SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL OF AUSTRALIA
Registered in Australia for transmission by post as a periodical
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AUSTRALIAN SOCIAL SCIENCE ABSTRACTS
Dr. K. S. Cunningham (Chairman)
Professor R. M. Crawford, Professor O. A. Oeser, Mr. H. L. White
Dr. F. Schnierer, Faculty of Economics and Commerce, University,
Carlton, N.3, Melbourne, Victoria
ACCOUNTANCY-Mr. L. Goldberg and Miss J. Kerr
AGRICULTURE AND RURAL PROBLEMhs-Profesaor S. MN. Wadham, Mr. R. H. Brown
and Miss L. C. Delaney
EcoNoMacs-Assoc. Professor O. de R. Foenander, Dr. J. E. Isaac. Dr. F.
Schnierer and Mr. R. J. A. Harper
EnucAToN-Dr. K. S. Cunningham
CEOGRAPHYV-Messrs. E. J. Donath and D. W. Fryer, Dr. F. Loewe
HIsToRv-Professor R. M. Crawford, Messrs. L. G. Churchward, R. F. Ericksen,
L. F. Fitzhardinge and M. Roe, Mrs. J. Philipp and Miss M. Kiddie
Law-Professor Z. Cowen, Dr. R. N. Morris
Pm.osoptH-Assoc. Professor D. A. T. Asking
POLITICAL SCIENcE-Professor W. Macmahon Ball, Messrs. C. L. Burns and
H. A. Wolfsohn
PsycuoLocr-Professor O. A. Oeser
TERRITORIES AND NAI-IVE PROBLEMS-Dr L. Adam
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Economics and Economic Policy
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(a) General Works
) Individual Industries
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The SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL OF AUSTRALIA was
established in 1952 to extend the scope and functions of
the former Committee for Research in the Social Sciences
of the Australian National Research Council.
The scope of the Council's work includes the sociological
aspects of anthropology, economics, education, history,
human geography, jurisprudence, medicine, philosophy,
political science, psychology, public administration and
SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL OF AUSTRALIA
AUSTRALIAN SOCIAL SCIENCE ABSTRACTS
A publication of the Social Science Research Council of Australia.
All communications should be addressed to the Editor, Faculty of Economics
and Commerce, University of Melbourne, Carlton, N.3, Victoria, Australia.
No. 15 .May 1953 7s. 6d. or $i.50 per annum
Where the size of a Government publication or Parliamentary Paper (P.P.) is not given, it is 8J ins. x I3l ins.
The death of Professor G. L. Wood on 29. June last deprived the Editorial Committee
of one of its most active members.
Gordon Leslie Wood had been on the staff of the University of Melbourne for 28 years
and had been Professor of Commerce since 1944. He had been a member of the Social
Science Research Committee from its inception and the publication of Australian Social
Science Abstracts owed much to his initiative.
To the editorial work he brought a wide knowledge of the Social Sciences, particularly
in his chosen field on the borderlands between economics and geography. Even more
valuable, to the publishing and business side of the Abstracts he brought his long experi-
ence of financial affairs, and it is largely due to his efforts in raising funds that the journal
has been able to keep afloat.
The Social Science Research Council at its meeting in Sydney on 13 August passed a
motion expressing its deep regret at the death of Professor Wood and recording its appre-
ciation of the many duties that he had performed for the Council.-w.p.
(A) Economics and Economic Policy
2353. Australia's Uncertain Economy. Research Ser-
vice, March 1953, pp. v, 33.
A study of the incidence of primary production risk
on the Australian economy. Primary industry runs a
special technical, mainly climatic risk, it has a long
period of production which prevents adapting produc-
tion plans to large changes in demand and supply. A
good harvest in Australia may coincide with record
crops elsewhere which depresses prices. 1940-50 the
yield of wheat per acre in N.S.W. varied from 71% be-
low to 46% above average. Section 3 is concerned with
demand and supply risks. Often high yield per acre and
large wool clips coincide with low as well as with high
prices. Section 4 shows how variations in the wool clip
create enormous changes in the value of our wool ex-
ports which have a great influence on our trade balance
and through the multiplier on our national income. In
the face of these influences our economic policy should
be very flexible and rapid in action, while it actually
is very rigid, particularly concerning wages. This has re-
sulted in our present cost inflation.
2354. Australia. The Price of Growth. Economist (Lon-
don), pp. 683-700, 7 March 1953. Reprinted in
Australian Financial Review, 19 March 1953.
Australian expansion is particularly important be-
cause of the nearness of over-populated S.E. and East
Asia. Despite the shortage of water there is still scope
for great agricultural expansion provided much capital
is invested, and sufficient coal and other minerals for
industrial expansion are produced. Between 1945 and
1952 there was much development, immigration and
investment, but in an unbalanced way, as agriculture,
basic materials and services were relatively stagnant.
This tendency was strengthened by the post-war labour
regime. Just on the stagnant sectors of the economy
its future growth depends. All this led to a rapid infla-
tion. The menace of inflation was long neglected by
the coalition government of 1949. The revaluation of
the A in 1950 which would have been anti-inflationary,
was barred by powerful Government supporters. When
deflationary measures were applied in i951 (budget),
they caused some dislocation, cuts in public works and
unemployment. Early in 1952 drastic import cuts were
made. The Liberal and Country parties lost favour with
the public. A future Labour regime would also be for
maintenance of the secondary industry, high tariffs
and would not act against the high cost of living. Close
economic and political co-operation of Australia with
U.K. and U.S. is very important.
2355. L. F. Giblin: An Appreciation. Economic Record,
pp. 189-202, November 1952.
This article is a record of the late eminent Australian
economist's 'work in the study of the Australian econ-
omy and its relation to political policy and administra-
tive action'. Separate sections are devoted to: his work
as a statistician; federal finance (federal grants to
Tasmania, Commonwealth Grants Commission, index
of taxable capacity to measure relative income per head
between states); the principle of the multiplier, first
stated by Prof. Giblin in 1928 and 1930; the tariff, shel-
tered and unsheltered production; work in combating
the depression, Giblin's 'Letters to John Smith' in the
Herald of July 1930; the Financial Economic Committee
during World War II under Giblin as chairman, ar-
rangement with trading banks to have special deposits
in the Commonwealth Bank; Giblin and the Common-
wealth Bank 1935-42; the 'Growth of a Central Bank'.
A bibliography concludes the article.
2356. Elasticity of Demand for the Exports of a Single
Country F. B. Horner. Review of Economics and
Statistics (Cambridge, Mass.), pp. 326-42, Nov-
The author attempts a more precise definition of the
concept (elasticity of demand for a country's exports)
in measurable form which might lead 'to the study of
the demand for exports of one commodity at a time,
not for exports as a whole'. The article deals with five
concepts: the price elasticity of export demand, the
elasticity of export supply and the exchange elas-
ticities of export demand, export price and export re-
ceipts. Equations for all these elasticities are worked
out and values obtained from the equations regarding
Australian exports of wool, wheat and butter at 1938
average prices. Weights or scale factors are calculated
for the Australian export market for the three years
ending 1938. Both the elasticities with respect to the
exchange rate and to the income of the export market
vary with the price level, the former shows higher
values at high price levels than at low, the latter lower
2357. The Trend of Real Income in Great Britain.
Review of Economic Progress, pp. 1-4, July 1952.
Tables bring up to date current U.S. and U.K. figures
on real product per man-hour. From 1940 to 1952 there
is a 'jumpy but persistent rise' in U.S. (from I-oi to
I-27 I.U. per person in work and hour), while in U.K.
from 1948 to 1951 it is nearly stagnant (0-559 to 0-570-).
Historical data for U.K. and separately for Ireland are
given, starting from 1688 (Gregory King) and com-
ments are made about a number of contradictions and
controversies, particularly between Lord Beveridge and
Dr Rufus Tucker. Special attention is paid to the rent
and service elements in the cost of living.
2358. The Economy of the Under-Developed Countries.
Review of Economic Progress, pp. 1-8, April-
Data in this study in various tables and diagrams are
expressed in O.U. (Oriental Units) per head of popu-
lation per year, first about consumption of farm pro-
ducts in a number of countries (product, net export,
consumption), mainly in 1934-38, then in different
regions of China. Further sections deal with the con-
sumption of services, the demand for industrial pro-
ducts which in a similar developmental stage is higher
in tropical than in temperate climates, with industrial
production and the law of increasing returns, capital
requirements, the rate of saving, productivity and popu-
lation density. Finally there are remarks about the
urbanization of communities and its requirements, dis-
guised unemployment and emigration as a remedy.
Industrialization of undeveloped countries requires
much outside help, until the limit is reached when
increasing returns start to operate.
2359 Rural Productivity. R. E. Dyne and E. A. Boul-
ton. Economic News, pp. 1-3, November 1952.
From 1921 to 1951 the efficiency of the Queensland
crop-farming industry has been rising by 24% p.a., in
the farmyard and pastoral industry between i4 and i4%
p.a. The output of primary industries has increased by
68% in 30 years, the numbers engaged in them by 14%.
This is, apart from fertilization, due to mechanization
both in actual farmwork and transport. In farmyard
(dairying) and grazing this is feasible to a lesser ex-
tent only, therefore there is less increase in output.
Present output with 1921 methods would require
67,000 more rural workers, including families i5o,ooo
more rural population. Conditions in Canada and U.S.
2360. Premiums on Internationally Traded Shares.
E. P. Neale. Economic Record, pp. 245-53, Nov-
The author deals with the conditions for emergence
of premiums on internationally traded shares, mainly
attractive for speculative investors, because of the pos-
sibility of considerable capital gains, of future exchange
rate alterations and of differences in the productivities
in different countries. Of the shares traded in N.Z. about
half are shares of Australian companies, and they are
generally at a premium apart from differences in the
exchange rate since 1948. The amount of the premium
is determined by the official exchange rate, converti-
bility preferences, yields, tax relief considerations,
market and cyclical influences. The relaxation of ex-
change controls and import restrictions in N.Z. since
1950 has reduced the N.Z. premiums on Australian
(B) Industry, Trade and Commerce
(a) General Works
2361. The Structure and Capacity of Australian Manu-
facturing Industries. Division of Industrial De-
velopment, Department of National Develop-
ment, Melbourne, 1952, pp. 528.
This study is dealing with the whole of Australian
manufacturing industry in 17 chapters, each discussing
a group of industries. Each chapter is divided into three
parts: Structure of established manufacturing activi-
ties, split up into a number of more specialized indus-
tries within the group (number of firms engaged,
products made, integration, etc.); outline of capacity
available raw materials, processing activities, demand,
market prospects, development plans, etc.); basic statis-
tics. The 17 basic groups are these: fuel, lubricants,
light, power; products of crude and treated non-metallic
minerals; timber preparation, products of wood, cane,
bark, cork, straw; pulp, paper, paperboard; paper pro-
ducts, printing, signwriting, photographic materials;
chemicals and associated industries; plastic products;
rubber products, etc.; metals, pipes, tubes, etc.; trans-
port equipment; electrical and electronic products;
machinery, plant, equipment, etc.; food, beverages,
tobacco, etc.; leathers, woolled skins, and products; tex-
tiles, felting, cordage; clothing, footwear, etc.; products
of textiles, felt, etc. Four appendices refer to: Services to
manufacturing economy (distribution, transport, com-
munications, finance, building-construction, etc.); cus-
toms tariff, taxation, etc.; statistical summaries; ex-
planatory comment on presentation, etc.
2362. Food Production and Rural Welfare. A New
Approach to Extension Work. D. B. Williams.
Quarterly Review of Agricultural Economics, pp.
138-41, October 1952.
New research is needed about how the recent rise
in farm income has improved or could improve the
health and educational standards of farm people, how
the introduction of new techniques required for rais-
ing our agricultural production is hampered by various
personal, economic, institutional and sociological ob-
stacles, and how these obstacles can best be overcome.
Governments and farm people alike must realize that
new economic aims can lead to better rural living.
2363. Movements in Prices Received and Paid by
Farmers. E. A. Saxon. Quarterly Review of Ag-
ricultural Economics, pp. 149-54, October 1952.
After a preliminary study on this subject (see ab-
stract No. 2076 in No. 13 of this journal) a revised
study of these price movements is being undertaken
for N.S.W. up to mid-1952. The method of this in-
vestigation including weighting is set out in some de-
tail. The main difference now is the selection of the
average of the io half-years ended 30 June 1950 as a
base (= xoo) for prices received and paid. 33 products
are included in 'prices received' and a further group
of items 'marketing charges' is added to 'prices paid'.
13 sets of ratios of prices paid to prices received are
worked out and shown in a diagram.
2364. Production Cost Surveys. Development and Use
in Australia. F. O. Grogan. Quarterly Review of
Agricultural Economics, pp. 7-x1, January 1953.
The purposes of such surveys in Australia are mainly
their use for price determination, for measuring the
percentage movement from year to year, to help in the
choice of alternative forms of production or in changes
of methods. To measure price level changes a com-
posite index of movements in individual cost items has
been used, also the ratio of prices received and prices
paid, to find a distribution pattern of individual costs
within an industry. Among the problems are: which
costs constitute 'the' cost of production (average cost?);
allocation of costs between different commodities pro-
posed; imputed costs, such as remuneration for the
farmer's own labour; allocation of costs between com-
plementary or joint productions; land values; allow-
ance for profit. As to the cost data, actual costs avail-
able can be investigated, large-scale field surveys can
be arranged, but a representative sample of producers
is hard to obtain.
2365. Pasture Improvement. A Guide to the Assess-
ment of Costs. P. A. Reid. Quarterly Review of
Agricultural Economics, pp. 63-8, April 1953.
Improved pastures are defined as those which are
topdressed with superphosphate. In 1951-52 their total
area was 22-25 m. acres, a small fraction of the country
where rainfall and other physical features are favour-
able for pasture development. The author gives an
example of a i,ooo acres property of natural pastures
in East Gippsland which adopted a programme to
establish 1oo acres of improved pastures p.a. over io
years. He quotes capital costs for clearing, cultivation
and seeding, depreciation and interest, other items;
annual recurrent costs for interest, topdressing, other
items. Comparing the movements in costs of improve-
ments since 1938 which have increased up to March
1953 by 226% (establishment) and 289% (maintenance)
and the prices for products from pasture improvement
which have risen by 220-256%, for beef, lamb and
butter, and by 750% for wool, he considers pasture
improvement as more profitable than before the war.
2366. Tariff Board. Annual Report for Year ended 30
June 1952. P. P. Government Printer, Canberra,
pp. 47. Price 2s.
Chapter i of this report contains a general comment
on changing economic conditions, stressing the re-
versal in our trading position owing to the fall in wool
prices in 1951-52, and the spreading of some unemploy-
ment. In a section on our cost structure the widening
gap between Australian and overseas costs and the de-
sirability of more wage payment by results is discuss-
ed. Chapter 2 deals in some detail with production
costs-labour costs of materials including metals,
chemicals, raw cotton, interest and fuel costs. Most of
these costs have in Australia in 1951-52 risen more than
in U.K., U.S. and Canada which endangers our com-
petitive position. Chapter 3 reviews the Board's activi-
ties, particularly the public enquiries covering 42 sub-
2367. Planning for the Future in Business. Manufac-
turing and Management, pp. 2o6-11, December
The subject of the 4th Top Management Conference
of the Australian Institute of Management in Adelaide
on 15 October 1952 was business forecast. Sir Douglas
Copland spoke on 'Basic Factors in the Economic
Outlook'. These are in Australia value of export in-
come and net inflow of foreign capital, level of invest-
ment, change in value of local production com-
peting with imports. They determine our balance of
payments and the level of our London funds. Imports
have to be adjusted to our reduced export income
(lower wool prices). The Australian cost structure
might make it increasingly hard to sell our exports and
for our home manufactures to compete with imports.
F. L. Fitzpatrick examined 'Practical Steps in Busi-
ness Planning', short term and long term planning, the
sources of information for planning, half-yearly budget,
cash budget for 12 months ahead.
S. Powell dealt with 'Importance of Budgets in Com-
W. E. Standish discussed Use of Budgets for Con-
trol of the Factory'. The four main factors of considera-
tion for a factory budget are: Anticipated production
volume, availability of materials, of tooling plant and
equipment and of labour.
2368. Marketing Men Discuss Today's Sales Problems.
Manufacturing and Management, pp. 231-5, Janu-
A summary of a conference of the Australian Insti-
tute of Management, held in November 1952 under
the title 'Stimulating Demand. Markets-Motives-Men'.
As the chairman F. L. Pitman, pointed out, the sales
situation has changed, there is a buyers' market and
buyers' resistance. Four groups conferred on special
problems. Group A under L. E. Wingrove stressed the
lack of buyers' confidence in Australia's economic fut-
ure and the need of confidence building. Group B
under J. M. Keddie, and similarly Groups C (L. J.
Sylvester) and D (R. D. Taylor) emphasized the neces-
sity of stimulating consumers' demand by lower prices
and reduced costs, and the desirability of a market
survey and of training the sales staff and resellers.
2369. Conservation of Materials in Short Supply. In-
formation from Division of Industrial Develop-
ment. Manufacturing and Management, pp.
173-5, November 1952.
A special committee of the International Materials
Conference has since 195i examined measures of econo-
mizing in the use of scarce materials, particularly
nickel, cobalt, manganese, tungsten and molybdenum.
A summary of these recommendations is given with
comments applicable in Australia, which is very de-
pendent on imports. Economy in use, substitution, and
use of scraps are investigated. The recommendations
deal among others with stainless and heat-resisting
steels, tool steels, low alloy steels, alloy cast irons, mag-
netic materials, various nickel and aluminium alloys,
cobalt, scrap and salvage.
2370. Re-launching the Sales Department. Manufactur-
ing and Management, pp. 307-11, March 1953.
The post-war sellers' market in Australia has dis-
appeared, largely through buyers' resistance; manufac-
turing companies have now to fight for sales and to re-
organize their sales departments. The first step is market
study, i.e., all factors influencing demand, the growth
of population, migration, increase in spending power
and in the number of homes, overseas competition, sell-
ing price, quality, terms of trading, packaging, have to
be investigated, sometimes with the help of an out-
side consultant. Then the sales policy has to be formu-
lated at an executives' conference and to be put down
in writing, a sales budget has to be prepared, sales
forecasts have to be made for longer periods ahead,
and the actual sales regularly to be compared with the
forecast. Finally the method of selecting the sales staff
and of training are discussed.
(b) Individual Industries
2371. Industrial Fibres. Commonwealth Economic Com-
mittee. London, 1953, pp. 152. Price 5s.
A summary of figures of production, trade and con-
sumption relating to cotton, wool, silk, flax, jute, hemp,
mohair, coir, rayon and other man-made fibres. In the
same way as the report issued in 1952, abstracted as
No. 2084 in No. 13 of this periodical, there are many
references to Australia and N.Z., with the difference
that the statistical data are carried forward one year
further, i.e., to 1951-52.
2372. Stevens, S. P. The Importance of Wool in Aust-
ralia's National Income. Bureau of Agricultural
Economics, Canberra, pp. 51 roneoedd).
Part III of this report (Relationships between Wool
Income and National Income) has been published before
in the Economic Record, December 1950, and ab-
stracted as No. 1926 in No. 12 of this periodical. Part
II of the report deals with the costs of wool production.
About these the 'Record' article mentions shortly that
payments from one member of the wool-growing team
to the other are not included as being 'transfer items'.
Individual cost items now calculated on the basis of
various Government reports of 1931, 1939 and 1940 for
every year since 1914-15 to 1948-49 are: stores and
rations adjusted by food and grocery price indices;
repairs and maintenance adjusted by metal and coal
and building costs price indices; farm transport; freight;
wool selling charges; drought costs; changes in wool-
growers' capital, i.e., purchase of capital goods, changes
in sheep numbers (slaughtering, export of sheep, stock
losses by drought).
2373. Materials Handling in the Wool Industry. De-
partment of National Development, 1952, pp. 69.
As the handling of the wool clip now costs the
Australian industry at least 30 m. p.a. or fio per bale,
a cost reduction is very important and improvements in
handling methods could bring about such a reduction.
The present report has been written after a reconnais-
sance had been made in 1947 of 84 wool-growing prop-
erties in all Australian states by the Materials Handling
Branch of the Department of National Development.
The report deals with the preparation for shearing,
yards and sheds, equipment and machines, shed opera-
tions (shearing, pressing, etc.), classing and coding, the
wool pack, wool bales, wool transport and related
handling, selling, marketing, training and amenities.
2374 Futures Markets in Wool. R. A. d'Arcy. Quart-
erly Review of Agricultural Economics, pp. 15-
18, January 1953.
At the end of 1952 the intention was announced to
open a wool futures market in London. The author
deals with the operations of the three existing markets,
as the London Market will probably operate similarly.
It will be based on a 64's standard top with minimum
units of 5,ooo lbs. The usual means of liquidation are
offsetting transactions, while actual deliveries are
much rarer. The now functioning markets all main-
tain clearing houses. There is 'hedging' against losses
through adverse price movements and purely speculative
operations. The price of futures is usually below the
current market price because of the cost of wool storing
and the loss of interest. Premium and commission are
low. Examples of futures operations are given. The
special interest of growers in futures-hedging against
a price decline-is discussed.
2375. World Trade in Wool. R. T. Hannah. Quarterly
Review of Agricultural Economics, pp. 60-2,
The main wool importing countries tend to concen-
trate their purchases in particular exporting countries
because of the large quantities they need, because they
are specialized in handling special types of wool and
these types are different in different countries. How-
ever, this relationship between export and import
countries varies from year to year, largely because of
prices and exchange difficulties. This is shown in tables
about raw wool imports by major importing countries:
U.K., U.S., France, Germany, Belgium, Italy and
Japan, from Australia, N.Z., South Africa, Argentina,
Uruguay, other countries. E.g. U.K. bought more wool
from Argentina and Uruguay in 1952, France and Italy
reduced their wool imports in 1950 and I951 because
of high prices, only Japan steadily raises her imports,
predominantly from Australia.
2376. World Wool Consumption. Current Situation in
Consuming Countries. A. L. Campaign. Quart-
erly Review of Agricultural Economics, pp. 71-4,
World wool consumption of virgin wool was already
in i946 9% above pre-war level, it rose steadily up to
1948, suffered a recession in 1949 (mainly in U.S.), rose
very substantially in 195o (military stockpiling) to
fall in 1951 to the 1946 level. In 1952 there was a slight
recovery, particularly since the third quarter, when
U.K., Belgium and France showed the greatest gains.
The current situation in various countries is discussed:
U.K., U.S., Japan (constantly increasing consumption,
probably to be checked in 1953), Belgium, Germany,
Italy. Movements in the Australian textile industry
were less varied, both in the downswing of 195i and the
subsequent recovery. Consumption of materials other
than virgin wool (noils, artificial fibres, cotton, etc.)
varies inversely with the wool price.
2377. Grain Crops. Commonwealth Economic Com-
mittee, London, 1953, pp. 144. Price 5s.
Production figures for wheat and wheat flour, maize,
oats, barley, rye and rice show that grain production
in 1951-52 (outside the Soviet Union and China) was the
highest recorded till then in any post-war year except
1948. Increased yields per acre in the production of
wheat and coarse grains have been achieved in the
post-war period which contrast with the downward
trend of yields per acre in several rice growing coun-
tries. The review indicates that the production of grain
has not kept pace with the increase in population since
before the war and also that exportable surpluses of
grain, other than rice, are becoming concentrated in
fewer countries. There are numerous references to
Australia and N.Z.-R.J.A.H.
2378. The Australian Wheat Industry-Past, Present,
Probable. E. J. Donath. Australian Quarterly,
pp. 69-79, March 1953.
A survey of important changes since 19oo, dealing
with the location of the wheatbelt, tractors, method of
handling, rotation systems, yield per acre, farm size,
varieties, sheep on wheat farms, marketing, railways,
uses of wheat, decline of rural population in wheat-
growing districts, decline in number of wheat holdings,
and importance of wheat in the Australian economy.
'Within the next two decades the yield per acre may
be raised to 18 bushels, and with a potential of another
20,000,000 acres of good wheat lands available, enough
wheat could be grown for a population of at least
2379. The Australian Wheat Crop. L. T. Sardone.
World Crops, London, pp. 11-14, January 1953.
A short survey of the Australian wheat industry, of
its history since 1788, and its conditions of produc-
tion (rainfall, stripper, harvester, head-harvester). The
lack of phosphates has led to the general use of
superphosphate. Scientific help (William Farrer) im-
proved the yield. Special sections deal with sowing,
cultivation (harrowing), harvesting. The i951-52 crop
was i6i4m. bushels from 10-4m. acres, an average
yield per acre of i5'47 bushels, the lowest since the
drought year 1946-47. The area sown to wheat is the
smallest in any peace-time season since 1925-26, it
has declined in all states except W.A. Marketing prob-
lems are briefly outlined. Present trends include the
bulk handling of wheat and the change-over from wheat
growing to fat lamb raising.
2380. Dairy Produce. A Summary. Commonwealth
Economic Committee. London 1952, pp. xv, 119.
A summary of figures of production, trade and con-
sumption of various dairy products and margarine.
While N.Z. production and export are still expanding
the Australian dairy industry suffered greatly through
drought both in 1950-51 and even more in 1951-52. In
1951 dairy produce was over a quarter of the total
value of N.Z. exports, while Australian butter and
cheese exports sank from over ioo,ooo tons in 1938-39
to 55,000 in 1950-51 and io,ooo in 1951-52, also because
of our rising population. In separate chapters on dairy
herds, milk production and utilization, butter, cheese,
condensed milk, milk powder, casein, eggs and egg
products, and margarine there are tables about pro-
duction, imports and exports, consumption prices from
1838 to 1952 referring to Australia and N.Z. An appen-
dix on government measures affecting dairy products
contains sections on Australia and N.Z.
2381. Production in the Dairy Industry. H. C. Clark.
Quarterly Review of Agricultural Economics, pp.
3-6, January 1953.
This article stresses social and psychological rather
than technological and economic factors. The author
regards the pride of ownership as dominating incentive
in early dairy farms, the farm was the centre of family
interest and welfare. He then describes the influences
of the depression and war years. Too little farm man-
agement research other than cost surveys has been
done. In cost investigations starting from 1947 only
about 38% of the producers were 'representative', and on
these costs dairy produce prices were based. Too little
attention has been paid to the way in which the farmer
spends farm income. There is now a change of atti-
tudes to the 'basic wage' outlook, to higher standards
of security and scientific and technological improve-
ments should be accepted more quickly.
2382. Meat. A Summary of Figures of Production,
Trade and Consumption. Commonwealth Eco-
nomic Committee, London, 1952, pp. 99. Price 5s.
This summary is arranged in the same way as that
of 1951 (see abstract No. 2089 in No. 13 of this journal)
and again there are in all sections numerous data
regarding Australia and N.Z. In the production of beef
and veal there was a considerable fall in 1951, both
in Australia and N.Z., equally in the output of
mutton and lamb in N.Z., but a slight rise in Aus-
tralia. In appendix I: 'Government measures affecting
meat in certain countries' there are sections on Aus-
tralia and N.Z., particularly dealing with the U.K.
2383. Report on the Beef Cattle Industry in Northern
Australia. J. H. Kelly. Bureau of Agricultural
Economics, November 1952, pp. 251, 19 roneoedd).
A report on a survey of the cattle stations of the
Northern Territory, the Kimberleys (W.A.) and north-
ern Queensland which took four years from 1947-51.
Part I presents a history and description of beef pro-
duction in Northern Australia. The survey is based on
regions according to utilization (breeding country,
store cattle country and fattening areas). In this part
the open range (extensive) system of cattle grazing is
stressed. Part II discusses the beef production develop-
ment potential. The 1950-51 Australian total of
9,400,000 beef cattle can possibly be increased by 3"3 m.
within io years, the N.T. total of i m. by 65%. Vital
is the turn-off and the slaughtered weight. An economic
herd size (maximum so-i5,ooo per station) has to be
worked out. Absentee ownership should be replaced by
resident ownership. Leasehold should be perpetual.
Among suggested developments water improvement,
fencing and housing are essential.
Part III deals with problems of increasing beef
output in Northern Australia, station improvement,
station management, labour resources, credit require-
ments. Subject of part IV are problems of movement of
cattle: by stock route (great losses of weight and
quality), road transport (only short haul possible),
water transport in a few regions, aerial transport of
carcases (still experimental), railways-the East-West
railway from Dajarra in Queensland to Newcastle
Waters has first priority, not the North-South railway,
as S.A. is not a fattening country.
2384. Economics of Dehydrating Vine Fruits. L. White
and T. T. Colquhoun. Quarterly Review of Ag-
ricultural Economics, pp. 25-7, January 1953.
Most of the grapes are dried on racks in the sun to
make raisins and currants, but often there are losses
because of poor drying weather. An experiment of
dehydration in heater tunnels has been made in 1951
with 30 tons of grapes in Merbein, Vic. Costs of labour
are less with dehydration, but the cost of materials,
particularly fuel oil, and the depreciation and interest
on capital is much higher in the case of dehydration
because of the costs of tunnels and buildings (capital
costs 3 times higher than for sun drying), while the
dehydration period is as short as io weeks. Bulk de-
hydration would add about 20% to the cost of pro-
ducing and marketing sultanas without improving their
quality. However, sun-drying racks might be fitted
with curtains to make them airtight for dehydration in
2385. Plantation Crops. Commonwealth Economic Com-
mittee. H.M.'s Stationery Office, London, 1952,
pp. 120. Price 5s.
A summary of figures of production, imports, ex-
ports, consumption and stocks, prices of sugar, tea,
coffee, cocoa, spices, tobacco and rubber with special
emphasis on British Commonwealth countries. There
are numerous references in all sections to Australia
and N.Z., to Australia as producer and exporter of
sugar, to Australia and N.Z. as producers of tobacco,
although both countries are net importers of tobacco.
Of all other crops both countries are importers only.
The figures quoted show the ups and downs for every
year since 1937 to 1951 or 1951-52. Australian sugar
acreage and exports of 1951 were lower than pre-war,
while consumption was higher. Of tobacco net imports
both in Australia and N.Z. were higher in 1951 than
2386. Coal in Relation to Gas Industry. S. F. Cochran.
National Gas Bulletin, pp. 13-16, March-April
Most of the gas coal used is from the South Mait-
land Field and the Greta Seam, but just the output of
these preferred mines is falling (from 16,200 tons a
day in 1947 to 14,880 tons now), so that inferior coal
had to be added. Recent tests on the Foybrook open
cut mine have shown it suitable for gas making, not
as good as South Maitland coal, but much better than
other inferior coal hitherto used. The utilization for
gas making of high sulphur coal, of Burragorang Val-
ley and Western Field coals are examined, the pro-
duction of gas coal in Australia, actual and potential,
and the possibilities of open cut resources are dealt
with. The effects of mining methods (mechanical
pillar extraction) are discussed. As to coal transport a
recently installed transfer device at Bullock Island is
an important improvement.
2387. Wealth under the Waves. Petroleum Gazette, pp.
11-14, May 1953.
