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Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1-18; Mar. 1946-Nov. 1954.
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Foreword
        Foreword 1
        Foreword 2
    Main
        Page 385
        Page 386
        Page 387
        Page 388
        Page 389
        Page 390
        Page 391
        Page 392
        Page 393
        Page 394
        Page 395
        Page 396
        Page 397
        Page 398
        Page 399
        Page 400
        Page 401
    Index to Nos. 12 and 13
        Page 402
        Page 403
        Page 404
        Page 405
        Page 406
    Back Cover
        Page 407
        Page 408
Full Text



AUSTRALIAN

SOCIAL SCIENCE


'RACTS

,I
C:OO


13


May,


1952


SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL OF AUSTRALIA
S Registered in Australia for transmission by post as a periodical
Srftbs/


.1


" .- .
ri*'





. 1


AUSTRALIAN SOCIAL SCIENCE ABSTRACTS

EDITORIAL COMMITTEE
Dr. K. S. Cunningham (Chairman)
Professor R. M. Crawford, Professor O. A. Oeser, Professor C. L. Wood,
Mr. H. L. White
GENERAL EDITOR
Dr. F. Schnierer, Faculty of Economics and Commerce, University,
Carlton, N.3. Melbourne, Victoria
HONORARY ABSTRACTORS
AccovNtrArNc-MNr. L. Goldberg and Miss J. Kerr
AcRIcuLTnURE AND RURAL PROBLEMS-Profcssor S. M. Wadham, Messrs. R. H.
Brown and E. A. Jennings
EcoNosncs-Professor G. L. Wood, Dr. O. de R. Foenander, Dr. F. Schnierer,
Mr. J. O. N. Perkins, Miss M. G. Ronaldson
EnDcAnoN-Dr. K. S. Cunningham
GrOGcRAPH-Mr. E. J. Donath
HlsTORY-Dr. A. C. Serle, Messrs. G. