasons discussed
in detail the customs regulations cannot ensure a 1oo%
clearance of the Australian crop each year. Difficulties
of tobacco culture and a prejudice against the quality
of local tobacco have prevented a major development of
Australian tobacco growing, but the increase in our
cigarette manufacturing will cause a higher output of
Australian leaf, without, however, achieving price
stability.

3039. Rehabilitating the Coconut Industry. W. V. D.
Pieris. S.P.Q. Quarterly Bulletin, Noumea, pp.
2-5, January 1954.
Paper presented to 8th Pacific Science Congress,
Manila, November 1953. The Pacific Islands depend on
coconut palms. In pre-European days the islanders were
good self-contained agriculturists. In the last ioo years
imported foods, health and other services, better housing
and transport had to be paid, mainly by copra exports.
Average copra exports in the last five pre-world war II
years were 225m. tons p.a., they fell to 75m. in 1953, to
rise again to i98m. in 1951. Apart from shipping, copra


exports are based on the islanders' desire to manufac-
ture copra. Now population increases rapidly, more coco-
nuts are locally consumed from declining yields per acre.
The methods of regeneration of plantation, and of res-
toration of native groves (more than 90% of the land
under coconuts) are discussed, the need for research and
for technical advice is stressed.

3040. Phosphate Fertilizers. Australia's Needs and Sup-
lies. T. H. Strong and E. A. Saxon. Quarterly
Review of Agricultural Economics, pp. 5-11,
January 1954.
Agricultural and pastoral production in Australia very
largely depends on phosphatic fertilizer. In the last 40 years
the quantity used here has gone up by 500%, particularly
in the last 5 years. Our present supply is not far behind
effective demand, but by 1958 total requirements might
reach 2m. tons, much in excess of the capacity of exis-
tent manufacturing plant. The world supplies of phos-
phatic raw materials, mainly phosphatic rock, are amply
sufficient for centuries, but we get our supplies from
Pacific and Indian Ocean islands where they will soon
be exhausted and will have to be replaced from North
Africa. To manufacture phosphatic fertilizer sulphuric
acid is needed, manufactured from raw sulphur and
brimstone. Should these supplies be exhausted in the
main countries, Australia would have to switch over to
locally available pyrites. Australian superphosphate
prices have risen more than the general price level and
the use of pyrites would be even more expensive.

3041. Yampi Sound Iron Ore Outpost. N. R. Wills.
Exports of Australia, pp. 6, 7, 9, 26, 29, 57, 58,
October-November 1953.
The exploitation of Yampi Sound iron ores on
Cockatoo Island off the N.W. coast of W.A. has been
first contemplated in 1927, but depression and world war
II prevented the plan from being pursued. Since 1944
the Australian Iron and Steel Ltd. has resumed opera-
tions and the first large shipment of iron from the island
took place in 1951. The tropical climate, lack of flat land
and the long dry season make permanent agriculture
impossible. The ore is high grade. Quarries, an iron
crusher, storage bin, an iron ore jetty, roads and a town-
ship for 160 people with certain amenities have been
constructed. There is weekly transport by motor boat to
Derby, 90 miles away, and the ore is transported by four
1,oo0o-ton ships to the blast furnaces of Newcastle and
Port Kembla, 3000 miles away. About 750,000 tons of
iron are moved p.a.

3042. Reid, W. A. and Barr, E. W. Grocery Buying
Power in Australia. Robertson & Mullens, 1953.
This study, sponsored by the Australian Institute of
Management, Melbourne Division, aims at providing in
tabular form the basic statistics, needed for the efficient
marketing of groceries, broken down for states and small
geographical areas. Tables and maps are to help the
preparation of sales budgets and their breakdown into
territory and state quotas, also to assist in the economical
distribution of sales manpower and advertising. Each of
the smaller areas consists of one or more local govern-
ment regions. The tables show statistics for 198 trading
areas (33 in Queensland, 61 in N.S.W., i in A.C.T., 38
in Victoria, ii in Tasmania, 27 in S.A., 26 in W.A., and i
in N.T.) of actual turnover year ended June 1949 (% of
the state concerned and of Australia), estimated turnover
year ended June 1952, number of grocery outlets, sales
per outlet, population on 31 December 1951, sales per
capital year ended June 1952. Special calculations have
been made for the metropolitan areas.








3043. Chemical Industry Serves Australia's Develop-
ment. National Development, pp. 34-40, March
1954.
In 1872 the first chemical industry started in Australia,
producing sulphuric acid and superphosphate. This was
later followed by the manufacture of explosives and
alcohol. World War I brought more rapid growth by the
manufacture of coal-tar chemicals, caustic soda and
chlorine. In 1928 I.C.I.A.N.Z. was established, in 1929 the
Commonwealth Fertilizers and Chemicals Ltd. During
World War II I.C.I.A.N.Z. set up alkali and synthetic
ammonia plants. At present 38,000 persons are engaged
in chemical industry producing 3m. worth of goods p.a.
A few large firms with much overseas investment domin-
ate. The study briefly examines the manufacture of sul-
phuric acid, ammonium sulphate, chromium chemicals,
calcium carbide, chemical intermediates for making plas-
tics, pharmaceutical chemicals and drugs, the need for
imports, our high cost structure (due to the small size of
the market). There are new fields in by-products of the
coking process and of brown coal utilization, in increas-
ing hydro-electric power generation and in petro-
chemicals connected with new oil refineries.

(C) Monetary Policy, Banking, Insurance

3044. Problems of the Sterling Area with Special Refer-
ence to Australia. Sir Douglas Copland. Essays in
International Finance No. 17, September 1953.
Princeton University, pp. 28.
The sterling area is a defence mechanism due to post-
war world economic changes, only Canada chose to stay
outside. Capital investment is needed in Australia up to
30% of gross national product, so that internal sources of
capital are quite inadequate. Further sections of the
study deal with trade pattern changes-exports to UI.K.
are now less important to overseas Commonwealth mem-
bers than pre-war -restrictions and social policy; short-
term liabilities of U.K.; gold and dollar balances; the
price of gold-the author favours an increase-the
change of front in the December 1952 Commonwealth
conference in London when ultimate Stg. convertibility
was contemplated; the importance of public investment;
the cost problem; the responsibility of U.S.

3045. Trading Banks. Inflation and Depression. A
Statement on National Monetary Policy. Fabian
Society of Victoria, 1953, pp. 16.
During the Great Depression the Commonwealth
Bank sided with the Trading Banks and monetary
policy, as controlled by the Trading Banks which were
backed by leading economists, prevailed. Since the
Commonwealth Bank Act of 1945 the final authority
in case of a difference of opinion between Common-
wealth Bank and Government lies with the latter, even
after subsequent amendments by the Menzies Govern-
ment. After a short survey of the banking system,
the nature of money and how it is controlled by the
working of the trading banks, the control of the
money-creating power of the trading banks in boom and
depression is discussed. The special accounts procedure
of the 1945 act should be fully restored, the Government
should control the central bank directly, extent and
direction of advances by the banking system should be
strictly checked, the Commonwealth Trading Bank
should effectively compete with the private banks.

3046. Commonwealth Finance Ministers' Conference.
Current Notes on International Affairs, pp. 25-34.
January 1954.
This is a brief report on the background and the
results of the Conference of Commonwealth Finance


Ministers held in Sydney in January, 1954. All nine Com-
monwealth countries were represented. Most of the
report consists of the text of the communique which was
issued at the end of the conference. The communique
deals with such topics as the outlook of world trade, the
maintenance of a strong balance of payments position,
internal policies and the need to restrain inflation,
economic development of resources, and the collective
approach to freer trade and payments.-R.J.A.H.

3047. The Costs of Inconvertibility. A.N.Z. Quarterly
Survey, pp. 5-8, April 1954.
Before World War II when Sterling was convertible
into $, Japan usually had an unfavourable balance of
trade with $ countries and a favourable balance in other
directions. She could buy and sell in the markets most
suitable to her. This is shown in trade relations between
Japan and Australia which resulted in more exports from
Australia to Japan than Australian imports from Japan.
After World War II Japan's trading position has drasti-
cally changed. The high expenditure of U.S. on procure-
ment of military supplies in Japan cannot go on in-
definitely and Japan has to balance her international
trade separately with both the $ countries and the non-$
countries. Therefore Japan is forced to restrict her wool
purchases in Australia and British efforts are justified to
facilitate imports from Japan.


(D) Public Finance

3048. The Australian Loan Council-Its Origin, Opera-
tion and Significance in the Federal Structure.
C. G. Headford. Public Administration, pp. 44-56,
March 1954.
A history of the Loan Council since the creation of
the Loan Fund in 1911. During and after World War I
the problem of the repayment of war debts and of
competition between Commonwealth and State loans
arose. To co-ordinate internal borrowing and to stop
competition for loans the Australian Loan Council was
set up in 1923 in an advisory capacity. The Financial
Agreement of 1927 made the Loan Council a statutory
body with defined powers. By insertion of Section lo5A
this was written into the Constitution. In the Depression
the Premiers' conference and the Loan Council gained
in importance. The effects of the formula of "sharing" on
different states, the inclusion of semi-governmental loans,
the introduction of the Works' Co-ordinator and the
National Works' Council are discussed. The influence
of the allocation of loans on public works in the inflation
period is examined.

3049. Trends in Taxable Income of Primary Producers.
Quarterly Review of Agricultural Economics,
pp. 11-14, January 1954.
A survey based on data in the annual reports of the
Commissioner of Taxation covering the io years from
1943-44 to 1952-53. Incomes below the taxable limit
are not included and certain changes in taxation legis-
lation and practice are disregarded. Between the three-
year period ended 1945-46 and the year 1952-53 incomes
of primary producers increased by 480%, the number of
primary producers taxed only by 70%. The percentage
of the income of primary producers compared with that
of all non-employees rose from 38% in the above-
mentioned three-year period to 61% in 1951-52 and fell
to 52% in the two successive years, while the proportion
of the primary producer taxpayers was about 40%
during the whole period. A further section deals with
taxes assessed.








(E) Accountancy

3050. Fitzgerald, A. A., (Ed.). Accounting, Stage I 2nd
Edition. Butterworth, Sydney, 1954, pp. xl, 567.
The first edition of this book was entitled "Inter-
mediate Accounting". The chapters of the second edition
have been arranged to accord with the syllabus of the
Australian Society of Accountants, but the book con-
tains original work and should be of interest to accoun-
tants generally. Many chapters of the original edition
have been revised or re-written and several additional
chapters have been added.

3051. The Finance of Company Extension. K. C. Keown.
Second Australian Society of Accountants Re-
search Lecture, University of Adelaide, 2 June
1954, pp. 12, 13 Tables.
The balance sheets of 72 Australian companies from
eleven industrial groups for the years 1935 to 1953 have
been studied to ascertain the extent to which directorates
have relied on the several proprietary and external
sources for funds to provide expansion. There has been
a steady decline in the ratio which shareholders' funds
bear to borrowed funds.

3052. Accounting in Periods of Rapid Inflation or De-
flation. E. A. Owens. Chartered Accountant in
Australia, pp. 379-402, December 1953.
Accounting based on historical cost is held to be
deficient in periods of rapid inflation or deflation. Efforts
made by other countries to cope with the problem are
enumerated and an illustration is provided of a method
of preparing a supplementary statement in which allow-
ance would be made for changes in purchasing power
by use of a price index.

3053. Accounting for Depreciation and the Investing
Public. B. R. Macklin. Chartered Accountant in
Australia, pp. 603-618, March 1954.
In this article, the duties of the author in relation to
depreciation accounting and fixed asset replacement in
a period of rising prices is discussed. The interests of
the investing public are considered to be served by the
present method of charging depreciation on historical
cost, and providing for higher replacement costs by the
allocation of profits to reserves rather than by charging
depreciation on the replacement costs of fixed assets. The
auditor must inform the investor of any departures from
the accepted treatment.

(F) Transport and Communications

3054. High Cost Trends of Goods Transport in Australia,
Reasons and Remedies. Symposium-Institute of
Transport, Victorian Section, 19 May, pp. 62.
The chairman, D. H. Merry in his "Economic Aspects"
stresses the effects on transport of the characteristics of
Australia as a new and developing country with sparse
population and a long sea coast line. The vast capital
tied up in transport makes scrapping difficult, but run-
ning expenses may be reduced, e.g.. through Diesel
electric locomotives. Other features are the scarcity of
capital, the heavy burden of fixed charges, constitutional
difficulties, our Australian high cost structure. As to the
future the problems of joint usage, flexibility and in-
tegration are discussed.
R. A. Coutts in a discussion of shipping surveys the
history of the Australian mercantile marine, cost
factors in shipping, stevedoring costs, fuel, tonnage
replacement, freight rates and possible avenues of
reduction in costs particularly through disputes.


0. E. Mayer examines railways and compares usage
and train capacity in Victoria and U.S. In a section on
railway finance the high cost trend is emphasized and
the ratio of freight to value is investigated. Finally some
solutions are suggested.
L. A. Schumer speaks on "Road", the economy of size
and of long runs, the rate of obsolescence, the problems
of joint usage, flexibility and integration.
In a lecture on "Air" G. Packer shows how air trans-
port has risen from 668 tons in 1939 to 64,850 tons in
1953, he deals with air mail and air freight, the
financial aspects of air freight operations and special
questions of development, such as the air beef scheme.

3055. Department of Railways, New South Wales.
Annual Report 1952-53, Govt. Printer, Sydney.
pp. 88.
Profit on operations has increased 1,334,253 over the
previous year. Earnings exceed the record figure of the
year before by 3,766,055 standing at 72,675,775-this
despite transference of electrical undertakings to the
N.S.W. Electricity Commission, flood damaged trucks,
and a recession in some of the main goods handled by
railways. The increase is partly attributable to an intense
publicity campaign. Earning expenses increased only
J2,468,807 to 6.651,995 despite higher wage awards and
increased raw material costs. An economy campaign,
involving staff reduction, restriction of materials' use,
and avoidance, as far as possible, of overtime, is the
main cause of this lesser rise. Nevertheless, as a result
of increased charges on Capital Account, the year's
operations show a deficit of 1,499,839. Shortage of loan
money suspended activities on many capital projects. In
initial operations the number of passengers carried in-
creased but freight tonnage declined relative to the
year before.-G.C.H.

3056. Air Services in New Zealand. F. H. Bishop. New
Zealand Geographer, pp. 107-24, October 1953.
In 1950-51 all scheduled air services in N.Z. were run
by the Government-owned N.Z National Airways Cor-
poration which had 27 aircraft in operation. Although
the bulk of N.Z. long-distance passenger traffic is still
carried by surface transport, passenger traffic by air is
much more important than freight and mail transport
by air. The Cook Strait link is an exception, here freight
and mail air transport is more significant than passenger
transport. Here the local aero clubs also operate an air
taxi service. Air transport in regional sub-divisions (Main
Trunk, Northland, Mid-North Island, Cook Strait, West-
land and Invercargill) is discussed in detail with the
help of maps.


(G) Labour and Industrial Relations

3057. The Basic Wage, 1907-1953. M. R. Hill. Australian
Quarterly, pp. 33-40, December 1953.
In a short historical survey the author stresses the
cost of living and the capacity of industry to pay wages
as the foundations of the Arbitration Court's decisions
on wages. He denies the often-heard opinion that basic
wage increases are self-propelling. The continued rise of
wages and prices is due mainly to other factors: rising
import and export prices, removal of price subsidies
and increases in farm prices. If Australia were a closed
economy, the concept of wage paying capacity of in-
dustry would have little meaning. But it has a meaning
for export industries and for industries competing with
imports. Exporters' incomes could be subsidized, com-
petitors with imports could be protected by tariffs, ex-
change and import restrictions.








3058. Payment by Results. The Approach by Individual
Tribunals. W. J. Byrt. Personnel Practice Bulletin,
pp. 6-13, March 1954.
A statement indicating some of the principles which,
in the opinion of Australian industrial tribunals, should
be observed in the determination of rates for piecework,
bonus work and task work.

3059. Employee-Management Committees. Results of
two important Surveys. Manufacturing and Man-
agement, pp. 157-63, November 1953.
The first part of this article summarizes a survey
undertaken by the National Institute of Industrial Psy-
chology in U.K. from 1948-5o, based on a lecture of
W. Raphael. Among the methods used in the survey
the most significant were short investigations of I-II
days in 189 factories. Views on the purpose of joint con-
sultation and criteria of success and sociological factors
affecting success are discussed. The attitude of executives
and senior management, of middle management and
foremen (least satisfactory) of workers' representatives
and shop stewards, and of workers, the influence of joint
consultation on relationships, organization and practice
of consultation, agenda, reporting back, etc., are further
subjects of the article. The second part deals with an
intensive survey undertaken by the University of Liver-
pool in three firms, based on a lecture given by Dr
W. H. Scott. This survey discusses subjects similar to
the first survey, the importance of day-to-day relations
is stressed, as they are too little considered in joint
consultation committees.


3060. Arbitration and Industrial Relations. 0. deR.
Foenander. The Young Liberal, Melbourne, No. I,
pp- 3-4, May 1954.
Employer-employee relations should not be settled by
force, but by legal authority. The government must be
interested in industrial relations, because by industrial
strife productivity may be adversely affected. Compulsory
conciliation and arbitration is not at variance with
principles of abstract liberty. Decisions of industrial
tribunals are restricted to minima and do not prevent
free individual and collective bargaining. Responsible
management and labour accept arbitration as essential
to the Australian way of life and both sides want im-
provement in the machinery of arbitration, but they dis-
agree about the direction these improvements should
take. Suggestions for reform should be clarified.

3061. Industrial Arbitration under Federal Law. O. de R.
Foenander. Austral' News (Bombay), pp. 4-7,
August 1953; 4, 7, September 1953.
A short summary of compulsory industrial arbitration
and the system of industrial regulation in Australia.
Its theory is founded on the community's interest in
industrial disputes and the realization that they are
best settled by discussion, if necessary by conciliation
through public authority, in the last resort by arbitra-
tion through public authority. Separate sections deal
with the Federal constitutional power in relation to em-
ployment relations, with Federal industrial instrumen-
talities (Court of Conciliation and Arbitration, Concilia-
tion Commissioners), their respective jurisdictions, and
with the making of awards. It is explained why a com-
mon rule is constitutionally impossible, as only the
parties to a dispute can be bound by an award. The
agreement procedure, the duration and variation of
awards, their enforcement and protection (penalties and
deregistration) are examined in the second part of the
article.


3062. Labour Turnover in New Zealand Industries.
G. P. Braal. Economic Record, pp. 99-o02, May
1954.
Full employment causes a high turnover of labour.
As shown in tables, labour turnover in N.Z. has con-
siderably increased in 1952-53 compared with 1946.
There is a higher rate of turnover among females, little
connection with high or low earnings, while narrow pay
margins between skilled and unskilled workers lessen the
labour turnover difference between them. Alternative
opportunities are important, as it is proved by the low
rate in coalmining, the high rate in clothing and textile
industries. In tertiary industries there is less turnover
than in secondary ones. Through the influence of
apprenticeship engineering and metal working trades
have lower rates.

3063. Trade Union Rules and the "Political Levy"-
Australia. O. de R. Foenander. University of Tor-
onto Law Journal, Vol. X, No. I, 1953, pp. 73-82.
The expenditure of trade union funds on political
objects is not prohibited in the Australian Common-
wealth and in four Australian states. In N.S.W. as in
U.K. members are enabled to "contract-out" from pay-
ments to be made over to political objects. The N.S.W.
provision is set out in detail including the specification
of these political objects. In a W.A. Supreme Court case
of 1949 it was held that the law did not permit a trade
union to impose on its members compulsory contribu-
tions to an election campaign. The Commonwealth Arbi-
tration Court has never objected to the power of unions
registered under the Arbitration Act to allot payments
to political objects. In the Ironworkers Case of 1948,
however, a union rule regarding a political levy and the
method of contracting out was regarded as an unreason-
able condition imposed on membership. Nevertheless the
decision was not directed against the principle of union
payments for political purposes.
3064. The Recruitment of University Graduates to the
Commonwealth Public Service. S.Encel. Public
Administration, pp. 222-31, March 1954.
Under the Act of 1902 the Commonwealth Public
Service was built on egalitarian principles. In 1925 the
Public Service Board introduced free part-time Univer-
sity training of selected public officers. Up to 1952 only
195 free place holders had completed degree or diploma
courses and very few had reached higher positions. Since
1930 graduate recruitment began, but without paying
the persons concerned better salaries apart from con-
siderations of age. Much against the wishes of the staff
associations these entrants were promoted more rapidly.
When World War II broke out, civil servants were little
equipped for their new important tasks. Many people
were recruited from outside the service, of whom a large
proportion became permanent after the war. Since the
war there were many more graduates from 1/7/1947 to
30/6/1952 about 380 including research officers. The
author stresses the contrast between differential reciuit-
ment and egalitarian tradition and suggests a trial
period.

AGRICULTURE, LAND AND RURAL
PROBLEMS
3065. Beattie, W. A. Beef Cattle Breeding and Manage-
ment. The Pastoral Review Ltd., pp. 476.
A complete text book on beef cattle, their production
and management under Australian conditions. The
breeds, including Zebu and other exotic types, are briefly
reviewed: permanent improvements of properties are
discussed in six chapters: pastures and their improve-








ment are described in two: breeding, herd management
and infertility on cattle properties form the next group
of subjects: various special types of cattle management
are given special attention: the analysis of the problems
of diseases and parasites follows. Finally a series of
chapters reviews methods of transport and marketing,
the problems of managers and a wide range of miscel-
laneous topics. The whole range of chapters is inter-
spersed with a careful examination of procedures des-
cribed and discussion as to the reasons for policies
advocated-e.g. the value of emus, snakes, goannas and
other wild animals in the maintenance of natural
balances in the field. Candid advice to those concerned
with management and many similar comments on un-
satisfactory methods or attitudes make the book much
more than an ordinary text book.-S.M.W.

