SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL OF AUSTRALIA
Registered in Australia for transmission by post as a periodical
ilA 4 3
AUSTRALIAN SOCIAL SCIENCE ABSTRACTS
Dr. K. S. Cunningham (Chairmanu)
Professor R. M. Crawford, Professor.O. A. Oeser. Professor G. L. Wood,
Mr. H. L. White
Dr. F. Schnierer, Faculty of Economics and Commerce, University,
Carlion, N.3, Melbourne, Victoria
AccourNTANCY-Mr. L. Goldberg and Miis J. Kerr
AGRICULTURE AND RURAL PROBLEMs-Professor S. M. Wadham and Mr. R. H.
EcoNohncs--Professor G. L. Wood, Dr. O. de R. Foenander, Dr. F. Schnierer,
and Miss M. G. Ronaldson
EnuCATIoN-Dr. K. S. Cunningham
GEOGRAPHY-NMessrs. E. J. Donath and D. W. Fryer, Dr. F. Loewe
HISTORY-Professor R. M. Crawford, Dr. A. M. McBriar, Messrs. R. F. Ericksen,
L. F. Fitzhardinge, N. D. Harper and D. E. Kennedy, Mrs. J. Philipp,
Misses M. Kerr and D. Munro
LAw-Professor Z. Cowen
PHILOsoPHY-Professor A. Boyce Gibson
PoLTrrAL SCIENcr-Professor W. Macmahon Ball, Messrs. A. F. Davies, D. S.
Sissons and H. A. Wolfsohn
PsycuoLocy-Professor O. A. Oeser.
TERRITORIES AND NATIVE PROBLEMS-Dr. L. Adam
All communications should be addressed to the General Editor (Editor)
Subscription: 5s. per annum post free in Australian currency; 48. sterling
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Economics and Economic Policy
Industry, Trade and Commerce-
(a) General Works .
(b) Individual Industries
Monetary Policy, Banking, Insurance
Transportation and Communication
Labour and Industrial Relations
Agriculture, Land and Rural Problems
Government and Politics
Social Security and Public Health
Population and Migration
Territories and Native Problems
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The SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL OF AUSTRALIA
was established in 1952 to extend the scope and
functions of the former Committee for Research
in the Social Sciences of the Australian National
The scope of the Council's work includes the sociological
aspects of anthropology, economics, education, history,
human geography, jurisprudence, medicine, philosophy,
political science, psychology, public administration and
SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL OF AUSTRALIA
THE SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL OF AUSTRALIA
(adopted at the meeting held in Sydney on 21 August 1952)
(a) To encourage the advancement of the Social
Sciences in Australia.
(b) To act as a co-ordinating body for promoting
research and teaching in the Social Sciences.
(c) To foster research and the publication of studies
in the Social Sciences.
(d) To encourage the formation of national bodies
in the Social Sciences.
(e) To be the national member of international
bodies concerned with the Social Sciences.
(f) To act as a consultant and advisory body.
(a) The Council shall consist of those members of
the Social Science Research Committee who
shall signify their intention of accepting mem-
bership of the new Council, either at the meet-
ing which inaugurates it or within one month
of receiving notice of its formation. Such notice
shall be sent out within fourteen days of the
meeting which inaugurates the Council.
(b) When the initial membership of the new Coun-
cil has been determined, membership shall be
increased by the addition of such scholars in
the Social Sciences as the Membership Com-
mittee shall recommend and the Council shall
(c) The Membership Committee shall satisfy itself
that persons so recommended have achieved
distinction in one or more branches of Social
(d) Persons to be considered for membership shall
be nominated by one member and seconded by
two members of the Council. No new member
shall be admitted except on the recommendation
of the Membership Committee, and with the
approval of two-thirds of the full Council as
determined by a postal ballot.
(c) An annual subscription of 2 2s. shall be
levied on members. Arrears of twelve months
from the due date of subscription shall be taken
as intention to terminate membership, and the
Membership Committee may thereupon without
further notice to the member terminate his
(a) The Council shall elect:
(i) A Chairman, who shall be ex-officio chair-
man of the Executive Committee and of the
(ii) An Executive Committee, consisting of a
Chairman, Secretary and Treasurer, and
five other members, with authority to act
for the Council between meetings on all
matters (other than the election of mem-
bers) not specifically reserved by the Coun-
cil for its own action.
(iii) A Membership Committee of five, of whom
in the first instance three shall be members
of the Council with power to co-opt two
additional persons of standing in the Social
Sciences, not members of Council, who shall
by virtue of this co-option become members
of the Council. After the first term of office
the Committee of five shall be elected by
the Council from its own members.
(iv) A Finance Committee of five of whom at
least three shall be members of the Council,
which shall, inter alia, explore the avenues
available for obtaining funds.
(b) The Council may from time to time set up such
other committees as it considers necessary.
(c) Committees shall be elected at meetings of the
(d) Not more than two years shall elapse between
meetings of the Council. A quorum for meet-
ings of Council shall be one-third of the total
(e) The Council shall determine, in consultation
with the Finance Committee, the allocation and
expenditure of funds.
(f) The Executive Committee shall in the first place
appoint two trustees, of whom one shall be a
member of the Finance Committee and one a
person other than a member of Council, to hold
the property and funds of the Council. The
Trustees shall receive all monies payable to the
Council and shall pay out monies on the author-
ity of (i) the Chairman and either the Secretary
or Treasurer; or (ii) of the Chairman or Secre-
tary or Treasurer and one other member of the
(g) The Executive Committee shall circulate to all
members of the Council, (i) minutes of its meet-
ings, and (ii) annual reports and financial state-
ments. The latter shall be circulated at least
twenty-one days before a meeting of Council.
(h) During the absence of the Chairman the Execu-
tive Committee shall appoint a Deputy Chair-
4. Alteration of the Constitution
The Constitution may be altered as follows:
(a) Notice of motion of such alteration shall be
given in writing to the Secretary at least 14 days
before a meeting of Council.
(b) Approval by two-thirds of all members of Coun-
cil shall be obtained at a meeting and if neces-
sary by postal ballot.
5. Inauguration of the Council
On the adoption of this constitution the Social
Science Research Committee shall cease to exist and
the Social Science Research Council of Australia
shall be deemed to have been inaugurated.
AUSTRALIAN SOCIAL SCIENCE ABSTRACTS
A publication of the Social Science Research Council of Australia, subsidized by
U.N.E.S.C.O. Co-ordinating Committee .on Documentation in the Social
Sciences, and the Commonwealth Bank of Australia.
All communications should be addressed to the Editor, Faculty of Economics
and Commerce, University of Melbourne, Carlton, N.3, Victoria, Australia.
No. 14 November 1952 5s. or $i per annum
Where the size of a Government publication or Parliamentary Paper (P.P.) is not given, it is 8J ins. x 134 ins.
(A) Economics and Economic Policy
2200. The Degree of Monopoly Power. R. Hieser. Eco-
nomic Record, pp. 1-12, May 1952.
Starting from a study by N. Kaldor (1950-51) this
article tries to find a measure of the degree of monopoly
power, the elements of which are the cost of entry of
a new producer (E), economies of scale (S) and the
shelter enjoyed by virtue of secret or patented tech-
niques (T). M= P-C, where M is the degree of mon-
opoly, P the price required to attract new entrants, and
C the full cost of production of an existing firm.
P-C=E+S+T. Further sections of the article contain
discussions with Hall and Hitch on full cost pricing and
with Kalecki, for whom the degree of monopoly is the
percentage gross margin.
2201. Maximization and Business Behaviour. J. R.
Wilson. Economic Record, pp. 29-39, May 1952.
Economic rationality implies attempted maximization
of utility, primarily in the consumer's case. For entre-
preneurial behaviour attempted profit maximization is
supposed to be the equivalent of it and many, some-
what ambiguous problems connected with the nature
of profit are encountered. The author approaches the
problem according to institutional assumptions: for the
single individual combining managerial and ownership
functions the maximization of total realized profit is
the most relevant; when management is divorced from
ownership, the maximization of dividend payments is
of utmost importance; for the corporate entrepreneur
undistributed profits are of primary interest.
2202. Goodwill and the Normal Cost Theory of Price.
H. R. Edwards. Economic Record, pp. 52-74, May
A discussion of the 'normal cost' theory of price
determination in the manufacturing industry, mainly of
the demand aspect, based on the work of P. W. S.
Andrews (Oxford Economic Papers and elsewhere). A
model of the normal cost theory is presented and dis-
cussed. The goodwill factor divides the general market
into particular markets, but this does not cause a price
different from that of the competitors. Further stages
are the production of specialities and the subsequent sales
efforts concerning particular brands and location. Good-
will makes for continuity of the productive process,
where there is no centralized market (primary pro-
ducts). It is, therefore, not usually exploited for inde-
pendent price policy. Also important is the part played
by the gross profit margin and mention should be made
of the tendency to an equilibrium of price, and not of
2203. Singer, K. Recent Changes of Real Wages and
Industrial Output in Australia i949/50-r95o/5i.
N.S.W. Branch of Economic Society of Australia
and N.Z., Economic Monograph No. 140, Feb-
ruary 1952, pp. 6 roneoedd).
Real wages rose by 5% from 1949-50 to 1950-5i and
by 20% over the immediate pre-war years. As the con-
truction of an industrial production index has not been
tried by Australian authorities, the author uses figures
from the White Paper on National Income. From these
he calculated a retail price rise of manufactured goods
from 1949-50 to the following year by 20%. The growth
of real output in that time was 6-7%. The number of
workers increased by 4%; I"9% to 2-9% growth are
due to higher labour efficiency. This does not justify
a growth of 5% in real wages, another primary infla-
2204. The Need for Departments of Sociology in Aus-
tralian Universities. W. E. H. Stanner. Australian
Quarterly, pp. 60-72, March 1952.
Various objections raised against the instruction of
sociology are based on misunderstandings, fear of com-
petition and supposed threat to academic prerogatives.
There is an empirical field for sociological studies which
can be handled scientifically and which is not covered
by existing social sciences. Sociology is concerned with
society as a genus, not with aspects like the homo
weconomicus or politics. It tries to provide a well gen-
eralized base of the conception of human society.
2205. The Full Employment Problem. IPA Review, pp.
1oo-1o8, July-September 1952.
Australian employment has declined from November
1951 to July 1952 by 74,000 people, two-thirds of whom
are women. Over-full employment has ceased when wool
prices fell heavily. Keynes' theory that full employment
can be maintained by stimulation of effective demand
through monetary and fiscal measures, was applicable to
the chronic unemployment of pre-war times, while in
the buoyant post-war economic conditions it increased
inflation and failed to damp down the boom. The first
limitation of Keynesian doctrines is the vulnerability
of the Australian economy to the fall in wool prices, the
second that they deal only with problems of general
unemployment, not those of particular unemployment in
certain industries through falling demand for their
products. Changes of occupation or industry are often
2206. Profits and the National Welfare. IPA Review,
pp. 113-18, July-September 1952.
The tighter money market has created difficulties to
industry. In 1951-52 there was a drop in savings (undis-
tributed profits and personal savings) of 40%. To en-
able industry to expand and to improve its methods
it needs capital. Unless profits amply cover require-
ments for dividends and reserves, new investment must
be retarded. The level of company profits after taxes
is much lower in Australia than overseas. In 1951 it was
14.4% in U.S., in Australia 8-2%, in U.K. only 7-8%
because of high taxes and particularly high deprecia-
tion. Profits before taxes in U.S. and U.K. were 20-30%
of the shareholders' funds, in Australia only about 15%.
2207. Land Development. The Problem of Evaluating
Alternative Projects. D. H. McKay. Quarterly
Review of Agricultural Economics, pp. 90-3, July
With limited resources and funds available a choice
between possible developmental projects has to be made.
As criteria for such a choice the author examines the
opportunity cost of a project, what other production
might be foregone and the gain for government revenue.
At present dry land development has advantages over
irrigation development. Very briefly the article finally
mentions other criteria for choice, such as contribution
to national income and towards balance of payments,
the specific needs of food or dollars, effects on popu-
2208. Food Consumption. Changing Pattern in the
United Kingdom. B. Dawson. Quarterly Review
of Agricultural Economics, pp. o10-12, July 1952.
The annual consumption per head in pre-war U.K. is
compared with that in 1945-51. The consumption of
dairy products (mainly of liquid milk, while that of
cheese has somewhat dropped) has risen from ioo pre-
war to 142 in 1951, that of potatoes to i4o, of eggs and
egg products to 119, of pulses and nuts to 114, while
the consumption of oils and fats (margarine grew at the
expense of butter), of vegetables and grain products has
hardly changed. Meat consumption has fallen to 70,
that of sugar and syrup to 82, of fish, game and poultry
to 88. The consumption in calories, protein and fat
from all sources has little changed from pre-war till
1951. It is less than in U.S. and Australia, but still ade-
quate, although less varied and palatable.
2209. The Trend of Real National Product in France.
Review of Economic Progress, pp. 1-5, December
From a great number of sources, giving widely diverg-
ent estimates of French national income, this study
works out figures per decade from 18o1 to 1900, for
1913, and per year from 1920 to 1938 and from 1946 to
1950. Details of the method of calculation are set forth,
it is shown how to the money value of the net product at
market prices is added the money value of imports and
deducted the value of exports. This is converted to I.U.
Internal consumption and investment for 1913-38 is re-
valued on a 1929 base and for the post-war years on a
1948 base. Figures for occupied population, unemploy-
ment and working hours are presented. The rate of in-
crease of real product per man-hour showed a trend of
0o9% p.a. from 18o1 to 1870 and of I-8% from 1870 to
22o1. La Nuova Zelanda in un Mondo di Prezzi Cres-
centi (New Zealand in a World of Rising Prices).
C. A. Blyth. Economia Internazionale, Genoa, pp.
pp. 148-51, February 1952.
The Labour regime in N.Z. tried to suppress inflation
by subsidizing foodstuffs and textiles, profit restriction
through price control, stabilization of wages and of
dairy and meat producers' returns. The National Gov-
ernment since 1950 followed the policy to drop some
subsidies, allowed wages to rise and relaxed import con-
trols. Purchasing power inflation was combatted by price
inflation. Later, however, for political reasons a part of
the agricultural export income was 'frozen', and some
price controls and subsidies were restored. The nine-
teenth century secular trend to price reduction was due
to real cost reduction, in N.Z. mainly by way of inter-
national trade. In the last 40 years the secular trend of
prices to rise could in N.Z. be explained by a rise-in
real costs. This is due to the N.Z. tariff policy and to
the development of secondary industries protected by
wartime isolation, secondly to the large unproductive
expenses on social security and war.
(B) Industry, Trade and Commerce
(a) General Works
2211. Holder, R. F. (Ed.). Australian Production at the
Crossroads. Papers read at Eighteenth Summer
School of Australian Institute of Political Science,
26-28 January 1952. Angus & Robertson, Sydney,
1952, pp. 154.
In an introduction the editor presents a survey of
the present Australian economy and its developmental
tasks, its lack of efficiency and some outstanding prob-
lems including the lack of balance, inflation, defence.
In a paper on 'Trends in Australian Primary Pro-
duction, S. M. Wadham discusses the stripping of our
farms of labour in 1940-2, the drought of 1943-4, the
position at the end and after the war, inflationary wool
prices of 195o-51, various individual primary industries,
the increase in production through mechanization and
rising use of fertilizers, the requirements of the future.
J. Vernon deals with 'Trends in Secondary Produc-
tion'. He denies that we had too much development of
secondary at the expense of primary and of non-essen-
tial at the expense of essential industries. There is little
evidence of a 'milk-bar' economy. Australian industry
is under-capitalized, investment per employee has even
fallen since 1931.
E. R. Walker examines 'Production Policies and
Priorities'. There is agreement about the inadequacy of
our level of production, but not about the desirability
of a certain pattern of production. Inflation has to be
tackled not only from the side of higher productivity
(long-run influence), but also from the demand side.
Demand has to be restricted to priorities: food, im-
proved transport and electric power, defence.
Sir Douglas Copland investigates 'Factors Determin-
ing the Efficiency of Australian Production'. He stresses
the importance of productivity, the under-capitalization
of our industry, migration and development, the effects
of full employment on management and labour, the
effects of price control, the need for overseas (U.S.) capi-
tal. He suggests the creation of a National Committee on
productivity with co-operation of Government, labour
'Production Trends and Social Problems' by H. E.
Holt is concerned with the conditions adverse to high
productivity and the unfavourable employer-employee
relations in Australia.
2212. The Nature of Secondary Industry in Australia.
Economic News, pp. 4-6, May 1952.
An analysis of figures in the Production Bulletin for
1948-49, classified into sheltered processing, other pro-
cessing, sheltered non-processing, protected non-pro-
cessing, and competitive non-processing industries.
Figures for these five groups are given in tables for
every state referring to total output, numbers engaged
and output per head. The output in 'other processing'
industries is very high in S.A., because they are mainly
ore extraction and refinery, and these non-ferrous metals
are high priced. The sheltered and protected non-pro-
cessing industries are much less efficient, when per-
centages of workers in the industry and of output are
compared. In Queensland processing industries (mainly
sugar milling) are particularly highly productive; the
output in Queensland's sheltered industries is the high-
est in Australia.
2213. The Outlook for Secondary Industries in Queens-
land. P. J. Ross. Economic News, pp. I, 7, 8, May
Decentralization of Industry is important for strategic
reasons. In Queensland secondary industries processing
local raw materials (agricultural or mining products) are
promising. At present the growing of jute, expanded
coke production in Collinsville and oil extraction from
Blair Athol coal are planned. Development can be
expected in the output of sheltered goods with relatively
high transport costs, such as fertilizers manufactured
from pyrite and coal. Exports of butter, flour, meat,
canned fruit, steel and agricultural implements are pos-
sible. All this will require more power generation.
2214. The Fight for Food. Report of the Proceedings
of the Twelfth Annual Convention held by the
National Catholic Rural Movement, Albury, May
1952, pp. 129.
Each of the papers in this series deals with some as-
pect of the need to expand Australia's primary produc-
tion. It is contended that in view of the world scarcity
of basic foodstuffs, Australia is over-industrialized and
that resources must be deliberately directed to agri-
culture. This argument is put in various ways by T. A.
Strong, Director of the Bureau of Agricultural Eco-
nomics, Canberra, Colin Clark, and Sir C. Stanton Hicks,
Professor at the University of Adelaide. Other papers
recommended co-operative colonization by immigrants
skilled in the arts of intensive culture, and analyse some
of the social problems involved.-M.G.R.
2215. A Review of Commonwealth Agriculture: Pro-
duction and Trade. Commonwealth Economic
Committee, London, 35th Report, 1952, pp. 201.
Price 7s. 6d.
In the first part of this report (Agricultural Produc-
tion in Commonwealth Countries) there are sections on
Australia (pp. 33-44) and N.Z. (pp. 44-56). These sec-
tions contain a survey of the importance of agriculture
in the national economies of both countries, factors
affecting production, the agricultural pattern (farming
structure), production of crops and livestock products.
The Australian section furthermore discusses recent
trends, agricultural prices and stabilization, consump-
tion of agricultural produce; the N.Z. section, the im-
portance of exports, and marketing policy. There are
also many references to Australia and N.Z. in the fifth
part-Commonwealth Trade in Agricultural Products.
2216. Decline and Fall? Report on the Decline in Aus-
tralian Primary Production and its Effect on
Australia's Trade. British Farm Equipment Co.,
Melbourne, 1952, pp. 55.
A short study of the decline in Australian food pro-
duction which ought to rise to feed Australia's increas-
ing population and many starving countries, also to
support Britain, and to pay for imports. Special sec-
tions deal with: Australia's overseas trade position and
the state of primary production (wool, meat, wheat,
dairy produce, eggs, sugar). The reasons for the drop
in production are shortage of labour, fertilizers, fencing
and building materials, agricultural machinery. To en-
courage production, farming must be profitable, mater-
ials, fertilizers, machinery, building materials and lab-
our must be available. The areas in which production
is to be expanded (established high rainfall areas, new
production in the o9-miles plain in S.A. and the North-
ern Territory, in the low rainfall areas); soil and water
conservation, soil erosion and the effects of drought are
2217. The Scope for Increasing Australia's Rural Pro-
duction. T. H. Strong. Quarterly Review of Agri-
cultural Economics, pp. 43-47, April 1952.
Higher primary production export income is the only
solution of our balance of payments problem. The area
which could be cropped annually at full development,
is about 4om. acres, nearly double the present area.
The techniques required--clearing of forests and scrubs
and soil treatment (pasture establishment) methods-
are known through research. Large areas in all southern
states and the brigalow scrub belt in Queensland can
be so developed. On existing holdings water conserva-
tion is essential, thousands of additional deep water
points on properties and stock routes would be useful.
Cropping and fodder conservation should be highly
mechanized. Most important is increasing supply of
superphosphate, great numbers of high-powered crawler
tractors and heavy disc stump jump ploughs for
2218. Equipment and Material Essential for Rural Pro-
duction. E. A. Saxon. Quarterly Review of Agri-
cultural Economics, pp. 60-63, April 1952.
The wartime backlog demand could not be quickly
satisfied after the war, although both Australian pro-
duction and imports increased greatly since 1949, but
in 1951 less steel products became available and some
buyer resistance developed. A table and a diagram show
estimated demand, local plant capacity and production,
net imports and total availability of various materials
and equipment in 1950-51. There is still much unsatis-
fied demand for fencing materials, steel fence posts,
butt-welded piping, cement, crawler and some heavy
duty tractors, and superphosphate, while galvanized
iron, jute goods and wheel tractors, also some other
agricultural machines are available in sufficient quan-
2219, The United Kingdom Market and Australian
Food Production. Trends, pp. 1-6, June 1952.
Of the value of non-wool exports the proportion of
our food exports taken by U.K. was 67% in 1950-51 as
in the late 1930's, but in volume the proportion exported
to U.K. has greatly fallen in all major foodstuffs, par-
ticularly in wheat and flour which are Australia's most
important food exports. Markets have developed in east-
ern countries and in the dollar area, ,often at higher
prices than in the U.K. food contracts. The other
markets are not as reliable as U.K., which will remain
our main food export market. To increase food produc-
tion for export, also to encourage farmers to make
essential purchases, tax concessions have been made, and
the expansion of superphosphate production has been
2220. Labour as a Problem in Rising Costs. N. H. Rout-
ley. Australian Institute of Cost Accountants, Cost
Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 7, pp. I-12, October 1952.
A lecture delivered in Sydney by a cost accountant of
a textile company which has based its wage system on
time study and includes all labour cost in excess of
standard costs in overhead. The forty-hour week has
resulted in 9% decrease in production. Labour turnover
and absenteeism are not significant factors in increasing
costs, but the reluctance of the Australian to work shifts
is. Inflation has sent up the overhead budget very
considerably. Depreciation has not materially been af-
fected by rising costs, but the mixture of cheaper old
and dearer new machinery in connection with deprecia-
tion creates very difficult problems.
2221. N.Z. Department of Scientific and Industrial Re-
search. Departmental Handbook. Government
Printer, Wellington, pp. 68, August 1952.
This reference book is a collection of information on
the Department concerning its organization, administra-
tion, history, the scope of its work, the location of its
sections and the organization and institutes associated
with it. The staff of each section is listed.-R.M.B.
2222. Management Training Overseas and in Australia.
W. J. Caples. Manufacturing and Management,
pp. 6-9, July 1952.
There has been a rapid growth of management train-
ing in the last twelve years in Australia. Now about
5,ooo students are attending part-time supervision and
management classes in Australian Technical Colleges.
In U.K. there is now standardized training in technical
colleges at a national certificate level, mostly done in
part-time evening courses, but very little training at
Universities (best in Manchester), and an administrative
staff college in Henley. In U.S. most training is done
within companies, but there are also very elaborate
degree courses at Universities. The author makes sug-
gestions for Australia: time off for day classes given to
selected students; post-graduate courses in management
training at Universities, refresher training courses.
2223. Management Education. Development at Aus-
tralian Universities. C. R. Thomas. Manufacturing
and Management, pp. 140-2, October 1952.
There are five classes of persons engaged in manage-
ment activities: foremen and supervisors; persons
recruited from technical colleges and universities such
as chemists, engineers, accountants; persons who have
begun from the bottom in sales, supply or accounts
departments; top managers and working directors. For
many of these full-time (graduate) University courses
and also short-time courses should be provided, gradu-
ate courses best for people between 25 and 35.
University courses should concentrate, apart from
'tool subjects' on economic history, economics, social
and industrial organization and relations, psychology,
case studies; the courses could only be attended by
limited numbers. Company training plans are still
needed. Research, especially based on Australian condi-
tions, is indispensable.
2224. Australia's Trade and the Sterling Crisis. Re-
search Service, 1952, pp. 71 roneoedd).
This report argues for a change in Australia's trade
policy. It describes existing currency areas, with special
reference to Australia's place in the sterling area, and
reviews the past and present features of the Australian
balance of payments position. It concludes that Aus-
tralia's basic and actually dependent objectives in inter-
national trade are to obtain a substantial inflow of
dollar capital and to boost the volume of primary ex-
ports. Australia's link with sterling, and her long-term
agreements with Great Britain are hindrances to these
objectives. The report suggests that, if by 1954, sterling
has not become near-convertible, Australia should with-
draw from the dollar pool and direct her exports to
2225. Inter-Governmental Commodity Agreements. A.
G. Lloyd. Review of Marketing and Agricultural
Economics, pp. 122-40, June 1952.
The first part of this study is a theoretical discussion
of trade contracts as measures towards price-stability.
The extent of instability is examined with the help of
graphs showing the average monthly prices of wheat,
butter, beef and mutton from 1929-38. The duration of
price fluctuations (short-term and medium-term) is dealt
with in connection with the slowness of adjusting agri-
cultural supplies to prices. Some desirable features of
contracts, difficulties of price-fixing under contracts, the
advantages of forward prices, trade-contracts as anti-
cyclical measures are subjects of further sections. The
second part: Australia's trade contracts provides
a survey of the common features of Australian-U.K.
contract provisions, the values of exports under contract,
and of comparisons of free-market and contract prices.
Finally summaries of individual contracts (meat, dairy
produce, eggs, etc.) are presented.
2226. Maritime Trade and Shipping in Brisbane. J. A.
Hempel. Economic News, pp. 1-6, May 1951; pp.
I, 4, August 1952.
Compared with pre-war the overseas trade handled in
Brisbane has greatly increased up to 1949-50, particu-
larly in manufactured goods. The quantities of inter-
state cargo, however, handled in Brisbane, has con-
siderably decreased since pre-war, especially of general
merchandise, because interstate transport has largely
been diverted to road, rail and air services. The average
size of overseas and coastal ships using the port of Bris-
bane has declined for various reasons including the
slower turnover in Australian ports, which has also
raised the operating costs very much. A postscript to
the May 1951 issue deals with the trade in 1950-51, the
August 1952 issue with that in 1951-52. In the latter
year overseas imports continued to increase, while ex-
ports greatly decreased, mainly because of a severe
(b) Individual Industries
2227. The Pre-War Demand for Wool. F. B. Horer.
Economic Record, pp. 13-28, May 1952.
This is an elaboration of a note by the same author
in the Economic Record, June 1949, and abstracted as
No. 1281 in No. 9 (March 1950) of this journal. In an
appendix a summary of equations and results is given:
the elasticities of demand for clothing, time series in
U.K. 1929-38, in U.S. 1929-41; income elasticity of de-
mand, family budget data in U.K. 1937-39, U.S. 1935-36;
elasticity of manufacturers' demand for wool at con-
stant output without quality variation; equations of
relations of wool price to wool clothing price. Income
elasticity of the demand for wool is worked out at about
i-i, price elasticity at -0-5, so that income is more im-
portant than wool price. Total price elasticity at 1938
prices is calculated by multiplying the consumer's price
elasticity (-o0-) by the relation of wool price to wool
clothing price (o-i) and adding the price elasticity of
manufacturer's demand (-o-4). This results in -o.5 for
U.K. and U.S.
2228. Wool Support Prices and Price Ceilings in the
U.S.A. B. J. Fernon. Quarterly Review of Agri-
cultural Economics, pp. 102-4, July 1952.
Wool price regulation in U.S. considerably affects
Australian woolgrowers. Support prices have been intro-
duced in U.S. in 1943, based on parity prices, so that
the average price received for wool should give the
farmers the same purchasing power over other com-
modities at the base period. The price of wool is to be
supported through loans or purchases between 60 and
90 per cent of the parity price in order to encourage an
annual production of 36om. lbs. of shorn wool. In 1952
market prices in U.S. were generally below support
prices. In addition price ceilings were introduced in
January 1951 and later reduced. This was an effective
brake to high wool prices.
2229. Jute and Jute Substitutes in Australia. Jessie M.
Baldwin. C.S.I.R.O. Information Service Report
No. T. io, Melbourne, October 1951, pp. 37
Jute is considered essential for packaging of agricul-
tural products in Australia (wheat, sugar, wool). About
ioo,ooo tons jute and jute products p.a. are imported
to Australia, nearly all from India where most jute is
processed (most grown in Pakistan). Imports have be-
come difficult and high-priced through recent political
changes. Production in Australia is hardly possible be-
cause of the cost of labour, in New Guinea there is
some trial planting. Jute substitutes are either soft
fibres which, like jute, are won from the inner bark
of stems, or hard fibres, obtained from the vascular sys-
tems of leaves. These substitutes are discussed in detail,
most promising for production in Australia or New
Guinea are of soft fibres Hibiscus cannabinus (Kenaf or
Stokroos) and Urena lobata (Congo Jute), of hard fibres
Phormium tenax or New Zealand flax. Bulk handling
of wheat is another way out.
2230. Fourth Annual Report of the Joint Coal Board
for 1950-51. Government Printer, Sydney, pp. 97.
The total Australian coal requirements in terms of
black coal equivalent for 1954 are estimated at 27-3m.
tons, the total production will leave a gap of several
million tons. The present increase in N.S.W. coal out-
put is mainly due to open cut development which is,
however, limited. Requirements and consumption of
N.S.W. coal are worked out per industry and per state.
Coal distribution and handling is inadequate, as the
coal carrying capacity of the N.S.W. railways and the
loading facilities of Newcastle harbour are insufficient.
Underground reorganization and mechanization, par-
ticularly mechanical extraction of pillar coal, is urgently
needed. Among the Board's own colliery operations are
nearly all open cut mines, run by the N.S.W. Mining
2231. Coal and Transport. Research Service, August
1952, pp. 4, vol. 28 roneoedd).
Coal shortages have placed a great strain on the trans-
port system. Half of the needs of the N.S.W. railways are
for Maitland and Muswellbrook coals, and the constant
decline of the Cessnock field production compels the
railways to use lower-grade coals from open cuts. This
results in larger consumption and higher operating
costs. Owing to the shortage of interstate shipping
N.S.W. railways have to transport much greater than
the pre-war quantities of coal to other states. The rail-
ways have difficulties in coal transport only with open-
cut coal which could be overcome by railway extensions;
furthermore only in the rare case of a weekly output
of more than 320,000 tons. The silting of the Hunter
River at Hexham and the 'mixed coal' system of the
Joint Coal Board are further strains on railway trans-
2232. The Base Metals in Australia. J. A. Dunn. Aus-
tralian Mineral Industry. Economic Notes and
Statistics, pp. 93-8, vol. 4, No. 4 (1952).
There are world shortages of several raw materials
which might in the long run lead to the substitution of
scarce metals by other metals or alloys in better supply,
e.g. of copper by aluminium. A picture for the next
few years is then given of the Australian position of
copper, lead, zinc and tin. Past, present and probable
future prices of these metals, consumption, production,
exports and imports are discussed. For copper, the de-
mand exceeds local supply and much copper will have
to be imported for at least ten years. Of lead and zinc
considerable quantities are imported. The same applies
to tin up to 595i, but in the future Australia might
return to self-sufficiency.
2233. New Zealand Fisheries: A General Survey. D.
Patton. New Zealand Geographer, pp. 91-103,
N.Z.'s fish supply is much less important than her
ample soil products, only one-eighth of the fish caught
in N.Z. are exported. Fishing in N.Z. is not very inten-
sive, but largely mechanized. It is limited to coastal
waters, on the average up to 25 miles off shore. Cold
water is prevalent, favouring a few standardized fish
species, such as herrings and haddocks. The main fish-
ing area is off the east coast and from ports between
North Cape and East Cape where there is better shelter
from the predominating westerly storms. From north to
south fisheries are of decreasing importance.
2234. A Survey of the Trade in Agricultural Machin-
ery. Thirty-sixth Report. Commonwealth Eco-
nomic Committee, London 1952, pp. 174. Price
In a general review world production, utilization and
trade in agricultural machinery (implements and trac-
tors) are discussed, with many references to Australia
and N.Z. In a separate section on the agricultural
machinery trade in Commonwealth countries there
are chapters on Australia (production, utilization,
price control, subsidies and tariffs, trade, future
prospects of trade and on N.Z., similarly arranged. The
value of Australian agricultural machinery production
in 1948-49 has risen to two and a half times of that in
1937-38, the volume by something under 50%. Of the
imports into Australia nearly 90% are tractors. In
N.Z. agriculture is very highly mechanized, most
important in utilization is haying, milking and shear-
ing machinery, also combine harvesting. There is also a
growing N.Z. local implement production.
2235. Brief Review of the Australian Motor Vehicle
Industry. No. 30 in Industry Review Series. Divi-
sion of Industrial Development, Department of
National Development, May 1952, pp. 55.
A survey of the construction and assembly of road
motor vehicles and motor body building. The former
was done in 1949-50 by 72 firms with 11,400 employees,
the latter by 476 firms with 16,200 employees. The
structure of the industry is outlined with special sec-
tions on the major firms: General Motors Holdens,
Ford, Chrysler and International Harvester. A chapter
on the market situation includes demand-steeply ris-
ing since 1947 up to 1951, then a slight setback-and
supply-local production of chassis and local assembly
from imported knocked down units, body building.
The main source of supply is now U.K., at the expense
of U.S., since 1948 local supply is rising. Successive
chapters examine labour, raw materials and compon-
ents, plant and equipment, Government policies.
2236. Brief Review of the Australian Wool Scouring,
Carbonizing and Fellmongering Industry, No.
29 in Industry Review Series. Division of Indust-
rial Development, Ministry of National Develop-
ment, January 1952, pp. 29 roneoedd).
The processes of scouring, carbonizing and fellmonger-
ing are outlined. The industry consists of so5 establish-
ments of which 35 are woollen, worsted and hat mills
which supply their own requirements of clean wool, the
third group are the Western Queensland scourers. The
distribution in various states is set forth. The local
demand for clean wool comes from worsted top making,
woollen spinning, hat manufactures and other textiles.
Overseas demand is partly based on freight saving which
may be offset by drawbacks of importing clean wool.
Other sections of the review deal with supply, capacity,
other products of the industry (sheepskin pelts, wool
grease), raw materials (greasy wool, soap, tallow, etc.),
equipment, labour, etc.
(C) Monetary Policy, Banking, Insurance
2237. The Unimportance of Money. H. W. Arndt. In-
augural Lecture. Canberra University College,
25 October i951. Canberra University College,
i951, pp. 22 roneoedd).
In classical economics monetary theory was entirely
separated from value theory, money was just a 'veil'.
Starting from Wicksell money was considered to work
through the market rate of interest and gradually mone-
tary policy came to be regarded as panacea against
the trade cycle (Hawtrey, Robertson, the earlier Keynes).
In Keynes' 'General Theory' not money, but changes in
the rate of spending, in income and employment be-
came paramount, while money was more and more a
standard of value. Whether businessmen are much in-
fluenced in their investment by the rate of interest, is
doubtful. In any case there is in addition to interest
policy credit rationing as a means of monetary policy.
2238. Wool and the Balance of Trade. K. L. Gunn.
Quarterly Review of Agricultural Economics, pp.
72-5, April 1952.
The wool export income p.a. fell below JA4om. in the
early 1930's, in the post-war years there was a sharp
rise every year up to 1950-51 (A658m.). The Aus-
tralian balance of trade was active up to 1950-51, al-
though import values in that year were six and a half
times pre-war, as export prices, particularly of wool,
rose even more. In 1949-5o and I95o-5i wool export
income was between a half and one-third of total ex-
port income. In 1951-52 both unit value and quantity
of wool exports declined greatly and the result was a
passive trade balance in July 1951 to January 1952 of
268-5m. compared with an active balance of 239-6m.
in 1950-51. Wool price variations are causing the great-
est fluctuations in our trade balance, as in the case of
wool home requirements play only a minor part.
2239. The Operation of Australian Central Bank Con-
trols. J. S. G. Wilson. Banca Nazionale del Lavoro
Quarterly Review (Rome), pp. 28-36, January-
An account of the development of credit control,
exercised by the Commonwealth Bank from the war-
time banking regulations of 1941 to the banking legisla-
tion of 1945 and the amendment of I951. The various
measures available to the central bank: special accounts
to be held by the Commonwealth Bank for the trading
banks, the direction of lending which is now usually
done after consultation with trading banks, control of
interest rates, exchange control, are discussed in detail.
Objections voiced by trading banks, particularly to the
combination of profit control with monetary control,
and to the exaggerated rigidity of the central bank
policy with its compulsion, are critically examined.
The ways are set out, how these controls might influ-
ence inflation and recession.
2240. Insurance in the Australian Balance of Pay-
ments. S. J. Lengyel, Economic Record, pp.76-81,
Overseas companies hold about 55% of the Aus-
tralian non-life insurance business. The Australian
premium income of overseas non-life insurance com-
panies and underwriters in 1949-50 was A25m., that of
Australian offices (private and Government) in 1948-49
only 17-69 m. The balance of income over expenditure
of the former in 1949-50 was 6-50m., that of the latter
in 1948-49 2-60m. Many of the Australian companies
are British controlled. Most intractable was the esti-
mate for marine insurance of imports and exports. Life
insurance, however, is nearly completely run by Aus-
tralian companies, none of which is controlled by for-
eign companies. In 1948-49 Australian life offices earned
A4o-8om. premiums in Australia and i5-i2m. abroad.
The net debit of life and non-life insurance in Australia
in the last three years is estimated at fA34m. p.a.
(D) Public Finance
2241. Commonwealth Grants Commission. Nineteenth
Report (1952). Government Printer, Melbourne,
The amounts of the special grants to the claimant
states in 1951-52 were 16,343,000 to S.A.; 8,041,000 to
W.A., and 1,55o,ooo to Tasmania; totalling f 10o,522,000
compared with a total of 12,175,000 in the preced-
ing year. However, the total tax reimbursements paid
to the claimant states were f17,o25,oo00, i.e., 6,563,000
more than in the preceding year. Chapter II deals with
economic and financial conditions, both in the non-
claimant and in the claimant states. Ch. III gives details
of the claims of the three states. Ch. IV discusses the
principles and methods of assessment of the two parts
of payment, which are expressed differently from the
way it was in the three preceding reports, and the
reasons for this change. Ch. V sets out the measure-
ment of the special grants for 1952-53.
2242. Taxation and Incentives. I.P.A. Review, pp. 37-
44, March-April 1952.
Australian taxation may now rise from 25 to 30 per
cent of the national income. The Government wants to
use taxation as device against inflation, but there is a
limit beyond which taxation is promoting inflation. In
a country with the main stress on rapid development
there is a risk that high taxes prevent producers from
greater effort. In comparison with U.K., U.S. and
Canada, Australia relies too much on direct taxes which
lower incentives, and too little on indirect taxes which
correspond to expenditure. Marginal, not average rates
of taxation determine the effort of the employer and
employee to produce more. This is shown particularly
with reference to primary producers and in comparison
2243. Commonwealth-State Financial Relations. A Sum-
mary of Proposals for Improvement. Sir Ross
McDonald. Australian Quarterly, pp. 43-50, Sep-
An account of various reform suggestions since the
Federation up to the present. An important trend was
gradually to transfer income tax to the Commonwealth.
There is an outline of proposals of the then Federal
Treasurer W. A. Watt in 1918, of the Royal Commission
on Taxation in 1919, of proposals made in articles by
Professor R. C. Mills and R. W. G. Mackay in 'Studies in
the Australian Constitution' (1928-33), of Sir Hal Cole-
batch in the Royal Commission on the Constitution in
1929. Furthermore suggestions made at the Premiers'
conferences in 1946, 1947 and 1948 are discussed. Fin-
ally suggestions made by E. D. Butler, Sir Earler Page
and E. S. Spooner at the N.S.W. Constitutional League
conference in 1948 are summarized. In conclusion there
is a reference to similar problems in Canada.
2244. Yorston, R. K., Brown, S. R. and Sainsbury, H. L.,
An Introduction to Costing Procedures. Law
Book Co. of Australasia, 1951, pp. iv, 292. Price
An elementary exposition of costing procedures cov-
ering a treatment of retrospective costing, accounting
for materials, labour and manufacturing expense, job
costs and process costs, with a brief discussion of by-
products and joint products, and standard costing.
2245. Fitzgerald, A. A. and Schumer, L. A. Classifi-
cation in Accounting. Butterworth & Co., Syd-
ney, 1952, pp. x, 261. Price 5os.
After a discussion of the scope and method of ac-
counting with special reference to the nature of topical
classification and its place in accounting processes, the
form and uses of accounting statements, various bases
of classification for accounting purposes are considered
in terms of balance sheet and revenue construction. The
mechanics of classification are then considered, fol-
lowed by a discussion on the controversial problem of
accounting income and real income and a consideration
for social accounting purposes.
2246. Boyd, L. C. and Furness, R. G. The Principles and
Practice of Modern Profit Insurance. Law Book
Co. of Australasia Pty. Ltd., Sydney, 1951, pp.
259. Price 2.
The nature of loss of profits insurance policies, that
need to be taken into account in determining the
amount of indemnity, the types of policy available and
the characteristics of each, matters relating to policy
drafting, endorsements and extensions, and loss adjust-
ments are discussed in this book.
2247. Methods and Potentialities of Break-Even Analy-
sis. J. Dean. Australian Accountant, pp. 361-371,
October 1951; pp. 401-414, November I951.
After discussing the nature of break-even analysis
the author considers the problems encountered in con-
structing break-even charts and the limitations of the
conventional break-even chart. Finally he discusses the
kinds of managerial problems where the break-even
analysis may be useful, and suggests ways in which the
device can be adapted to those problems.
2248. Some Accounting Implications Arising from the
Corporation Viewed as a Social Unit. R. K.
Yorston. Australian Accountant, pp. 42-54, Feb-
ruary 1952; pp. 77-90, March 1952.
Company financial reports as at present published
are inadequate to serve the many purposes towards
which, although not specifically designed therefore,
they are in fact directed. The problem of determining
the needs of different sections of the community for
information about companies is stated and the spread
of investment in Australian companies is indicated in
2249. New Horizons in Accounting. R. L. Mathews.
Australian Accountant, pp. 105-15, April 1952;
pp. 141-57, May 1952; pp. 177-89, June 1952.
Social accounting is designed to increase our know-
ledge of the economy by recording and analysing
transactions within the economy as an aid to formulat-
ing policy. After a historical survey of national income
studies in U.K. and Australia a simplified set of social
accounts is set out, followed by the accounts in the
Australian White Paper on National Income for 1949-
5o; and the advantages and limitations of the present
method are outlined. The problems involved in adapt-
ing private accounts to social accounting purposes are
then discussed, this involving a consideration of the
fundamental concepts of social accounting, and sug-
gestions are made for effecting improvements in the
submission of firms' accounting reports, in the aggrega-
tion of business accounts, the presentation of govern-
ment accounts, in the recording processes, and in the
presentation of the social accounts.
2250. The Capital Structure of Australian Companies.
K. C. Keown. Australian Accountant, pp. 287-303,
An analysis of balance sheets issued during 195o by
268 companies listed on the Melbourne Stock Exchange
has been made with the object of ascertaining the
sources from which capital has been obtained, the
ways in which capital has been employed, and. to de-
termine, if possible, whether there is a standard work-
ing capital ratio for each type of business activity and
if the conventional 'two-to-one' rule has any validity.
A comparison of the results obtained from the analysis
has been made with the results of a similar analysis
carried out in 1925-6.
2251. Finance with Wings-Notes on International Air-
line Revenue Accounting. W. W. White. The
Accountants' Journal (N.Z.), pp. 369-71, July
An airline may issue tickets for an international
flight during the course of which the passenger or
cargo may be carried by a number of different airlines.
Each airline which carries the passenger or cargo, bills
the airline which issued the tickets for its portion of
the total fare. An I.A.T.A. Clearing House has been
set up in London to facilitate the prompt settlement of
the thousands of claims that arise every month between
airlines in different countries.
(F) Transportation and Communication
2252. Annual Report of the South Australian Rail-
ways Commissioner for Year 1950-51. Government
Printer, Adelaide, i952, pp. 50.
Freight and fares were raised and the State Govern-
ment granted a contribution of 1,800,ooo to increased
working costs not covered by rises in freights and fares.
Nevertheless increases in wage rates and the costs of
materials and a four weeks' strike in October-November
1950 brought about a deficit on working expenses of
f635,ooo as against a surplus of 477,ooo in the previous
year and a deficit of f,172,000 after payment of inter-
est etc. Despite the railway strike tonnage of goods car-
ried and revenue rose. Among other matters dealt with
are locomotive fuel, locomotives, rolling stock and
sleepers, widening of the gauge in the S.E. Twenty tables
present statistical material.
2253. Report on the Working of the Government Rail-
ways, Western Australia, for Year ended 30
June 1951. Government Printer, Perth, pp. 71.
Ton mileage from 1934 to 1951 has increased by 45,
population by 30%, resulting in much loss of long-
distance traffic because of the lack of adequate wagons.
Capital as charge of the railways has been written off
in 1950 from 30-2 to i7-8m. Operating expenses ex-
ceeded revenue by 1-42m. (I-o2 in the preceding year),
total deficit after payment of interest, etc., was 2-68m.
(2-i2m.). Uncontrollable expenditure rose by 976,000.
The revision of freight and fares is overdue. Two pas-
senger lines were closed down. A number, particularly
of Diesel locomotives is on order. Tables and appendices
present statistical material.
2254. The Air Beef Story. B.H.P. Review, pp. 1-4, March
The main problem of undeveloped Australia is trans-
port. From Glenroy station cattle had to be driven on
stock-routes to the Wyndham meatworks on the coast.
This took at least a month and meant tremendous
losses in transit; the 'turnoff' was only 7% of the total
herd. In 1948 Air Beef Pty. Ltd. was formed and abat-
toirs were constructed at Glenroy. Chilled beef is now
flown in three hours to Wyndham. The percentage of
the annual increase in three years was: 171 for the
turnoff of cattle, 188 for beef production, 413 for first
and second grade export grade beef. Pork and lamb
can be similarly flown to the coast. Some 90 areas in
the Australian outback could be developed in the same
way at a fraction of the cost of road and rail con-
struction and transport.
2255. Report on the Turn-Round of Ships in Australian
Ports. Henry Basten. 4 January 1952. Report to
Commonwealth Government, 1952, pp. 35.
Part I of the report discusses Australian port facili-
ties. After an investigation of the imports of general
cargo from overseas the author makes some long-term
recommendations that port facilities should be im-
proved, and some short-term recommendations for the
promotion of quicker deliveries from the wharves (eco-
nomic pressures such as a rising scale of storage
charges). Separate chapters deal with general exports
to overseas countries and with interstate shipping. Part
II examines stevedoring operations: the organization
of the industry, the Australian Stevedoring Industry
Board and its reconstruction, the management (the
master stevedores), the waterside workers; the re-
organization of the industry. Recommendations are
made, including improvement of the status of the
master stevedores and making the watersiders' work
2256. Fixing Fares for Carrying Passengers by Road
Transport. L. H. Atkinson and R. J. Polaschek.
The Accountants' Journal (N.Z.), pp. 358-64, July
The law requires the Commissioner of Transport,
subject to appeal to a public authority, to fix fares for
the carriage of passengers by road transport in New
Zealand. The basis on which fares are fixed, is described
and the information required before a decision is made
by the Commissioner, is set out.
2257. Air Transport in New Zealand. F. H. Bishop.
New Zealand Geographer, pp. 156-62, October
In N.Z. external air transport the proportion of
passengers in the last four years was 35-50% of all
external passengers, while the amount of freight and
mail carried is still comparatively small. The same pre-
dominance of passenger traffic obtains in internal air
traffic except in Cook Strait crossing where much freight
is transported by air. In Northland and South Westland
air transport is the most important kind of transport,
in the latter region including freight. There is some
non-scheduled air transport, particularly air-taxi ser-
vice across Cook Strait.
(G) Labour and Industrial Relations
2258. Foenander, O de R. Studies in Australian Labour
Law and Relations. Melbourne University Press,
1952, pp. xxxix, 242. Price 30s.
The studies in this volume are all related to an
analysis of the most vexing domestic problem that now
confronts Australia-the problem of industrial peace.
The chapters deal with the Commonwealth legislative
power under the Constitution in relation to labour, the
period of rise of the Commonwealth Court of Concilia-
tion and Arbitration, the changes introduced into the
scheme of Federal industrial regulation since 1939, the
Forty Hours case, the Basic Wage Inquiry case of 1950,
the wages question, and the right to criticize the Aus-
tralian industrial tribunals.-O. de R. F.
2259. The Commonwealth Court of Conciliation and
Arbitration. O. de R. Foenander. Journal of In-
dustry, pp. 53, 54, July 1952.
An over-all statement on the Commonwealth Court
of Conciliation and Arbitration, and its general stand-
ing. Particular reference is made to the diminution in
its jurisdiction effected by recent legislative amend-
ments.-O. de R. F.
2260. Why Pressure-Group Action by Australian Trade
Unions? J. W. Kuhn. Australian Quarterly, pp.
61-8, September 1952.
The author, a U.S. Fulbright scholar who spent a year
in Australia, describes the impact of compulsory arbitra-
tion on three different types of unions, the Australian
Workers' Union which organizes scattered and casual
workers; the small, unstrategic unions-these two groups
gain much benefit from the arbitration system-; and
the large compact unions of workers in key industries.
This latter type respects Arbitration Courts as far as
they comply with their demands, but does not feel
responsibility for damage done to the community by
their claims. The arbitration system does not promote
settlement of disputes on the lower level of factory and
shop. The unions act only as guardians of distributive
justice, but are not concerned with raising national
2261. The Trend of Unemployment in Queensland. E.
A. Boulton. Economic News, pp. I, 5, May 1952.
In a table and a graph indexes of unemployment
registrations in Queensland are shown per month from
January 1949 to April x952 for males, females, and
total. The average of 1949-51 is taken as ioo, the index
was for a short time in 1949 inflated because of the
coal strike, then the trend was downward until the end
of 1951 for males, and about constant for females until
about July 1951. Later it rose for both sexes. For males
the latest index in May 1952 was 251.3, for females in
April 1952, 406. However, the absolute figures are still
very small, slightly more than one per cent of the work
2262. Labour Turnover in Butter Factories in New
Zealand. C. Vautier. Economic Record, pp. 40-51,
A survey of 1,iro employees in 90 butter factories
out of a total of 114 operating in N.Z. in 1949-50.
The labour turnover was 58%, including managers,
64% exclusive of them. Causal relations were tested
between labour turnover and the size of factories,
housing accommodation provided for employees, average
gross earnings, location factors and competition for
labour by other industries. Correlation coeffcients are
worked out and it was found that about one-third of
the turnover is to be attributed to accommodation and
the size of the factory, while the correlation with salary
fluctuations is slight. The rest of the turnover is due
to sociological and psychological causes. Some remedies
to reduce turnover are suggested.
2263. Labour Turnover as a Dynamic Process. O. P.
Wickham. Bulletin of Industrial Psychology and
Personnel Management, pp. 3-12, June 1952.
A new method of labour turnover research carried
out at two British factories by the Tavistock Institute
and later tried in an Australian factory. It is based on
'survival periods' (length of service at time of leaving)
of groups of entrants into a factory. Three phases of
the turnover process are ascertained, that of induction
crisis, of differential transit and of settled connection.
Labour turnover depends both on external forces affect-
ing the institution concerned and on forces within its
organization. Examples of these two kinds of forces are
given particularly regarding the Australian factory
2264. The Financial Effects of Absence from Work.
Case Study No. 2. R. Isherwood. Bulletin of
Industrial Psychology and Personnel Manage-
ment, pp. 22-6, June 1952.
The net profit of a Melbourne engineering firm with
130 employees, six production and three sales depart-
ments foregone through the absence from work of
direct production workers in the second half of 1951,
is calculated. On the average between five and forty per
cent of the employees were absent from work in the
six different production departments with an accord-
ing variation of the total absence in hours. The increase
in sales value of production less increase in direct costs
and expenses (labour costs, materials costs, etc.) is cal-
culated and a loss of 2-3% of the actual value of pro-
duction or io/5 per man-hour lost is worked out.
2265. Productivity of Rural Labour. Australia and U.S.
Compared. Loreley Jackson. Quarterly Review of
Agricultural Economics, pp. 67-71, April 1952.
All indexes have been worked out as five-year aver-
ages with the base period 1923-27=1ooo. In Australia
only persons permanently employed in rural work were
counted, in U.S. all persons. Over the last thirty years
the rural labour force declined by 1% in Australia
and by 9% in U.S.; however the quantity index of rural
production rose in both countries and the productivity
per head of rural labour from 1923-27 to 1945-49 in-
creased by 32% in U.S., by 35 in Australia. In Aus-
tralia the rise in production has been uninterrupted but
for the war years; in U.S. the output fell heavily in the
i93o's and rose sharply in the war years. The difference
is that Australia depends on the export market, U.S.
on the home market.
2266. Employment of Disabled Persons. Manufactur-
ing and Management, pp. 95-97, October 1952.
From U. K., U.S. and Canada much can be learned
how to re-employ disabled persons at special machines
or in special workshops or 'sheltered' workshops. Prior
to re-employment rehabilitation through treatment and
training must be provided, for which there are in all
Australian states rehabilitation centres which have al-
ready placed 4000 disabled persons in employment.
Special sections deal with re-employment of physically
handicapped people in suitable jobs, adjusting the job
to the individual, selection, placement and settling-in
of the new employee.
2267. Job Evaluation. A. T. Chandler. Bulletin of In-
dustrial Psychology and Personnel Management,
pp. 13-2', June 1952.
Job evaluation, the process of establishing the relative
values of different jobs as basis for wage determination,
is practised widely in U.S., less in U.K. First the non-
quantitative methods of job comparison are set out: the
ranking and the grading methods, largely subjective and
applicable only in smaller firms; followed by quantita-
tive methods: factor comparison and point-rating
methods. In Australia the position is different because
of our award system, but such information could be
useful for presenting logs of claims and making awards.
AGRICULTURE, LAND AND RURAL
2268. Lang, P. S., Tulloh, N. M., and Fennessy, B. V.
Survey of the Sheep Industry of the Western
District of Victoria. School of Agriculture, Uni-
versity of Melbourne, Melbourne, 1952, pp. 281.
This survey covers the 8-8 million acres of Victoria's
main sheep district. The influence of the climate, physio-
graphy and vegetation of the area on sheep is discussed,
as are pasture improvement and management, pasture
species, weeds and pests, erosion and other forms of pro-
duction found in the district. Improvements in flock
management and production can be made in several
ways. The breed structure of the district varies and
methods of breeding and stock replacement are con-
sidered in detail. The farmers' attitudes to the control
of various diseases are generally good, although better
extension services are needed.-R.H.B.
2269. Bailey, A. P. A Comparative Survey of Economic
Conditions in Two Pastoral Areas of South Aus-
tralia. Bureau of Agricultural Economics, Can-
berra, 1952, pp. 70.
Economic surveys were made in two areas in S.A. to
study trends and sources of credit used by pastoralists.
Effects of various factors on the use of credit are dis-
cussed and several recommendations made.-R.H.B.
2270. A Survey of the Beef Cattle Industry of Australia.
Part I: Northern Australia. W. A. Beattie.
C.S.I.R.O. Divisional Report No. 5, 1952, pp. 1oo.
Subdivision of the three main cattle regions of North-
ern Australia are comprehensively described with re-
gard to environment, costs, management, labour, breeds,
and other factors affecting the beef industry. In sub-
sequent chapters water supply, vegetation, animal hus-
bandry, diseases and parasites, breeds and their distribu-
tion, and the economic and sociological structure of the
industry are discussed in relation to the industry as a
whole. The greatest immediate increase in output of
cattle from the north can be obtained by reducing
losses and turning cattle off at a younger age. Problems
of increasing output are discussed and among them
transport and marketing are very unsatisfactory.-
2271. Expansion of Northern Territory Beef Cattle
Production. Bureau of Agricultural Economics,
May 1952, pp. 38.
This report covers tenure, credit and taxation, station
improvements, movement and transport of stock, gov-
ernment assistance and materials required for develop-
ment of the northern cattle areas of Australia. Consid-
erable attention is given to a proposal to construct a
railway from the Northern Territory to join up with
the Queensland railway system.--R.H.B.
2272. Eighth Annual Report of Bureau of Investigation,
Queensland, 1951. Government Printer. Brisbane
1952, PP. 63.
This report covers the progress of the numerous and
varied investigations carried on by the Bureau. 68,500
acres of the Darling Downs near the Condamine River
may be irrigated from underground water. The poten-
tial areas for wheat growing and the effect of competi-
tive forms of production have been discussed in relation
to the bulk handling of wheat. Permanent irrigated
pasture trials at Gatton and Theodore have been suc-
cessful. Management programmes are being investi-
gated. Cotton at Theodore yielded over ,Soo lbs. per
2273. An Index of Cost Movements on Fat-Lamb Pro-
ducing Properties 1950/51-i951/52. Bureau of
Agricultural Economics, Canberra 1952, pp. 24.
The index of cost movements on fat lamb producing
properties has increased 17-6% over the period 1950/51-
1951/52. The details from which this index, which is
not a measure of absolute costs, was obtained are
2274. Fat Lamb Industry, Production Regions in South
Eastern Australia. H. G. McConnell and E. K.
Simmons. Quarterly Review of Agricultural
Economics, pp. 25-32, January 1952.
The fat lamb producing area of S.E. Australia may
be divided into three zones-intensive, intermediate and
marginal. The intensive zone in which Comeback,
Corriedale and crossbreds are fed on improved pasture
for more than two months a year lies on the ranges and
between the ranges and the sea. The intermediate zone
carries the same breeds on natural pasture and includes
most of the main wheat belt of S.E. Australia. The
marginal zone carries mainly Merino ewes on natural
pasture and due to seasonal conditions is an inter-
mittent producer of fat lambs. It lies to the north and
east of Adelaide and to the west of the main wheat
belt in the north of N.S.W. The most common breeds
of rams used are also discussed.-R.H.B.
2275. Recent Changes in Sheep and Cattle Population
in Eastern New South Wales. F. H. Gruen.
Review of Marketing and Agricultural Econo-
mics, pp. 141-6, June 1952.
This survey uses number sheep equivalents per shire
in that part of N.S.W., excluding the Western Division
and coastal districts for the period 1927-51. The shires
have been listed and grouped according to the size and
direction of the trends of five years averages. Shires on
the Southern Tableland and S.W. slopes show the most
marked upward trend. This is attributed largely to im-
proved pasture and low numbers of sheep in the base
period. Skeleton weed and the tendency towards more
mixed farming in wheat areas are also factors.-R.H.B.
2276. Recent Trends in Land Use on South Western
Wheat Farms-Ross Parish. Review of Market-
ing and Agricultural Economics, pp. 7-52, March
Farm size in this area of N.S.W. has increased over
the last thirty years and tractors have replaced horses
on wheat farms. There has been a downward trend in
wheat acreage in recent years, partly offset by increased
acreage of oats, but the trend towards sheepfarming is
marked. The main reasons are the increasing prevalence
of skeleton weed under cropping, the high prices and
greater leisure from sheep farming and the frustration
due to shortages of superphosphate machinery and
parts. The change-over has been modified by rainfall
and soil characteristics. In the eastern part of the area
ley farming with subterranean clover is more common
than on the lighter soils with rainfall to the west.-
2277. Rutherford, J. Further Aspects of Dairy Farm-
ing on the Lower North Coast. Review of Market-
ing and Agricultural Economics, pp. 53-86, March
The author has analysed certain characteristics of
the farm families of the area including the numbers of
members who have left the farm, the age of the opera-
tors and educational standards. Improved farm prac-
tices, large labour force and mechanization are related
to higher production. Owner operators tend to adopt
more efficient methods. The question of tenure is dis-
cussed. Housing and the facilities and equipment of
the homes is of a relatively low standard compared with
those in country towns.-R.H.B.
2278. A Case for Timber Preservation in Australia,
E. B. Huddleston. Australian Timber Journal, pp.
482-91, 500, 506, August 1952.
While the preservation of timber, against insect
attack, decay, weathering and fire should not replace
careful design and usage, its general adoption in Aus-
tralia would be economic and prevent an ever-increas-
ing amount of wastage. The various preservatives and
treatments and their efficacy are dealt with.-R.H.B.
2279. The Table Poultry Industry in New South Wales.
L. C. Yorke. Review of Marketing and Agricul-
tural Economics, pp. 97-121, June 1952.
The fowl population of N.S.W. is mainly in coastal
regions near Sydney and Newcastle, and on the western
slopes of the Divide. Turkeys are reared commercially,
mainly on the N.W. slope and in the Riverina. The
fowl population rose from 5'5m. in 1940 to 9-8m. in
1945, but fell to 7.4m. in 1951, largely because of in-
creased feed costs. The larger killing works, killing
over 20,000 birds a year, are interested principally in
export, while the smaller markets cater for local needs.
Our relatively low consumption seems to be due to the
high prices of poultry meat. Until June 1950, the high
prices paid by U.K. stimulated output and development
of the larger killing works. Since then there was no
U.K. contract and export prices sank to a very unfav-
2280. Phosphates in New Zealand Agriculture. M. M.
Burns. New Zealand Geographer, pp. 125-37, Oc-
Phosphates, pastures and stock combined have greatly
increased the fertility of much of N.Z.'s naturally poor
soil. The phosphate deficiency of most N.Z. soils demon-
strate the vital need for the expanding domestic fer-
tilizer industry which has developed in the last So
years. Most of the 8oo,ooo tons of fertilizer used
annually are phosphates; superphosphate being the
most important of these. The manufactured product is
used mainly on pastures. As the forms of phosphate in
the soil become better known, new fertilizers may
(A) Government and Politics
2281. Amending the Constitution. H. S. Nicholas. Aus-
tralian Quarterly, pp. 11-15, June 1952.
Advocates the holding of a Constitutional Convention
(either elected under State Acts, or nominated by the
Federal Parliament) to re-define federal financial rela-
tions and to draft non-controversial amendments to the
constitution on New States, Section 92, industrial rela-
tions, emergency internal security power, and judicial
2282. Postmortem on the Referendum. The Round
Table (London), pp. 182-7, March 1952.
A review of the course of the campaign on the anti-
Communist referendum, and of the probable reasons
for its defeat, and a narration of subsequent federal
political issues to the end of 195I.-A.F.D.
2283. An Incomplete Foreign Affairs Committee. T. N.
M. Buesst. Australian Outlook, pp. 85-9, June
Summary and discussion of the parliamentary de-
bates on the establishment of a federal joint standing
committee on foreign affairs. -A.F.D.
2284. The Price of Political Dependency. J. W. David-
son. Australian Outlook, pp. 117-27, June 1952.
Despite the fact that, at times, dependency alone can
guarantee 'the preservation of law and order, even the
safeguarding of a people against virtual extinction', it
is a state characterized by 'the inevitable defects -of an
executive unresponsive to internal social forces', sub-
ject to 'social division, lack of trust between rulers and
ruled, and frustrated potential leadership'. 'Psychologi-
cal conditioning of trainee colonial officers, and the
recognition by administrators of the need by education,
discussion and persuasion to give direction and leader-
ship to existing local forces', however, may mitigate
these defects.- A.F.D.
(B) International Relations
2285. Ball, W. Macmahon, Nationalism and Commun-
ism in East Asia. Melbourne University Press,
1952, pp. 205. Price 25s.
The author explains the dramatic post-war develop-
ments in Asia in terms of a three-fold revolution in
which self-government together with social welfare and
equality is demanded, and in which community with
other Asian peoples and hostility to the white nations
is keenly felt. This theme is elaborated and illustrated
by individual studies of Burma, China, India, Indo-
China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaya, the Philip-
pines, and Thailand, which contain brief histories of
their relations with colonial government followed by
their histories in detail since 1945. He stresses the
difficulties of attempts to combat communism by
either military, economic or psychological methods, and
the futility of Western policies based on the assump-
tion that the illiberal characteristics of communism
can be made to appear as obvious or as important to
Asians as to Western Europeans.-D.C.S.S.
2286. Boyd, Robin. Australia's Home. Its Origins,
Builders and Occupiers. Melbourne University
Press, 1952, pp. 287.
This richly illustrated book is concerned with the
small houses in which most Australians live. About
1950 there were nearly 2,000,000 private houses with an
average of five rooms each, in five principal types:
primitive cottage, bungalow, asymmetrical front, L-
shape and Triple front. Part I: 'Ten Million Private
Rooms' includes among other subjects 'first steps of
Suburbia' (colonial Georgian), the boom style of the
i88o's, the functionalist Queen Anne style of the i890's,
the American Bungalow and the Spanish Mission styles,
the designing of houses for enjoying the sun, return to
austerity after World War II. Part II: 'The Architec-
tural Influences' discusses among other matters: Archi-
tects, clients, critics, environment (difference between
southern capitals, Brisbane, tropical north); national,
patriotism, taste (U.K. and U.S. influence); water supply,
sewerage, gas and electricity, telephone.
(B) Social Security and Public Health
2287. Management's Part in Reducing Factory Acci-
dents. L. D. Wright. Manufacturing and Manage-
ment, pp. 300-6, March 1952.
The author holds that Australian official statistics
very much understate the number of accidents in in-
dustry. To be correct, they should be based on workers'
compensation returns. The indirect costs of accidents
like idle machinery, materials or buildings, have rarely
been estimated. Preventive safeguards are often inade-
quate, particularly in Victoria. As an approach to acci-
dent prevention in a medium sized factory the writer
suggests a safety survey, the definition and later the
initiation of a safety programme. Debatable points
are the placing of responsibility on supervisors, the
appointing of a part-time safety officer and setting up
of a safety committee.
(C) Social Surveys
2288. Prest, W. Housing, Income and Saving in War-
Time. A Local Survey, Department of Economics,
University of Melbourne, 1952, pp. 132 roneoedd).
This publication is a 'by-product of the Metropolitan
Social Survey' conducted by the University of Mel-
bourne for the whole Metropolitan area between Sep-
tember 1941 and January 1943. It is concerned with
the three Melbourne suburbs, Footscray, Williamstown
and Sunshine, which were important centres of the
munitions industry. 681 dwellings in these suburbs were
visited by field-workers from September-December 1941,
and in February and March 1943 about 300 of these
dwellings were revisited to study the changes due to
the intensification of the war effort. After a discussion
of data and definitions in Part I, Part II deals with
housing: number, size and conditions of houses, num-
ber, type and size of households, rents, overcrowding.
Part III examines income: household income, personal
earnings, household needs, income compared with needs.
Part IV investigates savings: hire purchases and home
purchases, social security savings, savings banks, war
savings, savings and income in connection with the
Keynesian thesis that with rising real income a higher
proportion of th oe income is being saved.
(D) Population and Migration
2289. Gamba, C. The Australian Fishermen in Fre-
mantle. University of Western Australia. Text
Books Board, 1952, pp. 10o.
The majority of fishermen in Fremantle are Italians.
There e noare now about 400 of them, and their history
goes back to I881. This monograph is divided into
three chapters. The first deals with economic history,
including distribution of the catch, earnings, fish prices,
the fish market 1919-48, the strike in 1947, and the
fishers' co-operative. Chapter 2 discusses the economics
of the fishing industry (geography, catch by season,
equipment, gear, finances, sharing system, etc.). Chap-
ter 3 'Human Ecology' is concerned with the environ-
ment and home of the fishermen, particularly with
various stages of segregation and assimilation, religion,
the position of women, sons and daughters.
2290. The Size of Towns. E. P. Neale. Economic
Record, pp. 81-8, May 1952.
A note on some particulars about the urban develop-
ment of N.Z. Several specialized occupations are con-
centrated in the larger cities. Limits to the size of a
city are discussed: time and money spent in daily
travel to and from work, costs of water supply, area
of collection of milk and foodstuffs, time of delivery of
goods, traffic congestion, high rent and land values,
lower efficiency of labour and higher mortality. Advan-
tages of larger cities (occupational, educational, ed, recrea-
tional) are listed, forces of unification and diversifica-
tion are set out.
2291. Some Remarks on Australian Population Trends
and Their Social and Economic Effects. A. H.
Pollard. Actuarial Society of Australasia, 56th
Session, 1952, pp. 199-209.
A survey of Australian demographic trends, start-
ing with calculating the Australian dependent popu-
lation (ages 1-17 and 62-) in the past and up to 1967.
The second section deals with the ratio of females to
males in the population, the third with student popu-
lation and education costs (ages 6-i1, 12-16, 17-19 as
representing primary, secondary and tertiary education).
This is followed by a discussion of the cost of super-
annuation and social service pensions, hospital require-
ments, the shortage of juveniles, manpower and
national defence, and immigration.
2292. Have We the Sense? Colin Clark. Regional
Development Journal, pp. 247-54, November 1951.
To attract migrants Australia must offer high real
wages and development is essential. Of our present
working population 15% are engaged in primary in-
dustry including mining, 27 in manufacture and 58 in
tertiary industries. In the long run only 15-20% of our
labour force can be employed in manufacture. Every
region has its 'potential' of population (income of
market for the region divided by transport costs). For
our present concentration of population there is no
economic justification; we would have to plan for
io% of our labour force in primary, 15 in secondary
production, 75 in service industries (less in transport,
more in building). The pattern of population location
in Australia form regions with 250,000 population, com-
prising about 30 or 40 rural and 60 or 70 urban neigh-
bourhoods of 2,500 each. Urban communities should
have a maximum of 15o,ooo people.
2293. The Age of Australian Farmers. D. B. Williams
and Sheila B. Fraser. Quarterly Review of Agri-
cultural Economics, pp. 94-6, July 1952.
The results of the 1947 census are compared with
those of 1921 and 1933. As shown by tables, the work
force of the whole community between 1921 and 1947
has risen by 37%, of rural occupations fallen by 8%.
The 'drift to the cities' has particularly affected the
younger age groups under 35, their numbers have fallen
by 17%, while there is an increase in some of the older
groups. The distribution of workers on farms is corres-
pondingly different from that in other industries and
the average age of farmers is higher. This means inade-
quate replacement of trained young men on the land
and a smaller flexibility of rural production.
2294. The Migration Problem in Queensland. J. A.
Hempel. Economic News, pp. 4, 4, March 1952.
Of the net migration of 405,000 to Australia from
October 1948 to September 1951, only 7'8% came to
Queensland (of the British assisted migrants 123, of
D.P.'s 8-3), in relation to population fewer migrants
than in any other Australian state. This is largely due
to the lack of direct passenger shipping to Queensland
and to the greater importance of primary than of sec-
ondary industry in Queensland. Financial assistance to
competent farmers going to the land and priority in
obtaining building materials for agricultural labour
might be a remedy.
2295. D.P. Immigrants' Assimilation in Australia.
H. B. M. Murphy. (a) The Assimilation of Refu-
gee Immigrants in Australia. Population Studies
(London), pp. 179-206, March 1952. (b) Assimi-
lating the Displaced Person. Australian Quar-
terly, pp. 46-58, March 1952.
Most of the immigrants are employed as unskilled
labourers, about half of them for public constructional
work. The initial reaction of the newcomer to work here
is favourable, but this is only a temporary euphoria. Later
the housing shortage is a great drawback, some single
persons may save enough to build their own houses, but
not family people who are for a very long time sep-
arated and suffer from camp life. The policy of speedy
assimilation of D.P.'s adopted in Australia is different
from that of other immigrant countries (U.S.) which
have experienced that it only uproots immigrants and
causes much juvenile delinquency. For assimilation
much personal contact is needed which is hard to
achieve as both groups are more different than either
realizes. While the economic adjustment is usually
good, social relations are not. Neurosis and mental ill-
ness is widespread among D.P.'s and Australian psychia-
tric treatment is not adequate to deal with it.
2296. New Zealand and Asiatic Migration. H. Bern-
ardelli. Population Studies, London, pp. 39-54,
The author first discusses the migration of Indians
to Burma from 900o to the 1930's as a typical low-
cost migration without any obstacles. Here the supply
of migrants was very elastic and adjustable to the
trade cycle. It was a perfect labour market because of
labour's high mobility, but aroused great racial antagon-
ism in Burma. By contrast the very remote European
reservoir of manpower migrating to N.Z. makes this
migration very costly and the N.Z. labour market very
rigid. Asian migrants who might lessen this rigidity, have
been excluded since the time of Chinese immigration
in the N.Z. gold-rush days. 'Ethnic homogeneity could
only be obtained at the high price of severe economic
rigidity'. However, the high birth rate of the Maoris
and some immigration to N.Z. from Samoa and other
N.Z. island territories somewhat alters the picture.
2297. Derrick, R. A. Vocational Training in the South
Pacific. Oxford University Press, London, 1952,
Reports a detailed survey of technical and profes-
sional training facilities in the South Pacific and makes
recommendations for their development. Early chap-
ters discuss the general nature of the problem and the
area to be dealt with, and lays down the basis for and
aims of, the training desired. The facilities available
in the various areas and territories comprising the
South Pacific are outlined, and an overall survey made.
Three chapters are devoted to analysis and argument
for centralized training, and a summary of conclu-
sions is given. Subregional centres, with a central insti-
tution at the higher levels leading to the ultimate
establishment of a South Pacific University College, are
recommended. Finance is discussed on general and
2298. Educational Research being undertaken in Aus-
tralia, 1952. Mimeographed. Commonwealth Of-
fice of Education, N.S.W., 1952, pp. 32.
The third annual statement on this subject. The
topics are classified under broad headings and include
most, but not all, researches in Education Departments,
Universities, and other centres. There are short state-
ments covering a number of the more important pro-
jects recently completed.
2299. New Zealand Council for Educational Research.
Seventeenth Annual Report 1951-52. The Council.
Lists the members of the Council, gives a brief his-
tory of the Council, and its functions under the act of
1945 which gave it statutory recognition, gives a full
report by the Director of the Council on its activities
for the year ending 31 March 1952, lists the various
regional Institutes for Educational Research and their
activities, and gives a list of Publications of the
2300. Parkyn, G. W. Consolidation of Rural Schools.
Whitcombe and Tombs, N.Z. 1952, pp. 152. (Pub-
lished by N.Z. Council for Educational Research.
Research Series No. 32.)
Discusses the historical development of rural educa-
tion in N.Z., and the presumed advantages and disad-
vantages of consolidated schools. Reports the results
of a study extending over three or more years, involv-
ing visits to many centres, detailed and lengthy obser-
vation of schools at work, analysis of time tables and
teaching practices, study of teachers' efficiency, and
tests of pupils abilities. A summary of findings and
recommendations for action, complete the report. The
chief recommendation is that younger children (up to
standard IV in N.Z.) should remain in the small schools.
For the older ones, consolidated schools are essential.
2301. Primary School Studies: Australian Council for
Educational Research. Melbourne 1952. Price
is. 4d. each.
A series of nine pamphlets discussing various prob-
lems and practices in primary schools in Australia.
The titles are: The Approach to Reading, pp. 19. The
Individual Child, pp. 13. Ends and Means in Arith-
metic, pp. 13. The Appraisal of Results, pp. 19. High-
ways of Expression, pp. 13. The Purposes of Teaching,
pp. 16. Power over Words, pp. 16. Children in Groups,
pp. 16. Priorities in the Primary School, pp. 19. Each
pamphlet is accompanied by a brief discussion which
puts forward other points of view, asks questions, and
tries to promote intelligent discussion of related prob-
2302. Dependent Children. Foster Homes or Institu-
tions. Prepared by The Child Welfare Advisory
Council of N.S.W. Government Printer, Sydney
1952, pp. '5.
Children thrive best under good parental care. It is -
difficult to know when a child should be removed from
its mother's or parents' care. Every care is needed to
retain the home. Material and other lacks can be made
up by social services, other lacks can be made up by
assistance to and training of parents. Foster homes are
usually better than institutions, as they provide more
personal contacts in a family setting. When care in
an institution is required, this should approximate to
home care as closely as possible.
2303. A Survey of Migration and Pre-School Needs.
Prepared by the Victorian Day Nurseries Asso-
ciation, (Melbourne), pp. 22, 1952. Mimeographed.
The survey was conducted to discover the needs of
migrants in Melbourne for pre-school services, and
their attitude to them. It is based on information
supplied by directresses of pre-school centres. There
are many migrant children of pre-school age who can-
not be accepted into pre-school centres because of lack
of accommodation. Full day care is most often re-
quired. Planning and forethought are very necessary to
meet both present and future demands.
2304. Education in Australia since 1945. W. C. Rad-
ford. Year Book of Education. Evans Bros, Lon-
don, 1952, pp. 275-99. Price 63/-.
There have been changes in Australian education, but
nothing to justify the word 'reform'. A general descrip-
tion of the education systems in Australia is followed
by sections dealing with (i) developments in adminis-
tration, (ii) types of educational institutions and the
provision of service within these, (iii) the development
of adult education, libraries, and pre-school services,
(iv) changes in aims, methods and approaches, and
(v) conclusions. Buildings and teachers are still less than
requirements, but a good deal of useful and valuable
work has been done.
2305. Factors underlying Lack of Curriculum Construc-
tion in Australia. D. K. Wheeler. Forum of Edu-
cation, pp. 42-59, October 1952.
Curriculum construction in Australia is not abreast
of current thought on its problems. Curricula must be
based on the needs of society, the needs of the indi-
vidual, and subject areas. There is need for an integ-
ration of the activities of many thinkers and workers
in these fields. There is in Australia's curricula an ab-
sence of philosophic studies, too much emphasis on
content, and too little understanding of the relation of
school and society.
2306. Selection for University Entrance in Australia.
Education News, pp. 14-16, October 1952.
Selection procedures vary from state to state. Some
universities have prerequisite subjects for particular
courses, others use a general matriculation standard.
Various purposes underly selection procedures. There
is need for a closer examination of the efficiency of
selection and of the procedures within the university
to ensure the minimum amount of failure.
2307. Couldrike, J. E. Ecology of Part of the Ninety-
Mile Plain, South Australia, Bulletin No. 266,
C.S.I.R.O., Melbourne 1951, pp. 61.
The soil-plant relationships of some 2,500 sq. miles
of the Ninety-Mile Plain, about one quarter of the
whole area are examined. The sandy infertile soils
carry a vegetation of mallee and scrubland, which has
been subjected to periodic burning over a long period.
Five topographic soil vegetation regions have been
suggested for the whole of the Ninety-Mile Plain, and
detailed ecological maps have been prepared from
2308. Preliminary Surveys of Resources of New South
Wales, published by the Government of N.S.W.,
Division of Reconstruction and Development,
These surveys (Southern Tableland, 1951; Clarence
Valley, 1950; Murrumbidgee Region, 1949; Lachlan
Region, 194o; Macquarie Region, 1948; Illawarra
Region, 1948; and Central Murray Region, 1947) deal
with topography, geology, climate, vegetation, water
resources, agriculture, manufacturing, population, com-
munications, and social amenities; they contain a great
number of statistical tables and detailed maps.-
2309. The Newcastle Region. A Preliminary Survey of
Resources. Division of Reconstruction and De-
velopment. Premier's Department. Sydney, 1952,
This region of 1,737 sq. miles contains almost a
quarter of a million people and the largest concentra-
tion of factory industry outside Sydney. The varied
topography comprises hilly uplands in the west and
south, with milder slopes and flats to the north. Both
primary industry, especially grazing, and secondary in-
dustry have expanded since the war. 42% of the working
population is engaged in mining compared with 31% in
agriculture, but industry is becoming more diversified
and is tending to settle in the municipalities of Mait-
land and Cessnock as industrial sites in Newcastle be-
come difficult to find.-D.W.F.
22o1. The Monaro-South Coast Region. A Prelimin-
ary Survey of Resources. Division of Develop-
ment and Reconstruction, Premier's Department,
Sydney 1952, pp. 112.
This survey covers the extreme S.E. of N.S.W., an
area of 9,387 sq. miles. The region is composed of two
distinct physical units, a coastal hill and valley zone,
and a higher plateau to the west, which rises to the
Kosciusko Ridge, and is divided by the Snowy River.
Great geological, topographical, and climatic diversity
characterizes the region. Manufacturing industry is
poorly developed, occupying only 8% of the working
population, but the water resources and the tourist
industry are of special importance.--D.W.F.
2311. Sydney 1820. A Comparison of Developments in
the Heart of the City. K. W. Robinson. Aus-
tralian Geographer, pp. 6-12, June 1952.
The development in the centre of the city is traced
from the original penal settlement to 1820. By this date
the foundation for future development had been laid,
and the layout pattern then established has persisted
in all essentials up to the present. But largely unrelated
to topography, and with conception of future needs, the
old layout is now proving quite inadequate and the
continuous growth of the city imposes an ever-increas-
ing strain on its resources.- D.W.F.
2312. Queensland Regional Surveys. Economic News.
March, April, May, June, August, September,
In a series of Surveys of the Regions of Queensland
the Western Downs Region is dealt with in March
1952, Maranoa and Border Plains in April, 1952, the
Southern Downs Region in May, 1952, the Central
Downs Region in June 1952, Warrego and Western
Plains in August 1952, West Moreton Region in Sep-
tember 1952, and Wide Bay Region in November 1952.
These descriptions deal with the physiography, climate,
soils, land use, economic activities and social amenities
of the regions and contain a map and a great deal of
statistical information in tables.-E.J.D.
2313. The Origin and Early Growth of Brisbane,
Queensland. L. J. Tay. Geography (London), pp.
166-78, July 1952.
The discovery and exploration of the Moreton Bay
area and the founding of Brisbane by Oxley in 1824
are examined in relation to the physical background,
and the development of the city is traced to the separa-
tion of the Queensland colony in 1859. Full realization
of the potentialities of the site were impossible while
Brisbane remained a penal settlement, but the opening
of the area to free settlement in 1842 and the realiza-
tion of the advantages of the North Passage approach
to Moreton Bay conferred great advantages on Brisbane,
which is now able to dominate the State, despite its
eccentric position.- D.W.F.
2314. Gentilli, J. A Geography of Climate. University
of Western Text Books Board, 1952, pp. Io8.
The work, evidently intended as a brief text for tea-
chers and students of geography, starts with a discus-
sion of the different climatic elements: radiation (rather
fully), temperature, wind, precipitation and evapora-
tion. The general circulation is described with par-
ticular reference to its influence upon precipitation
using the concepts of air mass climatology and of
fronts. Numerous world maps are given, some of them
not generally found in similar texts. The book con-
cludes with a brief description of Ktppen's and Thorn-
thwaite's classifications of climate.-F.L.
2315. The Comparative Climatology of Australia and
Argentina. J. A. Prescott, Joyce A. Collins and
G. R. Shirpurkar. Geographical Review, New
York, pp. 118-31, January 1952.
Using precipitation and evaporation data the paper
compares Australia and Argentina with respect to the
efficiency of the monthly rainfall. Water losses from
vegetated soil are derived from the evaporation from a
free-water surface which itself is linearly connected
with the saturation deficit (independently of the wind).
For both Australia and Argentina monthly maps are
given for a 'rainfall efficiency index' thus established;
the index is then used to draw maps of the length and
the seasonal distribution of the growing period and of
the period of water retention by the fully vegetated soil
and of the run-off. The temperature conditions of
Argentina and Australia are compared using the
Fourier analysis of the annual temperature curve. The
paper concludes with a detailed comparison of two
stations in Australia and of one place in Argentina.-
2316. Crawford, R. M. Australia. Hutchinson's Uni-
versity Library, London, 1952, pp. 203.
An outline general history of Australia, in the
dimensions of Scott's Short History and Hancock's
Australia. It gives more emphasis to social conditions
and social relations than Scott's book, and, compared
with Hancock's, it lays more stress on the period before
i9oo, and less on that since then. An essay in interpre-
tation rather than a text-book, it embodies many of
the conclusions of recent research.
2317. Feldmann, Jules. The Great Jubilee Book: the
story of the Australian nation in pictures. Color-
grave Publications, Melbourne, 1951, pp. 240.
Price 13s. 9d.
Designed specially to commemorate the fiftieth anni-
versary of Federation, this book contains reproductions,
coloured as well as black and white, of contemporary
prints, paintings and photographs, accompanied by a
historical sketch for the general reader.
2318. Henning, R. B. (Mrs D. Taylor). The Letters of
Rachel Henning. Bulletin Newspaper Co., Syd-
ney, 1952, pp. 126. Price 7s. 6d.
Letters written by an English clergyman's daughter
settled in Australia between 1853 and 1882. They give
a very lively picture of social life in the bush in
Queensland and New South Wales, and of the gradual
adaptation of the writer to her Australian environment.
2319. Holmes, Sir Maurice, Captain James Cook, R.N.,
F.R.S.: A Bibliographical Excursion. Francis
Edwards Ltd., London, 1952. pp. I50. Price 41s.
Gives full bibliographical descriptions of the first
editions of the rarer or more important primary pub-
lications connected with Cook's voyages, and a short
select list of later works, with brief annotations.
2320. Brown, P. L. (Ed.) The Clyde Company's Papers,
Vol. II, 1836-40. Oxford University Press, Lon-
don, 1952, pp. 482. Price 52s.
This book continues the publication of the archives
of a Scottish-Tasmanian syndicate which was among
the pastoral pioneers of Victoria and which occupied
land at Golf Hill in Western Victoria. The period 1836-
40 is covered in detail both by the papers and by a
2321. Ingleton, Geoffrey C. (Ed.) True Patriots All; or,
news from early Australia as told in a collection
of broadsides. Angus and Robertson, Sydney.
280 pp. Price 428.
A collection of items on early Australia gathered
from contemporary broadsides, chap-books and news-
papers. Many of the originals are extremely difficult of
access, and the collection is a valuable anthology of
folk-attitudes towards Australia, from the First Fleet
to the Eureka Stockade. The source of each extract is
2322. Sydney University: Faculty of Arts. One Hun-
Years of the Faculty of Arts: a series of com-
memorative lectures given in the Great Hall,
University of Sydney during April and May 1952.
Angus and Robertson, Sydney, 80 pp. Price 7s. 6d.
Consists of four lectures: The Faculty of Arts in the
University and the Community, by R. B. Farrell; The
Emergence of Psychology, Anthropology and Educa-
tion, by A. P. Elkin; The Language and Literature
Tradition, by W. Milgate; and The Contribution of
Philosophy and History, by P. H. Partridge. These
lectures survey the development of teaching in Sydney
in the various branches of learning comprised in the
Faculty, and sketch some of the outstanding person-
alities who have contributed to it.
2323. Frontier and Section: a Turner 'Myth'? N. D.
Harper. Historical Studies, Australia and N.Z.,
pp. 135-53, May 1952.
A revision article attempting to reassess the value of
F. J. Turner's work on the importance of the frontier
and sections in the American history after almost two
generations of research and critical discussion of the
Turner hypothesis. Much of the controversy arises out
of a failure to read Turner's work in its entirety and to
examine the nature of his claims; it tends to aridity
because of sematic controversies and the tendency to
deal with his work in scriptural terms. His frontier
hypothesis suggested that the frontier exerted a demo-
cratic, individualistic and naturalistic influence on
American development. The mature Turner emphasised
more the importance of sections in the understanding
of U.S. history. Historians in other countries, including
Australia, are attempting to use his technique and
hypotheses in the interpretation of their national his-
tories. In this way a modified frontier hypothesis may
ultimately emerge as a formal thesis.
2324. The Van Diemen's Land Slump of the 'Forties.
A Reply to Professor R. M. Hartwell. S. J.
Butlin. A Rejoinder. R. M. Hartwell. Historical
Studies. Australia and N.Z., pp. 59-67, November
1951. A Further Comment. S. J. Butlin. A Further
Rejoinder, R. M. Hartwell. Historical Studies,
Australia and N.Z., pp. 154-9, May 1952.
Incidental to the main argument in his 'The Van
Diemen's Land Government and the Depression of the
Eighteen Forties' in Historical Studies, November 1950,
Hartwell included a brief analysis of the origin and
course of the depression. He dated the beginning of
the downswing in August-September 1840 and con-
cluded that the downswings of the mainland and of
V.D.L. occurred almost simultaneously. Butlin dates the
downswing almost a year later and argues that the slump
in V.D.L. followed that on the mainland in time and
largely as a consequence. Other questions concern the
initial causes of the depression, the relative importance
of different economic events in the period, evidence and
conclusions to be drawn. How far can modern economic
theory be applied in 'explaining' problems in economic
2325. The Western Riverina. A History of its Develop-
ment. James Jervis. Royal Australian Historical
Society, Journal and Proceedings, 1952, vol. xxxviii,
Part I, pp. 1-3o; Part II, pp. 78-Io3; Part III, pp.
127-50; Part IV, pp. 181-93; Part V, pp. 235-44.
The area covered by this survey is the land west of
a line drawn from Condobolin on the Lachlan River to
Coronea on the Murray. The outline begins with a
party of exploration to the area led by Oxley in 1817
and ends at 189o. It touches on many phases of the
region's development including exploration, land settle-
ment, growth of towns and social amenities.
2326. The Colonial Office and the Constitutional
Crises in Victoria, 1865-68. Dorothy P. Clarke.
Historical Studies, Australia and N.Z., pp. 160-
71, May 1952.
In 1865, the Legislative Assembly of Vie. attempted
to force the Legislative Council to accept a protective
tariff. The colony's Governor, Darling, was recalled by
the Colonial Secretary for his partisanship in the
struggle, and his acceptance of unusual financial mea-
sures proposed by the Vie. Ministry, such measures
appearing illegal to U.K. In 1867, the contest between
the two houses was renewed when the Assembly at-
tempted to vote a gift of 20o,ooo to Darling's wife. This
article deals with the outlook and motives of the mem-
bers of the Colonial Office who were called upon to give
advice and orders to Darling and his successor during
the critical three years.
2327. The Colonial Office and New Guinea, 1874-84.
Marjorie G. Jacobs, Historical Studies, Aus-
tralia and N.Z., pp. Io6-18, May 1952.
The Colonial Office accepted New Guinea 'as a legiti-
mate, if regrettable, Australian demand', but the
Imperial Government refused this demand until German
activity in the area forced their hand in 1884. The un-
willingness of the colonies to contribute to the expense
of administration was the chief stumbling block in
1874-80, when the Conservatives were in power. After
the Liberals took office, there was increasing readiness
of the colonies to assume part of the financial respon-
sibility. The apparent absence of foreign designs on
the area, other foreign commitments, and the failure
of the colonies to present a united and consistent case
did not encourage the Gladstone government to make
New Guinea an exception to their anti-expansionist
policy. However, when Germany occupied the N.E.,
U.K. annexed the S.E. section.
2328. Maori Nationalism and the European Economy,
1850-60. K. Sinclair. Historical Studies, Aus-
tralia and N.Z., pp. 119-34, May 1952.
The author wants to 'illustrate the economic import-
ance of economic influences on Maori attitudes at the
time of the King movement'; stressing factors usually
omitted by the more popular political explanation. His
interpretation recognizes those factors which militated
against the co-existence of the two societies-Maori and
European. Thus in the first section he links the political
explanation of the King movement with economic fac-
tors: the loss of further land to Europeans, and the
role of slumps in causing Maori disillusionment with
European society. Further sections deal with national-
ism and prosperity; acculturation and growth of nation-
alism; nationalism and poverty.
2329. The Revolutionary Tradition in China. C. P.
Fitzgerald. Historical Studies, Australia and N.Z.,
pp. 93-105, May I952.
Delivered as the Morrison Oration in Canberra, March
1951. The author discusses the components of Chinese
revolutionary tradition: how the pragmatic theory of
the 'Mandate of Heaven' justified successful rebellion,
and how the prerequisites of successful revolution were
the support of both peasantry and scholars. Thus the
Chinese revolutionary tradition is shown not as a
derivative from Western tradition, though it possesses
'many of the same basic ideas'. In these terms, Mr. Fitz-
gerald analyses the Revolution from 1911 to 1951, identi-
fying four phases-1911-21, 1921-31, 1931-41, 1941-51-
and comments on their significance.
(A) Constitutional Law
2330. Parliamentary Sovereignty and The Limits of
Legal Change. Z. Cowen. Australian Law Journal,
pp.237-40, September 1952.
An explanation of doctrines of parliamentary sov-
ereignty in the light of the decision of the Appellate
Division of the Supreme Court of South Africa in
Harris v. Donges (1952).
2331. Full Faith and Credit: The Australian Experi-
ence. Z. Cowen. Res Judicatae, Vol. 6, pp. 27-59,
A study of sec. 118 of the Commonwealth Constitu-
tion providing that full faith and credit shall be given
throughout the Commonwealth to the laws, the public
acts and records, and the judicial proceedings of every
state and of other powers under the Constitution, and
legislation enacted thereunder which relate to this
subject matter. The conclusion is that these provisions
have been neglected by Australian judges and lawyers.
2332. The Proposed Commonwealth Divorce Law. H.
Woolf. Australian Law Journal, pp. 307-8, Oc-
A brief summary of a draft Commonwealth bill on
divorce prepared by the Law Council of Australia at
the request of the Commonwealth Attorney-General.
Except for very limited Commonwealth entry in this
field, Australian divorce laws are at present State en-
acted. The Commonwealth clearly possesses constitu-
tional power to enact a divorce law, and it is with a
proposed law of this type that this article deals.
233J. The Action Per Quod Servitium Amisit. J. G.
Fleming. Australian Law Journal, pp. 122-9, June
A critical study of the action for loss of services,
with particular reference to a recent decision of the
High Court of Australia in which it was held that the
action did not lie at the suit of the Crown in respect
of the loss of services of a policeman.
2334. Moral Statements as Proposals. L. J. Russell.
Australasian Journal of Philosophy (Sydney),
Vol. xxx, No. 2, pp. 17-32, August 1952.
Moral statements take the grammatical form of pro-
positions about matters of fact, but are properly not
so much propositions as proposals: i.e., they can be
argued about and reasons can be given for them; but
these reasons are reasons for doing something, not for
accepting something as true.
2335. Penny, R. The Vigotsky Block Test: A Form of
Administration. Austral. J. Psychol., pp. 65-83,
A revised form of the Vigotsky (Hanfmann-Kasanin)
Test is proposed, with a shorter average time of testing,
a systematic method of recording data, and using new
quantitative indices. Findings are presented for normal,
aged and 'organic cerebral' cases. It is concluded 'that
the "organic" cases are like the aged, only more so'.
2336. Cook, P. H. Methods of Field Research. Austral.
J. Psychol., pp. 84-98, December 1951.
Three types of approach in field work for research
in social relations are described: 'cloak-and-dagger',
open observation, and collaboration research. The
psychologist should accept responsibility for the conse-
quences of his behaviour as a research worker and conse-
quently the collaborative method is the most appropriate
form of relation to the subjects of study. The collabora-
tive method leads to more intensive contact in the field
and moreover opens the way for inter-disciplinary re-
search teams. 'Laboratory research and collaborative
field research (in psychology) are equally essential and
2337. Flecker, R. Skin Temperature as a Psycho-
physical Variable. Austral. J. Psychol., pp. 109-
x2o, December 1951.
Measurements of skin temperature were made as
indicators of affective change in subjects during states
of relaxation, tension and during miniature counselling
interviews. During reading for one hour, skin tempera-
ture rose for twenty minutes, remained fairly steady,
then fell. Interruption was associated with a drop in tem-
perature. From the miniature counselling situations it
did not appear that there is a particular relationship be-
tween the direction of temperature change and the level
of tension disclosed in verbalization. The usefulness of
skin temperature measurement as an ancillary indicator
of the client's affective state during counselling was
2338. O'Neil, W. M. The Hypothetico-Deductive
Method. Austral. J. Psychol., pp. 1-9, June 1952.
The hypothetico-deductive method has had much
emphasis in the last twenty years. The method is gen-
erally well understood and is often contrasted with
speculative theorizing and with inductive generaliza-'
tion from empirical data. Spearman's derivations of the
g factor is used to illustrate details of the method and
to point out places where misconception may occur.
The method demands empirical anchoring and explicit
exhibition of the deduction and in so doing checks
unbridled and profitless speculation.
2339. Martin, R. T. The Notion of Normality. Austral.
I. Psychol., pp. 28-39, June 1952.
The notion of normality pervades thinking in all
social fields, including psychology, but it is rarely made
explicit what is meant by the term. Some common
usages are (i) objectivity (ii) naturalness or fulfilling its
essential nature (iii) statistical normality (iv) ideal. How-
ever the notion should apply to particular activities or
ways of behaving and not to persons or personalities.
The views of Grover, Jones and Hartmann are discussed.
It is finally argued that we should reject the normative
notion of normality and seek to give qualitative ac-
counts of the way things go on.
2340. Sutcliffe, J. P. The Significance of Some Level of
Aspiration Measures. Austral. J. Psychol., pp.
40-49, June 1952.
Confusion and inconsistency are apparent in the
level on measures of level of aspiration, specifically
with regard to (a) the effects of success and failure
upon aspirational behaviour, (b) the 'generality' of
aspiration measures, (c) the personality correlates of
such a 'general' trait, (d) the differences of groups. A
careful examination of methodology is necessary for
the elimination of much disagreement.
2341. Howie, D. An Analysis of Reasons Given for
Answers to Personality Questionnaire Items as
Indicating Differences in Ego-involvement.
Austral. J. Psychol., pp. 50-61, June 1952.
An analysis of reasons given for answers to person-
ality questionnaire items indicates that in question
areas relating to disturbing emotional attitudes or re-
actions answers admitting these tendencies in con-
trast with answers denying them suggest more ego-
involvement of a passive, introversial, feeling-bound
kind. This distinction is not evidenced in the answers
themselves bearing on social immaturity or shyness.
A tendency for reasons for admissions of disturbing
attitudes or behaviours to be more unqualified than
reasons for denying such reactions is interpreted as
indicating 'intolerance of ambiguity' in the more ego-
2342. Lovibond, S. H. The Water Diviner's Frame of
Reference. Austral. J. Psychol., pp. 62-73, June
This investigation sets out with the assumption that
the movement of the water diviner's rod is initiated
non-consciously by the diviner himself and proceeds
to investigate the conditions which determine the point
of initial movement. The diviner approaches his task
with a general 'frame of reference' derived from his
past experience which determines the character and
broad limits of his judgements. Situational anchors
then operate to locate his judgements within this frame
of reference. Three hypotheses derived from this formu-
lation, are tested experimentally with the hypotheses
and are inconsistent with hypotheses explaining divin-
ing in terms of electricity, magnetism extra-sensory per-
ception or innate reflex responses to physical radiations.
TERRITORIES AND NATIVE
2343. The Maori Population of Northern New Zealand.
Joan Metge, New Zealand Georgapher, Vol. 8,
No. 2, pp. 104-24, October 1952.
The Maoris have retained their physical features
and have evolved a cultural pattern combining true
Maori culture with forms due to adoption of European
social and economic practices. Since 1936 the Maori
population has increased at a progressively faster rate.
Their distribution in the north of the North Island is
shown with the help of maps comparing 1951 with
1926. In both years the Maoris were most densely settled
in areas where pakehas are least numerous, but pro-
portionately more Maoris now live in rural areas where
they are in the minority. Now about one-sixth of the
Maoris are urban residents. The acute housing shortage
has forced most Maoris into the poorer districts of the
town where overcrowding and inadequate sanitary
arrangements endanger their health and standard of
2344. Department of Island Territories, New Zealand.
Report for Year ended 31 March 1952. Govern-
ment Printer, Wellington, 1952, pp. 21.
This report covers the administrative activities of
the Department similar to the report for 1950-51 (ab-
stracted as No. 2198 in No. 13 of the journal). In 1948
the Congregational Church of N.Z., as representative
of the London Missionary Society, of which the majority
of the islanders are adherents, has inaugurated a wel-
fare organization. Sec. 13 contains a detailed report on
the Chatham Islands, the last full-blooded aboriginal
of which died in 1933. They are part of N.Z. proper
with a population of about 5oo, descendants of the
Maoris of Taranaki.-L.A.
2345. The Papuan Rubber Industry. Bureau of Agri-
cultural Economics. Bulletin No. 7, 1952, pp. 33.
From a cost of production survey made in 1949 based
on pre-war establishment costs, it is computed that the
crude cost of the ungraded product is i3.4d. per lb.
(6-id. in 1937). If 12% of the product is regarded as
valueless scrap, the cost is ix52d. per lb.; while if it
be further assumed that 82% of production is No. I
grade, 6% No. 2 grade, and 12% is scrap, and that the
returns for No. 2 grade are 95%, and for scrap 40% of
the returns for No. i, then the cost of production of
No. I grade is I4-5d. per lb. The standardization of
grading, marketing facilities and price quotations com-
pare unfavourably with Malayan standards. Improve-
ments would allow Papuan rubber on to overseas mar-
kets and improve its popularity in Australia. Papua's
production is still below pre-war level. In 1948-49 it
was 1,350 tons. Australia's imports that year totalled
2346. Community Development in Papua. C. S. Bel-
shaw. Australian Outlook, Vol. 6, No. i, pp. 50-9,
The author discusses 'agencies and areas' of com-
munity development, followed by 'economic aspects',
available labour and technical ability, co-operating
groups and co-ordination of activities. The Department
of District Services and Native Affairs now has two
new sections, viz., a 'local authorities section' which
is concerned with native councils and, shortly, native
courts; and a 'registrar of co-operatives'. An example
of a successful co-operative society is the Poreporena
and Hohodae Co-operative Society which has operated
a trade store for several years, is now in a good finan-
cial position and tries to improve dietary deficiencies
among the people, their housing and general living
standards. The Department of Education, with the
London Missionary Society, has started a mass literacy
project in a group of villages in the Purari delta. In
conclusion the author states that, in Papua, the danger
is of too slow a change and that there is a tendency
among Europeans to give too little responsibility to
2347. The Legislative Council of Papua and New
Guinea. D. Barrett. South Pacific, Vol. 6, No. 3,
PP. 337-9, June 1952.
The author, himself a M.L.C., demonstrates that,
after two sessions, it was proved that the Council could
function, but that the official majority, as compared
with only three elected members, is far too great. There
is a marked objection shown by official members to any
departure from the text of legislation as tabled in the
council. The inevitable outcome of non-official amend-
ments is defeat by a block of official vote.-L.A.
2348. White Settlement in Papua and New Guinea.
James McAuley. South Pacific, Vol. 5, No. 12, pp.
250-5, March 1952.
The building up of a population of white settlers,
preferably ex-servicemen, has been under consideration
for some time. This policy has been opposed, among
others by the chairman of the Australian Board of
Missions, who objected that soldier settlement would
deprive natives of their land. Protests against this
statement varied from an assurance that no change
was envisaged in the policy of respecting native land
rights and needs to suggestions that, since the Japanese
would have taken the land from the natives the service-
men who had helped defend the Territory were entitled
to special consideration. According to the author, there
seems to be little doubt that the country is more suited
to big capital enterprises operating on a large scale
than to small-scale white settlement.-L.A.
2349. Development Projects in the Central Highlands
of New Guinea. K. E. Read. South Pacific, Vol. 5,
No. to, pp. 202-7, December 1951.
It is claimed that the Highlands are capable of pro-
ducing most of the tropical and semi-tropical products
which Australia at present is compelled to obtain from
overseas. A further suggestion is that, on account of
their temperate climate, the Highlands are eminently
suitable for large-scale European settlement. Although
official pronouncements so far do not give any clear
indication of future policy, they obviously support
these optimistic contentions. Differences between the
administration and private interests are primarily con-
cerned with the speed at which development should
2350. Community Development in the Purari Delta.
Department of Education, Papua and New
Guinea. South Pacific, Vol. 5, No. o1, pp. 202-7,
The Purari Delta is a tract of level swamp country
watered by several broad rivers which are virtually
mouths of the Purari. Formerly the big Lakatois, sail-
ing boats of the Motu people in the Port Moresby area,
visited the Delta each year to bring pottery and arm-
shells in exchange for sago. Leadership to solve recent
economic problems has emerged in the person of a
Koriki native, Tomu Kabu, who served as a rating in
the Australian Navy during World War II. On his
discharge he returned to Purari and in 1945 collected
money to form a company and to buy a ship for
trading. Tomu directed that villages be built in more
suitable places and founded his trading company. In
this company some 4,ooo has been accumulated on
capital account. The people did not want any Govern-
ment participation. In discussing present economic
needs it is is suggested that sago as staple food might
be replaced by another type of food.-L.A.
2351. Forerunners of Melanesian Nationalism. Jean
Guiart. Oceania, Vol. xxii, No. 2, pp. 81-90,
Christianity very often blends with the old pagan
religions, in New Caledonia with the cult of the dead
and there as in the New Hebrides with sorcerers.
Sorcerers are usually seeking power through the terror
they inspire in other people. This leads to public feel-
ing against them and to executions of the sorcerers un-
known to the administration. The basis of various
'cargo' cults is the native desire to enjoy a material
life equal to European standards and to achieve an
independent society. The idea is that the ancestors are
to bring in a white ship 'cargo' which will give the
natives power equal to that of the white man. A theme
of non-co-operation provides the attitude pattern most
2352. Report on the Native Situation in the North of
Ambrym (New Hebrides). J. Guiart. South Paci-
fic, Vol. 5, No. 12, pp. 256-67, March 1952.
The most conspicuous feature of native life is the
division into heathen and nominally Christian groups.
This is complicated through the presence of four Chris-
tian denominations: Presbyterians, Marists, Seventh
Day Adventists and Roman Catholics, and their rivalry.
Pig raising is a cause of conflict between Christians
and heathens. Every heathen ritual has to be paid for
in pigs and pig-raising is essential to the survival of
paganism. The pigs are allowed to fend for themselves
in the bush and the beasts naturally do not respect
other people's garden fences. A new regulation provides
that all pigs have to be kept in enclosures. The mission-
aries want to abolish pig-raising as a blow against
heathenism, but they pretend to be opposed to it
merely for health reasons. The natives argue that pork
is essential for their diet, as it is almost their only
source of nitrogenous food. The missionaries have never
seriously concerned themselves with the problem of
a balanced diet.-L.A.
List of Unpublished Theses in the Social Sciences
Written by Graduates of Australian Universities in 1951 and 1952.
Previous Lists of the same kind have been published in Nos. 8, o1 and 12 of this journal.
(i) University of Melbourne
(a) Department of Economics, 1951
For M.A. degree
Mary J. Dampney. Health and Medical Services
For M.Com. degrees
G. V. Candy. Commercial Aviation in Australia.
W. M. Corden. Economics of the Australian
(b) Faculty of Agriculture
For D.Sc. degree 1951
C. R. Millikan. Collected Papers dealing with
Plant Nutrition, particularly with regard to
For M.Agr.Sc. degrees 1951
G. Alexander. A Method of Bioassay of the
Oestrogenic Activity of Subterranean Clover
F. Skaller. Studies on the Assessment of Egg
Production in Poultry Breeding Work.
N. M. Tulloh. Breeds of Sheep in the Western
District of Victoria-The Population, Dyn-
amics, Replacement Systems and Breeding
For M.Agr.Sc. degrees 1952
K. P. J. Barley. A History of Two Victorian
O. B. Williams. The Natural Pastures of an Area
Formed by Stream Influence at Deniliquin,
N.S.W. and an Account of the Factors which
Determine their Distribution.
D. N. Kherdekar. Dissertation of several Sub-
jects related to Agricultural Machinery in
Australia, New Zealand and India.
R. D. Brock. Studies on Defoliating of Fungi,
Tomatoes and Beans.
L. F. Myers. Toxity of Oil Herbicide on Pas-
palum distichum Poir with Special Reference
to the Effect of the Composition of the Oil.
(c) Department of Political Science, 1952
For Ph.D. degree
R. H. Barrett. Responsible Party Politics in Aus-
For M.A. degrees
S. Encel. The Commonwealth Public Service-
A Study in Status Differentation.
T. H. Rigby. The Soviet View on South-East
Henry Mayer. Some Aspects of the Marxian
Theory of Social Classes under Capitalism.
R. J. Beveridge. Victorian Railway Policy:
(d) Department of History
For Ph.D. degree
Joy E. Parnaby. The Economic and Political
Development of Victoria, 1877-81.
For M.A. degrees 1951-52
R. D. Arnold. New Zealand in Australasia.
J. S. Bastin. The West Australian Federation
W. A. Bate. History of Brighton.
B. J. Fleming. Leo XIII and Catholic Education.
L. Gardiner. Eden-Monaro to 185o.
Helen Gintz. History of the Australian Iron and
Steel Industry, 1848-1939.
D. E. Kennedy. Some Aspects of Causation of
D. W. Rawson. Factors in N.S.W. Politics, 182o-
(e) Department of Philosophy
For M.A. degrees 1951
A. H. Donagan. Existence and the Ontological
D. G. Bell. Collingwood's Theory of Presup-
position and its Relations to his Views about
the Relation of History to Philosophy and
about the Relation of Theory to Practice.
D. G. Londey. Language and Calculi.
I. Judith Betheras. Experience and Reality: A
Study of Some Problems in the Writings of
(f) Department of Psychology
For M.A. degree 1951
F. N. Cox. Interpersonal Relations in a Rural
Institution for Homeless Children.
For M.A. degrees 1952
Eva Dreikurs Ferguson. Study of Pre-School
Children: An Evaluation of Two Types of
Kindergarten Attendance Programme.
F. M. Katz. Adaptation to Work: A Study of
Semi-skilled Process Workers in a Clothing
(g) Department of Education
For M.Ed. degree 1951
L. Villiers. Education in Papua, New Guinea.
(2) University of Sydney
Department of Anthropology
For M.A. degrees 1951-52
Mabel G. Wyllie. A Study of Polygynous Mar-
E. G. Gibson. Culture Contact on Sunday Island.
J. E. Watkins. A Comparative Study of some
Religious Cults among the Melanesians.
Dorothy Stansfield. The Relation between Mis-
sionary Methods and the Indigenous Church
(3) University of Queensland
(a) Department of Economics
For B.Com. degrees 1951
G. Price. Commonwealth Fiscal Policy and the
P. S. Scope. Instalment Credit in Australia and
the United States.
H. G. Waldie. Inventories and the Consumption
Function with Particular Reference to Aus-
(b) Department of Education
For B.Ed. degrees 1951-52
D. V. Connor. The Relation between Reading
Achievement and Home Reading Habits of a
Group of Junior School Pupils.
I. G. Meddleton. An Investigation into the
Incidence of Backwardness and Dullness in
Three Large Brisbane Schools.
D. Spearitt. The Intelligence of a Representative
Group of Queensland Children.
J. C. Winship. The Interpretation of Scatter in
an Intelligence Test and its Relation to Mal-
(c) Department of History
For B.A. degrees 195i
Margaret G. Birrell. T. J. Ryan and the Queens-
land Labour Party.
Patricia C. Kelly. Sir George Bowen, Governor
of Queensland 1859-68.
(d) Department of Philosophy
For M.A. degrees 1951
R. E. Davies. Hellenism and Christianity.
Salame Ital. The Cambridge Platonists-A Study
of their Moral Theories.
V. T. Vallis. Aesthetics and Creative Activity.
G. R. Vance. A Translation of Immanuel Kant.
Described in Letters to a Friend by R. B.
G. D. S. Webster. The Philosophy of Words-
J. D. White. Education and Management-A
Study in Method.
H. A. Whitehouse. Auditory Fatigue-Its Physio-
logical and Psychological Correlation.
For M.A. degrees 1952
H. W. Bradbury. The Individuality of Truth.
H. E. Plunkett. Coleridge, Philosopher.
J. O. Rymer. The Philosophy of the 'Confes-
sions' of St Augustine.
(4) University of Adelaide, 1951-52
(a) Department of Economics
For M.A. degree
R. G. Opie. The Australian Tariff-Its Principles,
Operation and Effects 1920-50.
For M.Ec. degrees
R. J. Cameron. The Economic Views of the
Commonwealth Court of Conciliation and
(b) Department of History and Political Science
Margaret Rendell. The Chinese in South Aus-
(5) University of Western Australia, 1951-52
(a) Department of Economics
For B.A. (Honours) degrees
Rita J. Burrows. The Commercial Development
of Fremantle as a Deep Sea Harbour, 1900-39.
R. Pelham-Thorman. Employment Trends in
the Australian Ecohomy, with Main Reference
to the Period 1939-51.
(b) Department of History
For B.A. (Honours) degree
G. C. Bolton. Alexander Forrest. A Considera-
tion of the Part Played by him in the Poli-
tical and Economic Development of W.A.
For M.A. degree
D. Mossenson. Gold and Politics. The Influence
of the Eastern Goldfields on the Political
Development of W.A., 1894-1909.
(c) Department of Philosophy
For M.A. degrees
H. W. Dettman. The Ethics of Punishment
A. B. Edwards. Fraternity as a Democratic
F. Rinaldi. Bergson's Theory of Mind and
T HIS publication of abstracts in the social sciences in intended to provide a survey
of important material, published in, or related to Australia, New Zealand and
their territories, dealing with the various social sciences. The field of the survey dealt
with in these Abstracts is indicated by the classification of the subjects on the inside
The aim is to provide the specialist in any particular field with a survey of recent
publications in his own held, and to indicate to other workers in allied fields what is
being done. For these purposes it has been decided that the abstracts shall be genuine
pr6cis of the works included.
At present it is intended to publish the Abstracts half yearly; but if, in the future,
a larger volume of original work is produced, it is hoped to publish the Abstracts
more frequently so that all deserving work may be covered as soon after publication
Copies of this and subsequent issues of the Abstracts will be sent on application
(enclosing subscription of 5s. in Australian currency, i dollar, per annum) to the
Editor, Faculty of Economics and Commerce, University of Melbourne, Carlton, N.3.
AMembers of the Social Science Research Council of Australia
ALEXANDER, F., Professor of History, University of Western Australia
BALL, W. Macmahon, Professor of Political Science, University of Melbourne
BEASLEY, F. R., Professor of Law, University of Western Australia
: BORRIE, W. D., Reader in Demography, Australian National University,
BURTON, H., Principal and Professor of Economic History, Canberra Uni-
U BUTLIN, S. J., Professor of Economics, University of Sydney
i-.." CLARK, C. AI. H., Professor of History, Canberra University College
CONLON, A. A., Doctor of Medicine, Austin Hospital, Heidelberg, Melbourne
SCOOMBS, Dr. H. C., Governor, Commonwealth Bank of Australia, Sydney
COPLAND, Professor Sir Douglas, Vice-Chancellor, Australian National
COWEN, Z., Professor of Public Law, University of Melbourne
CRAWFORD, R. M., Professor of History, University of Melbourne
CUNNINGHAM, Dr. K. S., Director, Australian Council for Educational
DAVIDSON, J. W., Professor of Pacific History, Australian National Uni-
ELKIN, A. P., Professor of Anthropology, Unihersity of Sydney
FIRTH, G., Professor of Economics, University of Tasmania
GIBSON, A. Boyce, Professor of Philosophy, University of Melbourne
GIFFORD, J. K.. Professor of Economics, University of Queensland
GREENWOOD, G., Professor of History, University of Queensland
HASLUCK, The Hon. P., Minister for External Territories, Parliament House,
HOGBIN, Dr. H. I., Reader in Anthropology, University of Sydney
;.i. HYTTEN, Professor T., Vice-Chancellor, University of Tasmania
KARMEL, P. H., Professor of Economics, University of Adelaide
LA NAUZE, J. A., Professor of Economic History, University of Melbourne
McRAE, C. R., Professor of Education, University of Sydney
L4MAULDON, F. R. E., Professor of Economics, University of Western Australia
NADEL, S. F., Professor of Anthropology and Sociology, Australian National
O'BRIEN, Archbishop Eris, Lindsay Street, Neutral Bay. N.S.W. (History)
OESER, O. A., Professor of Psychology, University of Melbourne
O'NEIL, W. M., Professor of Pavchology, University of Sydney
PARTRIDGE, P. H., Professor of Social Philosophy, Australian National
PATON, Professor G. W., Vice-Chancellor, University of Melbourne
PREST, W, Professor of Economics, University of Melbourne
ROBERTS, Professor S. H., Vice-Chancellor, University of Sydney
I.:.. SAWER, G., Professor of Law, Australian National University, Canberra
SHATWELL, K. O., Professor of Law, University of Sydney
': SPATE, O. H. K., Professor of Geography, Australian National University,
STONE, J., Professor of Law, University of Sydney
STOUT, A. K., Professor of Moral Philosophy, University of Sydney
WARD, J. M., Professor of History, University of Sydney
WHITE, Mr. H. L., Commonwealth Librarian, National Library, Canberra
WILSON, Dr. Roland, Secretary to the Commonwealth Treasury, Canberra
WOOD, C. L., Professor of Commerce, University of Melbourne
SWRIGHT, R. D., Professor of Physiology, University of Melbourne
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