Most easily accessible oil fields on land have been
discovered and under-water drilling is undertaken in-
creasingly. In the past this was done in shallow water
near the shore, in the open sea only since large-scale
drilling was started in the Gulf of Mexico. After a sur-
vey and the selection of a likely spot a drilling rig is
made by way of a floating-tender combination, a large
piling platform or a 'stabilized sea drill'. Usually
'directional drilling' is used instead of straight down
drilling. Legal problems have arisen about the control
of off-shore deposits-Federal or State Government-
and also intricate international law problems about
the limits of territorial waters.
2388. Cordero, H. G. (Ed.) Iron and Steel Works of the
World. Quinn Press Ltd., London, 1952, pp. 651.
This comprehensive list of iron and steel works with
figures on plant and production of individual firms in
many countries contains a section on Australasia (pp.
410-14) comprising Australia and N.Z. (Dunedin).
2389. Farm Machinery in Australia. F. O. Grogan and
A. Bollen. Quarterly Review of Agricultural
Economics, pp. 144-8, October 1952.
This article is based on a recent survey carried out
by the Department of Commerce and Agriculture to-
gether with State Departments of Agriculture. A pro-
gressive mechanization of Australian agriculture be-
fore the war was hampered by the Depression and by
the war. After the war labour and material shortages
largely impeded local production and much machinery
was imported. Figures are given for 27 groups of mach-
ines for every year between 1943 and 1951. Some mach-
ines (ploughs, cultivators, wheat harvesting machinery)
declined in numbers, but the increase in size to some
extent made up for it. Further figures are given for the
age of various farm machines in Australia as a whole, in
Vic., N.S.W. and W.A. Large numbers are old, obso-
lescent and inefficient.
2390. Brief Review of the Australian Wool Topmaking,
Spinning and Weaving Industry. No. 31 in In-
dustry Review Series. Division of Industrial
Development, Department of National Develop-
ment, November 1952, pp. 46 roneoedd).
There are 143 establishments in the industry, oper-
ated by 119 companies, 50 in N.S.W., 75 in Victoria;
27 are engaged in worsted spinning only, 20 in woollen
spinning and weaving, 44 in woollen and/or worsted
weaving. A chapter on the general market situation
refers to the recession in the textile industry after
September 1951, less due to heavy imports than to
reduction in demand. Demand, supply and capacity is
discussed separately for woollen piece goods, worsted
yarns, wooltops and woollen yarn. Further chapters
deal with raw materials, equipment-here a comparison
is made between output in Australia and U.S.-labour-
employment in the industry fell by 30% from the
middle of 1951 to the middle of 1952, but there is some
revival since August 1952.
2391. Brief Review of the Australian Ferrous Foundry
Industry. No. 32 in the Industry Review Series.
Division of Industrial Development, Department
of National Development, December 1952, pp.
The industry produced 45,000 tons of castings in 1914
and 330,000 in 1950. In 1951 there were 446 foundries
in Australia, of which 144 were in N.S.W., 140 in Vie.
The great majority were repetition and jobbing iron
foundries. The estimated effective demand in 1951 was
497,000 tons of castings, in 1952 the demand dropped
by 30%, but the long-term trend is encouraging. Total
capacity with free availability of materials and labour
is 575,000 tons p.a., because of the lasting shortage of
skilled labour this is reduced to 475,000 tons, but the
industry works only at 60% of capacity. In a chapter
about raw materials the position is set out concerning
pig-iron, scrap metal, ferro-alloys, fuel, moulding mat-
erials. Other sections deal with labour, technology and
equipment, research and government policy (tariff,
2392. Brief Review of the Australian Non-Ferrous
Metals Industry. Part One. Copper and Copper
Alloys. No. 33 in Industrial Review Series, Divi-
sion of Industrial Development, pp. 70, xxv, April
This review covers the smelting and refining of cop-
per, the rolling, extrusion and drawing of copper and
copper alloys, cablemaking and the remelting of scrap
to produce copper alloy ingots in Australia. It also
examines the quantity and sources of supply and de-
mand for copper and copper alloys and reviews the
raw materials, labour and fuel and power situations in
the industry. A brief history and discussion of the
structure of the industry is given. Government policy
by means of tariffs, import, export, price and capital
issues controls and its effect, on copper and copper-alloy
production is examined. The report concludes that Aus-
tralia's virtual self-sufficiency in copper in unlikely to
be more than temporary.--R.J.A.H.
2393. The Master Bakers Association of N.S.W. 1926-
39. N. T. Drane. Economic Record, pp. 254-69,
This article, while briefly referring to other activities,
is mainly concerned with 'monopolistic' practices of the
association. It discusses the structure of the industry
whose monopolistic possibilities are limited by the ease
of entry and the inelasticity of demand. Increasing re-
turns to scale prevail and production costs are smaller
in larger firms. The market for bread is divided into
'standards' and specials, the latter being more mono-
polistic, and the dominant market situation is one of
monopolistic competition, with much over-capitaliza-
tion, unused capacity and some price leadership. The
article concludes with a survey of the association's
activities in support of its policies: price stabilization
and combating of price cutting.
(C) Monetary Policy, Banking, Insurance
2394. De Garis, M. C. Elements of Economics. Intro-
duction to Economics from a New Point of View.
Author, Geelong, 1952, pp. I28. Price 9s. 6d.
This booklet, largely based on previous publications
of the author's brother, L. C. de Garis, is an enquiry
into the nature of money and wants to 'solve the prob-
lem of a fair exchange between individuals, towns and
rural districts and between nations'. The existing
money is a commodity-debt money which gives the
real power to financiers, and leads to depression, in-
flation and deflation, exploitation and war. It should
be replaced by a work-time money. The proper price in
this new system equals cost -multiplied by the price
factor (the ratio of consumers to producers). This will
do away with all these evils, while previous economic
reformers such as Adam Smith, Henry George, Marx
and Major Douglas, had accepted the existing com-
2395. The Money Supply in Australia. W. R. Lane and
G. Price. Economic Record, pp. 274-80, Nov-
Statistical description of changes in our money
supply-i.e., notes and coin held by the public and
non-interest bearing (demand) deposits-from year to
year from 1939-40 to 1950-51. The annual increases in
these three items and their totals are listed, followed
by figures about the sources of change in the volume
of money. Factors of increase are international cur-
rency reserves, advances by cheque paying banks, gov-
ernment securities held by cheque paying banks, the
Central Bank and by the Savings Banks, and the total
coinage issued. Factors of decrease are savings banks
deposits, interest-bearing deposits, undistributed pro-
fits (all banks), and other bank liabilities. Inter-bank
balances have, as far as possible, been eliminated.
2396. Life Office Investment Principles. W. J. Dowd.
Actuarial Society of Australia, 56th Session,
1952, pp. 210-21.
An investigation how far the old-established prin-
ciples of investment, as worked out by A. H. Bailey,
are still applicable. The spreading of investments, both
as to class and geographically, is essential, also the
distribution of securities between long, medium and
short term. In Australia excess income cannot be in-
vested in assets having the same future as liabilities,
because there are no really long-term investments avail-
able. Government securities are nearly all short term,
all the more because of the 'option' clause included.
(D) Public Finance
2397. 'The Chariot Wheels of the Central Govern-
ment'. Deakin's Prophecy of 1902. J. A. La
Nauze. Economic Record, pp. 237-44, Novem-
In discussions of Commonwealth-State financial re-
lations Alfred Deakin's words in a letter to the Morn-
ing Post of 12 May 1902 are often quoted: 'The States,
legally free, but financially bound to the chariot
wheels of the central Government'. This has mainly
been known through Walter Murdoch's 'Alfred Dea-
kin-a Sketch' (1923). The author now quotes the
1902 article in the Morning Post in full and holds that
Deakin was a convinced Federalist and against a uni-
tary system, but he expected 'the Commonwealth to
assume its full power . gradually as a normal
2398. The Weight of Taxation in Five Countries, 1938-
5o. R. C. Gates, Economic Record, pp. 222-36,
A comparison of taxation in Australia, Canada, N.Z.,
U.K. and U.S. The great difficulties in such inter-
regional and inter-temporal comparisons are referred
to. The method adopted by the author expresses the
combined tax revenue of all levels of government, less
subsidies, as a percentage of net national income at fac-
tor cost. The concepts of direct taxes, indirect taxes,
subsidies, capital gains and losses, etc. are briefly ex-
plained and differences in handling these concepts in
the five countries are set forth. Table I gives figures on
national income, direct and indirect taxes and subsi-
dies from 1938-50 in the five countries, table II shows
percentages of taxation to national income and of
direct to total taxation.
2399. Terminology of Cost Accountancy. Australasian
Institute of Cost Accountants. Cost Bulletin, Vol.
2, No. 9, April I953, pp. 20.
This bulletin includes definitions of 136 terms in
general use in cost accountancy, and has been pre-
pared as a list of recommended terms for standard use
by cost accountants.
2400. Some Early Australian Accounting Records. L.
Goldberg. Australian Accountant, pp. 346-55,
A study has been made of some of the early Aus-
tralian accounting records which are housed in the
Mitchell Library, Sydney. In no instance among the
records examined was a set of double entry records
discovered, and not one was what we would now call a
satisfactory, systematic record.
2401. Accounting and Logic. S. R. Brown. Australian
Accountant, pp. 419-37, December 1952.
It is considered necessary to examine the procedure
in other fields of mental activity in order to clarify
the process of exercising judgment in resolving situa-
tions in accounting, and the relation of accounting and
logic as one of these fields of mental activity is con-
sidered. The propositional nature of the accounting
record, the nature of the reality which accounting
judgment seeks to portray and the problem of defini-
tion are discussed within this context.
2402. Accounting for non-Profit Making Concerns. Jan
Szary. Chartered Accountant in Australia, pp.
519-35, March 1953.
The test of satisfactory performance for a non-profit
making concern is not whether there is a surplus of ex-
penditure over revenue, but whether the plans for the
period have been effectively carried out. For this rea-
son the presentation of statements to members in the
form appropriate for a business enterprise may not
constitute a satisfactory report of operations for the
period. A method of recording the transactions for the
period so as to show in the accounts and the reports
presented to members a comparison of the actual with
the budgeted results is described and illustrated.
2403. Working Capital and its Importance in Company
Finance. K. C. Keown. Australian Accountant,
pp. 106-12, March 1953.
A survey of 1,250 balance sheets of 112 companies
over the period 1935-51 revealed that the average work-
ing capital of companies in eight out of the ten groups
of commerce and industry examined was greater than
two-to-one, and in most cases varied between two-to-
one and five-to-one during the period. The sources of
current asset finance in the period 1949-51 was found
to vary as between manufacturing and trading com-
panies in that the former obtained a greater propor-
tion of their funds for this purpose from non-current
sources than the latter.
2404. The Responsibility of Accountants in Relation to
Stock Reserves. R. G. Cruikshank. Chartered Ac-
countant in Australia, pp. 463-473, February
The subject of stock reserves is closely related to
the contentious subject of stock valuation. This paper
deals with the widening responsibilities of both com-
mercial and practising accountants in the treatment
and use of stock reserves.
2405. Can Marginal Costing Solve Cost Problems? A. S.
Donnelly. Australian Accountant, pp. 96-101, 114,
The approach to cost and valuation problems fol-
lowed by proponents of marginal costing (or direct
costing, as it is sometimes referred to) is briefly set
out and compared with that adopted in accounting for
total costs, the relative advantages of each are recog-
nized and a means of reconciling the two is suggested.
2406. Valuation of Unquoted Shares in New Zealand.
G. A. Lau, G. S. Crimp and W. G. Rodger. The
Accountants' Journal (N.Z.), pp. 97-113, October
This report of a committee of the N.Z. Society of
Accountants covers such matters as the purpose of
valuations of unquoted shares, the relationship be-
tween stock exchange values and values of unquoted
shares, goodwill, and methods of valuation, estimates
of future earning capacity, asset backing and prop-
rietary ratio, capitalization rates and dividend yields,
valuating controlling interests and shares in holding
companies, preference shares, shares not fully paid,
(F) Transportation and Communication
2407. Report of the Victorian Railway Commissioners
for Year ended 30 June 1952. P.P. Government
Printer, Melbourne, pp. 68, 36 roneoedd). Price 4s.
Freights and fares have been raised by about 9%
since i October 1951 and gross revenue rose by
5,668,ooo, but working expenses (higher wages and
prices of fuel and materials) rose by 8,859,ooo, so that
there was a gross deficit on current operations of
3,600,000 and of 5,985,000 including interest, etc., as
against 3,162,000 in the preceding year. The better
outlook for coal supplies and the great price increase of
oil caused a suspension of the conversion of locomotives
from coal to oil. Much new equipment and rolling
stock was delivered by private contractors, but other-
wise the shortage of loan money had a detrimental
effect on construction and maintenance. The Transport
Act of 1951 provides for a Ministry of Transport to
secure better co-ordination of rail, road and air trans-
2408. Annual Report of the South Australian Railway
Commissioner for Year 1951-52. Government
Printer, Adelaide, 1953, pp. 54-
Increases of wages and prices of materials in 1951-52
were 2,530,ooo, those of fares and freights (since I
January 1952) 750,000, so that the State Government's
contribution to working costs had to be raised to
4,250,000. The net deficit was 144,000. Freight traf-
fic increased greatly, from 51o m. to 593 m. ton miles.
In September 1951 the first of the Io main line Diesel
electric locomotives constructed at the Islington work-
shops were introduced. More, but still insufficient
N.S.W. coal was available, but in inadequate quality,
so that more imported coal and oil had to be used.
Among further subjects discussed are: Locomotives
and rolling stock; standardization of gauges in the
S.E. division; staff; the competition of road and rail;
level crossing protection.
2409. Western Australian Government Railways. An-
nual Report for Year ended 30 June 1952. Gov-
ernment Printer, Perth, pp. 73.
The report which covers the third full year of the
Commission's administration shows that the anticipated
progress and development was not realized because of
the crippling metal-trades strike, which extended from
21 February to 18 August 1952, and the serious cur-
tailment of loan funds. This shortage of loan monies
is preventing rehabilitation of the permanent way the
need for which is causing much concern. The deficit
for the year increased by 158,859 over that of the
previous year and reached 2,843,683. This rise occurred
in spite of the 30% increase in fares and rates in May
1951. It is attributable to the metal trades strike and
the continued upward trend in operating expenses.
24o1. Freight Rates and Mineral Commodities. Aus-
tralian Mineral Industry Quarterly Review, pp.
59-62, February 1953.
Freight rates are very important for lower-priced
minerals. Relevant rail and coastal and overseas ship-
ping freight rates are compared in a table with min-
eral and metal prices ruling in January 1953. Among
the base metals freight charges bear most heavily on
zinc concentrates; from Broken Hill or Mt Isa to U.K.
the combined rail and sea rates are 55% of the value
c.i.f. U.K. ports. On lead concentrates they are not
quite so high, from Captains Flat to U.K. they are 18%
of the U.K. price. Some similar percentages are also
given for non-metals. Some freight rates, such as for
fluorspar and scrap mica are prohibitive. The Queens-
land railways show more understanding for the im-
portance of these rates than those in N.S.W.
2411. Report on Civil Aviation in Australia and New
Guinea 1950-52, Department of Civil Aviation,
Total expenditure of the department was 13,697,000
in 1950-51 and 16,406,ooo in 1951-52, total revenue
(mainly for mail) 3,504,00ooo and 3,246,ooo. New ser-
vices were established between Sydney and Hobart,
Sydney and Port Moresby, non-stop flights Melbourne-
Brisbane, to Warrnambool in Vic., and in the Channel
Country in Queensland; new international services
Sydney-Wellington, Melbourne-Christchurch, Sydney-
Amsterdam, migrant flights, survey flights and pre-
parations were undertaken for new services Australia-
Chile, Australia-South Africa and Timor. Other sub-
jects dealt with concern Australia's participation in
international organization and agreements, airports, air
navigation, accident investigation, etc.
(G) Labour and Industrial Relations
2412. The Industrial Power of the Commonwealth
Parliament. Address by Sir John Latham (22
October 1952), pp. I1. Circulated by Victorian
A statement containing some critical observations
upon the character of the industrial power of the Com-
monwealth Parliament, and a suggestion for reform.
2413. The Needs of the Worker. R. J. Cameron. Eco-
nomic Record, pp. 204-21, November 1952.
A discussion of living standards in connection with
wage fixation by Australian industrial tribunals. The
article first deals with the general level of money wages
starting with the 'needs basis', the basic wage as a
national minimum rate, as it was first considered by
Mr Justice Higgins in 1907, and later combined with
the industry's 'capacity to pay'. Various criticisms of
the 'needs basis' are mentioned, particularly regarding
the needs of an 'average' family with three children.
The Court in fact determines the general level of money
wages and not only minimum wage rates. Separate
sections examine child endowment, the interdepend-
ence of fluctuating prices and changes in the basic
wage, female wage rates, and wage rates in different
2414. Wage Policy: Recent Swedish Discussions. J. E.
Isaac. Economic Record, pp. 283-90, November
This article is a review of a collection of Swedish
contributions brought together under the title Wages
Policy Under Full Employment, edited and translated
by Ralph Turvey. The following points are emphasized:
(i) No wage policy can operate effectively under con-
ditions of excess demand without comprehensive con-
trols. (2) The appropriate wage policy is intimately
bound up with the structure and temper of the trade
unions. (3) A successful wage policy must be linked
closely with fiscal and monetary policy. (4) Wages
policy based on an over-all view of the economy tends
to ignore important forces arising out of the problems
of particular industries.-J.E.I.
2415. Labour Turnover, 1948-52. A. C. Clarke. Bulle-
tin of Industrial Psychology and Personnel
Practice, pp. 22-31, September 1952.
A statistical survey in 83 firms in the textile and
metal industries in N.S.W. and Victoria, the radio-
electrical group in N.S.W. and heavy industry (non-
metal) in Victoria. Labour turnover trends are shown
in 12 months moving averages. The rate of turnover
was between 5 and 8% a month. Resignations pre-
vailed in the first two years while employer-initiated
separations were negligible, but these became more
frequent in 1951 and particularly in the period July
i95i-June 1952, less frequent in the metal firms (falling
demand for labour in textile firms). Some indications are
given of seasonal differences in resignation rates.
2416. Absence from Work in 1951. 0. P. Wickham.
Bulletin of Industrial Psychology and Personnel
Practice, pp. 36-41, September 1952.
A study made in 14 manufacturing firms, 7 in S.A.
and 7 in Queensland. Experience differed very much
among the firms, as the rate of absence as percentage
of total planned man-hours varied between 2-5 and
Io-7%. The absence rate of women was much higher
than of men in S.A., less so in Queensland. In S.A.
women were absent 22 working days p.a., men in
Queensland ii days. There is no marked seasonal
trend in absence figures.
2417. Attendance Bonus Plans. E. J. Moran and R. H.
Meyer. Bulletin of Industrial Psychology and
Personnel Practice, pp. 13-23, December 1952.
A survey of plans in 34 firms with 14,ooo employees
in various industries in four states in 1951. There were
four different methods of bonus payment: bonus as a
flat rate, as a percentage of wages, service load bonus,
flat rate determined by length of service and foreman's
rating. Bonus provisions varied: total loss of bonus for
any absence or lateness, or when lateness (absence) ex-
ceeds a specified maximum, progressive reduction in
either case. Bonuses earned ranged from 2s. 6d.-4s. lid.
a week to 25s.-3os.. The effectiveness of plans was
fairly satisfactory, according to purpose (regularity of
attendance or attracting and holding of labour). In 13
other plans examined sick leave or holiday concessions,
prizes for attendances, and profit sharing were inves-
AGRICULTURE, LAND AND RURAL
2418. Fourth Annual Report of the Commonwealth
Scientific and Industrial Research Organization
for Year ended 30 June 1952. Government Prin-
ter, Canberra, 1952, pp. 173.
The bulk of the report gives a brief account of the
progress of work and research in each of the various
sections of the organization. Personnel of the executive,
committees and staff are listed, also the published
papers of each division. Finally, there is a statement
of expenses and receipts.-M.C.D.
2419. East, L. R. River Improvement, Land Drainage
and Flood Protection. State Rivers and Water
Supply Commission, Melbourne, 1952, pp. 78 and
In Victoria irrigation has received much attention,
drainage has been relatively neglected with certain
notable exceptions. Recent wet seasons and the call for
more intensive land use have drawn attention to drain-
age and flood protection. The present report presents an
historical survey of the methods adopted in U.K., with
special reference to legal and rating problems. There
is general desire for regulation by local authorities
(e.g. A River Board for each main Catchment) as op-
posed to centralized control. River pollution or the
raising of temperature by condensing plants met with
great opposition. The present situation in Victoria is
set out and recommendations are made for the con-
stitution of River Boards, possibly ten in number, to
provide a somewhat similar development to that in U.K.
2420. Soil Conservation Authority of Victoria, Third
Annual Report for Year ended 30 June 1952.
Government Printer, Melbourne, 1952, pp. 24.
This report covers the progress of the Board in its
six established districts, its policy and administration,
its research and other activities, together with financial
statements. A map of the conservation districts is in-
2421. Rainfall Variability and Supplementary Irriga-
tion in Coastal New South Wales. J. Rutherford.
Review of Marketing and Agricultural Eco-
nomics, pp. 73-Io6, March 1953.
The coastal zone of N.S.W. produces most of the
State's dairy products, grows two-thirds of the pigs
and maize, more than half the citrus and all the
bananas. Rainfall is generally high, but in some dis-
tricts markedly seasonal, and often erratic. Irrigation
could raise the potential of production on many farms
markedly. The topogra i eraphy is generally not suitable for
large irrigation areas comparable with the inland. How-
ever, small lots of irrigable land could be developed
fronting watercourses on many farms; and in some
places larger tracts would be possible. The short term
dry spell of a month, often the main obstacle to high
grade pasturage, could be alleviated by the construc-
tion of small dams on farms. The water from these
could be used for spray irrigation in small areas, which
would be most effective in maintaining dairy produc-
tion during the dry spell. -S.M.W.
2422. Livestock in Victoria. Geographical Distribu-
tion. E. M. Pullar. Journal of the Department of
Agriculture, Victoria. (i) Dairy Cattle. A. C. T.
Hewitt. (2) Beef Cattle. W. A. Beattie, pp. 441-9,
October 1952. (3) Pigs. L. A. Downey. (4) Horses.
A. R. Grayson, pp. 539-44, December 1952.
'Spot' maps show the geographical distribution of
dairy and beef cattle in Victoria in I95o. The condi-
tions and trends of the two industries are discussed.
Victoria's dairy industry is densest around Glenor-
miston in the Western District and Warragul in Gipps-
land. The beef cattle population (700,000) is less than
half that of dairy cattle and is distributed mainly through
the Western, N.E. and Gippsland districts. The 213,000
pigs in Vie. in i950 were distributed according to the
availability of feed rather than soil or climate. The
spot maps show the pigs are concentrated in Gippsland,
the Murray Valley and the environs of Melbourne. The
total horse population in Vie. was about 2,000,000 in
1950 when the concentration of draught and light
horses was in and near Melbourne. The breeding areas
were mainly near Melbourne and provincial cities. Com-
ments on trends are given with spot maps.-R.H.B.
2423. A Report compiled by the Delegation from the
Milk Marketing Board (U.K.) on their visit to
New Zealand and Australia. August-November
1952. Milk Marketing Board of Great Britain,
January 1953, pp. 90.
This report is devoted mainly to dairying in N.Z. It
describes pastures and their management, labour, breed-
ing and rearing and other practices, advisory work,
land development, and marketing of dairy products.
Inaccurate impressions from the short visit to Australia
are also included. S.M.W.
2424. New Zealand Dairy Board. Twenty-eighth An-
nual Report, Year ended 31 July 1952. Welling-
ton, 1952, pp. 80.
A complete statistical survey of cow population, milk
and butter production in manufacture, exports, prices,
factory costs, international production and manufac-
ture together with a report on the Board's activities and
2425. Attitudes and Expectations of Wheatgrowers in
New South Wales. D. B. Williams, Ross Parish,
and A. G. Bollen. Review of Marketing and Agri-
cultural Economics, pp. 7-72, March 1953.
A survey of the experiences and views of 128 wheat-
growers, carried out jointly by the Commonwealth
Bureau of Agricultural Economics and the N.S.W.
Department of Agriculture. Half the farms in the
sample had more than 150 acres under wheat in 1952;
nearly all carried sheep; 39% were managed by owner
operators, 31% by family partnerships, and 24% em-
ployed sharefarmers; two-thirds were operated entirely
by family labour: the average investment per farm was
33,273: about half the farmers had taxable incomes
of over 2,oo0 in 1951-52: 60% had no debts. Of
structural improvements fencing is the most important
single item: 8% of farm houses were built in 1951 and
1952: 88% have tractors. In the southern districts im-
proved pasturage was often present, but more than
half the farms in northern areas had none. Wheat
acreage had declined in the last two years, but was
expected to increase by one-third in 1953-54. The
opinions of the farmers were sought, e.g., how to
increase farm income, expectations of changes in prices,
the wisdom of investment, the attitude towards borrow-
ing, knowledge of income tax concessions.-S.M.W.
2426. Expansion of the Australian Dried Fruits In-
dustry. A Survey of the Essential Economic Fac-
tors Governing the Stability of the Industry.
Australian Dried Fruits Association, April 1953,
A statement from the Australian Dried Fruits Asso-
ciation directed against the Australian Agricultural
Council's proposal to increase the acreage for dried
fruit production by nearly 14,000 acres. Introductory
remarks state that, 'Beyond 8,ooo acres this Associa-
tion unequivocally asserts that the stability of the
Industry will become endangered and the greater the
expansion beyond this acreage the greater the danger'.
The text points out the economic factors which support
2427. Tasmanian Berry Fruit Industry. Bureau of Ag-
ricultural Economics. Bulletin No. 8, Canberra,
i952, pp. 81.
A survey to determine costs involved in the produc-
tion of the 1950-51 crop of the five most important berry
fruits grown in Tasmania-raspberries, blackcurrants,
loganberries, gooseberries and strawberries. Included
are the method of sampling, a description of farms
visited, definitions of cost items and analyses of costs
for each fruit individually. Berry fruit growing is an
unreliable source of income as it can be seriously af-
fected by bad weather conditions and so is usually
associated with mixed farming.-M.C.D.
(A) Government and Politics
2428. Eggleston, F. W. Reflections of an Australian
Liberal. F. W. Cheshire, Melbourne, 1953, pp.
301. Price 27s. 6d.
A picture of the Australian political scene based on
'personal experience of Australian public life', and 'an
attempt to analyse the points of view of the various
parties, to sketch the clash of ideas and competition
of policies and to suggest the influences which are
brought to bear to secure decisions'. Sir Frederic first
discussed political censorship in Australia and the
changing climate of Australian politics. He then ex-
amines the aims, organization and interest of the
Labor Party, the significance of the Country Party,
the organization and policy of the Liberal Party. He
concludes with a discussion of liberal and democratic
ideas and problems.-C.L.B.
2429. Overacker, Louise. The Australian Party System.
Yale University Press, 1952, pp. 373.
A description and analysis of the structure and ac-
tivities of Australian political parties with particular
attention to the Australian Labor Party. There is an
introduction discussing the general pattern of the Aus-
tralian party system, its socio-economic background
and constitutional setting. The next six chapters are de-
voted to the history and development of the A.L.P., its
present-day structure, its 'power structure', and the sig-
nificance of the Communist Party in the Australian
Labor Movement. Then follows a chapter on the Coun-
try Party and one on the Liberal Party, and a conclud-
ing analysis of the characteristics of the Australian
party conflict. Statistical tables include summaries of
recent election statistics.-C.L.B.
2430. The Future of Australian Politics. H. W. Her-
bert. Australian Quarterly, Vol. xxv, No. i,
March 1953, pp. 21-6.
Discussed the central importance, as a problem of
contemporary politics, of the need to maintain full em-
ployment without inflation. Examines the attitudes of
the parties to this problem and advocates a solution in
terms of 'an entirely new method of three-way co-
operation between government, business, and workers'
(B) International Relations
2431. The Evolution of Australia in World Affairs. H.
Wolfsohn. Australian Outlook, pp. 5-21, March
Suggests that the meaning of 'foreign policy' in
Australian context is somewhat loose, as it embraces both
inter-Imperial and relations with non-British countries.
Owing to Australia's long dependence on Britain in
matters of foreign policy determination, Australian
political parties developed certain well-defined atti-
tudes towards foreign policy, but gained no practical
experience. Some of these attitudes are illustrated in
sections 'Party Attitudes' and 'Defence Preparations'.
There are also sections on the external affairs power in
the Australian constitutions, on the growth of the
Department of External Affairs, and on Consultation.
2432. The Victorian Housing Commission. Research
Paper No. 2, Victorian Fabian Society, pp. 12
A brief summary of the formation, functions, organi-
zation and finance of the Housing Commission. Its
performance is discussed in some detail concerning im-
provement of existing housing and provision of hous-
ing for persons with limited means. Special sections
examine tenant selection, the sale of commission houses,
their costs, the concrete housing project in Holmes-
glen, rents, shopping facilities, land resumption policy.
A crucial point is capital, largely dependent on Com-
2433. South Australian Housing Trust. i6th Annual
Report for Year ended 30 June 1952. Govern-
ment Printer, Adelaide, pp. 28.
During 1951-52 3,119 houses have been built as
against 3,057 in the previous year. Of these 1,164 were
for sale, 556 for letting and 722 temporary and emerg-
ency houses in the metropolitan area, 214 for letting,
317 for sale and 117 for soldier settlement in country
towns. It is now mainly the lag in the provision of
services (water supply, sewers, light and power) which
is slowing down the Trust's work. In some smaller
country towns local builders are not prepared to work
for the trust, the way out is to supply timber-framed
houses pre-cut in a S.A. factory. Contracts for im-
portation of 3,832 pre-fabricated houses have been
entered into with English and German manufacturers.
Of these 422 houses were erected and completed on
sites, 745 were in the course of erection.
(B) Social Security and Public Health
2434. Six Codes and Specifications for Industrial
Security. Manufacturing and Management, pp.
240-5, January 1953.
A summary of six documents recently issued by the
Standards Association of Australia. The first code
'General Principles for Safe Working in Industry' out-
lines the responsibilities of employer and employees,
co-operation, working methods, investigation of acci-
dents, training of employees, health services, etc. The
second code deals with 'Industrial Accident Prevention
Signs', such as danger, caution, fire-fighting signs, etc.,
with sign colours, location, uses of signs, etc. The third
document is the 'Industrial Safety Colour Code', the
fourth and fifth examine protective steel toe-caps used
in industrial safety footwear and with heavy safety
boots fitted with such toe-caps. Subject of the sixth
document is: Industrial leather gloves and mittens.
(C) Social Surveys
(D) Population and Migration
2435. Australian Urbanization. F. D. Gillies. Eco-
nomic News, pp. 6-7, September-October 1952.
Tables show the absolute and relative numbers of
population in the censuses of 1921, 1933 and 1947 in
all states of Australia and of 1921, 1936 and 1945 in
N.Z. living in localities with populations less than
1,ooo, 2,500, 5,ooo and io,ooo and outside the metro-
politan areas. The proportion of people in the smaller
centres is greater in N.Z. than in Australia, and there
is an increasing trend to living in bigger centres in all
Australian states and in N.Z. During the whole period
Queensland has retained a higher proportion in small
centres than any other Australian state and has also
more large provincial cities.
2436. The Economics of Australian Immigration. K.
Laffer. Pacific Affairs (Richmond, Virginia), pp.
360-77, December 1952.
Defence rather than economic considerations seem to
be paramount in the Australian immigration pro-
gramme. Demographic trends and humanitarian reasons
also play a large part. The boom in Australian export
prices, mainly wool, and rising import prices increased
post-war retail prices and wages in Australia very sub-
stantially. Despite the high proportion of young workers
among the immigrants our immigration has been an
expansionary force, because immigration requires much
capital investment, on the assumption of 1oo,ooo im-
migrants p.a. about 5% of the gross national product.
We can afford this high investment rate, but there are
bottlenecks, e.g. in housing. Agricultural production
cannot expand at the same rate as population, so that
exports and subsequently imports tend to fall.
2437. Australia's Educational Dilemma. K. S. Cun-
ningham. Report on the 29th meeting of the
Australian and New Zealand Association for
the Advancement of Science. Sydney. August
1952. Government Printer, Sydney, 1953, pp.
More attention needs to be given to the content of
education. Some things are timeless and placeless, but
far more time must be spent on current and local
materials. Australian curricula at all levels are defi-
cient in materials dealing with the local environment,
the Pacific area, and peculiarly Australian problems.
2438. A Crisis in the Finances and Development of
the Australian Universities. Prepared by the
Australian Vice-Chancellors' Committee. 1953.
Melbourne University Press, pp. 18 + vi.
S The need for better financial provision for the Aus-
tralian universities is discussed. Enrolments have in-
creased, and increasing costs have hampered develop-
ments. Australian university expenditure is very low
when compared with that in certain other countries.
There is need for increased financial support to meet
present needs, and for an overall plan for university
development throughout Australia.
2439. Clunies Ross, I. The Responsibility of Science and
the University in the Modern World. Printed by
C.S.I.R.p. Melbourne 1952, pp. 15.
The former ideal of the university product as an
academically well-furnished enlightened student of
life has been replaced by one of technical skill and
specialized competence. Breadth and vision have gone
out of university studies. Science is the dominant in-
terest of universities, and tends towards greater speciali-
zation. A more liberal education is required for all
university students. Day to day problems are obsessing
the universities more and more. A national commission
is necessary to re-examine the functions, .responsibili-
ties, and needs of the universities.
2440. Aspects of the Organization of Vocational Edu-
cation in Australia. E. P. Eltham. March 1953.
Department of Labour and National Service, pp.
Following a brief historical account of the origins
and development of technical education in Australia,
the present position relating both to co-ordination of
the various state provisions as well as the structure
within each state, is briefly summarized.
2441. The Commonwealth Reconstruction Training
Scheme with particular reference to Vocational
Training. E. P. Eltham. March 1953. Department
of Labour and National Service, pp. 16 (pro-
This scheme, planned to re-establish in civil life
approximately one million men and women after the
1939-45 war, is dealt with under the headings of or-
ganization, eligibility, selection, training arrangements,
allowances, and statistics. Over 330,000 applications for
technical-type training were dealt with. Training at the
university level is not discussed.
2442. Technical-Type Correspondence Training in Aus-
tralia. A. J. Betheras. March 1953. Department
of Labour and National Service, pp. 9, plus
The development and present organization of cor-
respondence education throughout Australia is des-
cribed. There are now six Technical Correspondence
Schools, one in each state, offering over 1,6oo subject
courses. These cover a very wide range of occupations,
including many for students having no access to
2443. Report of the Minister of Education, Victoria,
for the Year 1951-52. Government Printer, Mel-
bourne, 1953, pp. 47. Price 2s. 3d.
Contains a summary by the Minister of outstanding
developments, reports by the relevant senior officers on
Primary Education, Secondary Education, Technical
Education, and Art, and tables relating to schools, stud-
ents, teachers and finances.
2444. Eighteenth Annual Report of the New Zealand
Council for Educational Research. 1952-53, pp.
Contains reports by the late chairman, and the pres-
ent director, of the activities of the council during the
period I April 1952 to 31 March 1953, of the projects
at present under way, and of the work of the four local
Institutes for Educational Research.
2445. Report on Primary and Post-Primary Education
.in New Zealand for 1952. Government Printer,
Wellington, 1953, pp. 38. Price 2s. 6d.
Contains reports on progress made during the year, by
the chief inspectors of primary schools and ost-
primary schools. The latter report deals with both
academic and technical education. Tables give statis-
tics of schools, attendance, age and sex of pupils, age
and attainment of pupils leaving primary schools,
teachers, etc.- all for public schools, and details of roll-
numbers and full time teaching staff of endowed and
registered private secondary and technical schools.
2446. Laseron, C. F. The Face of Australia. Angus and
Robertson, Sydney, 1953, PP. 244. Price 21s.
The shaping of the continent from the oldest geologi-
cal era right up to the present is the main theme of
this well illustrated book. Australian caves, the great
Barrier Reef, the Australian coast, the Ice age in
Tasmania, the Eastern Highlands, the Blue Mountains,
Port Jackson, the mountains of Central Australia, and
how the bush comes to Australia and becomes Aus-
tralian, are dealt with in detail.-E.J.D.
2447. Stamp, L. D. Our Undeveloped World. Faber and
Faber, London, 1952. (Revised British edition.)
Stamp's conclusions are that the most important
under-developed lands are not in the tropics and un-
inhabited latitudes but 'the great under-developed
lands of the world as indicated by low outputs per
acre must be held to include large parts of the United
States, Canada, Argentina, and Australia.' There are
numerous references to Australia, a diagram of Aus-
tralia's age-composition and a graph showing the rela-
tionship between rainfall and wheat yields in S.A.
2448. Groom, A. I Saw a Strange Land. Angus and
Robertson, 1952, pp. 216. Price 18s.
This book is the outcome of several years travelling
in practically unknown parts of Central Australia; the
author's headquarters were at Hermannsburg, and from
there he made expeditions into wilder and more inac-
cessible regions. There are chapters on the life of the
aborigines, on the headwaters of the Finke river, Alice
Springs, Macdonnell Ranges, Areyonga, Krichauff
Ranges, Lake Amadeus, Ayers Rock and Mount Olga.
i map and 54 photos.-E.J.D.
2449. Andrews, J. Australia's Resources and their Utili-
zation. Part 2, 1953. Published by the Dept. of
Tutorial Classes in Sydney, pp. 74.
Revised, up-to-date edition. See abstract No. 1,450 in
No. 5 of this journal for Ist edition.-E.J.D.
2450. Erler, G. Australien. Kontinent am Rande der
Welt. O. Schwartz & Co., Goettingen, 1952, pp.
Another German book on Australia showing the great
interest in up-to-date information on this far-away
continent. After a brief discussion of Australia's great
distance from Europe, its climates, vegetation, popula-
tion and traditions, some political, sociological, and
economic problems are dealt with in detail; there is a
chapter on trade between Germany and Australia, and
another one on the many problems of immigration
peculiar to Australia.-E.J.D.
2451. Atlas of Australian Resources, edited by K.
Frenzel. Department of National Development,
This atlas will consist of 37 maps and pamphlets; the
first five maps and pamphlets have been published,
and each map, with its accompanying pamphlet, costs
i2s. 6d. The maps on Soils, Underground Water, and
Mineral Deposits are 1:6,ooo,ooo, very clear, and up-
to-date; the two maps on Rainfall and Temperatures
show some unusual arrangements. The pamphlets on
underground water and mineral deposits are written
by the geological section of the Commonwealth Bureau
of Mineral Resources, the Soils pamphlet by J. K. Tay-
lor, and those on Temperatures and Rainfall by B. W.
Newman. This atlas will be of great help in education
and scientific planning and development of Australia.
The pamphlets contain a number of graphs, maps, and
tables, and are from 8 to 16 pages long. Astralon, a
plastic material, was used in the drafting and repro-
duction processes the first time in Australia.-E.J.D.
2452. Woodward, O. H. A Review of the Broken Hill
Lead-Silver-Zinc Industry. Published by the
Australasian Institute of Mining and Metal-
lurgy, 1952, pp. 400.
After a detailed discussion of historical events, geo-
graphical setting, climate, railway services, water
supply, geology, mining, ore dressing, smelting, refin-
ing, and power generation, some economic, medical,
and sociological problems are dealt with. A great num-
ber of photos, maps, graphs, tables and a most compre-
hensive bibliography. Activities, outside Broken Hill, at
Port Pirie, Risdon, Cockle Creek, Rosebery, are fully
2453. Climate and Cattle Production in North Aus-
tralia (Cairns-Normanton). D. S. Simonett. Aus-
tralian Geographer, pp. 13-24, March 1953.
The relations between climate and cattle production
are examined through the monsoonal cycle of wet and
dry seasons in an area of some 40,000 sq. miles at the
base of the Cape York Peninsula, where holdings are
large, almost entirely unfenced and supplementary
feed never given. As the industry is at present organ-
ized, the variability in the onset and duration of the
monsoonal rains appears an almost insuperable ob-
stacle to increased productivity. The possibilities of
supplementing feed by locally grown fodder crops,
though severely limited, may compel increased atten-
2454. The Mallee Region. Resources Survey. Central
Planning Authority, Melbourne, 1952, pp. 97.
The Mallee is the largest Planning Region in Victoria
with an area of 14,934 sq. miles, or 16-4% of the state,
and one of the most distinctive. The topography is low
and almost featureless, and the climate is character-
ized by its warmth and dryness, the average rainfall
ranging from o1 to 14 ins. A very detailed account
is given of the climate, and the importance of irrigation
and underground water is stressed. With only 2-5% of
the state population the region produces about 30% of
its wheat, 50% of its citrus crop, and 99% of its dried
vine fruits. Over one quarter of the population resides
in the Mildura and Swan Hill urban areas.-D.W.F.
2455. The Namoi Region. A Preliminary Survey of
Resources, Division of Reconstruction and De-
velopment, Premier's Department, Sydney 1952,
This is one of the larger regions of N.S.W., with an
area of 23,851 sq. miles, and though including a por-
tion of the western slopes of the New England Plateau,
almost 80% of the Region consists of plains. The clim-
ate is transitional from humid to semi-arid, the prin-
cipal vegetation consisting of savannah woodlands, but
much cleared for farming. The higher S.E. portion of
the region has suffered serious gully erosion, the area
affected being almost one-third of the gully-eroded land
in the state. Agriculture dominates the economy, and
employs 38% of the working population, with wool and
wheat as the chief products. Possessing 8% of the state
population, the region produces 15'5% of its wheat and
about 14% of its wool. Mineral production is unim-
portant, but the present small coal output may increase
in the future.
Abstract No. 2309 in No. 14 of this journal (New-
castle Region) contained a statement that 42% of the
working population is engaged in mining. This means
that 42% of all mine and quarry workers in N.S.W.
wbrk in the Newcastle region, not that 42% of the New-
castle region workers are miners. Abstract No. 2,308
should have included a reference to the preliminary
survey of the Upper Murray region (1947).-D.W.F.
2456. Tropical Cyclones in the South-west Pacific.
J. W. Hutchings. New Zealand Geographer, pp.
37-57, April 1953.
The recently established closer network of surface
and upper air observations in the region between
0-30o S, 150o E-I5o0 W allows a more detailed study
of the economically important tropical cyclones. They
number about 4 per year, almost exclusively between
December and March. They form prevalently in a band
extending from the Ellice Islands through the New
Hebrides towards northern Queensland and originate
either within the tropical convergence zone or from
waves in the zonal current from the east. The tropical
cyclones of the S.W. Pacific are distinguished from
those of other regions by the relative rareness of an
initial westward motion which prevails only in Febru-
ary; in the other months the majority of cyclones
moves from the start with an eastward component. The
winds at Fiji at 30,000 ft seem to indicate that their
movement is determined by the direction of the upper
2457. Dordick, I. L. Climate and Human Welfare in
Australian New Guinea. Baltimore, U.S.A., 1951,
pp. 460 photostatt).
This is the author's doctor's thesis of the Johns
Hopkins University. He starts with a discussion of the
physiological strains which are, in a humid and hot
climate, connected with the maintenance of the thermal
balance of the human body at rest and work and also
with that of cattle, sheep and pigs. In the absence of
satisfactory field observations this discussion is largely
based on laboratory experiments. The physical features
of the eastern half of New Guinea are described and a
survey of the meagre data on the climatic conditions
is given, particularly those directly or indirectly influ-
encing the conditions of living and working. This leads
to a description of the spatial and temporal distribu-
tion of evapotranspiration according to Thornthwaite.
The N.G. soils are practically unknown, climatic
and petrographic features are better known. Agricul-
turally most of the soils are poor. The author deals
briefly with plant formations, and with tropical dis-
eases in relation to the climate. The influences of the
tropical climate of N.G., directly or through the influ-
ence of fungi and insects, upon materials and food-
stuffs are examined. In N.G.'s economy the importance
of gold is declining, that of copra rising, but the
country is still almost undeveloped. Finally the N.G.
climate is assessed according to human comfort, with
extensive use of the concept of 'effective temperature'.
The best methods of clothing, house construction, pre-
vention of epidemics, husbandry and agriculture are
discussed. It is found that climate is not a decisive
factor in the economic and social state of N.G.-F.L.
2458. Bowden, K. M. George Bass, 1771i-803; his dis-
coveries, romantic life and tragic disappearance.
Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 1952, pp.
171. Price 2Is.
A full length biography of the explorer, documented
from family papers and other unpublished as well as
published material. A detailed account is given of his
youth and naval service, of his exploring expeditions,
and of his ventures in commerce in Sydney and the
South Sea Islands, and the accounts of his last voyage
and disappearance are critically examined.
2459. Cooper, H. M. French exploration in South Aus-
tralia with especial reference to Encounter Bay,
Kangaroo Island, the two gulfs, and Murat Bay,
1802-3. Author, Adelaide, 1952. Price 22s. 6d.
Assembles in translation from the published account
and from several unpublished journals a detailed ac-
count of the S.A. portion of Baudin's voyage.
2460. Hawdon, J The Journal of a journey from New
South Wales to Adelaide . performed in 1838
by Mr Joseph Hawdon. Georgian House, Mel-
bourne, 1952, pp. 65. Price 2is.
The leader's diary of the first expedition driving
cattle overland from Port Phillip to Adelaide, contain-
ing numerous details on the natives encountered on the
way and a description of the country traversed.
2461. Mackaness, G. (Ed.) A Chronology of Momentous
Events in Australian History 1788-1846. D. S.
Ford, Sydney, 1952, pp. 55 and 48. Price 26s. 3d.
This work is in two parts, the first, between 1788 and
1828, by Robert Howe, the second, between 1829 and
1846, by Francis Low, which have not been published
since 1828 and 1847 respectively. Both records become
more full as they come closer to the publication date.
Eleven plates are included, and the whole is examined
in the notes and commentary.
2462. Levy, M. I. Governor George Arthur: a colonial
benevolent despot. Georgian House, Melbourne,
I953, pp. 412. Price 5os.
The account covers the whole of Arthur's career, with
most emphasis on his governorship of Tasmania, for
which he makes extensive use of material in the Tas-
manian Archives. His determination to reject in ad-
vance all criticism of Arthur is too emphatic to carry
2463. Miller, E. Morris. Pressmen and Governors: Aus-
tralian Editors and Writers in Early Tasmania.
Angus and Robertson, Sydney, 1952, pp. 308.
The author examines in detail the background and
literary work of fourteen writers whose activity dis-
tinguished the Tasmanian press in the 1820's and 30's.
The relationship between the writers and government
is examined to the extent necessary to clarify the
position of the pressmen.
2464. Hasluck, Paul. The government and the people
1939-41. [Australia in the War of 1939-45, ser-
ies 4 Civil, vol. i.] Australian War Memorial,
Canberra, 1952 , pp. 644. Price 25s.
In this volume, the first of two, the author covers
in detail the political aspects of Australia's participa-
tion in the war up to the entry of Japan. Military and
economic affairs are excluded for treatment in other
volumes. The writer has had free access to all official
documents, including the records of Cabinet and the
War Advisory Council, and has supplemented these
by discussion with many of the participants in the
2465. Militant Labour in Queensland, 1912-27. A. A.
Morrison. Royal Australian Historical Society,
Journal & Proceedings, Vol. xxxviii, Part v, pp.
This is an account of the unsuccessful attempts of
the militant industrial wing to gain a dominant posi-
tion in the Queensland labour movement. The narra-
tive includes information on a number of the points of
conflict within the movement: the issue of industrial
versus craft union organization; the One Big Union
movement, the division between the unrepentant advo-
cates of direct action and those who preferred to rely
upon political reform; the struggle for control of the
parliamentary labour party; the developing contradic-
tion between governmental responsibility and labour
idealism following success in the election of 1915.
Throughout the article the A.R.U. (originally the
Queensland Railway Union) is treated as the core of
the militants, and space is given to the conflict be-
tween the A.R.U. and the A.W.U.
2466. Sir John Forrest and Australian Federation. I.
Bastin. Australian Quarterly, Vol. xxiv, No. 4,
pp. 23-50, December 1952.
Mr Bastin indicates the paradox that although re-
garded as the hero of W.A., Sir John Forrest is cen-
sured, even in that state, as an anti-Federationist. This
article maintains that Sir John was in fact sympathetic
to the union since 'he was, above all, a statesman and
an Empire builder.' Insofar as he did impede the
movement, it was in the (ultimately vain) attempt to
secure privileges, to which he sincerely believed W.A.
2467. Co-operative Federalism in Retrospect. S. R.
Davis. Historical Studies. Australia and New
Zealand, pp. 212-33, November, 1952.
A vital, but neglected, factor in Australian federal-
ism-the trend towards inter-governmental co-operation
under the impetus and leadership of the Common-
wealth-has a long history. The author examines the
origins of this trend in the pre-Federation period, a
number of the conditions which encouraged its growth,
the sources of leadership, the principal organs of co-
operation as each has assumed importance, and the
changing process. In the final section the view that the
conflicts between political parties involve a serious
check to the trend towards co-operation is discounted.
2468. New Zealand and Australian Federation. E. J.
Tapp. Historical Studies, Australia and N.Z., pp.
244-57, November, 1952.
This article traces the fluctuations, and the reasons
for them, in N.Z.'s attitude towards federation with the
Australian colonies from I85o's until 19oo. The chief
consideration attracting N.Z. towards entering a federa-
tion was that of defence; but ultimately other factors--
questions of trade and commerce, pre-occupation with
internal problems such as the Maori wars and their
after effects, fear that federation might jeopardize close
relationship with England, etc.-combined together to
induce her to retain her independence.
2469. New Zealand Land Legislation. J. D. N.
McDonald. Historical Studies, Australia and New
Zealand, pp. 195-211, November 1952.
for some three quarters of a century the formu-
lation of a policy with regard to the land which the
government of the day had at its disposal was by far
the most keenly debated question in the country's
political life.' The author analyses the theories and
practices applied to the regulation of land disposal
from the early provincial period through to the early
twentieth century, by which time little valuable land
remained in Crown hands and the principle of freehold
tenure was being firmly established. Particular atten-
tion is given to the political struggles over the desirable
form of tenure in the latter part of the nineteenth
century. There is a critical revision of Reeves' judgments
on the policies and results of this period.
2470. The American Influence on the Australian
Labour Movement. L. G. Churchward. Historical
Studies, Australia and New Zealand, pp. 258-77,
The article deals first with the influence of three
American radical writers-Bellamy, Gronlund, and
Henry George-on the Australian labour movement.
The influence of American labour organizations, the
Knights of Labour (during the I89o's); the I.W.W.
(1907-16); and the Socialist Party and Socialist-Labour
Party are discussed at some length. Since 1920 the Rus-
sian (Communist) movement has largely replaced the
American (Socialist) movement as the chief influence
on the extreme left of the Australian labour movement.
2471. Sir Charles Gavan Duffy: Young Irelander and
Imperial Statesman. Helen F. Mulvey. Canadian
Historical Review. Toronto, December 1952.
The Irish patriot, Sir Charles Gavan Duffy, came to
Australia in 1855. His career here was most distin-
guished, but in 1879 he returned to Europe perman-
ently. From this time until his death twenty-four years
later he was occupied in writing the history of 'Young
Ireland', and interested in all questions of Irish inde-
pendence. He was always 'conservative in spirit', and
his reasonable attitude was in happy contrast to the
violent feeling of that age. Miss Mulvey makes some
interesting, though necessarily brief, reflections on
Duffy's life, and suggests 'certain continuities between
the earlier and later portions of his career'. The article
is concerned chiefly with his later years.
(A) Constitutional Law
2472. Else-Mitchell, R. Essays on the Australian Con-
stitution. Law Book Co. of Australasia, Sydney,
1952, pp. 319. Price f2 2s.
This book contains II essays by authors chosen for
their knowledge of the Australian constitution and its
interpretation. These essays represent a record of some
aspects of the progress of Australian federalism over
the past half century. They do not attempt to cover
the entire field of Australian constitutional history
but merely highlight particular features of Australian
federalism and of the constitution.
2473. Changing the Constitution. Sir John Latham.
Sydney Law Review, pp. 14-45, April 1953.
An analysis of the Constitution in which its present
day r8le is contrasted with that which it was required
to play in 19o0. Each section is considered in the light
of how far it can be said to be consistent with the ideas
and adequate to the requirements of the present age.
The changes in the judicial interpretation of various
sections are mentioned and proposals for legislative
amendment are discussed.
2474. Davis, S. R. A Unique Federal Institution. Uni-
versity of Western Australia Annual Law Review,
pp. 350-404, December 1952.
A study of the origins, the structure, functions and
scope and the operation of the Australian Loan Council
The author further considers the law relating to the
enforcement of Loan Council decisions. Finally there
is an examination of the compatibility of the Loan
Council with the dual principles of responsible govern-
ment and federalism.
2475. The Main Frustrations of the Economic Func-
tions of Government Caused by Section 92 and
Possible Escapes Therefrom. R. Anderson. Aus-
tralian Law Journal, Part i, pp. 518-24, February
1953; continued (Part ii), March 1953, pp.
An examination of the way in which s. 92 frus-
trates the carrying out of the economic functions of
the Commonwealth. This is considered in relation to
organized marketing schemes, the nationalization of
industry and the exercise of control over trade or
industry by means of a license system. The author
argues that a combination of Commonwealth and
state powers with the principle of making the export
trade more attractive than interstate trade in fields
where private enterprise relies on the provision of
facilities and benefits by the government would be one
way by which the government would be able to carry
out its economic policy and yet not contravene s. 92.
2476. The Independence of Judges. Z. Cowen and D. P.
Derham. Australian Law Journal, pp. 462-7,
Early in 1952, a Victorian judge was admonished by
the executive for having made critical remarks about
government housing policy from the Bench. The authors
examine the law relating to judicial independence in
England and Australia with particular reference to
dismissal, suspension, and admonition. The conclusion
is that it was improper for the executive to have acted
as it did, and that there is no power to admonish a
judge. The only power is to remove a judge in ac-
cordance with the legal provisions relating to removal.
2477. Inter-State and International Divorce Recogni-
tion. R. P. Roulston. Australian Law Journal, pp.
400-7, December 1952.
An examination of the validity within the Australian
Commonwealth of interstate divorce decrees. The com-
mon law principles which regular the intete nrnational
validity of divorce decrees are first considered. The
author then examines the way in which these prin-
ciples are modified by the operation of the 'full faith
and credit' clause of the constitution (s. 118) and the
judicial interpretation placed upon this section in a
recent decision of the Victorian Supreme Court.
2478. Interstate Enforcement of Maintenance and
Alimony Decrees. J. G. Fleming. Australian Law
Journal, pp. 407-12, December 1952.
The facilities available for the interstate enforcement
of maintenance and alimony awards is a question of
considerable practical significance. The author makes
a critical analysis of the two legislative schemes de-
signed to govern the extra-territorial operation and
enforcement of maintenance and alimony decrees which
are operative in Australia. The decision of Davis v.
Davis and the interpretation this case places upon the
sections of the Service and Execution of Process Act
relevant to the enforcement of maintenance and ali-
mony awards is also discussed. Finally the probable
relevance and effect of s. 118 of the Constitution is
(D) Industrial Law
2479. Conciliation Committees in the Commonwealth
Jurisdiction. D. C. Thomson. Australian Law
Journal, pp. 470-1, January 1953.
A discussion as to whether legislation providing for
the re-introduction of conciliation committees into the
Commonwealth jurisdiction would be ultra vires s. 51
(xxv). The limits of the powers so conferred upon the
Commonwealth Parliament are considered in the light
of the recent trend of High Court decisions dealing
with the interpretation of the conciliation and arbitra-
(E) Legal Education
2480. Observations on Legal Education in Australia.
E. N. Griswold. University of Western Australia
Annual Law Review, pp. 197-214, December
1952. Also Annual of Legal Education, pp. 139-
Dean Griswold of the Harvard Law School visited
Australia under the auspices of the Australian Uni-
versities Law Schools Association in 1951. He visited
Queensland, New South Wales, Canberra, Victoria and
Tasmania. This is a commentary on Australian legal
education as Dean Griswold viewed it. He has some
complimentary observations to make on the quality
of Australian law teachers, but draws attention also
to a number of deficiencies: the smallness of full-
time teaching staffs; the system which obtains in some
states of part-time attendance at the University. This
is an important and acute study.
2481. Paton, G. W. The Commonwealth of Australia:
The Development of its Laws and Constitution.
Stevens & Sons, London, 1952, pp. 355.
This volume, under the general editorship of G. W.
Paton, is the second of a series dealing with the de-
velopment of law within the British Commonwealth.
The topics covered are those aspects of the Australian
law which constitute a departure from, or a develop-
ment of, English views. The first part deals with the
reception of the common law and the constitutional
background. The second, which is headed 'Private Law',
covers the fields of real property, family law, succession,
procedure and pleading and the organization of the
legal profession in Australia. Part 3 which is entitled
'Legislative Intervention in the Life of the Community'
is an assessment of the impact of legislative interven-
tion on the Australian economy.
2482. The Finality of Judicial Decisions. T. P. Fry.
University of Queensland Law Journal, pp. 9-21,
An examination of the doctrine of res judicata with
particular reference to the requirement that a judgment
must be final before the doctrine of res judicata is
applicable. The rules which determine when a judicial
tribunal becomes functus officio and hence may be said
to have given a final and conclusive decision are ex-
amined in detail.
2483. The Marxist Thegry of Matter and Mind. S. A.
Grove. Australian Quarterly, pp. 91-1o2, March
Marxist classics contend that matter is temporally
and causally prior to mind, but contain no systematic
argument for this. Theism is disposed of by a sociolo-
gical critique of religion, i.e. by the principle: "Don't
ask what reasons there are for an opinion, look for its
psychological or economic 'causes', and if you find any
plausible ones assume the opinion is false." Marxist
theory is supposed to .be supported by (a) the findings
of natural science, especially neurology and geology,
(b) the appeal to 'practice'. But (i) the second law of
thermodynamics is hard to square with the Marxist
theory, (2) if someone produces philosophical argument
for doubting that his table exists as a material thing
independent of his experience, an appeal to geology to
refute him is circular. (3) Lenin uncritically accepted
the premiss that the direct object of perception is a
phenomenon in the mind of the perceiver. It follows
that we can know nothing about the causes, if any, of
these mental phenomena. (4) If material forces deter-
mine men's motives and the way they reason, are men
free to change the world and can there be valid infer-
2484. Self-interest and Duty. Jonathan Harrison. Aus-
tralasian Journal of Philosophy, vol. xxxi, No. I,
pp. 22-9, May 1953.
Though the promotion of my own interest (e.g. the
pursuit of my own happiness) cannot be my only duty
it is one of my duties. It can be an onerous duty and
it can be highly praiseworthy to do it when my strong
inclinations conflict with it. A conflict of duties can
arise, e.g. in a certain case my duty to tell the truth
may conflict with my duty to keep promises. But the
problem of conflict of duties can be solved. As a special
case of this my duty to promote my own interest may
on occasions conflict with some other duty. But apart
from this there is no antinomy between duty and in-
terest. Interest is a part of duty, and between duty and
a part of duty there can be no conflict.
2485. Some Effects of Frustration: I. A Methodological
Programme. F. N. Cox. Australian Journal of
Psychology, pp. 94-1o6, December 1952.
The writer urges the necessary synthesis of the
'clinical' and the 'experimental' approaches to the
study of personality. He argues for the desirability of
rigorous studies of 'rich' clinical concepts. He ex-
amines the theories of frustration, in particular that
of Freud, linking frustration through anxiety to
aggression and regression, that of Lewin linking frus-
tration to dedifferentiation and 'primitivization' and
that of the Yale group who have further developed the
frustration-aggression formulation. A pilot study is
reported and a programme of further research indi-
cated, designed to test these theoretical positions for
their likelihood in pointing the way to new knowledge.
2486. Problems for a Theory of Social Learning. J. P.
Sutcliffe. Australian Journal of Psychology, pp.
107-25, December 1952.
The psychology of social learning is defined as the
study of learning processes in so far as these are in-
fluenced by social and cultural factors. Current learn-
ing theories are of little value to social scientists in
that they ignore or minimize the social-cultural con-
text of learning and that an insufficient range of
learned phenomena is considered. It is useful to dis-
tinguish among the products, the processes and the
principles of learning and to separate means and ends.
Within such a framework the acquisition of attitudes,
values and motives as well as of skills can be elabor-
ated. Special attention must be given to the cognitive
ordering of ends and to changes in the ends them-
selves by goal-reorientation, emotional generalization
2487. The Statistical Analysis of Interview Records.
P. Lafitte. Australian Journal of Psychology
pp. 126-40, December 1952.
Information gathered through interview records is
difficult to analyse, mainly in determining what are
the variables to be used, and the categorizations of these
variables. Further difficulties lie in the assumptions
made in examining the association of these variables.
It is suggested that the commonly used methods for
examining the association of variables make more as-
sumptions than are necessary and in any case lose
information unnecessarily. A statistical routine is sug-
gested which reduces the associations among the vari-
ables to a set of taxonomic (successively dichotomous)
scales. An example is given together with suggested
tests of significance. It is shown that this method gives
all the information of the usual methods and a good
deal more besides.
2488. Some Comments on the Experimental Method.
W. M. O'Neil. Australian Journal of Psychology,
pp. 141-8, December 1952.
The conventional conception of an experiment em-
braces the notions of experimental observation and the
rule of one variable. Each of these implies the idea of
control, in the first in the sense of deliberate inter-
vention in the course of natural events and in the
second in the elimination by experiment or by appro-
priate selection of data or by statistical control of other
conditions which might account for the phenomenon.
The word control properly applies to the conditions
which produce a certain pattern of consistency and
variation. Psychology uses clinical methods and sur-
veys as well as experiment. These former are ordinarily
concerned in discovering what is most typical. The
charges of artificiality, unrepresentativeness and trivi-
ality sometimes brought against psychological experi-
mentation arise in part from a misunderstanding of the
role of experiment, which is most important where the
investigation-yielded data bear upon the implications
of some significant hypothesis.
