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Title: Australian social sciences abstracts
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Title: Australian social sciences abstracts
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Publication Date: November 1953
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Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1-18; Mar. 1946-Nov. 1954.
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page 457
        Page 458
    Front Matter
        Page 459
        Page 460
    Main
        Page 461
        Page 462
        Page 463
        Page 464
        Page 465
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        Page 475
        Page 476
        Page 477
        Page 478
        Page 479
        Page 480
        Page 481
    List of unpublished theses in the social sciences
        Page 482
        Page 483
    Back Matter
        Page 484
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text
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AUSTRALIAN


SOCIAL SCIENCE


ABSTRACTS


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November, 1953


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:IAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL OF AUSTRALIA

Registered in Australia for transmission by post as a periodical


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AUSTRALIAN SOCIAL SCIENCE 'ABSTRACTS


EDITORIAL COMMITTEE
Dr. K. S. Cunningham (Chairman)
Professor R. M. Crawford, Professor O. A. Oeser, Professor W. Prest,
Mr. H. L. White
GENERAL EDITOR
Dr. F. Schnierer, Faculty of Economics and Commerce, University,
Carlton, N.3, Melbourne, Victoria
HONORARY ABSTRACTORS
AccouNwANcy-Mr. L. Goldberg and Miss J. Kerr
AGRICULTURE AND RURAL PROBLEMs-Professor S. M. Wadham and Miss L. C.
Delanev
ECONOMICS-Assoc. Professor O. de R. Foenander, Dr. F. Schnierer and Mr.
R. J. A. Harper
EnucATroN-Dr. K. S. Cunningham
GEooGRAPHY-Messrs. E. J. Donath and D. W. Fryer, Dr. F. Loewe
Hisroav-Professor R. M. Crawford, Dr. A. C. Serle, Messrs. R. F. Ericksen and
L. F. Fitzhardinge, Mrs. D. Shineberg
LAw-Dr. R, N. Morris
PHILosoPHY-Assoc. Professor D. A. T. Asking
POLITICAL SCIENCE-Professor W. Macmahon Ball, Messrs. C. L. Burns, A. F.
Davies, D. S. Sissons and H. A. Wolfsohn
PsycHotocY-Professor O. A. Ocser, Mr. P. van Sommers
TERRITORIES AND NATIVE PROBLEfMs-Dr. L. Adam
All communications should be addressed to the General Editor
Subscription: 7s. 6d. per annum post free in Australian currency; 6s. sterling
within the Sterling area; $1.50 outside the Sterling area.


CONTENTS


Economics-
Economics and Economic Policy
Industry, Trade and Commerce-
(a) General Works
(b) Individual Industries
Monetary Policy, Banking, Insurance
Public Finance
Accountancy.
Transport and Communications
Labour and Industrial Relations
Agriculture, Land and Rural Problems
Political Science-
Government and Politics
International Relations
Social Conditions-
Housing
Social Security and Public Health
Social Surveys
Population and Migration
Education
Geography
History
Law
Philosofl.
Psychology
Territories and Native Problems


250S
.. .. 2517
... 2528
2539
2547
2553
.. . . . 25o2
2562
2576

2600
26o3


2604
2605

2606
2610
2619
2629
2643
2653
2655
..2665


Australian Public Affairs Information Service, or A.P.A.I.S., indexes books,
magazine articles and government documents on Australian political, economic
and social affairs. It is published monthly by the Commonwealth National
Library, and will be sent free upon request to the Librarian.








AUSTRALIAN


SOCIAL SCIENCE


ABSTRACTS








The SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL OF AUSTRAmIA was
established in 1952 to extend the scope and functions of
the former Committee for Research in the Social Sciences
of the Australian National Research Council.
The scope of the Council's work includes the sociological
aspects of anthropology, economics, education, history,
human geography, jurisprudence, medicine, philosophy,
political science, psychology, public administration and
statistics.




*


SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL OF AUSTRALIA











The general objectives of the Social Science Research Council of Australia


The present Council was brought into existence at a
meeting of the Social Science Research Committee held
in Sydney in August 1952. The earlier body had been a
committee of the Australian National Research Council,
and it had been felt for some time that there was a grow-
ing need for an independent organization representative
of the Social Sciences in general. The case for the
creation of a new body was strengthened by the pro-
posals for the establishment of an Academy of Science,
representing the Physical Sciences, and also independent
of the Australian National Research Council.
Consequently the suggestion for an independent
Council representing the Social Sciences was discussed
with the A.N.R.C. and received their blessing, and the
new Council was formally launched during the
A.N.Z.A.A.S. Conference in 1952.
The general objects of the new Council are contained
in the preamble to the Constitution which was published
in N. 14 of Social Science Abstracts. Elaborating upon
these, it may be said that the new Council is concerned
to encourage a more balanced development of the Social
Sciences in Australia, particularly in relation to research.
The view was expressed at the inaugural meeting of
the Council that the Council should attempt both to
initiate research in fields which have hitherto largely
been neglected in Australia and help to bring to fruition
and publication research of high quality already known
to be under way.
It was realized from the outset that even modest assist-
ance of this kind on a national basis would require sub-
stantial funds. When the Council was formed it had
at its disposal only the subscriptions levied upon each
member. These slender finances were supplemented by
the generous action of the A.N.R.C. in making available
the sum of 50 previously paid to the old Committee,
and a further grant of ioo was also given by
A.N.Z.A.A.S. But these funds were only sufficient
to meet running expenses, and largely through the
efforts of the Council's first Chairman, Sir Douglas
Copland, an approach was made to both the Com-
monwealth Government and the Carnegie Corporation
for funds which would be sufficient to establish an
adequate administrative organization; to lay aside reas-


unable sums for such matters as subsidies to learned
journals and in this way to expand opportunities for
publication of high quality research; to secure sums
for subventions to research projects and for assisting
publication of completed research results.
The Council is now in the happy position of being
able to state that the monies sought from both these
sources have been granted. The Commonwealth Gov-
ernment has agreed to provide the Council with the
sum of 3,500 a year for three years, while the Carnegie
Corporation has provided a grant of a similar annual
amount for five years.
At a meeting of the Council held in Sydney on 13
August 1953, proposals concerning the use of the grant
from the Carnegie Corporation were decided upon, and
notices have been circulated throughout all universities
and other interested bodies calling for applications for
research projects for consideration by the Research
Committee of the Council. These notices are avail-
able to those who may wish to see them from the
Registrars of the various universities in Australia,
as well as from members of the Council. In general
the Council hopes, with this Carnegie grant, to assist
three or four major research projects each year.
At the general meeting of the Council to be held in
conjunction with the A.N.Z.A.A.S. Conference in Can-
berra on 16 January decisions will be taken concern-
ing the use to which the funds from the Commonwealth
Government should be put and details of these decisions
will be circularized at a later date.
Finally, the Council wishes to place on record its deep
appreciation of the generous assistance which has been
afforded to the advancement of the Social Sciences in
Australia by the action of both the Commonwealth
Government and the Carnegie Corporation. Although
the present Council has only been in existence for
approximately 18 months, it is now in the fortunate
position of being able to give effect to some of the
objectives which had long been the subject of dis-
cussion by the earlier Social Science Research Committee,
and it has been largely due to the plans laid by that
Committee that the Council now finds itself in such
a fortunate position.-W.D.B.











AUSTRALIAN SOCIAL SCIENCE ABSTRACTS

A publication of the Social Science Research Council of Australia.
All communications should be addressed to the Editor, Faculty of Economics
and Commerce, University of Melbourne, Carlton, N.3, Victoria, Australia.


November 1953


7s. 6d. or $i.5o per annum


ABSTRACTS

Where the size of a Government publication or Parliamentary Paper (P.P.) is not given, it is 8 ins. x 131 ins.


ECONOMICS
(A) Economics and Economic Policy
2501. Authority and Control in a Free Society. Sir
Douglas Copland. Presidential Address.
A.N.Z.A.A.S Meeting, Sydney, August 1952.
Report of 29th A.N.Z.A.A.S. Meeting, pp. 1-24.
Social science lays more stress on values than on
things. The Keynesian doctrine of full employment has
been largely exaggerated. Through social control over
capitalism the standard of living has much advanced,
but there is a basic conflict between authority and in-
itiative. An enormously increasing proportion of gross
product now goes to the government. A way out is the
devolution of authority in government enterprise to
statutory corporations, but with many limitations.
Nationalization of industry has not done away with
class hostility. 'Big government' means clumsy and
slow moving administration and a powerful bureau-
cracy. The quest for security is rather incompatible
with progress. The social scientist has to find a degree
of control and authority compatible with freedom.
2502. The Future of Private Enterprise. W. Prest.
Presidential Address. Section G of A.N.Z.A.A.S.
Meeting, Sydney, August 1952. Report of 29th
A.N.Z.A.A.S. Meeting, pp. 167-176.
Coercive planning in Australia is politically and con-
stitutionally impossible, as the defeat of several refer-
enda since 1944 and court decisions about nationalisation
of airlines and banking have proved. In the 1930's it was
public ownership, not central planning which was
characteristic of socialism. The war showed the pos-
sibility of co-existence of coercive planning with private
ownership. At present there is much private planning
by firms and households. A significant change is that
our economic system is now underwritten by the Com-
monwealth with the aim of social security and full em-
ployment. This largely involves central planning through
taxation. Not much has been done in Australia to com-
bat monopolistic practices except competition of Com-
monwealth-owned undertakings with privately owned
ones (Commonwealth Bank, T.A.A.).
2503. Capitalism: Then and Now! I.P.A. Review, pp.
69-75, July-September 1953.
Nineteenth century capitalism was marked by ex-
treme inequalities in possessions and incomes, low
wages and long hours of work, due to low productivity
because of undeveloped technology and inefficient capi-
tal equipment. By now the gross inequalities have been


erased, working conditions are immeasurably better,
annual leave and social services universal. The number
of capitalists was small in the I9th century, now owner-
ship and control are dispersed, in Australia one person
in 7 engaged in industry owns public company shares.
Business is subject to many legal restrictions, the indus-
trial and political power of the workers has risen, there
is collective bargaining and the Australian Arbitration
Court. Democratic governments have assumed respon-
sibility for full employment and social security.

2504. A Kinked Demand Curve for Monopolistic Com-
petition. R. Hieser. Economic Record, pp. 19-34,
May 1953.
In a discussion of various studies on monopoly price
(E. H. Chamberlin, N. Kaldor, R. Triffin) and of the
concepts of 'large numbers' and 'group of firms' the
author develops the coefficients Xij, i.e., cross elas-
ticity of substitution of firm i with respect to the price
of firm j = Xij; the cross elasticity of numbers, and N
(numbers coefficient) = Xij/xji. With the help of these
concepts he defines an independent seller and pure com-
petition as limiting cases, and finally oligopoly. He dis-
tinguishes the elasticity of demand of firm i in respect
of a cut in price and of a rise in price. In the case of
independent selling a smooth demand curve emerges, in
the 'large group' case a kinked demand curve. This
kinked demand curve is different from that of R. H.
Hall and C. J. Hitch and that of C. W. Efroymson.
The price determines the curve, as it fixes the point of
the kink.

2505. Consumer Credit in Australia, 1945-1951. H. W
Arndt and P. S. Shrapnel. Economic Record, pp.
35-50, May 1953.
An estimate of medium-term consumer credit (6-36
months). The authors largely depended on extrapolation
of a wartime Commonwealth Board of Inquiry into
hire purchase and cash orders for 1938-40 and on pub-
lished balance sheets of public companies. Calculations
and tables are presented regarding hire purchase-
mainly financed by public and private finance com-
panies and firms and by retailers. A breakdown is shown
into wholesale and retail, producer goods, passenger
cars (business and private) and other consumer goods-;
for cash orders whose relative importance compared with
other forms of consumer credit is declining; for cash
loans granted by banks and life insurance offices. Further
sections deal with personal incomes, retail sales and
consumer credit; repayments; sources of funds of hire
purchase finance companies.


No. 16








2506. A Note on Some Marginalist and Other Explana-
tions of Full Cost Price Theory. K. Laffer. Eco-
nomic Record, pp. 51-62, May 1953.
An investigation of the compatibility of full cost
price theory, as described by P. W. S. Andrews ('Manu-
facturing Business', 1949) with marginal theory.
Andrews' short-period cancelling out of irregularities
cannot be reconciled with F. Machlup's marginal ex-
planation of the equation of short-run marginal revenue
and marginal cost at the beginning of a season nor
with the equation of price and marginal cost within a
season. The long-run elasticity of demand approach of
Andrews and of E. Chamberlin is also incompatible.
Particularly different is Andrews regarding the 'large
group' analysis and the treatment of knowledge. In the
theory of oligopoly Chamberlin's treatment differs from
Andrews mainly concerning the fear of entry. Equally
incompatible is the full price model with marginalism
from the point of view of habit, inertia and uncertainty
and finally of profits maximization (Machlup).

2507. Averaging Unit Costs. Sheila Rowley. Economic
Record, pp. 95-oo00, May 1953.
The author is concerned with unit costs of farm pro-
ducts. She mentions various drawbacks of the normally
used weighted arithmetic mean which in most dis-
tribution of unit costs is less than both the arithmetic
mean and the median. Transformation to normalize
data is discussed and the geometric mean, as 'back-
transform' from normal distribution is in log-normal
population samples identical with the median.

2508. The Origins of Economy. A Study in the History
of Words and Ideas. K. Singer. Paper read to Sec-
tion G of A.N.Z.A.A.S. meeting, Sydney, August
1953, pp. 19 roneoedd).
An etymological analysis of the origin of the terms
'economy' and 'economize' and their equivalents in other
languages. The English terms have an ancient Greek
origin, 'oikonomia' meaning the management of prop-
erty of the 'oikos' (household, estate). Kindred terms
in old English are husbandry, in German 'Wirt' and
'Wirtschaft'. Other equivalents are discussed in Iranian,
Polish, Hebrew, Japanese and Chinese. 'Nomos' origin-
ally does not mean law in Greek but allotting of shares
in pastures. The lecturer sets forth the gradual change of
'oikonomia' from household economy to management of
an estate and later of the state. The study concludes
with an analysis of the meaning of 'Economic' to
Quesnay.
2509. The Theory of General Interdependence and its
Application to the Australian Environment.
Burgess Cameron. Paper read to Section G of the
A.N.Z.A.A.S. Sydney Meeting, August 1952, pp.
20 roneoedd).
This paper tries to set up a working model of the pro-
ductive system to ascertain the equilibrium levels of
output and prices under the assumption that the pro-
duction function of an industry is invariant as to the
size of the constituent firms. Table I presents a summary
statement of transactions in a past annual period, e.g.,
so many fs' value of coke sold to sheet iron goods, to
bar steel. Recorded data used in the model are the
factor supply, firm's production, consumer demand func-
tions, the necessary maximum, normal profit, intersector
conditions, cost equation, similarity assumption. The
first model set up assumes that there is a choice only
as to the quantity of factors used in any plant, then
the model is generalized by dropping some of the
restrictive assumptions. The Leontief model with addi-
tional simplifying assumptions is compared with the
lecturer's model.


2510. The Income Approach and the Monetary Ap-
proach to the Explanation of Changes in Price
Levels, National Income, Output and Employ-
ment. J. K. Gifford. Paper Read to Section G of
A.N.Z.A.A.S. Sydney Meeting, August 1952, pp.
13 roneoedd).
A discussion of the Keynesian saving-investment in-
come approach with its over-emphasis on functional
relations. Interest is not purely monetary, but also
influenced by the willingness to save and to invest and
to be explained by a causal demand-supply analysis.
Mistakes in monetary theorising are: to neglect money
and to assume that changes in the prices of factors
would secure their full use; to exaggerate the influence
of open-market policy; Hayek's doctrine that to spend
money on consumption goods industries would only
make the depression of production goods industries
worse; to exaggerate the importance of extra govern-
ment investment; to consider the effect of extra invest-
ment only through the multiplier; to regard public
investment through deficit finance as merely invest-
ment theory and not also as monetary policy; to separate
the theory of economic fluctuations entirely from mone-
tary theory. The 1950-51 Australian inflation might
have been stemmed by monetary means, the freeing
of the exchange rate.
2511. Recent Economic Changes in the Commonwealth.
C. G. F. Simkin. Paper presented to Section G of
Sydney A.N.Z.A.A.S. meeting, August 1952.
A comparison of pre-war and post-war conditions in
the British Commonwealth as a whole and in its
various parts. It starts with population and agricultural
production in 1937 and 1948. Food output increased
more rapidly than population only in U.K., Canada
and South Africa. In mineral production the most
conspicuous feature is the large expansion in coal pro-
duction in South Africa and of tin production in Malaya.
Manufacturing output rose by 30% in the Common-
wealth, lagging far behind U.S.A. and Russia. The
composition of this output is examined. A larger part of
trade is now conducted between the various Common-
wealth countries than with the rest of the world. A
separate section is concerned with the sterling area, the
Dollar problem, foreign investments, especially the
Colombo plan. In conclusion the weakening of the
economic links between Canada and the other Com-
monwealth countries and the favourable terms of trade
for primary industries are stressed.
2512. The Estimation of Regional Income. F. R. E.
Mauldon and A. M. Kerr. Paper presented to
Section G of A.N.Z.A.A.S. meeting, Sydney,
August 1952, pp. II roneoedd).
Regional income estimates have the purpose to be
used in theory (e.g., location and space economy), in
public policy and in entrepreneurial decision-making.
Examples of such studies undertaken in U.K. and U.S.A.
are given. In Australia such estimates have been under-
taken by states, particularly regarding Tasmania, W.A.
and Queensland, utilizing published figures for the
whole of Australia and allocating them between states,
making independent estimates for each state or combin-
ing both methods. The difficulties involved are discussed
in detail. In conclusion estimates by Australian regions
other than states and their peculiar difficulties are
examined.

2513. United States' Foreign Economic Policies. H. D.
Black. Paper read to Section G of A.N.Z.A.A.S.
Sydney Meeting, August 1952, pp. o1 roneoedd).
There are important shifts in U.S. external economic
relations owing to four recent changes: A movement







from isolationism to full participation in international
affairs; changes in the great power oligarchy; changes
in U.S. attitude towards state and economic life; U.S.
needs for particular imports, largely from under-
developed countries (rubber, copper), and for markets
abroad. Small fluctuations in U.S. output and employ-
ment may seriously affect the income of the non-
American world. The cold war largely influences U.S.
foreign economic policies. Their necessity, aims and
objects are increasingly clearly understood in U.S. The
Korean war and rearmament had a large impact on the
administrative machinery for carrying out the policies
of extensive development.


2514. Sweden and Australia. An Economic Comparison.
E. Lindahl. Address to Economic Society, Sydney,
31 October 1952. Trade Review of the Swedish
Chamber of Commerce for Australia, N.Z and
the South Sea Islands, pp. 16-21, January 1953.
Sweden is handicapped regarding climate and natural
resources, but has more experience in engineering, ship-
building and other manufactures, also works longer
hours, so that the living standard is fairly high. Labour
is ruling Sweden, but there is a balance of power with
other interests. Public finance in Sweden is more re-
distributive than anywhere else, taxation rates are
higher than in Australia and social benefits are exten-
sive. Pulp paper and timber play a part like wool in
Australia, their export prices rose very much in 1951
and declined in 1952. The excess of investment over
normal voluntary saving and wage rises causing price
rises are inflationary factors in both countries. The
Economic Research Institute in Sweden has great in-
fluence on economic policies, a similar procedure would
be advisable in Australia.

2515. Full Employment of Economic Resources. Bulle-
tin, Reserve Bank of New Zealand, I., pp. 51-53,
April 1953; II, pp. 67-69, May '953; III, pp. 83-84,
June 1953; IV, V, pp. 99-103, July 1953; VI, VII,
pp. 117-120, August 1953; VIII, IX, X, pp. 131-137,
September 1953; XI, XII, pp. 151-155, October
'953.
The measurement of the standard of living and the
ways how to raise it, are set forth, mainly by raising
productivity. 'A brief survey of N.Z.'s natural resources'
(Part II) deals with the land and its use-only 6 m.
acres are good pasture. Part III describes N.Z.'s capital
assets. On these land has the first claim, but manufac-
ture and services require increasing investment. Part
IV examines the labour force including immigration,
age composition, quality of labour. Part V stresses the
connection of full employment with high demand and
the answers to an U.N. questionnaire on the meaning of
full employment. Part VI is concerned with alternative
use of scarce resources: allocation, wasteful use of
resources, etc. Part VII: 'Consumers' savings' contains
sections on standards of consumption, inflation, ration-
ing, taxation, etc.
Subject of Part VIII is savings in N.Z.: personal,
business and government savings. Part IX 'the capital
market in N.Z.' explains the supply of funds to this
market and the borrowers in this market. Part X deals
with total capital expenditure, anticyclical government
expenditure, direct and indirect controls. Part XI ana-
lyses the effect of interest rates on saving and invest-
ment, controls over investment, arguments against
higher interest rates, etc. Part XII: 'External borrow-
ing and Commonwealth development' examines argu-
ments for and against overseas borrowing and the
sources of funds, mainly U.K. and U.S.


2516. Social Grading of Occupations in New Zealand.
A. A. Congalton. British Journal of Sociology.
London, pp. 45-59, March 1953.
After a study of the social grading of occupations in
England by J. Hull and D. C. Jones had been pub-
lished in the same journal, March 1950, a similar inves-
tigation was carried out first among 135 students of
psychology in N.Z., then as a trial in Wellington with
73 respondents, and finally in two small N.Z. towns,
Cartertown (rural) and Feilding, the former by means
of personal interview of 351 persons, the latter by postal
survey in which 391 replies (1x, 56%) were received. As
in England 7 socio-economic classes with a slightly dif-
ferent terminology were chosen. In a table the median
judgment regarding 30 occupations, the first and third
quartile, as found in N.Z., was shown. As to the status
afforded the various occupations, there was a general
measure of agreement with the English study. To make
generalizations, further N.Z. research is needed.

(B) Industry, Trade and Commerce
(a) General Works
2517. The New Frontiers. A.N.Z. Quarterly Survey, pp.
4-9, July 1953.
Extensive land use in Australia was natural as long as
land was plentiful and cheap, labour and capital scarce
and dear. Now our population and the prices of our
primary products are rising, intensive cultivation be-
comes economic, i.e., heavy investment in machinery,
topdressing to improve pasture, improving transport and
power. Clearing with heavy tractors brings quicker
returns. Examples of the application of science and
mechanization are the A.M.P. scheme in the Ninety
Mile Desert and the development of a property round
Mingenew near Perth. About 300 m. acres of land could
in this way become potentially more productive and
further research might discover means to make good
deficiencies of the soil in northerly areas and also in
N.Z. Combating erosion, more irrigation, fodder con-
servation (silage) and the use of the buckrake are
further means of expanding cultivation.
2518. The Estimation of Farm Income. D. V. Young-
man. Paper read to Section G of A.N.Z.A.A.S.
Sydney Meeting, August 1952, pp. 25 roneoedd).
The lecturer's estimation is concerned with farm in-
come as component of national income. The paper is
mainly methodological, the figures given for 195o-51
are still incomplete, those for 1951-52 tentative. Six
possible definitions of farm income are discussed: in-
come produced by the farm sector; income accruing to
farm sector; income accruing to farm owners; income
accruing to farmers (not farm owning companies); cash
income received by farmers; non-wage personal exertion
income received by persons classified as farmers. Pro-
duction costs are dealt with in general and in relation
to wheat, other crops (cereals and hay, orchards and
vineyards, potatoes and other vegetables), dairying, live-
stock (sheep, beef cattle, pigs and poultry). The author
then examines labour, rent and interest, fodder, ferti-
lizer, depreciation, indirect taxes, company income,
marketing authorities, farm stocks. In conclusion tables
show gross value, costs and net value for post-war years.
2519. Expansion of Rural Production. I. A. Butler. Paper
read to Section G of A.N.Z.A.A.S. Meeting,
Sydney, August 1952, pp. 14 roneoedd).
Our population since 1939 has increased much more
than rural output. In most items of primary production
both the volume exported and the proportion of output
exported has fallen. The lecturer discusses changes in








natural resources, labour resources, material and mach-
inery, and financial resources. He then deals with the
motivations causing the farmers to organize available
resources to productive ends, the varying profitability
of farming generally and of different types of farming
which induce the farmer to give up farming altogether
or to switch to another type of production. Further
sections examine technical improvements, particularly
pasture improvement, and government policy. As to
the terms of trade he sees little evidence of any major
or lasting change for most of the rural products.

2520. Stabilization of Farm Incomes. Bulletin Reserve
Bank of New Zealand, pp. 37-38, March 1953; pp.
53-55, April 1953; pp. 68-70, May I953.
The desire for stability is natural, as 85% of N.Z.'s
export incomes come from primary produce. The volume
of produce exported from N.Z. is steadily rising and
fluctuating prices can have a severe impact on national
income and living standard. There are three stabiliza-
tion methods: the guaranteed price system, produce
sale by bulk contract, and sale under international
agreement covering prices and quantities. The history
of N.Z. meat and dairying market control in the inter-
war period, in the Great Depression, during and after
World War II is examined in some detail. The advan-
tages and disadvantages of bulk purchases to U.K. and
N.Z. are investigated. In conclusion the guaranteed
price system for butter and cheese, which started in
1936, the wartime use of stabilization accounts (1942
and later changes) and the wool retention scheme
(freezing 1/3 of the proceeds of wool sold at abnormally
high prices) are discussed.
2521. The Australian Mineral Industry 1952 Review.
Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geo-
physics, Melbourne, 1953, pp. 20o. Price 12s.
This review is arranged in three parts, just as the
1950 review, abstracted as No. 2092 in No. 13 of this
journal: a general survey of production, consumption,
overseas trade, employment, controls, etc.; a review of
individual minerals; and a general summary of the six
Australian states, the Northern Territory and the Terri-
tory of Papua-New Guinea. The London Metal Ex-
change again became a centre for trade in base metals.
At the end of 1952 the fall of overseas prices for lead
and zinc was significant. The quantity of Australian
production rose for the metals copper, lead, zinc and
tungsten, and for non-metals; asbestos, coal, mica,
pyrite and rutile.

2522. Gross Value of Regional Production. E. A.
Boulton. Economic News, pp. 1-3, June 1953.
An analysis of the distribution of various primary
industries and the total of manufacturing industries
over the 18 regions of Queensland. The highest values
are shown in various regions for total primary indus-
tries and separately for sugar, wheat, fruit, dairying,
pastoral production (wool and beef cattle); for mining
(gold, silver, lead, tin, copper and zinc, coal) for timber
and forestry, and for manufacturing.
2523. The Value of the Sea to Queensland. E. A. Boul-
ton. Economic News, pp. I, 4, September 1953.
About 7,500 workers in Queensland are engaged in
shipping services and stevedoring. The total production
of marine products in 1951-52 was valued at f2 m., of
which f518,600 was the value of fish. Of 7,000 fishermen
most were part-time fishermen and 60% had licences
only for recreational purposes. Some details are given
of pearlshell (Thursday Island) and trochus shell, and
of the recently established whaling and mineral sand
deposits industries. The state also owes to the sea income


from numerous tourists, for whom 4,000 workers are
catering.

2524. (a) New Zealand Agriculture, 1930-1950. K. B.
Cumberland. Geographical Review, Burlington,
Vermont, pp. 117-119, January 1953.
(b) Agricultural Expansion of Australia and New
Zealand. F. D. Gillies. Economic News, pp. 1-4,
March 1953.
In 1950 N.Z. had 90,192 farm holdings, 5-9% more than
in 1930, occupying an area of o-3% less than in 1930. The
number of persons working on farms had decreased by
7.5%, the average size of the holding had decreased.
Through better scientific cultivation and mechanization
N.Z. farm efficiency has much improved and N.Z. has
the highest annual output per farm worker in the world,
2,006 I.U., while Australia has 1329 I.U. In Australia
the total of farmworkers rose by 9-7% in these 20 years,
the number of holdings by 5-2%, the area occupied
decreased by 2%. In both countries area cultivated, area
irrigated, total farm population, plantation of timber
trees, total of livestock except horses, and machinery units
increased, total area occupied, areas of orchards and
field crops and total of horses decreased. Mechanization
per farm worker is roughly the same in both countries,
Australia could support double the present number of
farm workers, if farm machinery also doubled, without
extension of the acreage of the holdings.

2525. Australian Retail Trade. A.N.Z. Quarterly Sur-
vey, pp. 13-16, July 1953.
The total money value of retail sales in Australia
excluding motor vehicles has risen in each quarter from
the September quarter 1951 to the March quarter 1953,
but at a declining rate of increase. At the same time
the volume of retail sales has fallen, because retail
price indexes (C series) have risen more sharply than
total sales value. Figures for the department stores in
Melbourne and Sydney show that in Melbourne increases
of sales values were much smaller than in the whole of
Ausralia, those in Sydney actually fell. The reason is
that in the whole of Australia food and grocery sales
were a higher proportion of all sales, while in metro-
politan stores, softgoods and furniture prevail. Generally
rural incomes have recently risen more than metropoli-
tan incomes.

2526. Trading with Indonesia is Complex. M. W. Oak-
ley. Overseas Trading, pp. 11-15, July 1953.
As before the war flour is the chief export from Aus-
tralia to Indonesia. In 1951-52 the value of flour exported
was A2,807,ooo, of all other goods fI,172,ooo. Canned
meat, lead, milk products follow in values exported. In
flour exports we might in future have to compete with
Canada and U.S. There might be prospects to export
agricultural machinery, rolling stock, small ships, etc.
Among other matters dealt with are port conditions,
exporters' local representation, import control-there
is a 'free list', planned imports, 'Benteng' imports
(reserved to Indonesian importers). Another classification
is according to surcharges to the exchange rate ranging
from nil to 200%. The procedure to secure an import
license is very complicated.

2527. Agriculture and Reconstruction in South Korea.
T. H. Strong. Quarterly Review of Agricultural
Economics, pp. 97-100, July 1953.
South Korea has nearly 22 m. inhabitants living on
36,000 square miles, of which 75% are mountainous and
unsuitable for agriculture. In the N.E. only io% are
arable land, in the S.W. (main rice basin) 30%. 60-70%
of the population live on farms with an average size of








21 acres. There is little scope for farm mechanization.
75% of the arable land is bearing rice, often a second
crop is barley; leguminous crops, such as soy beans are
io%. There is small scale irrigation, but less than 50%
of the paddy land is fully irrigated. More than J of
Korea's industrial output comes from North Korea
(iron and steel, fertilizers, hydro-electricity). The task
of rehabilitation in South Korea is enormous, but not
hopeless.

(b) Individual Industries
2528. Pre-War Demand for Wool. (a) A Comment.
A. P. Zentler; (b) A Further Comment. J. Harris;
(c) Reply. F. B. Horner. Economic Record. (a)
pp. o11-1o3; (b) pp. 104-o16; (c) pp. 107-1II, May
1953.
These notes refer to an article by F. B. Horner in the
Economic Record, May 1952, abstracted as No. 2227
in No. 14, November 1952 of this journal. Zentler's com-
ments object to Dr. Horner that his equations tell noth-
ing about the factors which determine speculative
investment in stocks, that his demand function does
not even apply to mill consumption for the home market,
that no multiple correlation check on the final com-
prehensive equation can be used. Similar criticism is
raised by Harris who doubts the validity of the value
of manufacturers' price elasticity, as estimated by
Horner. Horner in his reply stresses that the usual
multiple correlation check cannot be applied because of
the deliberate omission of dynamic influences on de-
mand. That prices are meaningless unless relative
(Harris), is wrong. The equations arrived at are 'theo-
retical', but statistics of U.S. at least were close ap-
proximations to the required concepts.

2529. Woolgrowing and Fat Lamb Production. Trends
in Profitability from 1946-47 to 1951-52. H. G.
McConnell and E. L. Jenkins. Quarterly Review
of Agricultural Economics, pp. 114-118, July 1953.
Articles on three farms representing different types
of enterprise in the S.E. of S.A. appeared in the same
journal in January 1950 and July 1951. Since then in-
formation for the years 1950-51 and 1951-52 has become
available, so that the profitability of merino wool grow-
ing and fat lamb breeding over 6 years can be com-
pared. After an examination of the environment, the
pastures and the sheep husbandry this study deals with
the financial results. The rates of return to capital and
management are compared in two farms, a merino and
a fat lamb farm. There are no major differences in
capitalization, and the great differences in return be-
tween the two farms are due to the fact that 90% of
the returns on the merino farm come from the sale of
wool, but only 60% on the other farm. Wool prices,
however, have fluctuated far more widely than lamb
prices.
2530. Stocking Rates in the Berriquin and Wakool
Irrigation Districts. F. H. Gruen. Review of
Marketing and Agricultural Economics, pp. 113-
140, June 1953.
A survey of 82 farms, 32 in the Berriquin, 50 in the
Wakool irrigation districts in N.S.W., carried out in
late 1952. 74 of these farms produce fat lambs, 7 wool
and i beef and dairy cattle. Wheat, beef, cattle and
dairying are sidelines, in Wakool also rice. The most
frequent type bred is crossbred ewes. Stocking rates
were obtained rather than carrying capacity for the
three years 1949-50 to 1951-52 which had very good
seasonal conditions. The stocking rates are relatively
higher on smaller farms. One crossbred ewe plus lamb
were assumed as a unit, and the stocking rates per acre
were calculated for dry land, flood land, all irrigated


pastures, irrigated summer and winter pasture on tree-
less plains, inundated clays, red-brown earths in Wakool
and for the whole of Berriquin, separate according to
farm size. The method of estimating rates and their
interpretation is set forth in detail.
2531. Where is the Profit-Line on Wool? Trends, pp.
pp. 1-6, September 1953.
'Cost of production' of a bushel of wheat or of a Ib.
of butter is assessed as average cost, based on limited
samples. For wool the Rural Bank of N.S.W. has asked
15 of its country valuers to collect material from 5 types
of property in various parts of N.S.W., ranging from
800 sheep and io cattle on 600 acres to 4000 sheep and
60 cattle on 6000 acres, properties producing both wool
and fat lambs and those purchasing or breeding replace-
ment stock. The results of this collection and calcula-
tion of data (capital items, returns, costs including
owner's wage allowance and 5% interest on capital)
were of a very wide variety. The average capital invest-
ment per sheep was from i5/io/- to 25, with ranges
from 1o to 38. Average returns per sheep were from
3/9/- to 5/4/-, average cost of wool production per
lb. from 44-23d. to 57-53d.
2532. The Profit Line on Butter. Trends, pp. 12-16,
September 1953.
A short outline of the recent history of prices and
subsidies for butter is given. The guaranteed return to
butter producers, based on government subsidies, applies
only to home consumed butter + 20% of what is sold
on the home market, for export. For the balance of the
export the farmer has to be satisfied with the world
parity price which is at present below the 'average cost
of production' in Australia. A quick adaptation of out-
put to this situation is impracticable under dairying in-
dustry conditions. The author is against restrictions in
the production of margarine which is made from coco-
nut oil of New Guinea origin. Processing of milk to
products other than butter and increased efficiency of
dairying is suggested.
2533. The Australian Dried Vine Fruits Industry.
Trends, pp. 1-4, June 1953.
In 1951-52 137,300 acres in Australia were under vines
producing 470,000 tons of grapes. There is some scope
for diverting grapes from drying to wine making. In
the near future 80-85,000 acres will be planting for
drying grapes with potential output of 120,000 tons of
dried vine fruits. The local consumption of dried vine
fruits declined in I952 because of higher prices and
some buyers' resistance. The contract purchase system
in U.K. will probably be discontinued in 1955, then
Australia's exports to U.K. will have to compete with
Greece, Turkey and U.S. Apart from U.K. major
markets for our exports are Canada and N.Z.
2534. An Economic and Cost Survey of the Copra In-
dustry in the Territory of Papua and New Guinea.
Bulletin No. 9, Bureau of Agricultural Economics,
1953, pp. VI, 70o.
A report on a survey carried out in 195i of the costs
of 28 larger plantations which voluntarily made their
accounts available. Its first part briefly describes the
industry, the second deals with production costs. After
a short discussion of the coconut palm, its habitat,
economic age and the preparation of copra, its drying
and storing, successive sections examine world produc-
tion and trade, its importance in the Territory's econ-
omy, the origin and growth of the industry. Figures
are given for the acreage, production, price and exports
of copra from 1909 to 1950-51, the size of plantations,
capital investment and age of palms. The effects of the
war, post-war marketing, and the future of the industry
are analysed.








The costs of production are discussed, divided into
cash cost items: direct plantation costs (native labour,
i.e. recruiting and repatriation, rations-the biggest
item-native wages, medical, salaries, expendable equip-
ment, internal transport, insurance, repairs and main-
tenance, etc.) administration, delivery; and non-cash
costs: depreciation of palms, depreciation of plant, of
buildings, interest on capital.

2535. Kenaf-Properties of Fibre Produced in Aus-
tralian Territories. W. L. Greenhill. Textile
Journal of Australasia, pp. 444-446, 462-463, June
1953.
Processed kenaf yields a fibre similar to jute whose
supply is now short. The Plant Fibre Section of the
C.S.I.R. has made experiments with kenaf grown in
Papua, New Guinea, Queensland and the Northern
Territory. Unlike jute kenaf can be processed by
decortication without retting. Yields per acre both of
decorticated and retted fibre rise with decreasing row
space and increasing sowing rates. Fibre properties are
discussed-physical, chemical, spinning, knot efficiency
and resistance to fungal attacks. Retted kenaf is a satis-
factory substitute to much of the raw jute now im-
ported to Australia, decorticated kenaf is suitable only
for heavy yarns as used for woolpack cloth and sacking.
2536. Town Gas from Brown Coal. National Develop-
ment, pp. 30-35, June 1953.
Situated at Morwell in the Latrobe Valley 90 miles
east of Melbourne, the project is planned to commence
in 1956 producing gas from brown coal sending it by
high pressure pipeline to the metropolis at the rate of
4,380 million cubic feet a year-or about half Mel-
bourne's present consumption. Its estimated cost at this
stage is 6 million. This article indicates the reasons
for the project being established and gives some in-
formation on the technical processes to be used.
-R. J. A. H.
2537. Superphosphate, Sulphur and Pyrites. Trends, pp.
7-11, September 1953.
Because of the phosphorous deficiency of Australian
soils phosphatic fertilizers comprise 94% of total com-
mercial fertilizers in Australia (40% elsewhere). On our
wheatlands and pastures we use about i-7m. tons of
superphosphate p.a.; 1-6 m. tons were manufactured in
Australia in 1951-52.
Of 383,000 tons of sulphuric acid, made locally in
that year, 130,000 tons were produced from elemental
sulphur or brimstone, mainly imported from U.S.A.,
and 271,ooo tons from locally made pyrites, zinc con-
centrates and spent oxide. In using pyrites concentrates
which contain 48% sulphur, heavy freights and handling
costs are involved. After a tariff board enquiry (1952),
the board recommended a maximum bounty of 6oo,ooo
to the sulphuric acid industry when brimstone imports
should become a threat.
2538. Synthetics v. Natural Fibres. P. Farrago. Aus-
tralian Quarterly, pp. 40-52, September 1953.
There were three drastic changes in the history of
textile fibres: the invention of the cotton gin in the
18th century, the manufacture of rayon starting in 1884,
the invention of nylon in 1938. Nylon was the first
entirely man-made fibre. The development of nylon,
orlon, dacron (terylene in England), vicara, and rayon
as substitute for wool is briefly sketched. This is fol-
lowed by an outline of recent wool research. The
C.S.I.R.O. has made progress in shrink proofing and
moth proofing wool, new methods of recovering wool-
wax and of fellmongery, etc. Tables provide informa-
tion on qualities, limitations, chief uses, etc. of various
synthetic and semi-synthetic materials.


(C) Monetary Policy, Banking, Insurance

2539. Butlin, S. J. Foundation of the Australian Mone-
tary System, 1788-1851. Melbourne University
Press, 1953, pp. 727. Price 57s. 6d.
Beginning with the arrangements for Phillip's first
fleet this book traces, not merely for N.S.W. but for
all Australian colonies, the development of local cur-
rency expedients designed to overcome the shortage of
coin. The growth of private and savings banking, and
the later establishment of British banks in Australia is
followed to the stage where refinements of foreign
exchange policy may be discussed. The development of
the financial system of the Australian colonies is de-
picted against the background of social and political
life of the day. Much valuable and additional informa-
tion is provided on the emergence of the government
treasury organization; the functioning of the commis-
sariat; the growth and changing forms of external
trade; and on the beginnings of joint-stock enterprise
in general. An especially valuable feature is the appen-
dix in banking statistics and the meticulous and
copious footnotes.-R. J. A. H.

2540. Sayers, R. S. Banking in the British Common-
wealth. Oxford University Press, 1952, pp.xviii,
485. Price 35s.
A collection of essays by various authors on banking
in all British Dominions, in Ireland, in the Colonial
Empire, and finally an analysis of the Sterling area. The
first study by J. S. G. Wilson is concerned with the Aus-
tralian Trading Banks (pp. 1-38). After a brief history
of these banks, the author deals with the business of
trading banks, foreign exchange, floating of loans,
branch banking, the attempt to nationalize the banks.
The second study by the same author, "The Common-
wealth Bank of Australia" (pp. 39-99) discusses its
foundation in 191i, its operations in the First World
War, the establishment of a Board of Directors in 1924,
its experiences in the Great Depression and in World
War II, the Banking Act of i945. Successive sections
deal with loan policy and interest rates, wartime control
of the trading banks, exchange control.
A further study by C. G. F. Simkin examines 'Bank-
ing in New Zealand' (pp. 320-352), divided into: Early
currency difficulties, 1840-1870 credit policy, 1870-95,
the Sterling exchange standard, 1895-1935, the Reserve
Bank, the trading banks, monetary controls and mone-
tary policy.

2541. Australia Inflation or Deflation? G. R. Moun-
tain. Paper presented to Section G of A.N.Z.A.A.S.
Meeting, Sydney, August 1952, pp. 22 roneoedd),
4 charts, 7 tables.
The lecturer attempts to measure the net inflationary
pressures in Australia since 1938-39 up to 1950-51. In-
come-generating forces possibly causing inflation are
gross private investment, government deficit and surplus
on current a/c in the overseas balance of payments.
From the sum of these three factors planned savings
(assumed to form a constant proportion of gross private
income of 17-5%) are deducted to work out the net in-
flationary pressures. The second step is to measure the
degree of inflation based on the volume of money and
the supply of goods and services. The third step is an
estimate of latent inflation, engendered by wartime and
post-war controls. By 1950-51 latent inflation had be-
come active. In 1951-52 there was already a deflationary
trend. Rising wages costs as 'self-propelling effect' are
a feature peculiar to Australia. It would have been ad-
visable to render our latent inflation 'innocuous' by early
abolition of price controls after the war.








2542. The Balance of Payments of the Sterling Area.
D. G. Badger. Paper read to A.N.Z.A.A.S. Sydney
meeting, August 1952, pp. 16 roneoedd).
An analysis of balance of payment figures in 1938
and in the years from 1946-51 of U.K., the rest of the
Sterling area and individual countries comprising that
area. For the post-war period surpluses and deficits are
pointed out by areas (Stg. area, $ area, O.E.E.C. and
others). The financing of the $ deficits (by U.S. and
Canadian credits, E.R.P. aid, gold and $ reserves, etc.) is
investigated for every quarter up to June 1952. Further
points considered are the reasons of the major crises in
1947, 1949 and 1951, the transactions causing the de-
ficits, major $ earners, Stg. area exports of wool and
rubber to $ areas, the financing of U.K. surpluses or
deficits in I.E.P.A. and E.P.U. countries, intra-Stg. area
transactions, Stg. balances of Stg. area countries in U.K.
and future prospects.

2543. Australian Monetary Policy. R. R. Hirst. Eco-
nomic Record, pp. 1-18, May 1953.
Interest rates affect the economy less than measures
to ration the supply of loanable funds. Since the early
World War II years the Special Accounts procedure
has developed; since late 1945 the Commonwealth Bank
has been able to require a commercial bank to hold any
increase in total assets since July 1945 as special ac-
count with the Commonwealth Bank. Central Bank
loans to commercial banks have greatly increased in
the last five years. To influence the direction of growth
of the economy qualitative measures are applied; this
selective credit control wants to limit bank advances to
fluctuating working capital of enterprises, while the new
issues market is to provide for other purposes. In 1951-52
our monetary policy has averted a liquidity crisis like
that of 1930.

2544. The Purposes of the International Monetary Fund.
E. Lerdau. Economic Record, pp. 62-72, May 1953.
The three main purposes of the I.M.F.: exchange rate
stability, full employment at high national income
levels, and free multilateral trade and payments, are
largely incompatible. Under given trade restrictions a
stable rate of exchange with a movement towards full
employment will probably cause a deterioration of a
previously stable balance of payments, unless a country
has adequate international reserves or is supplied
with them by the Fund. However, the Fund could do
this only for non-structural disequilibria. Internal price
deflation (not income deflation) might be a way out. The
I.M.F.'s powers of enforcement: selling to members a
limited amount of foreign exchange, allowing a depre-
ciation of the currency up to io%, declaring certain
currencies scarce, are clearly insufficient. The Fund
should be able to force members to undertake mone-
tary deflation, as long as it did not affect the level of
employment.

2545. Overseas Development in Life Insurance. L. G.
Oxby. Actuarial Society of Australasia, 57th Ses-
sion, 1953, pp. 17-33.
Notes on the author's impressions during a visit to
U.S. and Canada in 1952. As to the U.S. pension busi-
ness, the paper deals with the competition between life
offices and private 'Trusteed' funds, with the great de-
velopment from 1940-1951 of group annuities, deposit
administration plans, and with equity pension funds
(variable annuities). Another subject discussed is mech-
anization of life offices, punched card methods, the
Calculating Punch (electronic or mechanic). This is fol-
lowed by a section on sub-standard insurance, i.e., in-
surance of greater risks due to higher than normal
mortality. Finally annuity tables are examined.


2546. Group Life Assurance and Pension Business.
J. B. Fletcher, pp. 37-47, Actuarial Society of
Australasia, 57th Session, 1953, pp. 37-47.
With Australian companies superannuation by means
of endowment assurance on a participating basis is
popular. It is different in U.K. and U.S. and also with
U.S. or U.K. created insurance companies in Australia.
The paper describes the general form of the contract
between insured and insurer, premium rate guarantees,
profit-sharing (not done in U.K. group pension policies),
acceptance of risks, extra risks, life insurance on with-
drawal, life insurance after retirement, permanent total
disablement. For pensions a single premium plan for
group annuities is universal in U.S., in U.K. the annual
premium is frequent. In connection with inflation de-
posit administration of pensions comes to the fore in
U.S.


(D) Public Finance

2547. Commonwealth Grants Commission, 2oth Report,
1953. Govt. Printer, Melbourne, pp. 113.
The total grants recommended by the Commission for
payment in 1953-54 were 6,1oo,ooo to S.A.; 7,800,000 to
W.A.; and 1,500,000 to Tasmania; totalling 15,400,0oo
compared with a total of 15,934,000 in the previous
year. Chapter II as usual deals with economic and
financial conditions in both claimant and non-claimant
states. Chapter III sets out the detailed claims of the
three claimant states. Chapter IV states the principles
and methods used by the Commission whilst Chapter
V shows the determination of grants recommended for
1953-54. Notwithstanding the changed form of Chapter
V there has been no change in the methods used by the
Commission.-R. J. A. H.

2548. Mr. Colin Clark on Taxable Capacity. H. W.
Arndt. Paper read to Section G of A.N.Z.A.A.S.
Sydney Meeting, August 1952, pp. 6 roneoedd).
In an article in Economic Journal, December 1945,
Colin Clark claimed that 'the critical limit of taxation
is about 25% of the national income'. Whenever taxa-
tion exceeds that limit, inflation is 'deliberately engi-
neered' to reduce the burden of taxation. The lecturer
tries to refute this argument which Clark mainly sup-
ports by the instances of France in 1922-26 and 1931-35
and U.K. in 1925-29, also of Belgium and Norway in the
inter-war years. In fact in these cases a rising level of
taxes was combined with deflation. Clark's figure of a
25% limit is also inconclusive, as shown by post-war
statistical data.

2549. Commonwealth-State Financial Relations. Bank
of New South Wales Review, pp. 3-6, May 1953.
The Federal Government has extended its scope tre-
mendously in the field of social services (referendum
of 1946) and in many other spheres including develop-
mental public works. Uniform taxation, introduced in
1942, has increased the financial powers of the Com-
monwealth and made the states dependent on Com-
monwealth grants. This brought about many frictions
between Commonwealth and states which want to ex-
pand public services and works without bearing any
financial responsibility. A redistribution of responsibili-
ties might be a solution so that health, education, land
settlement and supervision of public utilities, also the
local administration of social services and immigration
fall to the states. In this way Commonwealth income
tax could be reduced and some taxable capacity re
stored to the states.








2550. Revival of State Income Taxation Powers. C. G.
Wanstall. Chartered Accountant in Australia, pp.
167-186, September 1953.
Uniform taxes which have operated since 1942, are
incompatible with federalism, but the reintroduction of
state income taxation would create various problems.
Maintenance of a substantially uniform tax level in all
states-which did not exist before 1942-is essential.
To make up for disabilities of some states like Queens-
land direct grants to states were made under s. 96 of
the Constitution without recommendations of the
Grants Commission. The adoption of nearly uniform
assessment acts can be made in various ways. All states
should accept residence (not sources) as basis of tax
liability. This may lead to problems in the case of com-
pany tax, therefore this tax should be imposed at a
uniform rate, or the states should abstain from this
field. For maintenance of uniform assessment laws an
amendment of the Constitution might be needed. A
single assessing and collecting machinery is indispens-
able.
2551. The Territorial Source of Income for Purposes
of Taxation. K. C. Keown. Australian Accoun-
tancy Student, pp. 99-11o, July 1953.
A non-resident of Australia is assessable on income
derived from all sources in Australia (Section 25 of
Commonwealth Assessment Act). This concept of the
source of income is discussed: (a) Regarding income
arising from performance of personal services. Court
decisions vary on whether that means where the job is
done (normal case), where the contract is entered into.
or where the bulk of the money is paid. (b) Income
arising from the ownership of property, i.e., rent, in-
terest, dividends and royalties. (c) Income arising from
business operations. Of these there are two types; the
sale in Australia of imported goods, and operations
carried out partly in and partly out of Australia. Here
s. 38 to 43 of the Assessment Act make special pro-
visions, which are interpreted in some detail.
2552. Parliamentary Control of the Purse. F. A. Bland.
Australian Quarterly, pp. 43-52, June 1953.
A discussion of the likely influence of the Joint Com-
mittee of Public Accounts, re-constituted by Act of
1951. The Federal budget is 'largely a register of com-
mitment already entered into' and to that extent out-
side the control of Parliament. The rigidity of the party
system and the political philosophy of the socialists
has caused parliamentary control of expenditure to
break down. The Treasury in curbing spending is just
as strong as its ministerial head and depends on the
assistance of the Attorney-General and the Public
Service Board. The new Committee of Accounts 'can
only report on what has been done', it cannot question
Government policy. 'Supply', usually granted for the
first four months of the financial year, is apt to de-
prive parliamentary control of much of its scope, 'addi-
tional' and 'supplementary' estimates work in the same
way.

(E) Accountancy

2553. Brown, S. R. Costs and Prices, Law Book Com-
pany of Australasia, 1953, pp. 272. Price 30s.
This is a text which examines the relation between
costs, prices and volume of production. The first two
chapters indicate the approach of economists to the
relation between costs and prices and considers this
relation in the context of various pricing situations.
Fixed and variable costs, break-even analysis, differen-
tial cost analysis, and some factors affecting and pro-
moting operating efficiency are dealt with in the fol-


lowing chapters, and the work concludes with a dis-
cussion of budgeting and budgetary control.

2554. Presentation of Accounts for Publication. G. L.
Allard. Chartered Accountant in Australia, pp.
652-666, May 1953.
In recent years there has been a marked change in
the presentation of companies' published financial
statements. In this article, the author discusses the
extent of disclosure in annual balance sheets and ac-
companying statements and the emphasis which is be-
ing increasingly placed on consistency. Some of the
current discussions on accounting for price level changes
are also reviewed.

2555. University Education in Accounting and Manage-
ment.-The American and British Patterns. Mary
E. Murphy. Australian Accountant, pp. 277-280,
July 1953.
This article reviews the institutional set-up in the
U.S.A. and in Great Britain for professional education
in accountancy. A summary is presented of accounting
education in these countries in relation to graduate
and under-graduate study, and the current relationship
between university courses and the technical require-
ments for practitioners is indicated.
2556. Debatable Issues in Modern Accounting. Mary
E. Murphy. Chartered Accountant in Australia,
pp. 232-263, October 1953, pp. 299-326, November
1953.
This article reviews the present position of accounting
and considers such issues as the growth of govern-
mental influence, extensions of auditing procedure,
standards of independence and professional conduct,
management accounting, financial and budgetary con-
trol, experimentation with traditional statements, prob-
lems associated with changing economic and business
conditions, accounting terminology and accounting
research.

2557. The Retail Inventory Method of Stock Control.
H. G. Hay. The Accountants' Journal (N.Z.), pp.
2-7, August 1953.
This article briefly explains the theory of the retail
inventory method of stock control and also the depart-
mental and accounting procedure required. Unit stock
control, the buying budget and the internal stock
audit are also discussed.

(F) Transport and Communications

2558. Report of the Commissioner for Railways, Queens-
land, for year ended 30 June 1953, Govt Printer,
Brisbane, pp. 121.
The financial year closed with a deficit of f4,330,318
being 938,040 greater than that of the preceding year.
The gross earnings of 25.165,200 were the highest ever
recorded, but working expenses also reached the record
figure of 27,329.498 or 3,272,978 in excess of the
24,056,520 expended in 1951-52. Passenger traffic (both
suburban and country), parcels traffic and mails, goods
traffic and livestock traffic all showed increases over the
previous year. An increase in freights and fares to date
from I August 1953, is expected to yield an additional
revenue of approximately 2,5oo,ooo during 1953-54.
-R. J. A. H.
2559. New Zealand Railways Statement for Year ended
31 March 1953. Government Printer, Wellington,
1953, pp. 42. Price 2s.
The New Zealand Railways Commission assumed
office on I January 1953. Gross revenue in 1952-53 was








2660o8 m., gross expenditure 26-525 m., net surplus
83,000, compared with a net loss of i20o2 m. in the
preceding year. This did not cover the interest charges
of 3 123 m. In the North Island there was a net revenue,
in the South Island a net loss. The tonnage reached a
record of over io m. tons, so that the goods revenue rose
by 12-85% over the previous year, also owing to higher
freight rates since 16 October 1951. From 21 June 1953
rises in freight rates and fares are in operation which
will raise the revenue by about i m. In expenditure
the highest proportional increases are in coal and oil,
stores and materials. Diesel-electric main line traction
was inaugurated during the year.

2560. Fixing Charges for Carrying Goods by Road.
L. H. Atkinson and R. J. Polaschek. Accountants'
Journal (N.Z.), pp. 41-46, September 1953.
Since 1938 the licensing authorities in N.Z. took
steps to obtain agreement on rates between carriers and
transport users. From 1943-48 the Goods Service Charges
Tribunal decided on these charges, to be replaced in
1948 by the Transport Charges Committee and in 1950
the Commissioner of Transport. The decision of the
Commissioner is not given unless there is an agree-
ment between representative organizations of licensees
and road users. The method of rate fixation is set out
at some length based on time and mileage cost, load
carried, effective hours for which vehicles are employed,
road conditions, etc. For passenger fares in road trans-
port in N.Z. a similar study has been abstracted as
No. 2256 in No. 14 of this journal.
2561. Australian Commercial Aviation and the Airlines
Agreement of 1952, Victorian Fabian Society.
Research Paper No. 3, September 1953, pp. 13,
3 Tables roneoedd).
The introduction of this paper is a historical survey
of Australian aviation since the aerodynamic research
of L. Hargrave (i88o's and o9's), during the two world
wars and the inter-war period, stressing the limited
constitutional powers of the Commonwealth regarding
aviation and the International Civil Aviation Organiza-
tion. The attempt of the Labour Government to national-
ize the internal airlines and its failure owing to a
High Court decision, the post-war competition between
T.A.A. and A.N.A. and the Civil Aviation Agreement
of 1952 are examined. It is considered that aviation
shows the economic conditions for a natural monopoly
which should be a public monopoly, while the 1952
Agreement virtually creates a private monopoly. In
conclusion the future of the Civil Aviation Agreement
is discussed.

(G) Labour and Industrial Relations
2562. Strikes in Australia. D. W. Oxnam. Economic
Record, pp. 73-89, May 1953.
Despite the rise in the number of strikes since 1946
the number of working hours lost is falling. The number
of strikes as percentage of total wage and salary earners
in Australia is much higher than in U.S., U.K., Canada
and Sweden. A breakdown into industries shows the
rising share of strikes in mining (1946-50 80% of all
strikes), metal trades, waterfront, food drink, etc., rail-
ways and tramways. The duration of strikes is constantly
falling. The merely economic causes of strikes (wages
and hours) are a falling proportion, smaller than that
of strikes concerning the employment of certain classes
of workers and working conditions. Most important
among the methods of settlement is direct negotiation,
while arbitration accounts only for 11-5% (1946-50).
Economic losses through strikes are less serious than
through accidents, absenteeism, labour turnover, etc.


2563. Costs: Australia and Britain. R. G. Fry. Journal
of Industry, pp. 61-67, May 1953.
A comparison of pre-war and post-war labour costs
of a skilled fitter and an unskilled labourer in engineer-
ing in Birmingham and in Australia. From 1939 to
February 1953 the fitter's rate in U.K. increased by
68/4 (Australian currency), in Australia by 179/-, a lab-
ourer's rate by 66/4 and 166/-. Further comparisons are
made concerning hours, annual leave, paid public holi-
days, national insurance and sick leave including dura-
tion of the benefit. The wage costs of fitters per hour
were in February 1953 70-6% higher (in October 1939
30-6%) in Sydney than in Birmingham, those of lab-
ourers 66-9% (24-6%). Overtime premiums, weekly
earnings and adjustments of wages to cost of living are
other items compared.

2564. Australian Trade Unionism. Addresses delivered
at Australia's first Trade Union School at New-
port, 1952. Edited by J. D. B. Miller, M.E.Ec.
A prdcis of a series of addresses given by certain trade
union leaders and academic observers on the broad
subject of trade unionism.
2565. Trade Unions and the State. E. L. Wheelwright.
Australian Quarterly, pp. 26-36, June 1953.
A lecture given to the second Trade Union School at
Newport, N.S.W., in January 1953. We are now in transi-
tion to the phase of partnership and co-operation of
trade unions with the state. Full employment neces-
sitates much Government control of the economy. The
main function of trade unions is still protection and
improvement of their members' living standard. At pre-
sent this means using the strike weapon only as last re-
sort and paying attention to higher productivity, also
regular consultation of organized labour with employers
and Government. This consultation should be on the
national, the state and the industry level. Smaller unions
should be amalgamated, the unions should promote re-
search and unionists' education. Unionists should go
overseas to study union activities abroad.

2566. Compulsory Unionism. I.P.A. Review, pp. 78-84,
July-September 1953.
Australia is the most highly unionized country in the
world, but unionism is compulsory only in Queensland
where the compulsion does not affect employees under
Commonwealth awards and outside any award. Victoria
and N.S.W. contemplate the introduction of compulsion.
What the union leaders want, is extra revenue from
thousands of conscripted members. In N.S.W., W.A. and
for Commonwealth employees some preference of em-
ployment is given to unionists. To the existing trade
unionists' proportion for the whole of Australia (60%)
compulsion could only add another io%. Compulsory
unionism strikes at the roots of democracy and infringes
the Declaration of Human Rights signed in 1948, to
which Australia is a party.
2567. Labour Turnover. A Report on Current Research.
Department of Labour and National Service,
1952, pp. 18 roneoedd) + 12 graphs.
The Australian post-war labour shortage made labour
turnover an important problem. The Industrial Welfare
Division issued a booklet "Recording and Analysing
Labour Turnover in Industry" and in 1947 arranged
conferences on labour turnover. Starting in 1947 groups
of textile, industrial metals and machines, radio and
electrical and heavy industry (other than metals) firms
in N.S.W. and Victoria collected monthly labour turn-
over figures. A great number of statistics and reports on
labour turnover were published in the "Bulletin of
Industrial Psychology and Personnel Practice" (most








of them abstracted in this journal). Separate sections
of the report deal with the nature, the control, the
recording and analysing of labour turnover, its eco-
nomic consequences (effect on production, on costs, on
net profits), labour turnover statistics 1947-52 concern-
ing the four above-mentioned industrial groups.
2568. An Analysis of Sixty-Nine Superannuation
Schemes. A. C. Clarke. Bulletin of Industrial
Psychology and Personnel Practice, pp. 1-12,
March 1953.
Report on a survey, undertaken in 1952 by the De-
partment of Labour and National Service, of 69 schemes
in 62 firms, mostly manufacturing (the greatest number,
28, in the metal trades). The firms employed from under
1oo to over 2,000 employees. Only i scheme started
before 1935, 31 between 1945-49. 55 schemes provided for
a lump sum payment, 9 for pensions, 5 for an option
between both. Length of service, minimum and maxi-
mum age of entry, finance (contributory or not), age
of retirement, benefits to members leaving before retir-
ing age are examined. The age distribution of Aus-
tralian employees and age preference in recruitment to
firms with superannuation schemes are also dealt with.
2569. Management-Employee Committees Overseas.
W. J. Byrt and P. McDonnell. Bulletin of In-
dustrial Psychology and Personnel Practice, pp.
13-23, March 1953.
Interest in the development of these committees was
great during World Wars I and II, but largely waned
after both wars in U.K., U.S. and Canada. There are
works councils, joint production committees, works and
shop committees and special purpose (e.g. safety) com-
mittees. In English-speaking countries most committees
have advisory, not executive functions, and are mainly
regarded as "tools" to facilitate communications be-
tween management and employees. Except in the U.K.
nationalized industries the committees are not com-
pulsory in English-speaking countries, but they are in
many countries of Europe, Asia and South America.
The assessment of joint committees varies very much,
there is criticism both from the management's and the
workers' side.
2570. Joint Consultation-A Case Story, No. 4. M.
Kangan. Bulletin of Industrial Psychology and
Personnel Practice, pp. 3-12, June 1953.
This article describes a management-worker com-
mittee at a Melbourne factory of motor vehicles with
750 production workers. It is called shop committee,
consists of 3 management and 7 employees' representa-
tives and is mainly concerned with welfare problems,
placed before management by the employees. The fac-
tory has been founded by a British parent firm, the
manager with U.K. experience suggested a joint pro-
duction committee, but the Union rejected this and
proposed a shop committee of employees as a means
of contact between management and employees on wel-
fare issues. This shop committee started in 1947 and
met with executives. Since 1949 the personnel manager
attended shop committee meetings and was soon elected
permanent chairman. Since 1950 the company secretary
and the works manager also attended and made it a
joint committee.
2571. Personnel Cadet Scheme in the Commonwealth
Public Service. B. Bray. Bulletin of Industrial
Psychology and Personnel Practice, pp. 33-41,
March 1953.
After a short outline of the scope of personnel man-
agement in the Commonwealth public service the author
discusses the recruitment of cadets (upper limit 24 years)
and the educational standard required. Cadets are


selected by committees for each state on the basis of
job and study considerations and of relations with other
people. The four years' training course is described in
some detail: it is on the job-training with rotation be-
tween the head office and various branch offices of a
department, combined with a University course ending
with an arts, economics or commerce degree. There is
also optional Technical College training.
2572. Cadet Training Schemes in Australian Industry.
E. J. Moran. Bulletin of Industrial Psychology
and Personnel Practice, pp. 23-34, June 1953.
A survey of 35 schemes in 33 firms in diverse indus-
tries in four Australian states, more than half of them
in firms with more than iooo employees. There are 18
schemes of managerial and 17 of technical cadet-
ships. For both classes first the types of training are
discussed, mainly job rotation, often combined with
courses at Universities or technical colleges. The con-
tent of the training courses varies considerably accord-
ing to the industries. Progress reports at regular inter-
vals are a feature. The length of training varies from
1o weeks (in technical cadetship) to 5 years. Important
are selection procedures and educational qualifications.
Where there are no legal restrictions on cadets leaving
the firm during or after training, there is often a high
'wastage' rate of cadets.
2573. Suggestion Schemes in Two Large Organizations.
W. M. Hurley. Bulletin of Industrial Psychology
and Personnel Practice, pp. 17-22, June 1953.
A discussion of the suggestion schemes of the Aus-
tralian P.M.G. and the N.Z. Public Service Commission.
The former was introduced in 1926, but only recently
adequately publicized, the latter in 1912, but it re-
ceived publicity not before 1951. In the Australian Post
Office the scheme is administered by an Improvements
Board, each suggestion is forwarded to the branch or
section concerned. Awards from 2 to 30 are provided
for adopted suggestions. From 1926-51 the Post Office
received 16,500 suggestions of which 12% were accepted.
The N.Z. scheme is supervised by a Suggestion Com-
mittee. Awards range from i to over 25. 1951-52 31%
of the suggestions were adopted.
2574. Job Evaluation. Use of Point Plan. K. D. Murphet.
Manufacturing and Management, pp. 442-445,
June I953.
Job evaluation is necessitated by the increasing com-
plication of industrial work to find the right wage level
and differential for a new job. Any job can be broken
down into four main elements: skill, effort, responsi-
bility,, working conditions. These four basic factors can
be sub-divided into 11 factors (U.S. metal trades plan),
e.g., 'skill' into 'education' and 'experience'. Each of
these 11 factors is further sub-divided into five degrees
and each of the 55 degrees is given a weight, i.e., a
value in points. A committee then makes a test survey
of 10-15 key jobs and finally the remaining jobs are
rated.
2575. Labour Relations in the United States: C. O.
Gregory: Australian Law Journal, pp. 137-144,
July 1953.
The article traces the development of labour relations
in the U.S.A. from the 1890's to the present day. From
the use of the injunction as a means of suppressing
unionism in the 1890's and the use of the Sherman
anti-monopoly Act, through to the anti-injunction
legislation of 1932 and the more enlightened Wagner
Act of 1935. The Taft-Hartley Act of 1947 is commented
upon. The issue of compulsory arbitration is dealt with
and the need for fully-trained lawyers in the complica-
tions of collective bargaining is emphasized.
-R. J. A. H.








AGRICULTURE, LAND AND RURAL
PROBLEMS

2576. Barrau Jacques. Research in Queensland on
Tropical Plant and Animal Industries. South
Pacific Commission, Sydney. Technical Paper,
No. 43, May 1943, pp. 72.
As a background the author provides a tabulation of
the soil types, a simplified climatic map, a list of the
seven research organizations and the fields of research
in which each is engaged. The research on each crop in
turn is briefly summarized. Most attention is naturally
given to commercial fruits and sugar. A brief reference
is made to the present position of tea and coffee investi-
gations. A considerable section is devoted to the attack
on pasture and fodder problems. Research on weeds,
pests and diseases, completes the survey on the plant
side. Six pages are allotted to research on cattle prob-
lems, land use and soil surveys, and forestry.-S. M. W.

2577. The Conditions of Increased Productivity in Agri-
culture. K. O. Campbell. Journal of the Australian
Institute of Agricultural Science, pp. 66-76, June
1953-
An expected increase in agricultural production of
2% p.a. has not eventuated in Ausralia, probably be-
cause new techniques have not been incorporated at
the expected rate. Concentration on agricultural research
is urged so as to bring benefits to the whole community.
Farmers are not the only beneficiaries from improved
methods. To increase the use of new knowledge, exten-
sion services are urged to make their approach to the
farmers more personal. Economic factors should be
explained to farmers, but with particular reference to
their own farms. As higher capital costs are usually in-
volved in new projects, better credit facilities should
be available. Government intervention should be directed
mainly to the provision of credit and broad economic
controls.-M. C. D.

2578. Williams, D. B. Risk Elements in Farming. Quar.
Rev. Agr. Econ., pp. 101-105, July 1953.
The importance of risks, as seen by farmers, in de-
termining the rate of change of farming practice is dis-
cussed. Collected opinions of farmers as to the likeli-
hood of drought are analysed according to the age of
farmers and their location. The effect of yield per acre
as experienced in each crop year since 1943-44 is esti-
mated on a basis of present-day costs and returns. Fin-
ally, various factors of importance in reducing risks are
considered.-S. M. W.

2579. Australian Wool. Predominant Wool Styles in
Australia according to A.W.R.C. Areas. Stat.
Analysis, No. 11 Aust. Wool Realization Com-
mission, June 1953.
A new approach to the subject of wool distribution in
Australia. In the introduction the bases for the allo-
cation of the wools to the various categories is given.
Wool styles are related to areas of production. A map
of Australia shows the general distribution of styles,
others for each state give details of A.W.R.C. wool
areas. Each state map is followed by notes on the soil
types of each district, with remarks on the type of
wool and its spinning quality, the liability to vegetable
fault and the grade and length of the wool. In some
instances reference is made to the yield.-M. C. D.

2580. Reconnaissance survey of the Sheep Industry. No.
8, The Counties of Tatchera and Gunbower, Vic-
toria. Bureau of Agricultural Economics (Can-
berra), 1952, pp. 24.


A descriptive account of the types of farming and
other land use in the two counties. Trends in the various
fields are noted. Tables are included.-M. C. D.

2581. Recovery of Wool Wax from Greasy Wool. D. P.
McIntyre. Quarterly Review of Agricultural Eco-
nomics, pp. 111-112, July 1953.
A new and comparatively simple method for extract-
ing wool wax has been devised by C.S.I.R.O.'s Division
of Industrial Chemistry. This has made it possible to
recover economically 50-70% in comparison with only
15% previously. On present markets there is a steady
demand for the product, but greater amounts could be
used only if the cheaper method of production could
cause it to be substituted for other more expensive
industrial greases.-M. C. D.

2582 Reid, P. A. Some Economic Results of Myxoma-
tosis. Quar. Rev. Agr. Econ., pp. 93-94, July
1953-
The author endeavours to estimate the financial re-
sults of the reduction of Australia's rabbit population
through the action of myxomatosis.-S. M. W.
2583. Report of the Dairy Industry Investigation Com-
mittee, Canberra, pp. 20. July I953.
This Committee was to advise on the guaranteed
return for butter and cheese produced in Australia
from I July 1953. The report discusses dairying costs
and charges since June 1952. An over-all increase in
cost of 2-o6d. per lb. of commercial butter is partly
due to an increase in the interest rate in the cost formula
from 4j to 5%. At 44% the increase could be reduced
to 1-72d. per lb. The Committee recommends that a new
survey of the industry should be made for cost assess-
ment and to initiate positive action to increase the net
incomes of producers by cost reduction or increased
productivity.
The last increase in the price of butter caused an
8% decline in consumption. The U.K. is still the only
major export market open to Australian surplus pro-
duction (60,000 tons p.a.). It is doubtful whether the
British market, which now has ample supplies of fats
available, can continue to absorb our supplies at prices
higher than those now ruling. The Committee recom-
mended that no change should be made in the guaran-
teed return to producers, but that the position should be
re-examined in six months; further that the question
of expanding dairy production should be examined in
the light of long-term market prospects and the stan-
dard of living of the producers.-S. M. W.

2584. New Zealand Dairy Board. Twenty-ninth Annual
Report for year ended 31 July 1953. Wellington,
'953, pp- io5-
A record of the year's work. A statistical survey gives
figures for both livestock and products. This is followed
by short summaries of the new responsibilities of
bobby calf marketing and the pig industry. Current
work on dairy herd improvement and artificial breeding
is recorded. Finally there is a statement of accounts.
-M. C. D.

2585. Dairy Farming on the North Eastern Darling
Downs. P. Round. Queensland Agricultural Jour-
nal, pp. 311-330, June 1953.
A survey of dairy farming in this important area.
The industry is in much the same primitive stage as
when described 55 years ago. Pastures are often of
native species, soils are fertile and fertilizers are sel-
dom used. A number of farmers are beginning to plant
legumes. Very few of the farmers conserve fodder.
Costs of making various types of hay and silage are








reviewed. Interest in herd recording is increasing. Many
of the original dairy farms are now used for other
forms of production.-S. M. W.
2586. Bacteriological Testing of Market Milk in
Queensland. W. F. Schubert and L. E. Nichols.
Queensland Agricultural Journal, pp. 331-349,
June 1953.
A description of the organization of the Brisbane
milk supply, the standard of pasteurization required,
the tests applied to raw and pasteurized milks and the
laboratory standards.-S. M. W.
2587. Pinner, Jean. Butter Sales to the U.K. under
Contract. Quar. Rev. Agr. Econ., pp. 94-96, July
1953.
A collected summary of the contracts for butter
sales from September 1939 onwards.-S. M. W.
2588. Beef Cattle Research in Victoria. A. C. J. Hewitt.
Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Vic-
toria, pp. 189-296, 315-318, 323-324, July 1953.
The Department of Agriculture is using two privately-
owned properties as centres for an experiment on the
growth progress of beef cattle. Calves from the 1948
season onwards, with an average birth date of 1o Sep-
tember, have been selected annually since i950. Monthly
weighing were started in July 1950.
Results have shown that the animals progressively
increase in weight during late autumn, winter, spring
and early summer, but gradually decrease over late
summer until about one month after the breaking of
the weather in the following autumn. Supplementary
feeding over the summer months prevents the loss of
weight.-M. C. D.
2589. The Indian breeds of cattle and their Cross-
breeds. G. I. Alexander and H. F. Howard.
Queensland Agricultural Journal, pp. 165-18o,
September 1953.
Beef and dairy types of Zebu cattle crossed with
cattle of European origin can give hybrids which show
more adaptibility to tropical climates than the Euro-
pean breeds, and can possess other good qualities of
both parent races. The American Brahman cattle, a
successful crossbreed, is being widely used to improve
present beef stocks in America. The Santa Gertrudis
has been recognized as a distinct breed by the U.S.
Department of Agriculture. As a general rule, a pro-
portion of between one-quarter and one-half Zebu is
necessary to retain the good qualities of both breeds.
-M. C. D.
2590. Recent Trends in Meat Consumption in Aus-
tralia. T. L. Phillips. Quarterly Review of Agri-
cultural Economics, pp. 112-113, July 1953.
A discussion of meat trends since before the last war
to the present. Recently sheep meats have been pre-
ferred to beef. Consumption of pigmeat has declined.
A table of the different meats and their average con-
sumption per head since 1936 is given.-M. C. D.
2591. The Pigmeat Situation. June 1953. Bureau of
Agricultural Economics, Canberra, pp. 32.
A review of the decline in pigmeat production in
Australia. Costs are high because feed grains are ex-
pensive The public restricts its purchase of pigmeats
because of the price. On the other hand in many
European countries where feed grains are cheaper pig
populations are high.-S. M. W.
2592. Thirty-First Annual Report and Statement of
Accounts of the New Zealand Meat Producers
Board for year ended 30 June 1953. New Zealand
Meat Producers Board. Wellington, 1953, pp. 72.


A statistical and financial survey of the operations of
the Board. A review of the schedules of meat prices.
A brief account of the investigations into the quality
of chilled beef shipped to U.K. and a comment on the
increased importance of beef.-S. M. W.

2593. King, N J., Mungomery, R. W. and Hughes,
C. G., Manual of Canegrowing, Angus & Robert-
son, 1953, pp. 349.
A comprehensive account of the farmer's side of the
sugar industry in Australia. Every aspect of cane pro-
duction is considered from a standpoint which is both
scientific and practical. The chapters dealing with soil
face squarely the problems of declining fertility and
the need for practices of conservation. The need for
mechanization and the special problems of a plant
with the bulk of sugar cane are discussed. Methods of
breeding, diseases and pests are described in detail. The
Manual is well illustrated and is intended to be a hand-
book for cane farmers.-S. M. W.

2594. The Queensland Cotton Crop. World Crops, Lon-
don, pp. 325-328, August 1953.
A brief history of the crop is given. Main areas for
cultivation are west of the coastal range where there
are frosts which are important in the control of insect
pests. In the future, irrigation will be tried. Brief
descriptions of the cultivation picking and handling are
given. Only four varieties are grown widely. These are
imported from U.S.A. and are well suited to the con-
ditions. Marketing is organized on a co-operative basis
by the Cotton Marketing Board. If the industry is to
compete with other countries with lower costs of pro-
duction some sort of fiscal protection will be necessary.
-M. C. D.
2595. Report of the Tariff Board on Sulphur and Sul-
phuric Acid. Canberra, March 953, pp. 21.
This contains summaries of opinions and proposals of
interested bodies with regard to the changeover of pro-
duction of sulphuric acid from brimstone to indigenous
pyrites. These are followed by notes on world supply
of brimstone, the importance of sulphuric acid to the
Australian fertilizer industry and costs of production of
sulphuric acid from brimstone and pyrites. Finally reas-
ons are given for the Tariff Board's conclusion that the
most satisfactory method of assisting the industry would
be by means of a bounty, if and when assistance becomes
necessary.-S. M. W.
2596. Molybdenum on New Zealand Pastures. T. W.
Walker. World Crops, London, pp. 267-269, July
'953-
Molybdenum is likely to be as important a dis-
covery for higher agricultural production in N.Z. as
phosphate. Its effect on pastures in particular legumes,
has been outstanding. Results indicate that to a great
extent large applications of lime will be eliminated,
especially on those aa re where its main effect seems to
have been simply to liberate molybdenum. To what
degree the use of lime can be dispensed with, however,
is still a matter for research. The possible extension of
the use of molybdenum to other countries ought to be
examined.-M. C. D.

2597. Forestry in New Zealand. N.Z. Forest Service-
Extracts from Information Series No. i. Aus-
tralian Timber Journal, pp. 321-330, 443-458,
524-542, June, July, August I953.
Supplies of timber from indigenous forests are gradu-
ally dwindling. The N.Z. Forest Service is aiming,
after completing a survey, at defining a policy which
will prevent early exhaustion. To effect replacement and
ensure constant supplies for the future exotic species








which have been found to flourish will be planted.
Organization of the Forest Service, forest management,
finance of state activities, production of timber products,
overseas trade and research are included in the first
two articles. The third is devoted to descriptions of the
principal forest-trees, both indigenous and exotic, to-
gether with their uses and a table of strength properties.
-M. C. D.
2598. Crop Promotion in Papua and New Guinea. Dept.
of Territories, Commonwealth of Australia. South
Pacific Commission Quarterly Bulletin (Noumea),
pp. 20-22, April 1953.
The Department of Agriculture, Stock and Fisheries
has set up agricultural experiment stations to intro-
duce new varieties of species already grown as well as
new species of food and export crops. This article out-
lines briefly the work going on in this field at present.
-M. C. D.
2599. Changing Native Agriculture in New Guinea.
O. H. K. Spate. Geographical Review (New York),
pp. 151-172, April 1953.
As a result of European contact over many years in
particular with large numbers of troops during the war,
the minds of the natives have been affected. They have
changed their village systems and sites, in many cases
modelling them on the army camps. The administration
is urging rice growing and helping the natives through
various projects. It is their answer to great need for a
storable and transportable food to feed the growing
labour force required for development. Traditional root
crops, however, are not being neglected. The present
position and possible future of the Mekeo, Amela and
Dagra projects are examined, extension to the Central
Highlands districts is suggested. This change from a
shifting to a sedentary type of agriculture is a big jump
for the natives. Their keenness should not be allowed
to become frustrated.-M. C. D.

POLITICAL SCIENCE
(A) Government and Politics
2600. Hewitt, D. J. The Control of Delegated Legisla-
tion, being a Study of the Doctrine of Ultra Vires
in Relation to the Legislative Power of the Execu-
tive Government, with Special Reference to Great
Britain, Australia, New Zealand and Canada.
Butterworth & Co. (Australia) Ltd., Sydney, 1953,
pp. xxi, 195.
A brief, formal analysis of the principal statutes and
cases in the fields of real estate, education, public health,
transport, taxation and marketing.-A. F. D.
2601. Vers la Crdation de nouveaux Etats en Australie?,
Martin Manelis, Synthkses (Brussels), No. 78, pp.
136-145, November 1952.
In Australia, the discussion on Decentralization pro-
ceeds on both the Federal and the State level. On the
first, it means the shift of industry and population to
the less developed States; on the second to the rural
and pastoral areas. Since 1941, and especially since the
Premiers' Conference of 1944, some advances in the
direction of regional development have been registered,
but constitutional difficulties, jealousies between the
States, special economic interests and the lack of co-
ercive powers have prevented a massive shift of popu-
lation. The New States Movement has for its object the
furtherance of regional development through the crea-
tion of new States. The author takes the concrete case
of North Queensland and surveys the arguments for and
against the creation of a new State of North Queensland.
-H. W.


2602. The Record of the Menzies Government. Russell
H. Barrett. Far Eastern Survey (New York), pp.
130-135, vol. xxii, No. o1, September 1953.
An outline survey of the electoral promises and legis-
lative achievements of the Menzies Government from
the 1949 General Election to the 1953 Senate Election,
attempting to assess, in the broad, the degree to which
the Government has fulfilled its promises.-C. L. B.

(B) International Relations

2603. The North-West Pacific and the Korean War. Sir
Frederick Eggleston. Australian Outlook, pp. 107-
119, June 1953; pp. 171-183, September 1953.
An appreciation of the change in the strategic pic-
ture in the Far East brought about by the Yalta Con-
ference, the liquidation of Japanese military power and
the victory of the Communists in China. Japan is the
vital spot-without Western assistance it would fall
under domination from the mainland and without
Japan the West would be unable to exert pressure on
the mainland. Post-war American policy of friendship
and protection for Japan is accordingly soundly based
and its comparative success constitutes 'a considerable
achievement'. To prevent Communist expansion and
predominance the U.N. resistance in Korea was essen-
tial. The war in Korea has indicated that if U.N. mili-
tary action is to result in ultimate stability it must be
'clear-cut, short and decisive'.-D.C.S.S.

SOCIAL CONDITIONS

(A) Housing

2604. Town Planning Can Affect Your Business. K. A.
Gardner, Record, pp. 2-5, 32, March 1953.
The lack of parking facilities in the City of Melbourne
and inadequate mass-transport will gradually cause
shoppers to prefer shopping in suburban rather than in
city shops, as it has done in New York, and later les-
sen the value of real estate in the city. The lack of
planning, the ribbon-like sprawling of the built-up
area in Melbourne leads to deterioration of the inner
industrial suburbs and to slums. Careful town plan-
ning is badly needed and the co-operation of every citi-
zen is essential both in planning and implementation of
the plan.

(B) Social Security and Public Health

2605. Commonwealth Old-Age and Invalid Pensions
Schemes. T. H. Kewley. Royal Australian Histori-
cal Society, Journal and Proceedings, pp. 153-
191, vol, XXXIX, Part IV, October 1953.
A comprehensive historical account of Federal Old-
Age and Invalid Pension schemes which were first pro-
posed as a charge of the Commonwealth by J. H. Howe
of S.A. in 1897-98. The old-age pension legislation of
1908 and amending legislation up to 1912, the invalid
pensions scheme of 1908 and amendments up to 1912, a
comparison with previous schemes in various states,
changes both in old-age and in invalid pension systems
from 1912 to 1939 (prior to 1930, pensioners in institu-
tions, economy measures during the depression of the
1930's, the invalid and old-age pension acts 1908-37)
the growth of pensioners' numbers and expenditure
at various times, finally a short survey of developments
since 1939 are parts of the study.

(C) Social Surveys








(D) Population and Migration
2606. Australia and the Migrant. Papers read at the
19th Summer School of the Australian Institute
of Political Science, held at Canberra in January
1953. Angus & Robertson, 1953, pp. 186.
After an introduction by the Minister for Immigra-
tion, H. E. Holt, the former Minister for Immigration,
A. A. Calwell, read a paper on 'The Why and How of
Post-War Immigration' which gives a brief survey of
immigration since 1945, particularly of the problem of
camps and hostels and the migrants' assimilation.
W. D. Borrie examined 'Australia's New Population
Pattern', The migration of 1947-51 has not substantially
altered the existing age and sex structure and the occu-
pational status only as far as there were more craftsmen
and about half as many clerical and commercial people
among the migrants. Our ethnic composition will be
changed much more, as there were between 1947-51
279,000 British and 294,000 non-British migrants. 12-2%
of the migrants were Poles.
Jean I. Craig spoke on 'The Social Impact of New
Australians'. The official aims of immigration are de-
fence and development, rehabilitation of war victims,
enrichment of our social and cultural life. There are
different opinions, how to reach these aims and about
the absorption of the migrants into the community. To
maintain the migrants' cultural traditions group organi-
zations are needed. There are many such organizations,
in Sydney 38 representing sectional interests of 19
nationalities and 4 international clubs. Australia has 70
foreign newspapers in 22 different languages. Through
the influence of immigration our cultural life shows
greater diversity.
P. H. Karmel was concerned with 'Economic Effects of
Immigration', distinguishing between short-term and
long-term effects. The capital investment required by
immigration (1700 per migrant) can mean inflation
under full employment, also higher demand for domes-
tic primary products, less exports, more imports. In the
long run our living standard depends on higher pro-
ductivity, there is an optimum size of population from
the angle of productivity and natural resources.
Sir Bertram Stevens' subject was 'Australia's 1946-52
Immigration Programme'. He dealt mainly with the
economic consequences of migration, the capital costs
and the current costs of administration of migration,
the effects of immigration on the agricultural economy
and on the level of industrial production.

2607. The Demography of Post-War Migration. W. D.
Borrie. Paper prepared for Section G of
A.N.Z.A.A.S. Meeting, Sydney, August 1952, pp.
I 7 roneoedd).
Through the immigration of 572,000 persons to Aus-
tralia in 1947-51 the age distribution of the population
has not substantially altered. The occupation of mig-
rants has largely been influenced by contract work of
assisted migrants (D.P.'s etc.) who have made large con-
tributions to investment industries, also to some con-
sumer goods industries such as textiles. There is a
particularly big proportion of craftsmen among mig-
rants. On the whole, however, the occupational dis-
tribution is not greatly affected by migration. An im-
portant economic impact of migration is the shock
demand for investment such as housing, primary pro-
duction, transport, health services. Investment for this
reason would have to be stepped up by 40%, which is
hardly possible in the short run, and is inflationary.
Immigration will temporarily have to be cut to 40-50,000
persons p.a. The ethnic composition of our population
will be substantially changed, as more than half of
the migrants are non-British.


2608. Borrie, W. D., assisted by Packer, D. R. G. The
Assimilation of Immigrants in Australia and
New Zealand. An Annotated Bibliography. De-
partment of Demography. Research School of
Social Sciences, Australian National University,
PP. 47 roneoedd).
Part A (Australia) of this bibliography is divided
into: published books and pamphlets; unpublished
theses (with an indication where the manuscripts are
to be found); periodical literature; selected official
documents relating to migrant assimilation; foreign
language newspapers and journals (before 1939, 1945
and after); notes concerning additional published books
and articles concerning Germans in Australia which
were not available for examination. Part B (New Zea-
land) includes sections on published books and pam-
phlets; unpublished theses; in conclusion a note regard-
ing unpublished manuscripts not available for exami-
nation.
2609. 'White Australia'-How Political Reality Became
National Myth. Carlotta Kellaway. Australian
Quarterly, pp. 7-17, June 1953.
The origin of the anti-Chinese movement is due to
working-class pressure groups which then were the
radical wing of the protectionist Liberals. The latter
largely supported the legislation. It was opposed by the
Conservative free traders, big shipping companies and
banks, also by the British Colonial Office. In the i86o's
and 7o's when the gold rushes were over, Liberals
collaborated in the repeal of anti-Chinese legislation.
The anti-Kanaka legislation was opposed by the Queens-
land sugar planters with the help of the Liberals, but
in the 1890's the latter reversed their policy. During
the Federation movement the Australian Natives' Asso-
ciation, and an uneasy alliance of Labour and Liberals
fought for 'White Australia' on racial grounds, both
the Chinese and Kanakas were excluded and sugar
bounties introduced.

EDUCATION
2610. Radford, W. C. The Non-Government Schools in
Australia. A.C.E.R. Research Series, No. 66. Mel-
bourne University Press, Melbourne 1953, pp. 123.
Price 21s.
This book is a comprehensive survey of non-govern-
ment schools in Australia. It is descriptive and factual,
not evaluative. The author discusses the relation be-
tween public authority and the non-government school,
state by state. He considers the organization of non-
government schools under two broad headings, Catholic
and non-Catholic. He presents statistical data on schools,
teachers and pupils collected from printed reports and
from the offices of state Education Departments and
Statisticians. There is also an analysis of the replies to
a questionnaire sent to each known non-government
school in Australia and returned by 88 per cent of them.
An appendix gives details for each non-government
school known to be functioning in October 1952.
2611. The Case for an Australian Rural University-
prepared by the Riverina Council's University
League, 1953, pp. 60 (mimeographed).
This statement sets out the Riverina Council's Uni-
versity League's case for an Australian Rural Uni-
versity and also suggests some plans for its formation,
administration and organization.
2612. Australian University Development in the Post-
War Period. A. J. T. Ford. Australian Quarterly,
PP. 53-59, June 1953-
Some of the most significant features of post-war








university development in Australia are reviewed.
Higher post-war attendances highlighted the need for
a considered plan of development. The roles of the
Australian National University and of the N.S.W.
University of Technology in fulfilling some of the
needs for training and research in particular fields are
discussed. The Commonwealth government's financial
assistance to students by the Commonwealth Recon-
struction Training Scheme and the Commonwealth
Scholarship Scheme and to the Universities by the
States Grants (Universities) Act, 1951, is dealt with. Un-
solved problems are the need of a plan for long-term
development and the need for a greater amount of
government assistance especially in the fields of research
and post-graduate work.

2613. Commonwealth Office of Education, Selection
Procedures for Secondary Education, July 1953,
pp. 7 (mimeographed).
Each state is discussed separately. A resume of the
entrance requirements, of the types of secondary school
available and of the methods of entry to the different
types of school is given for each state.

2614. Queensland Department of Public Instruction.
Investigation of Clerical and Shorthand Aptitude.
Research and Guidance Branch. Bulletin No. 8,
September 1953, pp. 30 + Appendix (mimeo-
graphed).
This report is concerned with the evaluation of two
tests, the Turse Shorthand Aptitude Test and a locally
prepared test (the S.H.A. Test) as predictors of success
in a clerical occupation. A number of validation studies
on each of the tests is presented, including a report on
the assessment of clerical aptitude in the State Com-
mercial High School, Brisbane, using the principal's
rating as the validation criterion.

2615. Factors Underlying Changes in Curriculum. F. J.
Schonell. Forum of Education I, pp. 82-90, April
1952; 1I, pp. 81-94, April 1953; III, pp. 1-15, July
1953.
The author analyses the factors influencing curriculum
changes. Changes, based on the study of individual
differences, such as methods of grading or grouping
pupils, reading readiness concepts, modified curricula
for backward children and enriched curricula for bright
children are discussed. There is a consideration of the
mental needs of pupils at the infant primary and sec-
ondary levels together with examples of the ways in
which these problems are met in America and England.
The deficiencies of Australian schools in these regards
are pointed out. The influence of psychological and
educational research into the basic skills of reading,
spelling and arithmetic is discussed. Changes in the
primary and secondary curriculum in English are
dealt with. Finally there is a discussion of the relation
between social factors and curriculum change.

2616. Some Developments in Australian Education in
1952. Education News, pp. 15-17, August 1953.
The significant changes in school administration such
as further moves towards decentralization and the re-
organization of the administrative structure in W.A.
are discussed. Various features of school organization
including those related to the education of country
children and of migrant children are dealt with. A
resume of curricula revelations in each state is also
given. Attention is paid to developments in audio-
visual aids and also to the work of the Commonwealth
Office of Education in Native and Migrant education.
The problem of staff shortages is examined. Finally


special services such as vocational guidance and the
education of handicapped children are considered.

2617. Further Education-the Australian Armed
Forces. A. W. Jones. Educational News, pp. 7-9,
October 1953.
The writer discusses the educational personnel in the
Armed Forces considering such aspects as their num-
ber, their qualifications and their functions. The edu-
cational centres are described. He discusses educa-
tional requirements for promotion and points out the
duties of the educational personnel in this regard. Tech-
nical training and courses in current affairs are con-
sidered. Finally there is an outline of the library ser-
vices, correspondence courses and informal activities
which are available to members of the Armed Forces.

2618. Recent Developments of Tasmanian Education,
D. H. Tribolet. Education News, pp. 3-6, October
1953-
The author discusses the problem of the shortage of
school accommodation and of teachers and points out
what is being done to remedy these deficiencies. The
Modern School, similar to its English prototype is con-
siaered in some detail. There is a discussion of the idea
of comprehensive secondary education and of the func-
tion of Area schools. A survey of the curricula at
primary and secondary levels is given. Preschool edu-
cation, school library services and guidance services are
also dealt with.

GEOGRAPHY
2619. White, H. F. and Hicks, C. S. Life from the Soil.
Longmans Green & Co., Melbourne, 1953, pp.
317. Price 30s.
Animal husbandry is the main topic of this book;
natural and improved pastures, animal nutrition,
organic matter in soil use, fertilizers versus organic
farming, the economics of green crops and some farm
crops are discussed. The importance of climate is dealt
with in detail; there are chapters on the effect of soil
and plant deficiencies on humans, ecology, the farmer's
position in the community, the f.a.q. standard and its
effect. Three appendices deal with fat lamb production,
soil, food and life, and food and folly in detail.-E. J. D.
2620. Audas, J. W. Native Trees of Australia. Whit-
combe & Toombs, Melbourne 1953, pp. 396.
Price 5os.
This is a new and enlarged edition of this profusely
illustrated standard book. The Eucalypts, Angophoras,
Acacias, Conifers, Myrtles, Mangroves, are discussed in
great detail; there are chapters on Forest and Agricul-
ture, Forests Pests, Eucalyptus Oils, Paper Industry,
Economic Utilization of Timber Waste, Destruction of
Forests, and a Glossary of Botanical Terms.-E. J. D.
2621. Handbook-Australia and New Zealand. Pub-
lished at the Office of the Fifth Empire Mining
Congress, Melbourne 1953, pp. 254.
This is volume 7 of the Congress publications contain-
ing the programme, abstracts of the previous volumes,
chapters on the geography, climate and peopling of
Australia, the development of Australia, Australian
Territories, Education in Australia with special refer-
ence to Mining and Metallurgy, a brief review of
Australian mining legislation, and detailed chapters on
the 6 states and N.Z. (dealing with geology, general
development of the states, mining and metallurgic
events of importance, power resources and installations
and principal mineral and metal producers), a number of
graphs, photos, and maps.--E. J. D.








2622. Barnes, A. C. Agriculture of the Sugar-Cane,
London, Leonard Hill Ltd., 1953, pp. 392. Price
42s.
Sugar-cane soils, drainage, pests and diseases, varie-
ties and plant breeding, planting and culture, fertilizers,
weeds, harvesting, irrigation, mechanization, fires, re-
search, and some economic topics are discussed; there is
a special chapter on the sugar-cane as an industrial raw
material and on the cane industry in Queensland. 60
illustrations, and a large amount of statistical informa-
tion.-E. J. D.
2623. Canberra-A Nation's Capital. Edited by H. L.
White. Canberra, 1954. pp. 240.
An appraisement of the City and its development
with chapters on its history (Fitzhardinge), growth
(Daley), as a Seat of Government (Curtin), Centre of
Learning (White), Geology ( Noakes and Oepik), Physi-
cal Environment (Pryor), Plant Communities (Pryor),
Zoology (Ratcliffe), Forestry (Rodger), Rural Activities
(King), Population (Borrie), Social Structure and Func-
tion (Spate) 65 plates, 8 large scale maps and extensive
bibliographies.-E. J. D.
2624. The New England Region. A preliminary survey
of resources. Premier's Department, Sydney, 1953,
pp. 181.
The New England Region is one of the 20 Regions
into which N.S.W. has been divided for purposes of sur-
vey, planning and decentralization. This Report fol-
lows the contents of the previous ones, abstracted under
No. 2308.-E. J. D.
2625. Queensland Regional Surveys. Economic News,
April-May, June, July-August, September, 1953.
The surveys of the Regions of Queensland have been
continued with articles on the Port Denison Region
(April-May 1953), Burdekin Region (June 1953), Northern
Region (July-August 1953), and the North-Western Gulf
Regions (September 1953), The articles deal with the
physiology, climate, soils, land use, economic activities
and social amenities of the regions, contain maps and
a great deal of statistical information in tables.-E. J. D.
2626. Survey of the Townsville-Bowen Region, North
Queensland, 1950. Land Research Series, No. 2,
C.S.I.R.O., Melbourne 1953, pp. 87.
This survey covers 6,000 sq. miles of north Queens-
land about half of which is drained by the Lower
Burdekin River. After a description of the general
climatic characteristics and their relation to agri-
culture the survey deals briefly with geology and geo-
morphology and proceeds to a more detailed treatment
of soils, vegetation communities, 19 land systems and 7
land use regions. Agricultural activity is closely con-
fined to the better alluvial soils near the coast, usually
making use of irrigation waters, and the principal form
of land use is grazing of beef cattle on natural grass-
lands. Further agricultural development is contingent
upon the provision of additional irrigation water, a large
part of the Lower Burdekin Valley being potentially
irrigable with the Burdekin River project, but the utili-
zation of much of this would be difficult to justify
economically. Climate restricts the variety of crops that
may be grown and produces bulky pastures of low
nutritional value. Any major expansion of pastoral
activity will depend, like agriculture, on extra irrigation
water.-D. W. F.
2627. Survey of the Katherine-Darwin Region, 1946.
Land Research Series No. i, C.S.I.R.O., Melbourne,
1952, pp. i56.
This report is the first of a series produced by the
C.S.I.R.O. to survey the natural resources of northern


Australia, and is a revised version of an advanced re-
port produced for Commonwealth Departments in 1947.
The area surveyed covered 27,000 sq. miles of the
Katherine-Darwin areas of N.T. The survey examines
climate, geology and geomorphology, soil, vegetation
and present land use. To assist analysis of the environ-
mental potentialities the region has been classified into
land systems which are defined as areas or groups of
areas possessing a recognizably recurring pattern of
topography, soils and vegetation; 18 such systems are
described and mapped. The greater part of the region
is held under pastoral reserves, agriculture being of very
limited extent. The difficulties of climate and the
absence of any prospects of extensive irrigation are
major obstacles to improvement, and the necessity for
further research is stressed.-D. W. F.
2628. Estimating Potential Evapotranspiration in Aus-
tralia-The Search for a Formula. J. Gentilli.
Research Report 40. Geographical Laboratory.
University of Western Australia, pp. 20, 1952.
This study reviews earlier methods used for the
estimate of potential evapotranspiration, the loss of
water from a closely vegetated surface, as those evolved
by Prescott, by Blaney and Criddle, by Thornthwaite and
Leeper. The first method gives satisfactory results but
requires the knowledge of humidity data which are
seldom available. The other methods give results which
conflict in Australia with those expected from climatic
conditions, especially with regard to the contrast be-
tween the western and eastern coasts. The paper then
reviews a new formula suggested by Halstead from
theoretical considerations. These are discussed, and it
is found that the values of potential evapotranspiration
computed from this formula agree with those measured
by evaporation from tanks and with those expected from
air-mass characteristics. Further study of the formula is
recommended.-F.L.
HISTORY
2629. Tennant, Kylie. Australia: her story: notes on a
nation. Macmillan, London, 1953. Price i5s. stg.
A panoramic history drawn in somewhat crude col-
ours, and lacking any novelty of interpretation or depth
of insight to palliate the sensationalism of its treatment.
2630. Portus, G. V. Happy Highways. Melbourne Uni-
versity (1953), pp. 294. Price 30s.
A characteristically zestful and lighthearted auto-
biography of a historian who, in nearly half a century
in adult education in Sydney and as Professor of History
in Adelaide touched the social and intellectual life of
Australia at many points.
2631. Dale, H. P. Salvation Chariot: a review of the first
seventy-one years of the Salvation Army in Aus-
tralia, 1880-1951. Salvation Army Press, Mel-
bourne, 1952, pp. 175. Price i5s.
This is the history, by a former Commissioner, of the
Salvation Army in Australia. The history begins in
Adelaide in 1880 and is followed through two World
Wars. It contains numerous authoritative biographical
sketches and photographs, the story of noteworthy con-
versions, of the early reception of the Army and of its
contribution to social work.
2632. Lee, J. E. Duntroon: the Royal Military College
of Australia, 1911-46. Australian War Memorial,
Canberra, 1952. Price 30s.
This book gives a documented account of the origins
of the College, followed by a year by year history, with
much emphasis on personalities and a review of changes
in the curriculum, written primarily for graduates.








2633. (Harris, Alexander). Settlers and Convicts: or,
Recollections of sixteen years' labour in the Aus-
tralian backwoods: by an emigrant mechanic.
Foreword by C. M. H. Clark, Melbourne Uni-
versity Press (1953), pp. xxxi, 245. Price i8s.6d.
This book, first published in 1847, has long enjoyed a
reputation as the most penetrating and lifelike account
of life in N.S.W. between about 1827 and 1841. It
describes life as seen through the eyes of a free trades-
man immigrant in Sydney, in the cedar brush, and on
a bush station. Professor Clark makes a strong case for
suggesting that no such person as 'Alexander Harris'
existed and that many of the episodes are fictitious:
nevertheless, as a picture of life and society of the time,
the book has the ring of truth, and both reprint and
introduction are very welcome.
2634. Rawson, Geoffrey. The Count: a life of Sir Paul
Edmund Strzelecki, K.C.M.G., explorer and scien-
tist. Heinemann, Melbourne 1953. Price 27s. 6d.
A bibliography of the Polish explorer, following him
from his early life in Poland, through his expeditions
in the Grose Valley, the Monaro and Gippsland, and
in Tasmania, to his later career in England. The author
writes from Strzelecki's letters, especially those to his
early Polish love, Adyno Turno, with whom he corres-
ponded throughout his life.
2635. Skemp, J. R. Memories of Myrtle Bank: the bush-
farming experience of Rowland and Samuel Skemp
in North-Eastern Tasmania, 1883-1948, Mel-
bourne University Press, 1952. Price 21s.
The Skemp brothers were Englishmen who settled in
1883 in a small-farming district in the bush north-east
of Launceston. Their education and intellectual quali-
ties gave them a position of leadership in the little
community, and their career provides a framework for an
interesting study in the social history of a settlement
of 'cocky farmers' in a somewhat neglected time and
place.
2636. Gunning, F. W. Lure of the North: seventy years
memoirs of George Joseph Gooch and his pioneer
friends of Western Australia. West Australian
Newspapers, Perth 1952. Price not known.
G. J. Gooch, the son of an early settler in W.A., was
born in Perth in 1858. He early entered the pastoral in-
dustry, and in 1880 discovered and took up a large hold-
ing on the Gascoyne River. This holding he developed
as a sheep station and later a stud. The story of its de-
velopment and vicissitudes is told in detail up to i92o
from the evidence of letters and business records, diaries
and reminiscences, and the book is a valuable contri-
bution to the history of the pastoral industry and of
settlement in W.A.