3066. The Great Australian Pasture Revolution, Brit-
ish Farm Equipment Pty. Ltd., Melbourne, pp. 59,
1953.
A simplified handbook of pasture and pasture im-
provement for Australia, with particular reference to the
south-eastern region. It gives practical hints for farmers
as to what to sow, where, when and how, and stresses
the importance to the country and the farmer of the
potential gains to be derived from caring for pasture
land.-M.C.D.

3067. Report of the Waite Agricultural Research Insti-
tute, South Australia, and Associated Activities of
the C.S.I.R.O. 1950-51. Adelaide pp. 62, 1953.
Firstly the report lists the council and staff of the
Institute. Progress reports of research in the various
departments follow, also a list of published papers.
Results obtained from the field experimental plots are
tabulated. Similar data for the C.S.I.R.O.'s Soil Division,
which is housed in the Institute, are also given. A soil
map of the Institute property is included.-M.C.D.

3068. Forty-eighth Annual Report of the State Rivers
and Water Supply Commission, Victoria 1952-53.
Government Printer, Melbourne, 1953. pp. 136.
The report contains a brief account of the work of the
various sections of the commission. The Rocklands dam
was completed during the year. However, due to curtail-
ment of loan funds, progress on the Big Eildon project
was retarded and the Cairn Curran Dam and Tarago
River Diversion works were completely closed down.
Included also are detailed financial statements.--M.C.D.

3069. Westgate Farm Planning Project. H. R. Dicken-
son and R. G. Downes. Soil Conservation
Authority, Melbourne pp. 38, 1953.
"Westgate", a property situated between Ararat and
Stawell in Victoria, is one of the farms being used by the
Soil Conservation Authority to demonstrate correct land-
use and management principles to farmers. The farmers
are being urged to consider their properties as whole
units and not as separate paddocks and to plan their
improvements paying particular attention to climate,
soils, topography, native vegetation, past and present
land-use. This method will ensure maintenance of soil
stability and fertility.-M.C.D.

3070. The Wheat Situation. January 1954. Bureau of
Agricultural Economics, Canberra. pp. 32.
A review of the world position and of that in each
of the main exporting and importing countries. The care-
ful analysis of policy in the U.S.A. is of special value.
-S.M.W.


3071. New Zealand Wheat Review 1950-1-2. Crop
Research Division of N.Z.D.S.I.R. and the Wheat
Research Institute. Christchurch. pp. 68, 1953.
A general survey of the three crop years covered by
the period with the statistics of the crop showing the
decreasing acreage sown and, despite the increasing yield
per acre, a decline in the crop produced. These are
followed by a historical account of wheat-growing in the
Dominion. Short statements are produced on problems of
disease; of harvesting the crop, and of flour quality. A
comparison of net profits from wheat growing and alter-
native types of land use suggests that at present relative
levels of prices an increase in acreage under the crop is
not likely. It concludes with a survey by districts show-
ing the relative popularity of varieties.-S.M.W.

3072. The Coarse Grain Situation, June 1954. Bureau of
Agricultural Economics, Canberra. pp. 1-28, June
'954.
The first issue of what is proposed as a series of
annual reviews. The section on the situation in Australia
shows the increased production of these grains in recent
years. The position in exporting countries emphasizes
the enormous size of these crops in the U.S.A.-over
4,500oo,ooo,ooo bushels in 1953-54, of this most is consumed
at home but surpluses have been exported in recent
years. Canada's exports of both barley and oats have ex-
panded. Argentina is now starting to regain the domin-
ant position she occupied in these markets before the
war. Meanwhile Western Europe, the chief importing
region now grows more than before the war.-S.M.W.

3073. Growth Rates of Beef Cattle in Tropical Queens-
land. W. P. Mawson. Queensland Agricultural
Journal, pp. 301-307, May 1954.
Twenty-five weaners of approximately similar age
and weight were selected from each of two groups of
cattle, British and Brahman Cross. These were weighed
at intervals of about a month. Results have shown so
far that the Brahman Cross are superior to the British
breeds, although it is still too early to make any final
statement. Their increases in weight have been greater
in lush periods and decreases smaller in bad times over
the term of the experiment. Weighings will continue
until time for slaughtering and will be followed by
carcass appraisal. Notes on method, conditions of
pasture, climate and the property are included.-M.C.D.

3074. Fat-Lamb Industry Survey, 1951. Department of
Commerce and Agriculture. Bulletin io, 1953,
pp. 70.
The survey included 200 farms selected from all the
main fat-lamb producing areas of Australia. Of the 200
only 30 were devoted exclusively to fat-lamb raising.
The others were associated with cereal cropping mainly,
also wool growing and other pursuits to a lesser extent.
Analysis of the data, which covered the year 1949-50,
is divided into two main sections. The first deals with
physical aspects, flock size, breeds, marketing and so on,
the second with financial considerations, namely capital-
ization, costs and returns. The greatest percentage of
matings is between down-type rams and crossbred type
ewes. Financial and other aspects indicate that the chief
strength of the industry lies in the complementary
nature of fat-lamb raising and cereal cropping.-M.C.D.

3075. Coastal Land Drift Investigations in N.S.W. B. R.
Hewitt. Journal of the Soil Conservation Service
of N.S.W., pp. 45-56, January 1954; pp. 90-6,
April 1954.
A review of work being carried out on the control of
coastal sand drifts, also the various physical factors in-








volved in the formation of the drifts. Most of the drifts
are concentrated in the northern and central portions of
the state. The direction of long-shore movement of sand
and its deposition by waves are important, as is local
topography. Man, however, has been the main cause due
to his denuding the original dunes of vegetation. In con-
trolling them the methods used are mechanical followed
by vegetational. Mechanical methods stabilize the sand
ready for planting suitable sand-binding species. Much
research is still required for a better understanding of
the area involved.-M.C.D.

3076. Drying of Vine Fruits. Issued by the Dried Fruits
Processing Committee, prepared by P. Pennian
and P. S. Oldham. Journal of the Department of
Agriculture, Victoria, pp. 57-67, February 1954.
The article describes the correct stage for picking and
the details of the drying procedures for the three main
vine fruits (sultanas, currents and gordos) grown in
Australia. M.C.D.

3077. The Australian Sugar Industry-Some Facts and
Figures. Norman J. King, pp. 1-37. Sugar Experi-
ment Stations Board, Brisbane.
A concise illustrated survey of the industry, its growth,
methods, research and technological development. Statis-
tical tables show the historical background, the economic
position in relation to exports, and the analysis of the
cost structure behind the present retail price in
Australia. S.M.W.

3078. The Banana. J. McGregor Wills and F. W. Berrill.
Queensland Agricultural Journal, pp. 197-21o,
October 1953; pp. 259-77, November 1953.
A review of banana growing in Australia. A brief
history is followed by a description of all the procedures
from the selection and preparation of land to the final
packing of the crop for market. Descriptions of the
principal varieties and their growth habits are also
given. -M.C.D.

3079. The Processing and Storage of Cereals in Tropical
Climates. E. Hipsley. South Pacific Commission
Quarterly Bulletin, pp. 15-16, April 1953.
Dried brown rice and low moisture content wheat-
meal flour, packaged in moisture-insect-proof containers,
have proved more successful for storage than other
cereal products. Further research into the use of these is
recommended for hot moist climates. The possibility of
local milling of wheat, which is superior to flour in
keeping quality is also recommended for investigation.
-M.C.D.


POLITICAL SCIENCE

(A) Government and Politics

3080. The Hon. W. McMahon et. al. The Australian
Political Party System. Angus & Robertson for
S the Australian Institute of Political Science, 1954,
pp. 117. Price i2s.6d.
The text of three papers delivered at the First Winter
Forum of the Victorian Group of the Institute: The
Liberal Party (by the Hon. W. McMahon); The Aus-
tralian Labour Party (by the Hon. A. A. Calwell); The
Australian Party System (by L. C. Webb). The latter
paper studies the effects of the preferential voting system
in Federal politics. S. R. Davis contributes a fourth and
introductory essay, assessing the three papers.-A.F.D.


3081. Limits to Administrative Efficiency in a Democ-
racy. A. A. Fitzgerald. Public Administration,
pp. 7-12, March 1954.
The chairman of the Commonwealth Grants Com-
mission gives four factors limiting efficiency: the un-
certain boundary between policy-making and adminis-
tration; political pressures, causing demands for emer-
gency action; changes in government, making long-range
policies difficult to formulate; and the size and com-
plexity of government business. Personnel practices
create additional, but remediable problems.-S.E.


(B) International Relations

3082. Owen, J. E. The Road to Peace-An Experiment
in Friendship Across Barriers. The Hawthorn
Press, Melbourne, 1954, pp. 72.
A personal account of a Presbyterian minister's ex-
perience as sponsor and convenor of the Australian
Convention on Peace and War held in Sydney in 1953.
Includes, as well as an account of the proceedings and
report of the convention, chapters dealing with the
author's interview with the Prime Minister concerning
the convention, his experience in trying unsuccessfully
to buy advertising space for the convention in a daily
newspaper, and his reflections on the activities of the
churches in connection with peace mo ements. The last
two chapters are devoted to "What are the Communists
up to?" and "The Prospect Before Us".-C.L.B.

3083. Australia and Japan. Economist (London), pp.
958-9, 27 March 1954.
Australia's attitude to Japan remains divided, but the
division is not fundamental as the Anzus Pact ensures
American protection for Australia. The Commonwealth
Government considers limited Japanese rearmament
necessary to enable Japan to defend herself against
Communism. Fear of Japan continues as the Common-
wealth Government's sharp reaction to Japanese pearl-
ing fleets and its opposition to the employment of Japan-
ese on American-controlled survey vessels has recently
shown. Mention is also made of the adverse Japanese
trading balance with Australia and of the problems in-
volved for the Australian Government in trying to ad-
just it.-H. W.

SOCIAL CONDITIONS

(A) Housing

3084. What's Wrong with Victoria's Housing Pro-
gramme? Brotherhood of St. Laurence, Melbourne
'954, PP. 4x.
The Vie. Housing Commission was set up in 1937 to
abolish slums. There were then 6,1oo houses recognized
as slums within 5 miles of the Melbourne G.P.O., 1954
there were 7,500 with 35,000 inhabitants. A plan for
slum reclamation is set forth: for five years 5oo,ooo p.a.
are to be set out in the state budget for this purpose, and
the Housing Commission should use 1/6 of the money
received from the Commonwealth Government. A special
Slum Reclamation Department should be established in
the Housing Commission which should also take care
of slum prevention. Faults in housing administration
include the ballot system, that no reason is given for
applicants' rejection, and that non-British migrants are
not considered. The rebate system ought to be over-
hauled. Special sections deal with the Camp Pell
emergency housing system, with problem families, and
with the need for trained housing managers.








(B) Social Security and Public Health

3085. High Accident Level in Australian Industry. A. L.
Brentwood. Manufacturing and Management,
pp. 172-4, November 1953.
In 1949-50 in N.S.W. the cost to industry of workers'
compensation was about 7lm., there were 231 accidental
deaths and a loss of 235,000 man-weeks. Accidents
statistics are inadequate, figures based on compensation
claims and those based on employers' reports show a
marked discrepancy. The frequency rate of accidents in
N.S.W. manufacturing (per 1oo,ooo man-hours worked)
from 1936-43 was between 6-1 and 8-1, compared with
frequency rates of 2-3 in U.K., the severity rate (man-
hours lost per loo,ooo man-hours worked) showed a pre-
war average of 2,000. Some large Australian firms con-
duct well organized internal safety activities, while
others disregard them. However, at present there are
definite signs of improvement. The safety programme of
a British electrical equipment factory cut its accident
rate from 1948 to 1952 to .

(C) Social Surveys

(D) Population and Migration

3086. Borrie, W. D. Italians and Germans in Australia.
A study of Assimilation. Published for the Aus-
tralian National University by F. W. Cheshire,
Melbourne, 1954, pp. 236. Price 30s.
After discussing in detail the term "assimilation" the
characteristics of Australian immigration policy, Aus-
tralia's social structure and people's attitudes, the legal
and social status of non-British minorities and non-
British settlements in Australia are dealt with at length.
Two chapters are devoted to German and Italian migra-
tion-to the pattern of their settlement, cultural, social
and statistical aspects of Italians in Queensland and
social and cultural aspects of German assimilation.
Italian settlements outside Queensland are discussed and
there is a long chapter on the assimilation process in
perspective, and a brief bibligraphical note. D. R. G.
Packer assisted the author.-E.J.D.

3087. Observations upon the Family in Australia. W. D.
Borrie. Australian Quarterly, pp. 41-56, December
1953.
Australian families fall into two of Zimmerman's
classifications -domestic and (increasingly) atomistic.
Environment soon had greater influence than the immi-
grants' background. Population movement is predomin-
antly directed towards metropolitan areas. The demo-
graphic analysis of the Australian family (comparison
based on the censuses of 1911, 1921 and 1947) shows a
decline in fertility, but also a striking fall in mortality.
The average size of families completed by the date of
the census fell by 47% in 36 years. There is a differential
in the family size between metropolitan and extra-metro-
politan areas which has increased between 1911 and
1947. Other factors important for differentials are
religion, income and social status. Demographic research
is to be linked with sociological and psychological
enquiries.

3088. The Iron and Steel Industry and the Common-
wealth Immigration Programme. N. R. Wills.
Twentieth Century (Melbourne), pp. 5-19, Spring
1953.
After a survey of the expansion of Australian manu-
facturing, particularly heavy industry at the time of
World War I, the Depression, World War II and the


post-war years up to the 1952 recession it is stressed that
this expansion was not due to a pre-conceived plan. But
for some controls, government took part only through
public works and the immigration scheme. The post-war
shortage of iron and steel and its reasons are set out.
The steel industry has absorbed 3,400 New Australians
and many U.K. migrants. The Immigration Planning
Council, recruiting of skilled labour and coal miners
in U.K., colliery training schemes set up by B.H.P.,
building of houses for these new workers, contributed.
The number of European migrants in the Port Kembla
steelworks rose to 1,700, in the Newcastle steelworks to
1,300. At the end of 1952 the percentage of New Aus-
tralians ranged from 17 to 48% (Spun pipe plant in Pt.
Kembla). This has made for stability and was, perhaps
different from immigration generally, an anti-infla-
tionary force.

3089. Population and Public Capital. F. D. Gillies.
Economic News, pp. 1-6, November 1953.
Queensland's rate of natural increase of population
in the last 8 years was very stable, but she has had
the lowest rate of net immigration among the 6
states in 5 of the 8 post-war years. This is partly due
to the lack of direct shipping communications, the
comparatively low average weekly earnings and the
relative unattractiveness of rural occupations. Qu. is
the least developed of the Australian states and offers
the highest potential development. She has high figures
of public capital expenditure per head from her own
resources, but Commonwealth expenditure in Qu. is less
than Commonwealth taxation in the state. Agricultural
development in Qu. needs investment of much public
capital to intensify transport, water conservation and
irrigation systems. The investment of additional f31m.
of Commonwealth money p.a. would also have been a
strong incentive for private investment and would have
stimulated larger immigration, particularly through
better railway communications.

3090. Some Social Problems in Singapore. C. Gamba.
Australian Quarterly, pp. 99-105, June 1954.
Overpopulation and housing congestion of the low-
wage-earning group in Singapore, the Chinese section
of which comprises about 79% of the total population,
are features of Singapore. The miserable accommodation
of this group in "cubicles" at high rents, the large size
of their families, the deplorable conditions of sick and
old people who do not want to go or are not admitted
to hospitals, the prevalence of abortion, the placing of
chronically ill and very old people in "death-houses",
their indebtedness at high rates of interest are discussed.
It has been suggested to move the overflow to the main-
land, but this is not easily practicable.

EDUCATION

Reference should be made to the annual reports of
the Ministers of Education in each State and in N.Z.
for statistical and descriptive accounts of developments
in the public educational systems. These reports can
normally be purchased from the Government Printer in
each capital city. Such reports may be abstracted in this
section from time to time if they contain material of
unusual interest.

3091. The Australian Universities. P. H. Partridge.
Chapter in "Taking Stock". Editor W. V. Aughter-
son. F. W. Cheshire. Melbourne, pp. 45-60, 1953.
A general account is given of the six state universities
founded at dates between 1850 (Sydney) and 1911 (W.A.)
and of the two recent establishments, viz., the Australian








National University in Canberra and the University of
Technology in Sydney. Methods of control and finance
are covered. In spite of dependence on government
finance the universities have in the main been free from
political interference. Income has not kept pace with
rising numbers of students and rising costs. Present
demands on teaching staff tend to endanger scholarship
and research. The main influence has been that of Eng-
lish university tradition, but in recent years, in the
Arts Faculties, there has been a movement away from
the emphasis on European culture to the Pacific area.
Post-graduate facilities at the National University could
cause retaining in Australia of a proportion of the
brilliant graduates who each year make their way
overseas.


3092. The Schools of Australia. W. V. Aughterson.
Chapter in "Taking Stock". F. W. Cheshire.
Melbourne, pp. 61-78, 1953.
The Australian school systems are contrasted with
those of other countries. The centralization of control
found in each state had its origin in the facts of
geography, history and economics. The advantages and
drawbacks are discussed. There are harmful influences of
excessive examinations and rapidly increasing enrol-
ments. In 1951 slightly more than im. children in Aus-
tralia were attending state schools. It is anticipated that
by 1960 this number will have increased by almost mm.
One of the major problems is that of the kind of school
and curriculum best suited to the varying needs and
abilities of pupils who have completed their primary
studies. Should Australia follow the English pattern of
separate schools or adopt the American comprehensive
type school?


3093. The Educational System. K. S. Cunningham. Ch. 3
in "The Australian Way of Life", Editor George
Caiger. William Heinemann Ltd. London 1953,
PP. 45-67.
The development of Australian education in the last
150 years is dealt with descriptively and historically.
Some generalized statistics are included. While educa-
tional procedures are based on the British tradition they
have been adopted extensively to meet the needs of local
conditions. Reference is made to actual contributions to
educational methods such as the development of educa-
tion by correspondence. A section is devoted to descrip-
tion of typical schools of different types. Earlier com-
placency that Australia had solved most of its problems
has now disappeared.-E.g., it is coming to be realized
that changes in world affairs make it necessary for Aus-
tralian schools to pay fuller attention to the study of
neighboring countries in Asia and the Pacific area
generally.


3094. Turner, H. W. Halls of Residence. N.Z. Council
for Educational Research. Whitcombe & Tombs.
pp. 170, 1953.
This is a study of the problems of student housing
with special reference to the situation in N.Z. Details are
given of the provisions made in some 24 halls of resi-
dence for university and other students in each of the
main centres. Of students living away from home the
proportion which can be catered for in recognized halls
ranges from about I in 7 in Wellington to about i in 3
in Dunedin. Chapters are devoted to such subjects as the
educational value of halls of residence, the economics
of residence, the physical equipment of a hall, and the
requirements for satisfactory organization.


3095. Training Schemes for Graduates. University Ap-
pointments Board, Melbourne University Press,
pp. 38.
This is a report of a conference held between officers
of Melbourne University and representatives of over
thirty employing agencies- some government and some
private. Some of the chief departments of the Common-
wealth Government and some of the chief industrial con-
cerns in Australia were represented. The first session
was held in November 1952 and the second in March
1953. The ground covered at the conference included
such questions as the value of university training to
those going into industry; difficulties associated with the
induction of young graduates; the necessity for training
schemes and the essentials of a good scheme.

3096. Report of the Education Department Western
Australia for the year 1952. Government Printer,
Perth, pp. 48, 1953.
This annual report shows over the last three years an
increase in expenditure from 2-75m. to 4"-1m. In the
last six years primary and secondary school enrolments
rose from57,ooo to 77,000. Details are given of the efforts
being made to recruit the additional teachers and to
provide the increased accommodation needed. Other
sections cover the expansion of school bus services, the
establishment of junior high schools, the setting up of
a Publications Division and a new professional journal
for teachers, a new experimental school attached to the
Teachers' College, native education, the growth of
guidance services, of audio-visual education, etc.

3097. Educational Research being Undertaken in Aus-
tralia. Commonwealth Office of Education. Pro-
cessed, pp. 51, July 1953.
This is the fourth annual statement compiled by the
C.O.E. with the co-operation of the Schools of Education
at all Australian Universities, the Education Depart-
ments, and the Australian Council for Educational
Research. Its aim is to list, classify and describe all
educational investigations of importance being made
in Australia at the time of compilation.

3098. Agricultural Education in Australia. Common-
wealth Office of Education. Bulletin No. 23.
Processed. pp. 13, October 1953.
The bulletin describes in outline the provision for
agricultural education at the primary, secondary, and
tertiary stages in each of the Australian states. Refer-
ence is also made to extension services, to research
stations and experimental forms, and to broadcasting.

3099. Education by Correspondence in Australia.
Commonwealth Office of Education. Bulletin No.
28. December 1953, pp. 1o. (processed).
This bulletin gives a general description of various
forms of education by correspondence in Australia,
the methods of instruction employed and related educa-
tional activities such as broadcasting, libraries, clubs
and magazines. A further section covers correspondence
tuition in English for New Australians. Statistics are
given in an appendix.

31oo00. Educational Guidance Services in State Education
Departments of Australia. Commonwealth Office
of Education Bulletin No. t4. Processed, pp. 22.
Revised October 1953.
This bulletin shows for each state the staff engaged
in guidance work, programme of tests and the purpose
for which they are employed, and the clinical and
vocational services provided including links with other








government departments such as the Commonwealth
Employment Service. The development in these services
since the war has been striking. In spite of similarities
between the states there are considerable variations.

3101. Accrediting for University Entrance in N.Z. G. V.
Wild. Education News, pp. 6-9. April 1954.
Accrediting was introduced in N. Z. in 1944 in order
to relieve secondary schools from the pressures associated
with preparation for university entrance examinations.
This article, by the chief inspector of post-primary
schools, reviews the present situation and gives the results
of enquiries which have been made to ascertain whether
criticism of the present system is justified. The author
states that it has been amply demonstrated that ac-
credited students are as proficient as others in their
university work and thinks it would be unfortunate if
dissatisfaction in some quarters led to abandonment of
the system.

3102. The Commonwealth Universities Congress. Uni-
versities Quarterly. Turnstile Press, London, pp.
122-52, February 1954.
Reports are given on aspects of the seventh Congress
of the Universities of the Commonwealth held at Cam-
bridge in 1953. The Vice-Chancellor of the University of
Glasgow gives a review of the whole series; the Vice-
Chancellor of the University of Malaya writes as head
of a young colonial university; Vice-Chancellor of the
University of Madras deals with the problem of exchange
and of academic mobility; the President of Princeton
University speaks on behalf of the American universities
which were represented.

3103. An Experimental Course in Education for
Teachers' Colleges. J. J. St. Ellen and L. W.
Shears. Forum of Education, pp, 89-101. April
1954.
The article describes a new type of course in educa-
tion introduced in 1952 at the Toorak Teachers' College,
Victoria. It arose from dissatisfaction with the common
method of treating as separate subjects four inter-
related aspects of education, viz., history, modern
developments, principles and psychology. The new course
centres round the study of the teacher and the child. It
examines the history of the teacher's work and the
techniques he employs, the development of the child
and his dependence on his environment. In carrying out
these studies students are expected to do a good deal
in the way of assignments, fact-finding and field work.

3104. Review of Migrant Education in Australia. Educa-
tion News. pp. 13-15, December 1953.
This follows earlier reviews of the migrant education
scheme in 1951. Instead of instruction in the country
of origin, or on shipboard, emphasis is now placed on
continuation classes, correspondence tuition and radio
lessons. In 1,263 continuation classes there are enrolled
almost 15,000 students. Over 12,000 are doing correspon-
dence courses. In teaching English the chief emphasis
is on the spoken language. Considerable study has been
made, by the Commonwealth Office of Education, of the
best methods of teaching so that fluency is acquired
rapidly. The "situational" method is the one which is
favoured. Special text books have been published.

3105. The Universities of India. Alfred S. Schenkman.
Australian Quarterly. pp. 87-93, March 1954.
Increased contacts between India and Australia and
the presence of a number of Indian students make it im-
portant to know something of Indian universities and
their characteristics. According to the author Indian


students show good capacity. His observations lead him
to belive that in India itself there is a tendency to under-
rate the achievements of their own universities and to
assume that the degree from overseas is automatically
superior. Problems of examinations, which he thinks are
over-emphasized, and of language are referred to. There
is a tendency to talk about education without doing
much about it.

GEOGRAPHY
31o6. Taylor, G. (Ed.) Geography in the twentieth cen-
tury. Methuen. London, 1953 (Sec. Edition re-
vised), pp. 661. Price 35s. (English).
This enlarged edition is the work of twenty-two
authors dealing with the evolution of geography, its
philosophic basis, studies of special environments, ad-
vances in geomorphology, meteorology, climate, soils,
regionalism, sociological and urban aspects, and geo-
pacifics. The editor contributed six chapters and a
glossary (Introduction dealing with Fundamentals of
geography, Exploration of Antarctica, Racial Geography,
Urban Geography, and Geopolitics and Geopacifics).
There are numerous references to Australia, esp. by
Bowman in Settlement by the modern Pioneer, to Aus-
tralia's defence, and to the Frontier in Australia, (deal-
ing with tropical Australia), by Gilbert in Geography
and Regionalism, to the development of regionalism in
Australia, and elsewhere to population problems. 57
maps and diagrams, and 15 plates.-E.J.D.

3107. Osborn, F. The Limits of the Earth. Faber and
Faber, London, 1953, pp. 175. Price 12s. 6d.
(English).
A world-wide survey of food resources-"what limits
are set to the expansion of race by the planet's feeding
capacity?" (one chapter on Australia).-E.J.D.

3108. Morus (R. Lewinsohn): Animals, Men and Myths.
V. Gollancz, London, 1954, pp. 374. Price 21s.
This is a history of the influence of animals on civili-
zation and culture containing a great number of refer-
ences to Australia, and one chapter on the fifth con-
tinent. 31 plates and numerous illustrations.-E.J.D.

3109. The Resources and the Development of the
Murray. Prepared by the Murray Valley Resources
Survey Committee and edited for publication by
the Research Staff of the Dept. of National
Development, Canberra. Price 3 3s., 1953.
Volume One (pp. 369) discusses the physical re-
sources (topography, geology and mineral resources,
soils, climate, natural vegetation, timber, water, fish-
eries) and economic resources (population, employ-
ment, land use and primary industries, secondary in-
dustries, public utilities, transport, education, housing,
health, tourist attractions, local government), of the
99,ooo sq. m. of the Murray Valley (with a population
of over 400,000. There are statistical appendices on
rural production, an extensive classified bibliography,
66 tables and a number of photos.
Volume Two is a volume of maps in colour together
with explanatory notes and a gazetteer of 2,000 names.
38 separate maps presented on 20 map sheets form a
series at a uniform scale of 28 miles to one inch, illustra-
ting the chapters in volume one.-E.J.D.

3110. Population and Land Use in the Sydney District
1788-1820. K. W. Robinson. New Zealand Geog-
rapher, pp. 144-60, October 1953.
The growth of population and the development of land
use patterns are analysed for the first thirty years of









the N.S.W. Colony. The generally poor quality of the
soils in the Sydney district, the nature of the convict
settlement and the policies of successive governors all
left their mark. Agriculture, though vital, occupied only
a small proportion of the total area, while pastoral
activities dominated land use in the Colony right from
the beginning. The average rate of population growth
over the period was somewhat less than rooo persons per
year, with many irregularities, but the increase of free
immigrants after 1815 helped produce a more normal
age and sex composition of the population. By 1820
Sydney already possessed a preponderance of tertiary
industries, and had acquired a commercial and adminis-
trative momentum which it has retained to the present
day.-D.W.F.

3111. The Canberra-Queanbeyan Symbiosis-a Study of
Urban Mutualism. H. W. King. Geographical
Review, New York, pp. o10-18, January 1954.
The two urban centres of Canberra and Queanbeyan,
seven miles distant from each other, have become inter-
dependent urban centres with contrasting functions.
Canberra was a small rural settlement until its selection
as a site for the federal capital in 1910, but large scale
construction did not begin until after world war I. But
the new capital lacked many departments, and in the
eyes of the general public was not really confirmed in its
position until world war II. Since that time growth has
been rapid, the population in 1951 amounting to over
23,000. Yet the city's inchoate nature, peculiar adminis-
tration, and its specialized functions leaves many essen-
tial or desirable services and facilities inadequately
provided for. These deficiencies are to some extent made
good in the N.S.W. town of Queanbeyan.-D.W.F.

3112. Outposts of Polar Research. T. Burstall. National
Development, pp. 10-15, March 1954.
A survey of the economic resources of the Australian
antarctic and subantarctic territories, the scientific work
being done at the stations on Heard and Macquarie
Islands and the possible strategic importance of these
possessions. A brief description is given of the history
of these bases, the establishment of the "Mawson" base
on the antarctic continent and its programme in 1954,
and of the organization of the governing body of these
enterprises, the Antarctic Division of the Department
of External Affairs, and of its advisory committees.
-F.L.

3113. New Zealand Antarctica. Frank A. Simpson. New
Zealand Geographer, pp. 1-24, April 1954.
A brief survey of the Ross Dependency, administered
for the British Commonwealth under the authority of
the Governor-General by the Government of N.Z., com-
prising: the main geological and geographical features,
very briefly the natural life, the economic resources of
which for the time being only whaling is of any impor-
tance, the history of exploration and the international
situation. The survey ends with a plea for more active
N.Z. interest in "N.Z. Antarctica."-F.L.

HISTORY
3114. Travers, B. H. The Captain-General: being a
Study of Lachlan Macquarie, Governor of New
South Wales, 1809-i821. Shakespeare Head Press,
Sydney, 1953, pp. 295. Price 2is.
This book, originally written as an Oxford thesis and
later revised in Australia, traverses again the obvious
aspects of Macquarie's governorship, without adding
anything to the fuller and better documented work of
M. H. Ellis on the same subject.


3115. Bassett, Marnie. The Hentys: an Australian
colonial tapestry. Oxford University Press, Lon-
don, 1954, pp. 578. Price 3 3s.
A very detailed account, compiled largely from family
papers and letters, of the fortunes and misfortunes of the
family of Thomas Henty, farmer and banker of Sussex,
who between 1829 and 1850 settled successively in W.A.,
Tasmania and Victoria.

3116. Forsyth, I. He came from Ireland: the life story
of the Rev. Samuel Forsyth, O.B.E. Advertiser
Printing Office, Adelaide, 1952. pp. 123. Price 20s.
A biography, by his widow, of the Rev. S. Forsyth, who
arrived in South Australia in 1901, was ordained to the
Methodist ministry in 1912, and became a leader in
social work and founder of the Kuitpo Colony for Un-
employed Single Men (1930).

3117. Brown, G. My Descent from Soapbox to Senate.
Co-operative Press, Brisbane, 1953. pp. 299. Price
20S.
Reminiscences of the lighter side of a political career
commencing in the International Socialist Party and
ending as President of the Senate.

3118. Catts, Dorothy M. James Howard Catts, M.H.R.:
with a foreword by W. M. Hughes. Ure Smith,
Sydney, 1953. pp. 241. Price 21s.
J. H .Catts was a pioneer of the Labour Party in
N.S.W., general secretary of the Railway and Tramway
Union from 1903-1913, and a member of the Federal
Parliament from 1906-1922, during part of which time
he was secretary to the Parliamentary Labor Party. He
was Director of Voluntary Recruiting in N.S.W., but was
one of the leaders of the opposition to conscription, Ex-
pelled from the party as a result of internal factionalism
in 1922, he devoted himself to building up a business in
publishing and printing. This biography by his widow,
rather elaborately produced and frankly eulogistic in
tone, throws some light on the outlook of the early
labour movement and on his side of the various con-
troversies in which he was engaged.

3119. Hartwell, R. M. The Economic Development of
Van Diemen's Land, 1820-1850. Melbourne Univer-
sity Press, 1954. pp. 273. Price 35s.
After an introductory section on the Tasmanian back-
ground, the author presents an extensive collection of
data from various sources under the headings "Land,
Capital and Labour" and "Commodities, Markets and
Finance." This material, much of it in the form of short
extracts, will be useful to students, though its value
is not always adequately appraised. The book concludes
with a discussion of the trade cycle as revealed in the
material studied and an analysis of the causes of the
depression of the 'forties.

3120. Palmer, Vance. The Legend of the Nineties. Mel-
bourne University Press, 1954. pp. 175. Price 25s.
The author, himself thoroughly steeped in the tradi-
tion, describes the emergence of the Australian "myth"
which, originating among the bush workers of the era
following the gold rushes, was crystallized by the
writers of the "Bulletin" school in the 'nineties, and
played a large part in the development of a national
self-consciousness.

3121. Holo, W. V. and Treweeke, A. H. The history of
the Women's College within the University of
Sydney. Angus and Robertson, 1953. pp. 212.
Price 17s. 6d.








The first part of this book deals with the background
from which the movement to establish the College arose,
and this is followed by its history under each of its
Principals. Official College records are drawn upon, and
emphasis is placed on the wider social and educational
context of the development of the College.

3122. David Syme and Elective Ministries. J. D. B.
Miller. Historical Studies, Australia and New
Zealand. pp. 1-15, November 1953.
An account of the movement for the replacement of
the Cabinet system by Elective Ministries which was
widely discussed between 189o and 1914. After an
analysis of Syme's views in his Representative Govern-
ment in England, the author attributes the support the
idea received from the Age, the Bulletin, the A.L.P. and
political reformers in the Federation Conventions and
elsewhere to widespread dissatisfaction with the in-
stability and factional nature of colonial politics.

3123. The Origins of the Probation System in Van
Diemen's Land. A. G. L. Shaw. Historical
Studies, Australia and New Zealand. pp. 16-28,
November 1953.
The author argues that the probation system of
convict discipline introduced in 1842 appeared at the
time to be a "normal and natural" development; its
failure was "due largely to circumstances which the
British government was not unduly foolish not to have
foreseen". He sees probation as an experiment arising
from dissatisfaction with the existing penal practices of
transportation with assignment, imprisonment in the
hulks and local prisons and the penitentiary experiment.
He reviews the contributions of the Molesworth Com-
mittee, the Home Office, Stanley, Montagu and Franklin
to formulating the new system.

3124. The British Parliament and Transportation in the
Eighteen Fifties. Margaret Kerr. Historical Stud-
ies, Australia and New Zealand, pp. 29-44, Nov-
ember 1953.
The 185o's brought a sharp decline in the practica-
bility and importance of transportation as a punishment
for crime in Britain. The author discusses the fluid role
of Parliament and its importance relative to other fac-
tors shaping policy and administration, including the
anti-transportation movements in the Australian colon-
ies. Attitudes to transportation are analysed in the con-
text of discussion of a wide range of opinions expressed
in Parliament on general problems of the nature of
crime and its efficacious punishment.

3125. Henry George and the Labour Split of 1891. F.
Picard. Historical Studies, Australia and New
Zealand, pp. 45-63, November 1953.
The free-trade and protection grouping was the cru-
cial one during the formation of the N.S.W. Labour
Party and the first few years of its existence. Adherents
of Henry George's theories, associated with opposition
to protection, unionism and socialism, were among the
best organized and most influential of the groups active
in the formation of the party. Their influence was great
enough in 1891 for Single Taxers to secure control of
the party executive, many of the branches and a solid
core of parliamentarians. They were the prime factor in
producing the first'open split in political Labour in
Australia.

3126. British-American Relations During the Spanish-
American War. R. G. Neale. Historical Studies,
Australia and New Zealand, pp. 72-89. November
1953-


The author is concerned with two problems. (i) An
exact definition of the role played by U.K. in the pro-
posals by the great powers for mediation in the Spanish-
American War. The conclusion is reached that the Ger-
man charges made in 1902 of British proposals in 1898
directed against the interests and policies of the U.S.
cannot be substantiated. Use has been made of corres-
pondence between Pauncefote and the Foreign Office
which was made available by the Records Office in x951.
(ii) Did Britain regard the Spanish-American War as an
occasion to use the U.S. in the Far East in the interests
of British as opposed to German and Russian influence
there? The author concludes that British policy was
not aimed specifically at drawing the U.S. into the Far
East.

3127. Economic Influences in the. "New Federation
Movement". A. W. Martin. Historical Studies,
Australia and New Zealand, pp. 64-71, November
1953.
Authors of articles in earlier issues of Historical
Studies concerned with the possible influence of eco-
nomic factors in the Australian federation movement
have largely concentrated on attitudes expressed in the
voting figures in the referenda of 1898-9. Mr Martin has
applied a similar method of inquiry to the "New Federa-
tion Movement" which suddenly appeared in N.S.W. in
1893. Analysis of the structure of the Central Federation
League suggests well-defined economic groups. The
problems of general recovery from the depression, of
restoring Australian credit abroad, and of freeing inter-
colonial trade apparently affected some or all of these
groups and might well have predisposed them in favour
of federation.

3128. The Annexation of the Northern Territory to
South Australia. R. Duncan. Historical Studies,
Australia and New Zealand, pp. 135-49, May
1954.
The criticism that S.A.'s concentration on the tropical
part of her dependency was inconsistent with the argu-
ments she had put forward when demanding the annexa-
tion of the Territory is unwarranted. The expectations of
considerable stocking with sheep in the north, of the
development of large-scale tropical agriculture and of
important trade with the East, were strongly held before
annexation. The serious criticism of the S.A. arguments
is that they ignored much of the evidence previously
assembled about the north by the British settlements and
the Australian explorers.

3129. The Pastoral Industry in the Northern Territory
during the period of Commonwealth Administra-
tion, 1911-53. F. G. G. Rose. Historical Studies,
Australia and New Zealand, pp. 150-72, May 1954.
The broad Commonwealth policy was to encourage
pastoral settlement by legislative measures, but to in-
vest as little capital as possible in developmental work.
Objectively this policy encouraged the financially strong
pastoral companies, but the government did not set out
deliberately to discourage the small man. The latter was
deterred by material conditions not government policy,
except in so far as the unwillingness to undertake large-
scale capital investment ensured the continuance of the
material conditions. Appended tables show the distribu-
tion of leasehold pastoral land from 1887 and the cattle
population and the area used for pastoral purposes from
I880.

3130. The Victorian Legislative Council, 1856-1950.
Geoffrey Serle. Historical Studies, Ausrtalia and
New Zealand, pp. 186-203, May 1954.








This is an outline history of the Victorian Legislative
Council which, after examining the intentions of the
:onstitution-makers, describes the development of its
powers, its influence on legislation and the attempts made
to reform it. The appendix includes a summary of
legislation affecting the Council's constitution, statistical
material on elections and an analysis of its composition.

3131. University Studies in History and Economics.
(Perth), edited by J. D. Legge, May 1953. Price
2S. 6d.
(a) The Present State of Research in Western Aus-
tralian History. F. H. Crowley. pp. 7-20.
(b) Alexander Forrest. G. C. Bolton, pp. 21-78.
(c) The British Contribution to the Australian Popu-
lation, 1860-1919. F. H. Crowley, pp. 55-88.
(a) The article includes a discussion of the contribu-
tions made by scholars working both within and out-
side the universities, a list of completed university
theses, a summary of research in progress, an indication
of promising fields of future research, and a note on
the resources available.
(b) Concentration on Lord Forrest as the central
figure in W.A. history has led to neglect of his brother
who was at least as good a bushman and explorer, a
most important financier and significant politician in his
own right. Omitting purely biographical detail, the
author discusses Alexander Forrest's early work as sur-
veyor and explorer, his contribution to the pastoral
development of the north, his connection with the Land
Grant railways, his parliamentary career as the repre-
sentative of the Kimberley district, and his place in the
protection movement in W.A.
(c) In a close study of British immigration the pat-
tern in each state is established and also in the whole
of Australia. The author analyses the policies of the
governments and other organizations, the objectives,
theories and practical interests which shaped these
policies, and the actual records of the various bodies.
The contemporary arguments for and against immigra-
tion and the motives of the immigrants are discussed as
well as the effect of the immigration on Australian
development.
Tables show total immigration, and government immi-
gration, from U.K. each year, 1860-1919, with a break-
down for states.


LAW

(A) Constitutional Law

3132. Section 92: A Problem Piece. Lord Wright of
Durley. Sydney Law Review, pp. 145-73. January
1954.
A plea for a complete reconsideration of the meaning
and scope of sec. 92 of the Australian Constitution. The
author has, as a member of the Judicial Committee of
the Privy Council, played an important part himself in
the formulation of the principles which the courts today
observe in applying the section. He now suggests as his
central argument that the courts, including the Judicial
Committee, have been wrong in not limiting the scope
of sec. 92 to the prohibition of fiscal burdens. Another
important question is the validity of the distinction often
made between enactments which regulate and those
which prohibit. While amendment by referendum may
still be desirable, the courts should not shirk the duty
of correcting a mistaken approach to the section, even
though that approach has been repeated in a number
of decisions of the highest authority.


(B) International

3133. Pre-war Commercial Transactions with Germany
and Japan. D. P. O'Connell. Australian Law
Journal, pp. 504-11, December 1953.
The writer points out that because no formal peace
treaty has yet been concluded with Germany, pre-war
transactions with that country are to be considered in
the light of the Commonwealth Trading with the
Enemy Act 1939 and common law. Transactions with
Japan are covered by common law as modified by the
Treaty of Peace (Japan) Act 1952 which adopts the
Treaty of Peace with Japan and the Protocol to it. The
article considers the inter-relation of statute and common
law in some of the many difficulties which can arise
concerning pre-war transactions.

(C) Criminal Law

3134. The Humanitarian Theory of Punishment. C. S.
Lewis. Res Judicatae, pp. 224-30, June 1953.
The Humanitarian Theory of Punishment-A
Reply. N. Morris and D. Buckle.Res Judicatae, pp.
231-7, June 1953.
C. S. Lewis attacks the humanitarian theory of pun-
ishment by pointing out the anomalies and dangers of
eliminating from punishment the concept of "just
desert". Such a theory, carried to its logical conclusion,
could put vast powers in the hands of bad rulers or
"omnipotent moral busybodies". "It is essential to op-
pose the humanitarian theory of punishment, root and
branch, whenever we encounter it."
In their reply Dr Morris and Dr Buckle show that
the theory can be linked with a just consideration of the
interest of both society and the criminal, and that a
return to a retributive theory of punishment is out of the
question. While criminal law must protect the com-
munity, the fundamental humanity of the criminal
must never be forgotten. The flexibility of punishment
under the humanitarian theory must also be limited by
our lack of knowledge of the reasons for, and future
likelihood of, criminal conduct in a particular person,
and by the community's expectation of some reflection
of the nature of the crime in the punishment awarded.

(D) General

3135. Lawyers' Law and Politicians' Law. G. H. L. Frid-
man. Australian Quarterly, pp. 64-70, March 1954.
The tremendous body of law in the modern welfare
state tends to produce many social law breakers who are
not in any real sense criminals and who feel no moral
guilt. It also produces disparaging and contemptuous
criticism of the law. The danger is that these circum-
stances will lead to the weakening of the foundations of
morality and good conduct on which the law and
society are based. This new body of law the writer calls
"politicians' law" as distinct from the older "lawyers'
law", which was based on the community's accepted
principles of morality. The article points out the dan-
gers that can arise if these two types of law are not
properly reconciled in the minds of both lawyers and
laymen.

3136. A Survey of the Law of Arbitiation. J. H. Luxford.
The Accountants' Journal (N.Z.), pp. 362-79, June
1953-
This is a short but comprehensive review of the com-
mon method of settling disputes, particularly those of
a business nature, without recourse to the courts of law.
The article is designed as a guide to those who may be








called on to conduct such arbitrations, and considers the
many difficulties that may arise.

(E) Legal Education

3137. An Australian School of Law. G. Sawer. Annual
Law Review, Perth, pp. 483-9, December 1953.
The author considers the practicability and advisa-
bility of the law department at the Australian National
University becoming the nucleus of a graduate school
of legal studies. A number of factors, particularly
available funds, dictate that the department's role for
the present should be a modest one. The limited dif-
ferences in substantive law from State to State tend to
limit the usefulness of the National University in the
foreseeable future to research by the staff and a limited
number of students, particularly to research which con-
nects law and the other social sciences. Apart from this
it would be merely overlapping facilities provided by the
various state universities. Professor Sawer suggests the
exchange of post-graduate students between state law
schools which might then tend to specialize in particu-
lar avenues of research.

(F) Legal History

3138. Antecedents of Modern Company Legislation.
L. C. Voumard. Australian Accountancy Student,
pp. 1-7, March 1954.
This article is the fourth of a series. It deals with
the requirements of accounts and audit in the second
half of the i9th century, and in particular with the
doubts then felt as to the wisdom of compulsory pub-
lication of balance sheets.


PHILOSOPHY

3139. Argument from Chances. Q. B. Gibson. Aus-
tralian Journal of Philosophy, pp. 170-83, Decem-
ber 1953.
The main conclusions are: (i) that in arguing from
chances we should, when possible, find general rules
stating high chances; (2) that we cannot derive specific
rules of chance from general ones; (3) that our belief
that we can depends on a confusion between estimating
evidence in support of our conclusions, and establishing
rules of chance.

3140. An Agnostic's Reflections on Reinhold Niebuhr.
Kenneth Rivett. Australian Quarterly, pp.. 79-87,
December 1953.
The writer discusses the theme that the best that
"moral" man can do in "immoral society" is to insist
on justice. He applauds Niebuhr's perceptiveness ("he
has done more than any one thinker to make intelligible
to modern man the great psychological insights which
have been connected with religious belief"), and re-
grets only his conviction that it cannot be shared by
others than Christians.

3141. "But Suppose Everyone Did the Same." A. K.
Stout. Australasian Journal of Philosophy, pp. I-
29, May 1954.
The moral test for an action "Can it be universalized?"
re-interpreted in accordance with "ideal utilitarianism".

3142. Economics and Moral Judgments. R. H. Barback.
Australasian Journal of Philosophy, pp. 30-47,
May 1954.


Economics is a science not expressing moral judg-
ments, though economic conclusions are often relevant
to moral judgments, and moral assumptions about ends
to be attained may provoke the questions about the use
of resources which economists have to answer.

PSYCHOLOGY

3143. Chronic Extinction of Conditioned Vaso-Motor
Responses in Man. P. J. Liversey and R. L. Kirk.
Australian Journal of Psychology, pp. 133-45,
December 1953.
A method of rapidly conditioning vaso-motor and
sudorific activity in adult human subjects to the sound
of a buzzer is described. Five male and two female sub-
jects were given a series of preconditioning, conditioning
and postconditioning sessions spread over periods up to 33
weeks. The vaso-motor response was conditioned strongly
in five subjects and weakly in two. Skin resistance re-
sponse was conditioned readily in all subjects. The
strength of the vaso-motor response steadily declined
after the last conditioning session, becoming weakened
or completely extinguished after 3-20 weeks. These
results are compared with those obtained by other
workers and the importance of continued work in this
field is indicated.

3144. Imagery and Thinking. P. E. Barratt. Australian
Journal of Psychology, pp. 154-64, December 1953.
This study attempts to relate quality of performance
on spatial tests with ratings of the extent, use and
facility of visual imagery. A group of 23 tests were
administered to 40-60 undergraduates, and three vari-
ables arising from a factor analysis of the results were
used to group a selection of these tests administered to
18o schoolboys. The imagery ratings used were not self-
ratings, but ratings of tests. The upper quartile on these
ratings was then compared with the lower quartile for
score-performance on each of the tests in the cluster.
"The results indicate that those who rated the spatial
manipulation tests high obtained higher test scores on
the average on these tests." The differences were signifi-
cant, unlike those on the spatial reasoning and spatial-
recognition factor tests.- "The tentative conclusion is
that imagery as determined by rating-behaviours is
related to success on some types of spatial tasks but not
on others."

3145. A Critique of Hull's Behaviour Systems. E.
Howarth. Australian Journal of Psychology, pp.
165-76, December 1953.
Hull's behaviour systems were criticized as to the
inadequacy of their physiological assumptions in S-R
terms. There was considerable uncertainty in the system
which the mathematical over-elaboration did not dis-
guise.The crucial formulae, in Postulate 4 of the 1943
system and in Postulate ix of the 1949 system were ex-
amined in some detail and the latter was referred to
as an "apple pie" formula. It was generally stated that
"unless the physiological bases of behavioral phen-
omena are known, theorems . are merely formulated
in vacuo." The body of the article consists of an
extensive series of short critical remarks about Hull's
postulates, each treated individually, with added
emphasis on the postulates quoted.

3146. Melbourne Test 90. Paul Lafitte. Australian
Journal of Psychology. Monograph Supplement
No. i, pp. 107, May 1954.
The monograph describes the construction of a work-
sample test of academic aptitude at matriculation and








university levels, which requires the consecutive argu-
ment of a case about a mass of data and not merely
the selection of right answers to short questions. The
validation of the test for matriculation and university
examinations is described. The test, the only one of its
kind, is considerably more efficient in predicting per-
formance in these examinations than are any tests of the
conventional type, or any combinations of tests and
earlier examination results. Detailed instructions for the
use of the test are given, together with a description of
the marking keys, etc., that are required by the tester.
There is no necessary relation between the selection of
isolated facts and the consecutive argument of a case.
The arguments appropriate for different matriculation
subjects differ from one another and also from university
performances both in the kinds of facts selected and in
the literary or logical development of the argument. The
possibilities of further investigations of the nature of
academic performance are briefly discussed.


3147. Aptitude Tests for Women Packers. A. J. Wynd-
ham. Personal Practice Bulletin, pp. 30-5, March
1954-
In a study of female packers at Johnson and Johnson
Pty. Ltd., four tests of manual dexterity were adminis-
tered to 64 operatives. Test results were correlated with
scores on a rating criterion. The Spinning Board test
(which, it was decided, could be used alone for prediction
purposes) and the Turning sub-test of the Minnesota
Rate of Manipulation Test, showed high correlations
with the measures of success. Calculation of multiple
correlation coefficients from combinations of tests led to
only a slight improvement in their predictive value.
Records of all applicants tested are being kept for a
later follow-up study.


3148. Status Ranking of Occupations in New Zealand.
A. A. Congalton and R. J. Havighurst. Australian
Journal of Psychology, pp. io-15, June 1954.
The aim of the investigation was to devise an occupa-
tional classification which would be more satisfactory
than those already in use in N.Z. The procedure was to
ask respondents to rank 116 occupations on a seven point
scale, the occupations chosen being chiefly those having
i,ooo or more members. The results are said to supersede
a previous ranking of 30 occupations. A table is included
giving ratings with medium scores, the occupations be-
ing broken up into seven 'functional categories." The
subjects for this study were 73 university students.


3149. Hedonic Tone and Memory. W. A. McElroy.
Australian Journal of Psychology, pp. 30-8,
June 1954.
This paper represents an attempt to formulate some
ideas concerning the psychoanalytic theory of repression.
Attention is given particularly to the views advanced
by Rosenzweig in his interpretation of the phenomenon,
and especially in his attempts to relate his interpretation
to experimental situations. Many criticisms are advanced
of the viewpoint that a conscious threat to self-esteem in
a consciously conative task is a necessary condition for
a situation to be regarded as one in which repression
may be expected to occur more than in other situations.
The chief criticism of Rosenzweig's position concerns
the possible neglect in appreciation of unconscious
motivation in mental life. The author points to the for-
getting of sensory perceptions as likely to involve repres-
sion. The paper also contains a discussion of hedonic
tone in relation to psychoanalytic theory.


3150. The Object Sorting Test and Conceptual Thinking
in Schizophrenia. S. H. Lovibond. Australian
Journal of Psychology, pp. 52-70, June 1954.
A theory of the physiological processes underlying
schizophrenic thinking disturbances is outlined and
a system of analysing responses to the Object Sorting
Test is developed. A comparison is made between
Sorting Test performance and an independent clinical
assessment of thinking disturbance in 32 schizophrenic
patients. The clinical usefulness of the Object Sorting
Test is discussed and experimental tests of hypotheses
deriving from the proposed theory of schizophrenic
thinking disturbances are suggested.

3151. A Note on the Limitations of Externalism. E.
Howarth. Australian Journal of Psychology,
pp. 76-84, June 1954.
The external approach to behaviour, unsupported
by the findings of other sciences, was criticized. Several
examples were given of internal changes which might
be profitably studied in some typical test situations
used by animal psychologists, and some suggestions
were made concerning the operations of underlying
mechanisms in behaviour.

TERRITORIES AND NATIVE
PROBLEMS

3152. Elkin, A. P. Social Anthropology in Melanesia.
A Review of Research. Oxford University Press,
1953 (under auspices of South Pacific Commis-
sion), pp. xiii, 166.
In Part I of this volume 'Types of Ethnographical
Record and Research up to 1950" three "types"- ex-
plorers and travellers; missionaries administrators and
settlers; anthropologists-and outstanding personalities
in these groups are mentioned. Part II "Survey of An-
thropological Knowledge of the Region with Suggestions
for Research Projects" deals with Dutch New Guinea,
Papua, the Trust Territory of New Guinea (incl. Bis-
marck Archipelago), British Solomon Islands, New
Hebrides, New Caledonia and the Loyalty Islands. In
Part III "Principles of a Plan of Anthropological
Research in Melanesia, related to Native Welfare and
Development" "functional" approach is contrasted with
the earlier stage of "collection of data approach".
Functionalism began with B. Malinowski-in fact it was
inaugurated by R. Thurnwald (1916). Part III presents
many important suggestions, such as the "Delayed return
project", i.e., to carry out further research in area where
functional research was done in pre-war years to compare
present conditions with earlier ones and to seek causes
for changes. Each chapter is followed by a bibliography.
Prof. Reche's standard work on the Sepik river district
"Der Kaiserin Augusta-Fluss" has been omitted.