2489. Temperament and Personality. C. J. Adcock.
Australian Journal of Psychology, pp. 149-65,
A factor analysis has been made of 29 variables
found most highly loaded in a cluster analysis of 59
items representative of the factors found by previous
analyses or suggested by main temperament theories.
The factors agree with the original analysis. Evidence
is found for three factors which agree with Burt's three
dimensions of emotionality. These factors are referred
to as emotional liability, sthenic-asthenic and euthymic-
dysthymic. Three further factors are identified as gen-
eral drive, kindliness and obsessional tendency.
2490. Instincts and Impulses. J. R. Maze. Australian
Journal of Psychology, pp. 77-93, December 1952.
The 'compound reflex' and the 'congenital impulse'
theories of instinct are discussed. The author contends
that the evidence for innate action patterns of the
'compound reflex' type is sufficient but that this theory
does not account for the adaptability of much behaviour
conveniently referred to as 'instinctive'. The 'congeni-
tal impulse' view is rejected since it necessarily as-
sumes, it is contended, innate knowledge of the goal
of the act. Further there is no objective evidence of
the 'states of need' assumed to underlie these impulses.
The defects of the 'compound reflex' view is to be
remedied by the recognition of mental qualities and of
the fact of cognition.
2491. Selection Tests for Machine-shop Operators. A.
J. Wyndham. Bulletin of Industrial Psychology
and Personnel Practice, pp. 12-21, September,
This study was concerned with selecting operators
for drilling, tapping and hand-press operations in a
light engineering firm. Critical worker demands were
speed of movement and finger-wrist manipulation. The
tests used were the Minnesota Rate of Manipulation
Test and a newly-devised Deburring Test. Forty opera-
tors were tested and checked for criteria (i) foremen's
ratings and (ii) bonus earnings. Significant correlations
were obtained. Criterion scores were unaffected by age
or experience for the sample tested. Multiple correla-
tions were computed and tables of critical scores pre-
TERRITORIES AND NATIVE
2492. Berndt, R. M. and Catherine H. The First Aus-
tralians. Ure Smith, Sydney, 1952, pp. 144. Price
A handbook introducing the general reader to the
social anthropology of the aborigines. It is based on
the authors' own experience during their expeditions
in S.A., Arnhem Land and other parts of the Con-
tinent. There are some details of interest to the anthro-
pologist, e.g., the authors demonstrate that the assump-
tion of only one homogeneous Australian aboriginal
race was a fallacy, because there are actually widely
different racial types in various parts of Australia with
varying skin pigment, different physique and height,
hair structure, etc. The life cycle of the average abori-
ginal is described with special attention to psychic and
emotional life. Symbolism is a characteristic of the
people's intellectual activities, religious beliefs and
rituals. Aboriginal art, as religious-mythological ex-
pression, is explained and illustrated.
2493. A Cargo Movement in the Eastern Central High-
lands of New Guinea. R. M. Berndt. Oceania,
pp. 40-63, Vol. xxiii, No. I, September 1952, pp.
137-58, No. 2, December 1952, pp. 202-34, No. 3,
An article based on two recent expeditions made by
Mr and Mrs Berndt. The introduction deals with 'Social
and Cultural Background', as the anthropologists saw
it immediately after the (official) termination of fight-
ing and declaration of the area as 'controlled' (1950).
The author points out that the only social unit to
show relatively consistent solidarity was the patri-
lineage. He studies the level of development which
led to the culmination in the cargo movement: first
the effect of the appearance of the earliest aircraft over
the area (1930), the natives' initial experience with
European goods, such as cloth. They then regarded
the Europeans as benevolent spirits, but this was fol-
lowed by a period of rumours, distortions and strange
alterations in the natives' mode of life: snakes sent
by Europeans would kill all pregnant women, all black
pigs would die, spirits of the dead had returned to
Kainantu to distribute valuable objects among rela-
tives. This created an atmosphere of tension and a cargo
movement in the district (1947) and in neighboring
areas. The economic aspect was predominant, they
wished to incorporate the alien into their framework of
2494. Australia's Future in New Guinea. J. McAuley.
Pacific Affairs, Richmond, Virginia, pp. 59-69,
Vol. xxvi, No. i, March 1953.
With the extension of educational facilities there
might be in future a native intelligentsia demanding
political attention. Outside the territory anti-colonial
sentiments become increasingly vocal. The natives them-
selves would not consider transfer to Indonesian con-
trol as progress. Permanent domination by Australia
is not practically possible; the choice is between inde-
pendence and incorporation into the Australian Com-
monwealth on the basis of equality. The author advo-
cates the latter course which might mean maintaining
the New Guinea people at Australian standards. As
this is economically impracticable in New Guinea, the
surplus population should be absorbed by Australia,
and many would migrate to Queensland. The question
is whether the Australians would accept this.
2495. Implications of Policy in New Guinea. C. S.
Belshaw. Australian Quarterly, Vol. xxv, No. I,
pp. 79-90, March 1953.
Much of Australia's policy implies that New Guinea
will eventually become a state within the Common-
wealth. This view, however, overlooks that such an
incorporation means full citizenship for the Papuans
and economic equality for the territory. There is not
yet a truly nationalist movement, 'but there is much
interest in the development of a Papuan, as distinct from
a European, culture. In unsophisticated areas the cargo
cult is common, and a variety of movements is aiming
at various cultural, economic and political objectives
which are almost certain to develop into a kind of
nationalism'. 'These people may find their political
future closer to an independent union with Dutch New
Guinea and the British Solomons than to incorporation
in White Australia'. A skilful Australian administra-
tion should develop such a national group 'in such a
way that is is friendly to Australia, self-reliant and
2496. Notes on Some Land Use Problems in Papua and
New Guinea. W. L. Conroy. Australian Geo-
grapher, Vol. vi, No. 2, pp. 25-30, March 1953.
Indigenous agriculture is based on 'bush fallowing'
rotation. Then there is commercial agricultural pro-
duction developed along plantation lines, which has
led to antagonism between native and colonial agri-
cultural practices. The native custom of burning off
the entire vegetation of an area for hunting creates a
major problem. It exposes pigs, small rodents and
other animals and results in the spectacular retreat of
forest margins. Wide extension of grassland and loss
of timber reserves is associated with the burning prac-
tice, often also loss of top soil, soil erosion, progressive
laterization. The main soil research needed would be
field investigation, backed by physical and chemical
laboratory analysis, to determine the effects of burn-
ing practice on soil mineral and organic constituents.
In conclusion two matters are stressed which need
most urgent attention: the rehabilitation and protec-
tion of river catchment areas and the halting of lateri-
zation on the high mountain plateaus.
2497. Industrialization in the South Pacific. C. S. Bel-
shaw. South Pacific Commission Quarterly Bulle-
tin, Vol. 3, No. i, pp. 2-4, January 1953.
In some areas without industrial opportunities there
was some overseas migration, e.g., of Cook Islanders to
N.Z. and from American Samoa to Hawaii. Industry
is needed where agricultural resources are limited in
relation to population, it would relieve the plight of
atolls, and of mountainous areas in Melanesia without
large gardens or plantations. Most islanders live in
good agricultural areas, but there should be improved
farming methods with cottage and small-craft indus-
tries for fuller employment, many imported articles
could be locally produced. Personal income would be
increased and the territories' local revenue expanded.
Traditional handicrafts should be developed to meet
local demand on a new cultural level, pottery, car-
pentry and canoe making skills might be adapted to
modern demands in brick-making, coral cement work,
furniture making, house and boat building. In some
areas hydro-electric power could be developed.
2496. Revaluation of Time in a Papuan Community.
C. S. Belshaw. South Pacific, pp. 466-72, Novem-
This article deals with the Koita village of Hohodae
and the Motu village of Poreporena, together called
Hanuabada, now a suburb of Port Moresby with 1,144
inhabitants, who have become absorbed into 'urban
life' by having taken up jobs belonging to white civili-
zation. 276 males over 17 are fully employed as clerks,
storemen, carpenters, other building tradesmen, driv-
ers, mechanics, compositors. Many have responsible
posts and most senior native clerks on Government De-
partments are from Hanuabada. They are also over-
seers, cashiers and co-operative inspectors. They are keen
on responsible jobs and high wages, spend extra time
at night school and training to improve qualifications.
However, there is lack of advancement opportunities
and resentment at forms of discipline. These natives
are fully occupied and cannot do any food acquisition
work, except during their two weeks' holiday. Conse-
quently hardly any native food is now being produced
and they prefer staples of bread, rice, tea, sugar, flour,
and tinned meat-which is probably harmful to their
health. Native arts and crafts are reduced to curio
manufacture to be sold to tourists, pottery-once well
developed-has ceased to exist.
2499. The Nimboran Development Project. J. van
Baal. South Pacific, pp. 492-8, 503, December
The Nimboran project in Netherlands New Guinea
is one of two development projects to be subsidized by
the South Pacific Commission (first measures carried
out in 1951, more definite plan in 1952). The area, the
methods and a summary of the plan are set forth in the
article. 2,500 hectares are suitable for agriculture, an-
other 2,500 hectares can be added by draining. The
Nimborans have 23 villages with a total of 2,448 people
and a favourable concentration of population. The
Nimboran tribe consists of exogenous patrilineal clans
of about 50 people each. Exchange of gifts similar to
the N.W. American potlatch is important, particularly
in marriage customs. Instead of the former bride-price
paid in stone axes and glass beads in the last 25 years
it has been paid in money and imported goods like
calico and ironware. It has gone up to 800 Dutch
guilders. To earn the money, the bridegroom usually
goes to Hollandia to work for some years. The absence
of many men is harmful to community life. The lack
of opportunity for earning money within the area is a
problem. So are the unsatisfactory health conditions,
and the rise of cargo cults. The project itself includes
agricultural development and the introduction of mod-
ern farming equipment.
2500. Bibliography of Cargo Cults and Other Nativ-
istic Movements in the South Pacific. Compiled
by Ida Leeson. South Pacific Commission, Tech-
nical Paper, No. 30, pp. 16, July 1952.
This little booklet contains the titles of all publi-
cations on the subject up till July 1952. The arrange-
ment is geographical as follows: General, British Solo-
mon Islands, Fiji, Gilbert and Ellice Islands, Nether-
lands New Guinea, New Caledonia, New Hebrides,
Papua and New Guinea.
INDEX TO Nos. 14 AND 15
Absence from Work, 2416.
Absence from Work, Financial Effects, 2264.
Accountancy, 2245, 2248, 2249, 2400-2402, 2404.
Action Per Quod Servitium Amisit, 2333.
Adcock, C. J., 2489.
Agricultural Machinery, 2234, 2389.
Air Transport in New Zealand, 2257.
Air Transport of Beef, 2254.
Ambrym, New Hebrides, Native Situation, 2352.
Anderson, R., 2475.
Andrews, J., 2449.
Answers to Personality Questionnaires, 2341.
Anti-Communist Bill, Referendum, 2282.
Arndt, H. W., 2237.
Arthur, Governor George, 2462.
Asiatic Migration and New Zealand, 2296.
Aspiration Measures, 2340.
Atkinson, L. H., 2256.
Attendance Bonus Plans, 2417.
Australia, 2298, 2315, 2316, 2317, 2321, 2353, 2354, 2446,
Australia in World Affairs, 2431.
Australian Economy, 2353, 2354.
Australian Federation and N.Z., 2468.
Australian Labour Movement, American Influence,
Australian Laws, 2481.
Australian Party System, 2429.
Australian Politics, 2430.
Australian Resources, 2449, 2451.
Aviation Accounting, 2251.
Ball, W. Macmahon, 2285.
Bailey, A. P., 2269.
Barrett, D., 2347.
Bass, G., 2458.
Basten, H., 2255.
Bastin, I., 2466:
Beattie, W. A., 2270, 2422.
Beef Cattle Industry, 2270, 2271, 2383, 2422.
Belshaw, C. S., 2346, 2495, 2497, 2498.
Bernardelli, H., 2296.
Berndt, Catherine, 2492.
Berndt, R. M., 2492, 2493.
Berry Fruit Industry, 2427.
Betheras, A. J., 2442.
Bishop, F. H., 2257.
Blyth, C. A., 2210o.
Bollen, A., 2389, 2425.
Boulton, E. A., 2261, 2359.
Bowden, K. M., 2458.
Boyd, L. C., 2246.
Boyd, R., 2286.
Break-Even Analysis, 2247.
Brisbane, 2226, 2313.
Broken Hill Lead-Silver-Zinc Industry, 2452.
Brown, P. L., 2320.
Brown, S. R., 2244, 2401.
Buesst, N. M., 2283.
Burns, M. M., 2280.
Butlin, S. J., 2324.
Cameron, R. J., 2413.
Campaign, A. L., 2376.
Capital Structure of Companies, 2250.
Caples, W. J., 2222.
Cargo Movement, 2493, 2500.
Cattle, 2275, 2453.
Central Australia, 2448.
Central Bank Controls, Australian, 2239.
Central Highlands of New Guinea Development Pro-
Central Murray Region, 2308.
Chandler, A. T., 2267.
China, Revolutionary Tradition, 2329.
Chronology of Australian History, 2461.
Churchward, L. G., 2470.
Civil Aviation, 2411.
Clarence Valley, 2308.
Clark, Colin, 2292.
Clark, H. C., 2381.
Clarke, A. C., 2415.
Clarke, Dorothy P., 2326.
Climate, 2314, 2315, 2453, 2457.
Clyde Company, 2320.
Coal, 2230, 2231, 2386.
Cochran, S. F., 2386.
Collins, Joyce A., 2315.
Colonial Office, 2326, 2327.
Colquhoun, T. T., 2384.
Commodity Agreements, Inter-Governmental, 2225.
Commonwealth Court of Conciliation and Arbitration,
Commonwealth Grants Commission, 2241.
Commonwealth Reconstruction Training Scheme, 2441.
Commonwealth-State Financial Relations, 2243, 2397.
Community Development, Papua, 2346.
Community Development, Purari Delta, 2350.
Company Finance, 2403.
Conciliation Committees, 2479.
Conroy, N. L., 2496.
Constitution, Australian, 2281, 2472, 2473, 2475, 2481.
Constitutional Crises in Victoria, 2326.
Cook, James, 2319.
Cook, P. H., 2336.
Cooper, H. M., 2459.
Co-operative Federation, 2467.
Copland, Sir D., 2211, 2367.
Copper and Copper Alloys, 2392.
Cordero, H. G., 2388.
Corporation Accounting, 2248.
Cost Accounting, 2244, 2399, 2405.
Couldrike, J. K., 2307.
Cowen, Z., 2330, 2331, 2476.
Cox, F. N., 2485.
Crawford, R. M., 2316.
Crimp, G. S., 2406.
Cruikshank, R. G., 2404.
Cunningham, K. S., 2437.
Curriculum Construction, Lack of, 2305.
Cyclones, Tropical in South-West Pacific, 2456.
Dairying, 2277, 2380, 2381, 2422-2424.
d'Arcy, R. A., 2374.
Davidson, J. W., 2284.
Davis, S. R., 2467, 2474.
Dawson, B., 2208.
Dean, J., 2247.
De Garis, M. C., 2394.
Dependent Children, 2302.
Derham, D. P., 2476.
Derrick, R. A., 2297.
Disabled Persons, Employment, 2266.
Divorce Law, Commonwealth, 2332.
Divorce Recognition, Interstate and International, 2477.
Donath, E. J., 2378.
Donnelly, A. S., 2405.
Dordick, I. L., 2457.
Dowd, W. D., 2396.
Downey, L. A., 2422.