2637. Steps in the Acquisition of North Borneo. K. G. P.
Tregonning. Historical Studies, Australia and New
Zealand, pp. 234-243, November 1952.
In the second half of the nineteenth century, the
decaying power of the Sultan of Brunei led to unsuc-
cessful attempts by the western powers to gain a foot-
hold in his territory. Acquisition of territory began when
the U.S. Consul at Brunei, for certain payments, was
ceded a large trace of territory. He sold out to the
newly-formed American trading company which ac-
quired the cessions together with sovereign rights over
the inhabitants. The cessions were taken up by the
Austrian Consul-General at Hong Kong, who eventually
won the support of the British commercial house of
Dent Bros. Their object now became the development
of North Borneo by means of a chartered company. The
Sultan of Borneo ceded away the northern part of


Borneo. Despite rival Spanish claims, the bitter oppo-
sition of Rajah Charles Brooke of Sarawak, and the
hostility of the Sulu Sultan, it finally obtained its
charter from the British Colonial Office, and from 1881
to 1946 it was responsible for the administration of
North Borneo as the British North Borneo Chartered
Company.
2638. Church and State in Victoria, 1851-72. J. S.
Gregory. Historical Studies, Australia and N.Z.,
PP. 361-378, May 1953.
This is a survey of relations between Church and
State in the Port Phillip District and the Colony of
Victoria up to the abolition of state aid to religion in
187o and the Education Act of 1872. The underlying
reasons for acceptance of the principle that 'the State
is of this world and no other' were the strength of
liberal opinions and the peculiar difficulties of applying
the Church establishment and Church administration of
public education to Australian conditions; in addition
voluntaryist and rationalist views and sectarian jealous-
ies played their part.
2639. Dominions History and the Comparative Method.
K. A. MacKirdy. Historical Studies, Australia
and N.Z., pp. 379-385, May 1953.
The author recommends support for the Humanities
Research Council of Canada's decision to foster com-
parative studies in Dominions history. After a general
defence of the comparative method, he cites existing
examples in support and suggests possibilities for
future studies.
2640. The History of Papua. M. C. Groves. Historical
Studies, Australia and New Zealand, pp. 386-401,
May 1953.
A useful guide to research workers and students in
Papuan history. Mr Groves makes a critical survey of
work already done in the field, then outlines the rele-
vant source material and research facilities available to
future workers. A list of Australian institutions pro-
viding sponsorship or useful contacts to students in
Papuan history is given. The writer indicates a number
of specific problems urgently needing the attention of
serious research workers. Finally, he discusses the rela-
tionship between history and social anthropology in the
study of primitive societies.
2641. The Background to Radical Republicanism in
New South Wales in the Eighteen-Eighties. B.
Mansfield. Historical Studies, Australia and N.Z.,
pp. 338-348, May 1953.
In explaining the relationship between radicalism and
republicanism, the author discusses republican organi-
zations, spokesmen (such as George Walker) and journals
(such as the Bulletin, the Republican and the Newcastle
Republican). He concludes that such republicanism as
there was at this time was 'the outcome of a dislike of
English monarchy and aristocracy and of a sense of
Australia's maturity, crystallized by a fear that the
political or sentimental bonds between the incompat-
ible partners would be tightened if they were not
snapped'.
2642. Victorian Population Data, 1851-61. D. R. G.
Packer. Historical Studies, Australia and N.Z.,
pp. 307-323, May 1953.
After commenting on previous attempts to analyse
statistical source-materials for this period, the author
reviews the three categories of data-censuses, statistics
of migration by sea and vital statistics. The whole gives
a 'broad outline picture of the nature of population
movement and growth' during the period and indicates
the problems of interpretation arising from the errors
and inadequacies in the source-materials.








LAW

(A) Constitutional Law
2643. Defence Power of the Commonwealth in Time of
Peace. G. Sawer. Res Judicatae, pp. 214-223, June
'953.
An examination and comparison of four decisions of
the High Court upon the limits of the defence power
of the Commonwealth in time of peace. The first two
cases, which came before the High Court in the period
between the two World Wars are Commonwealth v.
Australian Commonwealth Shipping Board, and A. G.
Victoria v. Commonwealth (the Clothing Factory Case).
The second pair of cases, both occurring since 1945, are
the Communist Party case and the Capital Issues case.
The author's contention is that although the two pairs
of cases can possibly be reconciled with each other they
exemplify two conflicting policies or emotional atti-
tudes to the problem.
2644. Commonwealth Powers in the Light of Legisla-
tive Precedent. A. L. Bennett. Australian Law
Journal, pp. 630-635, April 1953.
A study of the part of legislative precedent as an aid
in construing the powers of the Commonwealth Parlia-
ment. Included in the circumstances at the time of the
passing of the Commonwealth Constitution Act was the
legislation of the Australian colonies. Therefore by an
application of the established principles of statutory
construction legislative precedent can be used to as-
sist in establishing the content of the power granted
by a particular section of the Constitution. This method
may be useful to establish content of any given Com-
monwealth power, other than those, such as fisheries,
social services and external affairs, which are new and
peculiar to the Commonwealth. The author notes de-
cisions interpreting the taxation and trade and com-
merce powers of the Commonwealth Parliament and of
its powers of delegation in which this historical method
of interpretation has been adopted.

(B) Judiciary
2645. Improvements to the Judicial System, Part I, by
N. A. Jenkyn, pp. 145-158, Part II, by K. L. Ward.
pp. 159-174, Australian Law Journal, July 1953.
A joint paper delivered by Mr Jenkyn, Q.C. and Mr
Ward, Q.C., at the 1953 Legal Convention of the Law
Council of Australia. Mr Jenkyn in his paper divides
the judicial system into its component parts of the
judiciary, the bar, the jury and the adjective law. He
discusses the position which each of these parts should
occupy in relation to the whole system and then details
his suggested improvements. He considers the efficacy
and advisability of trial by jury, and possible improve-
ments in practice and procedure.
Mr Ward discusses the delay caused by overcrowded
lists suggesting further appointments to the Bench and
the adoption of weekly lists. He considers the function-
ing of pleading and interlocutory steps under the
judicature system and contrasts the position under the
common law system of N.S.W. Juries, written argu-
ments, police reports, appeals, individual and collective
judgments, and law reporting are other elements of the
judicial system dealt with by the author.

(C) Domestic Relations
2646. 'With All My Worldly Goods I Thee Endow.'
D. P. Derham. Res Judicatae, pp. 173-195, June
1953.
A discussion of the legal rights, duties and disabilities
attaching to married women. The author traces the


historical development which has removed many of
these disabilities and emphasises that as these reforms
have largely proceeded by means of fictions there are
extant many inconsistencies and injustices. Further re-
forms are proposed which would enable the resolution
of these inconsistencies.

(D) Criminal Law
2647. Sentencing Convicted Criminals. Norval Morris.
Australian Law Journal, pp. 186-208, July 1953.
The theme of this paper, delivered at the Legal Con-
vention is that although in the criminal courts the
question of the guilt or innocence of an accused is de-
termined upon objective and fixed principles the choice
of an appropriate sentence is not similarly determined
but is left largely to the discretion of the court. The
author argues that there has been a failure to develop
any agreed principles or practices of sentencing: 'that
judicial sentencing lacks uniformity and equality of
application, is considerably capricious, and can be
shown to fit neither the crime nor the criminal.' The
argument is supported by many English and American
statistical reports and tables.

(E) General
2648. Hammond and Davidson's Law and Practice Re-
lating to Landlord and Tenant in New South
Wales, 4th Edition by J. A. Lee and E. C. Lewis.
Butterworth, Sydney, 1953, pp. xii, 628.
This work encompasses both the statute and the com-
mon law on the subject of landlord and tenant stated
as at i January 1953. The present editors have not
materially altered the general framework of the previous
edition, published in 1929, by Hammond and Kitto,
except to add chapters dealing with the Landlord and
Tenant (Amendment) Act 1948-52, and to show the
relationship between the Act and the remainder of the
law on the subject. The structure adopted is that the
common law and statutory provisions are first dealt with
independently of the Landlord and Tenant (Amend-
ment) Act, 1948-52, and then that Act and the decisions
given under it are considered.
2649. Third Party Contracts. Mr Acting Justice Myers.
Australian Law Journal, pp. 175-185, July 1953.
A paper delivered at the 1953 Legal Convention. The
author surveys numerous decisions dealing with the
question of when a promise will be held to be a trustee
for a third party of his promise. He shows that many
of the cases are difficult to reconcile and then pro-
ceeds to suggest a remedy to obviate the uncertainty and
injustice of the present law. He suggests that the remedy
is to give a statutory right of action to third parties as
was recommended in the Sixth Interim Report of the
Law Revision Committee in England in 1937. The author
then analyses the recommendations of the Committee
and considers their probable success if adopted.
2650. Copyright in Reports of Legal Proceedings. G.
Sawer. Australian Law Journal, pp. 82-86, June
'953.
A discussion of the question whether copyright may
be claimed in a verbatim report of the transcripts of
evidence, the argument, or in the report of the judg-
ment of legal proceedings. The author contends and
cites authority to the effect that copyright can never
be claimed in a verbatim report of arguments read
from script, or from notes of a script, or in written
judgments. He then considers the position of argu-
ments which are wholly, or in substance, extempore and
of oral judgments not delivered from script. He dis-
cusses the decision of the House of Lords in Walter v.








Lane and the possibility that the law stated in this
decision may have been modified by the enactment of
the Imperial Copyright Act, 1911.

(F) Legal History
2651. Antecedents of Modern Company Legislation.
L. C. Voumard. Australian Accountancy Student,
Part i, pp. 62-67, May 1953; Part ii, pp. 111-122,
July 1953.
These, the first two of a series of articles under the
authorships of L. C. Voumard, are a review of the
evidence heard in the years 1841 and 1843 before the
Committee appointed by the British Parliament to en-
quire into the state of the laws respecting joint stock
companies. The author records portion of the evidence
given before the Committee concerning proposals for the
registration of joint stock companies, the adoption of
the principle of limited liability and the registration
of accounts, annual balance sheets and auditor's reports.
He examines this evidence and considers to what extent
the act of 1844 gave effect to the Committee's recom-
mendations.

2652. Forerunners of the Corporation. G. R. Bruns.
Australian Accountancy Student, pp. 164-171,
September 1953.
In this article the author traces back the development
of the modern limited liability corporation in a search
for its origins. He finds the first evidence of a concept
similar to that of the modern corporation in the con-
tracts made by entrepreneurs referred to in the Code
of Hammurabi. He then traces the variations and de-
velopment of this concept through the societies and
compagnia of Roman times, the maone of the Italians,
and, in England, through the merchant and craft guilds,
and fair and the borough.

PHILOSOPHY
2653. Scientific Entities. J. B. Thornton. Australian
Journal of Philosophy, pp. 1-21, 74-100oo, May and
August 1953.
The author argues that much scientific thought rests
on erroneous assumptions, notably (i) that some of the
things with which the scientist deals, e.g., atoms, have
a different kind of being from others with which he
deals, e.g., 'common or garden flowers of sulphur'; (2)
that describing is logically different from explaining;
(3) that things or events are made intelligible when they
are shown to be necessary; (4) that atoms, etc., as dis-
tinct from common or garden things are essentially
that in terms of which explanation is to be given, not
that to be explained; that they guarantee, are sources,
active, permanent, simple, essences; (5) that scientific
laws state necessary connections. The author also rejects
'critical movement' in science, (Mach), i.e., that in some
sense scientific entities are 'fictions of the mind' and
that scientific propositions are 'shorthand conceptual
schemes designed to promote economy of thought', 'The
point is that the critics declare that there are no con-
nections in things at all.' Against both views the author
maintains that 'difference and identity go together in
states of affairs; that there are no logically unique
scientific entities or scientific propositions'.
2654. The Freudian Revolution. J. Anderson. Australian
Journal of Philosophy, pp. Io1-io6, August 1953.
Fashionable trends in psychology (interest in gadgets,
questionnaires, etc.) betray a fear of fundamentals. By
contrast Freudianism is revolutionary, in that it merely
introduces fresh conceptions into a particular field but in
some measure affects all our thinking, bringing about


a general revaluation of ideas. What is important
about it is not the discoveries about the varieties and
disguises of sexual impulse, but its treatment of mind
as a set of drives or urges, not as the possessor of little
bits of cognized content called 'ideas'. In such terms the
notion of disguise or substitution becomes intelligible.
It is misleading to speak of the analysis or the inter-
pretation: whatever connections are discovered in a
particular investigation, others exist as well, and thus
there can be various 'interpretations'. But this is nothing
against the exactness of any given set of discoveries.
Freudianism has its limitations. One cannot 'settle'
social conflicts in the manner of the consulting-room.
But it is worth returning to Freud as a classic for the
correction of current looseness.

PSYCHOLOGY
2655. Reminiscence and Frustration-Induced Inhibi-
tion. R. A. Champion and E. Scott. Australian
Journal of Psychology, pp. 1-9, June 1953.
With the aim of testing the hypothesis that reminis-
cence results from the removal of inhibitory tendencies
built up during acquisition through frustration, the
authors presented a series of nonsense syllables on an
exposure apparatus to two groups of Teachers' College
students, one of which was task-oriented, the other ego-
oriented. Both groups were brought up to a criterion
standard of learning, and tested after a two-minute
break. The statistically significant superiority of the
ego-oriented (inhibited) group over the task-oriented
subjects in the amount of reminiscence is held to support
the frustration induced inhibition hypothesis and to
conflict with predictions based on theories of reactive
inhibition and differential forgetting.
2656. Colour Form Attitudes: An Analogue from
Music. W. A. McElroy. Australian Journal of
Psychology, pp. io-16, June 1953.
Forty-three second year psychology students were
given Eysenck's Ranking Polygons test to determine
their colour form attitudes, a newly-devised music
phrase test to determine their tone form attitudes and
the Heidbreder test of extraversion-introversion. Scores
on the three tests were ranked and correlation coeffi-
cients calculated. Although none of the coefficients
reached significance the authors point to a trend which
possibly supports the idea of colour and tone re-
activity having a common emotional basis.
2657. A Review of Psychology in New Zealand. R.
Winterbourn. Australian Journal of Psychology,
pp. 17-27, June 1953.
Reference is made to psychology as a university sub-
ject and to its place in university education depart-
ments. Outside the university field the role of psychology
in education, industry, the armed forces, health ser-
vices and prisons is reviewed, and the predominance of
diagnostic and advisory services as against remedial
work is remarked upon. The author sees a need for
sound post-graduate courses and development of the
field services.
2658. A Reasoning Factor Indicated by General Factor
Analysis. Duncan Howie. Australian Journal of
Psychology, pp. 28-41, June 1953.
The scores from thirteen tests given to 303 sixth-class
school children were intercorrelated and the coefficients
factorized separately for the two sex groups in order to
test the possibility of the operation of a reasoning factor.
Two analyses were made in each case, one (The Rights
Analyses) using the right scores, the other (the 'Wrongs'
Analyses) using the error scores. From the former a fac-








tor identified as reasoning was isolated in addition to a
general or basic factor. The 'Wrongs' analyses also indi-
cated another factor tentatively named carefulness or
caution; its nature requires investigation. The reasoning
factor is interpreted as an ability to order conceptual
material in terms of a constraining form.

2659. The Effect of Verbal Association on Tachis-
toscopic Recognition. W. M. O'Neil. Australian
Journal of Psychology, pp. 42-44, June 1953.
The study aims at providing a more refined alterna-
tive to the word associations presented in the Kent-
Rosanoff Word Association test norms, replacing a
group norm with a norm for individuals. Recognition
of words shown in tachistoscopically was used as a
criterion for strength of association with other words in
associative clusters. Significant differences (p. found between associated and not associated words, al-
though not between backward and forward associates.
The conclusion was reached that a word used as a con-
text aids the recognition of another word if it is asso-
ciated with that word. In conclusion the authors suggest
an alternative method.

2660. Wechsler-Bellevue Test Results of Prison In-
mates. Richard H. Walters. Australian Journal of
Psychology, pp. 46-54, June 1953.
Wechsler-Bellevue records from 63 pakeha of Euro-
pean descent, and 50 Maori prisoners over a twelve-
months period provided no evidence of inferiority in
intelligence of the latter, although doubt is thrown
upon the value of the battery for measuring Maori
I.Q.'s beyond providing an indication of the degree to
which they have absorbed pakeha cultural influences.
It is tentatively concluded that this Maori group is
inferior in intelligence to Maoris as a whole, and that
this deficiency accounts for their failure to adapt to a
changing social situation. The test was held to be as
valuable with Maoris as with pakehas in assessing other
than intellectual factors.

2661. Competition in Goal Setting Behaviour. D. S.
Anderson. Australian Journal of Psychology, pp.
55-63, June 1953.
The author's aim to test the effect on level of aspiration
of referring a group of subjects (boys aged 14-17 years)
to the performance, in the same tasks, of a group from
a rival school. The tasks used were a vocabulary test
and a sports quiz, measures of L. of A. were taken
throughout, and the referral had a positive influence
upon level of aspiration. The suggestion is made that
presuming fair generality of the findings and following
the findings of Bayton that changes in L. of A. influ-
ence performance, then the judicious use of competi-
tive reference groups shows promise.