3153. Keesing, F. M. Social Anthropology in Polynesia.
A Review of Research. Oxford Uuniversity Press,
1953 (under auspices of South Pacific Commission),
pp. x, 122.
This book is "a summary of the work done to date
in the field of Polynesian social anthropology, particu-
larly as relevant to the programme and purposes of the
South Pacific Commission, and an estimate of further
research needs and priorities". The four principal
chapters discuss economic, social development, health,
research needs and possibilities. A section deals with
native arts and crafts (pp. 20ff.). There it is stated that
some of the old-time hand-crafts have become obsolete
with culture-contacts, others surprisingly survive in their
full traditional setting or in a modified form. A directly







commercial approach "appears to have a high priority in
view of the basic need for diversifying production and
stabilizing and expanding money-income". Some govern-
ments have instituted hand-craft training schemes.

3154. Aborigines Welfare Board, New South Wales
Reports (O.P.) for Year ended 30/6/1951 and for
Year ended 30/6/1953, pp. 12 and 19. Government
Printer, Sydney, 1953 and 1954.
No full-blooded member of the board could be ap-
pointed because no nomination was received. In the
provision of adequate housing, which is particularly
important for gradual assimilation, the earlier report
records some progress concerning the aborigines living
on stations and reserves, but the second report mentions
that the housing programme had to be curbed because
of the limited amount from the Commonwealth Loan
account, so that only 30 cottages on two stations could
be completed. Most of the aborigines live in hovels under
very poor conditions. As to social benefits t al eei he aborigines
on stations are excluded from age, invalid and widows'
pensions, but receive all other benefits. The second report
contains detailed accounts of the conditions on the 20
board-maintained stations.

3155. Fiji: Colony in Transition. R. Gatty, South
Pacific, pp. 720-7, Vol. 7, No. 6, pp. 720-7.
This article deals with the plural society problems of
Fiji. In 1949 47% of the population were Indians, 44%
Fijians, 2% Europeans and 2% Euronesians. The Euro-
peans are mainly in administrative positions, few are
planters or traders. Indians came first as indented plan-
tation labourers, after .192o indenture contracts were
cancelled and most Indians took to small business or
peasant farming. The government protects native-held
land from indiscriminate sale and sponsors a hierarchy
of chieftains, nevertheless 22% of the Fijians lived away
from their villages in 1946 (5% in I921). The government
encourages Fijians to enter commercial agriculture, but
progress is slow, largely because of the native habit to
"requisition" from a neighbour things they need. The
main Indian grievance is land tenure, as 84% of the
total area is owned by Fijians, and the problem of
Indian money-lenders. There is now a io-year develop-
ment programme (1949-58) in operation.

3156. Pidgin English. (a) Pidgin English in New Guinea.
A. French. Australian Quarterly, pp. 57-60, Vol.
xxv, pp. 57-60, December 1953.
The author demonstrates that Pidgin English is not
an independent language in its own right, neither an
organized and coherent attempt at simplification like
Esperanto, nor has it the natural development of a true
language. It originates in the faulty attempts of non-
English speakers to imitate sounds they hear and the
satisfaction of the English-speaker with a reproduction
of his own language, however crude, which provides a
minimum of understanding. A new crude tortuous form
of grammar replaces the standard grammar. The employ-
ment of a smaller range of words does not imply a
simpler form of speech. With equal numbers of words
pidgin phrases can be expressed in correct English. The
time spent in learning a whole system of pidgin could
be better spent in learning normal English. The printing
of newspapers, books and school primers in pidgin is
described as shocking.
(b) The Problem of Pidgin in the Trust Territory of New
Guinea. Camilla H. Wedgwood. South Pacific, Vol.
7, No. 8, pp. 782-9. January-February 1954.
This paper refers solely to Pidgin spoken in the Trust
Territory. There are differences between Melanesian and


"Papuan" languages which widely differ from each
other. New Guinea Pidgin was used already under
German rule. When Europeans came into regular con-
tact with natives as traders, planters and Government
officials, some medium of communication was necessary.
Except the missionaries, the newcomers did not want to
learn any local language. In the coastal areas natives
from many regions, speaking different languages, were
brought together as plantation labourers--or as com-
panions in jail. They also needed a medium of communi-
cation, Pidgin was chosen and developed for this purpose.
New Guinea Pidgin is not merely an extremely primi-
tive and corrupt form of English, but developed organi-
cally as a new language; its structure is basically, its
phonetic system entirely Melanesian, the vocabulary is
very polyglot, consisting of English, German, Samoan
and various local dialects. "There are probably few
Europeans who do not deplore the use of Pidgin", but
they recognizee that it is today the common language
of the people of the Territory and believe that this fact
must be accepted and that the best use of it should be
made for educational purposes."

3157. The Rice Problem in New Guinea 0 H. K. Spate.
South Pacific, pp. 731-6, Vol. 7, No. 6, November-
December 1953.
Rice production in New Guinea is hampered by labour
shortage. The available labour force is 90,000, of whom
50,000 are actually employed. To recruit more adult
males away from the villages would have bad social
effects. Normally the current N.G. demand for rice is
provided by the N.S.W. Riverina surplus, but this is
not always sufficient, and alternative supplies from
S.E. Asia are hard to find. Physically N.G. could supply
more than her own requirements of rice. The technical
difficulties of rice growing in the Sepik river district and
the necessity for improved irrigation are discussed. The
natives would rather grow upland (dry) rice which could
be fitted into the traditional scheme of shifting cultiva-
tion, than swamp rice which would demand an agrarian
revolution. The most publicized scheme, the Mekeo
scheme, the Amele and Dagua projects are discussed.

3158. The Mentality of Native People in Papua and
New Guinea. G. T. Roscoe. South Pacific, Vol. 7,
No. 8, pp. 789-94, January-February 1954.
Understanding the native mentality is essential to the
success of the work carried out by a few thousand Aus-
tralians for the benefit of the natives and vital for Aus-
tralian security. The author gives a brief survey of
anthropological research in N.G., starting with F. E.
Williams and B. Malinowski. The only systematic
psychological research so far attempted was done by the
Cambridge University Expedition to Torres Strait
(190o), when psychological tests were carried out by
Rivers, McDougall, Myers and S. G. Seligman. Intelli-
gence tests were "tried out" later on a small scale by
W. C. Groves and T. Inglis, but results have not been
published. Last year a proposal for a research project
"The Adaptation of Techniques of Educational Evalua-
tion to the Problems of the South Pacific area" was
submitted to the South Pacific Commission by its
Research Council, but not accepted because of the lack
of an organization to undertake the work. The cdeter-
mination of racial differences in intelligence by "objec-
tive" tests is "very difficult", but the SPC should author-
ize "a project for the adaptation and standardization of
tests of attainment and educable capacity in the island
territories", the National University, Canberra, should
establish research fellowships in psychology to work in
Papua and N.G.




.;. ... .


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Mothbm of the Social Science Research Coundl of AiWraUa

ALEXA NDEP,,F,, Professor of FEstor y, University of Western Australia
ARNDT, 11 M7., Professor of Economics, Canberra University College.
BALL, W. MamalT Prol, of ence, University of Melbourne
f ', =Sci
T. P P essor
BEASLEY, y of Western AustzgW
BORRIE, W. D, Reader in Demography, Australlgu National Unive"Ity,
Canberra
and Professor of Economic ffistory, Canberra Uni-
BURTON* 11 Principal
varsity College
AUTLIN, S. Professor of Economics, University of Sydney
CLARY, I-L, Professor of History, Canberra University College
CONLON, Or A. A., Erin Street, Richmond, Victoria
overnor, Commonwealth Bank of Australia, Sydney
'.COP AND, Excellency Sit 0ouglas, Australfan High Coramissioner to
Can dzi Ottawa.
COWEN, Z, Professor of Public Law,. University of Melbourne
CRAWFORD, R. M, Professor of Mstory, University of Melbourne
CUNNINGUAK:Dr. K S, Director, Australian Council for Educational
Research, Melbourne
ty, ban Prof7sor of Pacific
DAM ON 'Estory, Australian National Uni-
ELKIN, ,! P., Professor of Anthropol% Universit of Sydney
FIRTn G., Professor of Economics, University of, asmania
FITZGEtuUM, CL -P., Professor of Far Eastern Wistory, Australian National
Uni'veni Cazd)C=
G SON, %lyce, Professor of Philosoft ., University of Melbourne
GIFFORD, J. K., Professor of Economics, niversity of Queensland
GREENWOOD, G., Professor of FEstor Um' ity of Queensland
HASLUM The Hom P., Minister for-Lanal Territories, Parliainmt How,
Canberra,
HOGBIN, Dr. 111., Reader in Anthro I University of Sydney
HYTTEN,: Profes oo Wyllversity of Tasmania
sor T., Vice-Chancel] r, n,
KARIML, P. FL, Professor Of Economics, University of Adelaide
LA NAUZE, J. A., Professor of Economic lEstory, University of Melbourne:
McRAE, C. R., Professor of Education, University of Sydne
MAUIbON, F. R. E., Professor of Economics, I t= Australia
mELVIL1,E, Mr. L, Vice-Chancellor, Australian National University, Cau-,
bara (Chalrman)_
NADEL, S. F., Professor of Anthropology and Sociology, Australian National
University, Canberra
O'BRIEN, Archbishop Eris, P.O. Box 197, Goulbtwn, N.S.W.
OESER, 0.. A, Pro"or of P chology, University of Melbourne
OINEEL, W. M., Professor of 71ychology, University of Sydney
PARJ'RIDGE, P. fL, Professor of Social Philosophy, Australian National
University, Canberra
PATON, Professor G. W, Vice-Chancellor, University of Melbourne
PMT, W., Profesipr of Economics, University of NUIbourne
ROBERTS,- Profssor S. H., Vice-Chancellor, U it f 8 d
gn
SAWER, Q, Professor of Law, Australian NELt= 9.1011 eL bara
SCHONELL, F. J., Professor of Education, Uni t of Queensland
lyexs111Syd...
SHATWELL, K. 0, Professor of Law, Univ r8ityy o
SPATE, 0.-H. K, Professor of Pcography, Australian National University,
d", Canberra
STONEj J., Professor of Law, University of Sydney
sop atvasliq of Sydney
STOUT, A. K-, Professor of Moral Philo h U
SWAN, T. W., Professor of Economics, u tralian Iatlong University,
Canberra
WALKER, K. F., Professor of Psycholoay, University of Western Australia
WARD, J. IVL, Professor of EUstory, U vasity of Sydney
WV=WOOD, Hon. C., Senior 1,ecturer in Native Education, Australian
School of Pacific Administration, Mosman, Sydney
WEIITE, Mr. H. L., Commonwealth Librarian, National Library, Canberra
WILSON, Dr. RoWd, Secretw-y to the Commolawealth Treasury, Canberra
WWGHT, R. D, Professor of.Physiology, University of Melborne

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