D. P. Immigrants' Assimilation, 2295.
Dried Fruits Industry, 2426.
Dunn, J. A., 2232.
Dyne, R. E., 2359.
Early Australian Accountancy, 2400.
East, L. R., 2419.
Education, 2443, 2445.
Education in Australia, since 1945, 2304.
Educational Dilemma, 2437.
Educational Research, 2298, 2299, 2444.
Edwards, H. R., 2202.
Eggleston, F. W., 2428.
Elasticity of Demand, 2356.
Else-Mitchell, R., 2472.
Eltham, E. P., 2440, 2441.
Equipment and Material, Rural, 2218.
Erler, G., 2450.
Experimental Methods, 2488.
Factory Accidents Reduction, 2287.
Farmers, Age of, 2293.
Fat Lamb, Cost Movements, 2273.
Fat Lamb, Production Regions in S.E. Australia, 2274.
Feldmann, J., 2317.
Fennessy, B. V., 2268.
Fernon, B. J., 2228.
Ferrous Foundry Industry, 2391.
Fibres, Industrial, 2371.
Field Research, 2336.
Fitzgerald, A. A., 2245.
Fitzgerald, C. P., 2329.
Fitzpatrick, F. L., 2367.
Flecker, R., 2337.
Fleming, J. G., 2478.
Foenander, 0. de R., 2258, 2559.
Food Consumption in U.K., 2208.
Food Production, Australian and U.K., 2219.
Foreign Affairs Committee, 2283.
Forrest, Sir John and Australian Federation, 2466.
Fraser, Sheila B., 2293.
Freight Rate, Minerals, 2410.
Fremantle, Italian Fishermen, 2289.
French Exploration in South Australia, 2459.
Frenzel, K., 2451.
Frustration, Effects of, 2485.
Frustration of Economic Government Functions by
Section 92 of Constitution, 2475.
Fry, T. P., 2482.
Full Employment, 2205.
Full Faith and Credit, 2331.
Furness, R. G., 2246.
Futures Markets, Wool, 2374.
Gamba, C., 2289.
Gas Industry, 2386.
Gates, R. C., 2398.
Gavan Duffy, Sir Charles, 2471.
Gentilli, J., 2314.
Giblin, L. F., 2355.
Gillies, F. D., 2435-
Goldberg, L., 2400.
Goodwill and Normal Costs, 2202.
Grayson, A. R., 2422.
Griswold, E. N., 2480.
Grogan, F. 0., 2364, 2389.
Groom, A., 2448.
Grove, S. A., 2483.
Gruen, F. H., 2275.
Guiart, J., 2351, 2352.
Gunn, K. L., 2238.
Hannah, R. T., 2375.
Harper, N. D., 2323.
Harrison, J., 2484.
Hartwell, R. M., 2324.
Hasluck, P., 2464.
Hawdon, J., 2460.
Hempel, J. A., 2226, 2294.
Henning, Rachel, 2318.
Henning, R. B., 2318.
Herbert, H. W., 2430.
Hewitt, A. C. T., 2422.
Hieser, R., 2200.
Holder, R. F., 2211.
Holmes, Sir Maurice, 2319
Home, Australia's, 2286.
Horner, F. B., 2227, 2356.
Housing Commission (Trust), 2432, 2433.
Housing, Income, Saving, 2288.
Howie, D., 2341.
Huddleston, E. B., 2278.
Human Welfare and Climate, 2457.
Hutchings, J. W., 2456.
Hypothetico-Deductive Method, 2338.
Illawarra Region, 2308.
Immigration, Economics of, 2436.
Independence of Judges, 2476.
Industrial Power, Commonwealth Parliament, 2412.
Industrialization in South Pacific, 2497.
Ingleton, G. C., 2321.
Instincts and Impulses, 2490.
Insurance and Balance of Payments, 2240.
Interview Records, Statistical Analysis, 2487.
Investigation, Bureau of, 2272.
Iron and Steel, 2388.
Isaac, J. E., 2414.
Isherwood, R., 2264.
Island Territories, New Zealand, 2344.
Jackson, Loreley, 2265.
Jacobs, Marjorie G., 2327.
Jervis, J., 2325.
Job Evaluation, 2267.
Journey from N.S.W. to Adelaide in 1838, 2460.
Judicial Decisions, Finality, 2482.
Keddie, J. M., 2368.
Kelly, J. H., 2383.
Keown, K. C., 2250, 2403.
Kuhn, J. W., 2260.
Labour Costs, 2220.
Labour Law and Relations, Australian, 2258.
Labour Turnover, 2262, 2263, 2415.
Lachlan Region, 2308.
Laffer, K., 2436.
Lafitte, P., 2487.
La Nauze, J. A., 2397.
Land Development, 2207.
Land Legislation, N.Z., 2469.
Land Use Problems in Papua-New Guinea, 2496.
Lane, W. R., 2395.
Lang, P. S., 2268.
Laseron, C. F., 2446.
Latham, Sir J., 2412, 2473.
Lau, G. A., 2406.
Leeson, Ida., 2500.
Legal Education, 2480.
Legislative Council, Papua-New Guinea, 2347.
Lengyel, S. J., 2240.
Levy, M. I., 2462.
Liberal, Reflections of Australian, 2428.
Life Office Investment, 2396.
Lloyd, A. G., 2225.
Loan Council, Australian, 2474.
Logic and Accounting, 24o0.
Lovibond, S. H., 2342.
McAuley, J., 2348, 2494.
McConnell, H. G., 2274.
McDonald, J. D. N., 2469.
McDonald, Sir Ross, 2243.
Machine-Shpp Operators, Selection Tests, 2491.
Mackaness, ., 2461.
McKay, D. H., 2207.
Macquarie Region, 2308.
Maintenance and Alimony Decrees, Interstate Enforce-
Mallee Region, 2454.
Management Training, 222, 2223.
Manufacturing Industries, 2361.
Maori Nationalism, 2328.
Maori Population of Northern New Zealand, 2343.
Marginal Costing, 2405.
Maritime Trade, 2226.
Martin, R. T., 2339.
Marxist Theory, Matter and Mind, 2483.
Master Bakers' Association, 2393.
Materials Handling, Wool, 2373.
Materials in Short Supply, Conservation, 2369.
Matthews, R. L., 2249.
Maximization and Business Behaviour, 220r.
Maze, J. R., 2490.
Melanesian Nationalism, 2351.
Metge, Joan, 2343.
Meyer, R. H., 2417.
Migration in Queensland, 2294.
Militant Labour in Queensland, 2465.
Miller, I. M., 2463.
Monaro-South Coast Region, 231o.
Money, 2237, 2395.
Moral Statements as Proposals, 2334.
Moran, E. J., 2417.
Morrison, A. A., 2465.
Motor Vehicle Industry, 2235.
Mulvey, Helen F., 2471.
Murphy, H. B. M., 2295.
Murrumbidgee Region, 2308.
Namoi Region, 2455.
Nationalism and Communism in East Asia, 2285.
National Income, 2372.
National Product in France, 2209.
Neale, E. P., 2290, 2360.
Needs of Worker, 2413.
Newcastle Region, 2309, 2455.
New Guinea, 2327, 2347-2350, 2457, 2493-2496, 2499.
New South Wales, 2275-2277, 2279, 2308, 2421, 2425.
New Zealand, 2210, 2221, 2233, 2256, 2257, 2262, 2280,
2290, 2296, 2328, 2343, 2344, 2406, 2423, 2424, 2444,
2445, 2468, 2469.
Nicholas, H. S., 2280.
Nimboran Development Project, 2499.
Ninety-Mile Plain, 2307.
Non-Ferrous Metals Industry, 2392.
Non Profit-Making Concerns, Accounting, 2402.
Normal Costs, 2202.
Normality, Notion of, 2339.
North Australia, 2270, 2271, 2383, 2453.
O'Neil, W. M., 2338, 2488.
Overacker, Louise, 2429.
Papua, 2345-2348, 2350, 2496, 2498.
Parish, R., 2276, 2425.
Parkyn, G. W., 2300.
Parliamentary Sovereignty and Legal Change, 2330.
Pastoral Areas, 2269.
Pasture Improvements, 2365.
Paton, G. W., 2481.
Patton, D., 2233.
Penny, R., 2335.
Petrol, Under Water Drilling, 2387.
Pitman, F. L., 2368.
Planning in Business, 2367.
Plantation Crops, 2385.
Polaschek, R. J., 2256.
Political Dependency, 2284.
Pollard, A. H., 2291.
Population Trends, Australian, 229f, 2292.
Powell, S., 2367.
Pre-School Needs and Migration, 2303.
Prescott, J. A., 2315.
Pressmen and Governors, 2463.
Prest, W., 2288.
Price, G., 2395.
Prices Received and Paid by Farmers, 2363.
Primary Production, 2214, 2216-2218, 2353.
Primary School Studies, 2301.
Production, Australian, 2216.
Production Cost Surveys, 2364.
Profit Insurance, 2246.
Queensland, 2213, 2261, 2272, 2294, 2453, 2465.
Queensland Regional Surveys, 2312.
Radford, W. C., 2304.
Railways, 2252, 2253, 2407-2409.
Rainfall Variability, 2421.
Read, K. E., 2349.
Real Income in U.K., 2357.
Real Wages and Output, 2203.
Reid, P. A., 2365.
Resources Surveys, N.S.W., 23o8-231o.
Revaluation of Time, 2498.
River Improvement, Drainage, Flood Protection, 2419.
Riverina, Western, 2325.
Road Transport Fares, 2256.
Robinson, K. W., 2311.
Rodger, W. G., 2406.
Ross, Clunies, 2439.
Roulston, E. P., 2477.
Routley, N. H., 2220.
Rubber Industry, Papua, 2345.
Rural Labour Productivity, 2265, 2359.
Rural Schools, Consolidation, 2300.
Rural Welfare and Food Production, 2362.
Russell, L. J., 2334.
Rutherford, J., 2277, 2421.
Safety Codes, 2434.
Sainsbury, H. L., 2244.
Sales Problems, 2368, 2370
Sardone, L. T., 2379.
Saxon, E. A., 2218, 2363.
Schumer, L. A., 2245.
Scientific and Industrial Research, 2221, 2418.
Secondary Industry, 2212, 2213.
Self-Interest and Duty, 2484.
Shares, Internationally Traded, 2360.
Sheep, 2268, 2275.
Shipping Turn Round, 2255.
Shirpurkar, G. R., 2315.
Simmons, E. K., 2274.
Simonett, D. S., 2453.
Sinclair, K., 2328.
Singer, K., 2203.
Skin Temperature as Psychological Variable, 2337.
Social Learning, Theory of, 2486.
Soil Conservation, 2420.
South Australia, 2252, 2269, 2408, 2433, 2459.
Southern Tableland, 2308.
Stamp, L. D., 2447.
Standish, W. E., 2367.
Stanner, W. E. H., 2204.
Sterling Crisis, 2224.
Stevens, S. P., 2372.
Stock Reserves, Responsibility of Accountant, 2404.
Strong, T. H., 2217.
Sutcliffe, J. P., 2486.
Sydney in 1820, 2311.
Sylvester, L. J., 2368.
Szary, J., 2402.
Tapp, E. J., 2468.
Tariff Board, 2366.
Tasmania, 2427, 2463.
Taxation and Incentives, 2242.
Taxation Weight, 2398.
Tay, L. G., 2313.
Taylor, R. D., 2368.
Technical Correspondence Training, 2442.
Temperament and Personality, 2489.
Thomas, C. R., 2223.
Thomson, D. C., 2479.
Timber Preservation, 2278.
Towns in New Zealand, Size of, 2290.
Trade, Australian and Sterling Crisis, 2224.
Trade Balance, 2238.
Trade Unions, Australian, Pressure Group Action, 2260.
Tulloh, N. M., 2268.
Turner Myth (Frontier and Section), 2323.
Turvey, R., 2414.
Underdeveloped Countries, 2358, 2447.
Unemployment in Queensland, 2261.
University Entrance, Selection for, 2306.
Universities, Financial Crisis, 2438.
University and Science, 2439.
University of Sydney, Arts Faculty, 2322.
Unquoted Shares, Valuation, 2406.
Upper Murray Region, 2455.
Urbanization, Australian, 2435.
U.S.A., 2228, 2265.
Van Baal, J., 2499.
Van Diemen's Land, Slump of 40's, 2324.
Vautier, G., 2262.
Vernon, J., 2211.
Victoria, 2268, 2326, 2407, 2420, 2422, 2432, 2443-
Vigotsky Block Test, 2335.
Vocational Education, 2440, 2441.
Vocational Training, in South Pacific, 2297.
Wadham, S. M., 2211.
Wage Policy, Swedish Discussion, 2414.
Walker, E. R., 2211.
Water Diviner, 2342.
Western Australia, 2253, 2409.
Wheat, 2276, 2378, 2379, 2425.
Wheeler, D. K., 2305.
White, L., 2384.
White, W. W., 2251.
White Settlement in Papua-New Guinea, 2348.
Wickham, O. P., 2263, 2416.
Williams, D. B., 2293, 2362, 2425.
Wilson, J. R., 2201.
Wilson, J. S. G., 2239.
Wingrove, L. E., 2368.
Wolfsohn, H., 2431.
Woodward, O. H., 2452.
Wool, 2227, 2228, 2238, 2372-2374.
Wool Scouring, Carbonizing, and Fellmongering, 2236.
Wool Topmaking, Spinning, Weaving Industry, 2390.
Wool, World Consumption, 2376.
Wool, World Trade, 2375.
Woolf, H., 2332.
Working Capital, 2403.
World War II, 2464.
Wright, L. D., 2287.
Wyndham, A. J., 2491.
Yorke, L. C., 2279.
Yorston, R. K., 2244, 2248.
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ALEXANDER, F., Professor of History, University of Western Australia
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BORRIE, W. D., Reader in Demography, Australian National University,
BURTON, H., Principal and Professor of Economic History, Canberra Uni-
BUTLIN, S. J., Professor of Economics, University of Sydney
CLARK, C. M. H., Professor of History, Canberra University College
CONLON, A. A., Doctor of Medicine, Austin Hospital, Heidelberg, Melbourne
COOMBS, Dr. H. C., Governor, Commonwealth Bank of Australia, Sydney
COPLAND, His Excellency Sir Douglas, Australian High Commissioner to
COWEN, Z., Professor of Public Law, University of Melbourne
CRAWFORD, R. M., Professor of History, Uniersity of Melbourne
CUNNINGHAM, Dr. K. S., Director, Australian Council for Educational
DAVIDSON, J. W., Professor of Pacific History, Australian National Uni-
ELKIN, A. P., Professor of Anthropology, University of Sydney
FIRTH, G., Professor of Economics, University of Tasmania
CIBSON, A. Boyce, Professor of Philosophy, University of Melbourne
GIFFORD, J. K., Professor of Economics, University of Queensland
GREENWOOD, G., Professor of History, University of Queensland
HASLUCK, The Hon. P., Minister for External Territories, Parliament House,
HOGBIN, Dr. H. I., Reader in Anthropology, University of Sydney
HYTTEN, Professor T., Vice-Chancellor, University of Tasmania
KARMEL, P. H., Professor of Economics, University of Adelaide
LA NAUZE, J. A., Professor of Economic History, University of Melbourne
McRAE, C. R., Professor of Education, University of Sydney
MAULDON, F. R. E., Professor of Economics, University of Western Australia
MELVILLE, Mr. L., Vice-Chancellor, Australian National University, Cap-
NADEL, S. F., Professor of Anthropology and Sociology, Australian National
O'BRIEN, Archbishop Eris, Lindsay Street, Neutral Bay, N.S.W. (History)
OESER, O. A., Professor of Psychology, University of Melbourne
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