2662. The Origin of the Dependency Drive. F. F. Cox.
Australian Journal of Psychology, pp. 64-75, June
1953.
A discussion of four psychoanalytic hypotheses con-
cerning the origins of dependency was followed by a re-
view of literature on normal Western children and some
primitive children which yielded only one study (by
Scars) which had dependency as the antecedent vari-
able. This lent support and elaboration to the assump-
tion of a relationship between infantile frustration and
dependency. Further evidence provided some fresh
hypotheses to augment the above. The author drew
attention to limitations of the causal relationships estab-
lished between the two variables, and commented upon
apparent differential effects dependent upon stages of
ontogenesis.


2663. Science and Social Engineering. R. T. Martin.
Australian Journal of Psychology, pp. 79-85, June
1953-
The aim of this short paper is to draw attention to
the significance of a confusion seen to exist in distin-
guishing between psychological research and the appli-
cation of techniques in 'social engineering' field work.
The author critically reviews an earlier article by P. H.
Cook, commenting upon the relative advantages and
limitations involved in the two approaches mentioned.

2664. Selection Tests for Women Packers. E. A. Bodley.
Bulletin of Industrial Psychology and Personnel
Practice, pp. 24-32, March 1953.
This study aimed at validating tests for the selection
of female manual workers in a finishing department of
the Sydney branch of Parke, Davis & Co. Ltd. Of four
tests, Minnesota Rate of Manipulation, O'Connor Finger
Dexterity, Spinning Board (all manual dexterity) and
the Minnesota Paper Form Board (Space-form), the
first provided the highest correlation with composite
ratings from three supervisors, while the space-form
test was the poorest. On the basis of the Minnesota test
an immediately correct prediction of 95% was achieved,
and a follow-up study on 29 applicants showed a 92%
successful selection.


TERRITORIES AND NATIVE
PROBLEMS

2665. Stanner, W. E. H. The South Seas in Transition.
Australasian Publishing Comp., Sydney, Welling-
ton, London, 1953, pp. XIV, 448.
Part I of this book deals with Papua-New Guinea,
under Australian control. Of the so chapters ch. I is a
geographical and anthropological introduction, followed
by Ch. II on Administration and Policy; III: The Struc-
ture of European Interests; IV: The Natives and the
European Economy; V: Native Social Changes (includ-
ing the 'Vailala Madness'); VI: Military Administra-
tion; VII: Post-war Policy; VIII: The Provisional Ad-
ministration; IX: Native Labour Policy; X: Social Wel-
fare Policy. 'The ethnographic formlessness of the
N.G. natives is a main source of the territories' more
serious problem.' The answer to the question of uni-
formity is negative because of the population's com-
position of different racial stocks, cultures, languages
and the lack of a common history.
Part II is concerned with Fiji as an example of a
British Crown Colony, the 'home of a vigorous, well-
evolved native culture entirely unmarked by colonial
nationalism.' The colonial administration is advanced
in method and liberal in sentiment.
Part III is an account of Western Samoa as N.Z.
Trust Territory. The peak year for exports was 1947
with total trade of 2-27 m., an increase of nearly 450%
over 1939.

2666. Berndt, K. M. and Catherine H. Arnhem Land
and Its People. VII and 243 pp., 15 plates and
2 maps. F. W. Cheshire, Melbourne, 1954. Price
30s.
The material of this book consists of evidence from
official and unofficial sources and of data obtained by
the authors during their anthropological field work in
Arnhem Land. The aborigines of this area have been
in contact with several foreign peoples for centuries,
long before the continent was discovered by Europeans.
The first arrivals from the west or northwest were the








legendary Baijini, a highly developed people with ad-
vanced agriculture and rice as the staple food. Perhaps
already simultaneously, N.E. Arnhem Land was visited
by sporadic sailors from Torres Straits and southern
New Guinea. The most recent foreign visitors, whose
journeys were well-organized trading expeditions to
obtain trepang, sandalwood, and a few other products,
were the Malays from Celebes, in particular Macassar.
In earlier centuries, their contact with the aborigines
was peaceful, but, later, frictions arose, largely caused
by alcoholic excesses and quarrels over the Malays'
interference with aboriginal women. The Macassan visits
came to an end in 1907 when Australian Government
control and the introduction of fees had gradually
made those journeys unprofitable. During the last fifty
years or so of contact with the Malays, there were
several cases of open hostilities and even murder.
Murder also occurred when Europeans and Japanese
pearl fishermen committed acts, such as intercourse
with native women. The volume is illustrated by crayon
drawings done by some of the aboriginal informants.


2667. Local Grouping in Melanesia. H. Ian Hogbin and
Camilla H. Wedgwood. Oceania, Vol. XXIII, No.
4 (June 1953), pp. 241-276; Vol. XXIV, No. i
September 1953), pp. 58-76.
The present series of articles is a comprehensive
presentation dealing with organizations existing in the
wide area from the Admiralty Islands to the New
Hebrides, and from New Ireland to the southern shores
of New Guinea. It is stated that the groups which are
politically significant all have their roots in land tenure,
also that rights to land are determined by descent.
Therefore, the authors have examined the way in which
local organization and kinship organization interlock
and strengthen each other. A number of uncommon and
sometimes complicated forms of social institutions or
structures have been considered which made it necessary
to coin a series of new sociological terms. These are as-
sembled in a 'Guide to the Terms Used' (Vol. XXIII, pp.
242-244) and are bound to be adopted by the majority of
students of social phenomena in primitive societies, not
only in Melanesia but generally.








APPENDIX

List of Unpublished Theses in the Social Sciences
Written by Graduates of Australian Universities in 1951, 1952 and 1953.
Previous Lists of the same kind have been published in Nos. 8, io, 12 and 14 of this Journal.

(1) University of Melbourne (3) University of Queensland
(a) Faculty of Economics and Commerce (a) Department of History and Political Science
For M.Com. degrees: For M.A. degrees:
A. A. McCallum. Post-War Migration in Aus- T. C. Truman. The Pressure Groups, Parties
tralia. and Politics of the Australian Labour Move-
G. T. Webb. Accountancy and Economics. ment.
B. L. Murray. The Commonwealth Employment W. S. McPheat. John Dunmore Lang (with
Service. special references to his activities in Queens-
For M.A. degree: land).
B. J. Kapre. Productivity in Agriculture. For B.A. (Honours) degrees 1952:
(b) Department of History Shirley Adamson. The Queensland Sugar In-
For M.A. degrees: dustry 186o-1917.
D. F. Mackay. The Rocky River Goldfield x85i- Margaret Kleinschmidt. Migration and Settle-
ment Schemes in Queensland.
J. R. Neale. The Beginning of the Labour Party H.. Also The al dust oQueensland.
in N.S.W. J. E. R. Pearson. The Growth and Development
Jacqueline Rawson. A History of the Australian of Social Services in ueensland.
Paper-Making Industry 1818-1951. J. C. Vockler. Sir Samuel Griffith.
Ailsa G. Thomson. Archibald and the Bulletin. (b) Department of Education
(c) Department of Psychology For B.Ed. degrees 1953:
For Ph.D. degrees: J. Ferguson. An Investigation into some Aspects
F. Emery. Social Structure and Personality in a of Subsequent Secondary School Performance
Rural Community. of Children from Small and from Large
S. B. Hammond. Social Structure and Person- Queensland Primary Schools.
ality in an Urban Community. K. Hamilton. External Studies in Queensland,
For M.A. degrees: with Special Reference to Some of the Fac-
Patricia Leaper. Difficult Children: A Study of tors Influencing Examination Success.
Modes of Adjustment of a Select Group of Eunice Pacholke. A Contribution towards the
Children in an Institution for Delinquents. Standardization of Certain Attainment Tests
J. G. Lyle. The Effects of Disturbances in Intra- in Reading, Arithmetic and Spelling.
Family Relationships upon clinically normal (4) University of Adelaide
children. (a) Department of Economics
Virginia C. Palmer. Reformatory School Boys' For M.Ec. degrees 1953:
Social Relationships and their Adaptation to S. G. Sturmey. The Economic Implications of
the Pressures of a 'Reformative' Institution. Betting in South Australia.
F. L. Rouch. An Introductory Investigation of J.J. McB. Grant. Life Assurance in Australia
the Determinants of Children's Occupational and its Economic Consequences.
Expectation. For B.Ec. (Honours) degrees 1952:
G. P. Sharp. Class and Consciousness of Social R. L. Griggs. The Economic Development of
Relationships. the Ship-building Industry at Whyalla, South
(d) Faculty of Law Ausralia.
For LL.M. degree 1953: L. M. Sutton. Certain Aspects of the Australian
Haddon Storey. The Effect of Federation on the Dried Vine Fruit Industry.
Rules of Private International Law between For B.Ec. (Honours) degrees 1953:
the States of Australia. M. Hodan. The Economic Analysis of the Inter-
national Wheat Agreement of 1949.
(2) University of Sydney W. P. Sharp. The Economic Effect of Controlling
Department of Economics Dwelling House Rents in South Australia.
For M.Ec. degrees 1952: (b) Department of History and Political Science
J. D. B. Miller. Political Parties and Parliamen- For M.A. degrees 1952:
tary Government in Australia, with special R. Duncan. Armidale-Economic and Social De-
reference to the Influences of the Australian velopment 1939-71.
Labour Party. F. J. R. O'Brien. Goyder's Line.
J. N. Timbs. Some Economic Implications of J. B. Stephenson. The Electoral Districts of
Papal Social Doctrine 1891-1951. South Australia and Population as the Basis
J. R. Wilson. The Relation of Capital Forma- of Representation 1851-82.
tion to the Economic Trends of Society. For B.A. (Honours) degrees 1952:
For M.Ec. degrees 1953: A. I. Diamond. Problems in the S.A. Company's
C. L. Cullen. An Analysis of Industrial Opera- Settlement of Kangaroo Island.
tion in New South Wales. For B.A. (Honours) degrees 1953:
K. E. Walker. The Size and Performance of R. L. Reid. Contributions to Federation Made
Australian Firms with Special Reference to by South Australian Delegates.
1920-21 to 1938-39. E. Jean Wadham. History of the Women's Suf-
For M.A. degree 1953: frage Movement in South Australia 1885-94.
J. C. Harsanyi. Inventions and Economic Growth. R. J. Lawrence. Australia-wide Old Age Pensions.








(5) University of Western Australia
(a) Department of Economics
For B.A. (Honours) degrees 1952:
F. Boddy. The Marketing of Apples in Western
Australia, with Special Reference to Surplus
Production.
P. Mersh. An Analysis of Industrial Disputes in
the Metal Trades, W.A.
For B.A. (Honours) degrees 1953:
W. E. G. Salter. An Examination of some Prob-
lems of an Australian Index of Industrial
Production.
R. W. Peters. The Supply of Money in Aus-
tralia, 1932-1951.
(b) Department of Education
For B.Ed. (Honours) degrees 1952:
Lorraine B. Hale. Survey of the Reading In-
terests of Adolescents in Western Australia
in relation to Age and Sex.
A. E. Hartley. The Crisis in Mediaeval Thought.
Anne M. Jones. Comparison of Western Aus-
tralian Education and Education in Madras
(India) with special reference to Teacher
Training.
R. J. Kagi. Teaching of Chemistry.
P. Mann. Remedial Work in Adolescence in
Regard to Children who feel they 'can not
draw'.
E. Strauss. Physical Education.
Valerie E. Vose. Children's Knowledge and
Interest in Bible Stories.


For B.Ed. (Honours) degrees 1953:
A. W. Anderson. Pragmatism.
F. G. Bradshaw. The History of Secondary
Education in Western Australia.
G. R. Eastwood. A Political Philosophy of
Adult Education suited to the Needs of a
Democratic Society.
H. S. Houston. The Recreational Pursuit of
Adolescent Boys in Bingley, Yorkshire, in
Relation to the Facilities Available for their
Exercise.
Miss M. Marshall. History of Infants Schools in
Western Australia.
D. Mossenson. The History of Teacher Training
in Western Australia.
W. D. Neal. In-Service Training.
R. G. Peter. Remedial Reading Techniques.
L. Samuels. The History of the Teaching of
Mathematics.
S. W. Woods. A Study of the Child's Under-
standing of Common Geographical Concepts.
S. A. Wright. Independent and Critical Think-
ing in the School Curriculum.
(c) Department of Psychology
For B.A. (Honours) degree 1953:
A. Richardson. British Immigration in Western
Australia: a Study of the Assimilation Pro-
cess.
(d) Faculty of Law
For LL.M. degree:
P. Brett. The Penal System of Western Aus-
tralia.








FOUNDATIONS OF THE AUSTRALIAN MONETARY SYSTEM, 1788-1851
by S. J. BUTLIN. Demy 8vo, full cloth, pp. 726, 30 plates. 57/6 (postage 1/6)
THE LEGEND OF THE NINETIES
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AUSTRALIA'S HOME: ITS ORIGINS, BUILDERS AND OCCUPIERS
by ROBIN BOYD. Demy 8vo, full cloth, pp. 287, 18 plates. 25/- (postage i/-)
NON-GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS OF AUSTRALIA: A Descriptive and Statistical
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GREAT BRITAIN, THE STERLING AREA AND EUROPE
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UNITED NATIONS PUBLICATIONS
Economic Survey of Asia and the Far East Methods of Social Welfare Administration
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of important material, published in, or related to Australia, New Zealand and
their territories, dealing with the various social sciences. The field of the survey dealt
with in these Abstracts is indicated by the classification of the subjects on the inside
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. . .......i..










Members of the Social Science Research Council of Austraia


ALEXANDER, F., Professor of History, University of Western Austria -
BALL, W. Macmahon, Professor of Political Science, University of Melbourne
: BEASLEY, F. R, Professor of Law, University of Western Australia
.. ... BORRIE, W... D., Reader in Demography, Australian National University,
Cuaberra
BURTON, H., Principal and Professor of Economic History, Canberra Unl-
veasity College
BUTLN. S. J., Professor of Economics, University of Sydney ',..
.y ...... CLARK, C. M. I., Professor of History, Canberra University College
CONLON, A. A., Doctor of Medicine, Austin Hospital, Heidelberg, Melborne
COOMBS, Dr. H. C., Governor, Commonwealth Bank of Australia, Sydney .
COPLAND, Hie Excellency Sir Douglas, Australian High Commissioner to '
.Canada, Ottawa.
: ... COWEN, Z., Professor of Public Law, University of Melbourne.
CRAWFORD, R. M., Professor of History, University of Melbourne
CUNNINGHAM, Dr. K. S., Director, Australian Council for Educational
Research, Melbourne
DAVIDSON, J. W., Professor of Pacifc History, Australian National Uni- ; :
versity, Canberra
ELKIN, A. P., Professor of Anthropology, University of Sydney .
:;."... FIRTH G., Professor of Economics, University of Tasmania
FITZGERALD, C. P., Professor of Far Eastern History, Australian National
University, Canberra
:GIBSON, A. Boyce, Professor of Philosophy, University of Melbourne ."
GIFFORD, J. K., Professor of Economics, University of Queensland
SGREENWOOD, G., Professor of History, University of Queensland
HASLUCK, The Hon. P., Minister for External Territories, Parliament House,',
Canberra
HOGBIN, Dr. IH I., Reader in Anthropology, University of Sydney
HYrTEN, Professor T., Vice-Chancellor, University of Tasmania
,:;: .. .... WKARMEL, P. H, Professor of Economics, University of Adelaide
'" LA NAUZE, J. A., Professor of Economic History, University of Melbourne
-McRAE, C. R., Professor of Education, University of Sydney
MASLDON, F. R. E., Professor of Economics, University of Western Australia
MELVILLE, Mr. L., Vice-Chancelor, Australian National University, Can- '':
berra (Chairman).
..: NADEL, S. F., Professor of Anthropology and Sociology, Australian National
University, Canberra
O'BRIEN, Archbishop Eris,. P.O. Box 197, Goulburn, N.S.W.
OESER, 0. A., Professor of Psychology, University of Melbourne
: .O'NEIL, W. NM., Professor of Psychology, University of Sydney
PARTRIDGE, P. H., Professor of Social Philosophy, Australian National
S":" ';" University, Canberra "
PATON, Professor G. W. Vice-Chancellor, University of Melbourne
,...PREST, W., Professor of Economics, University of Melbourne
ROBERTS, Professor S. H., Vice-Chancellor, University of Sydney
AWER, G. Professor of Law, Australian National University, Canberra
SHATWELL, K. 0., Professor of Law, University of Sydney
i" f... KSPATE, 0. H. K., Professor of Geography, Australian National University,
SCanberra
STONE, J., Professor of Law, University of Sydney
.STOUT, A. K., Professor of Moral Philosophy, University of Sydney
WALKER, KI F., Professor of Psycholoy, University of western Australia
WARD, J. M, Professor of History University of Sydney
WEDGWOOD, Hon. C., Senior Lecturer in Native Education, Australian
, ` " School of Pacific Administration, Mosman, Sydney
WHITE, Mr. H. L., Commonwealth Librarian, National Library, Canberra
WILSON, Dr. Roland. Secretary to the Commonwealth Treasury, Canberra
WRIGHT, 1 D., Professor of Physiology, University of Melbourne




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Melbourne University PMa
SCar on, N.3 Vi ctoria





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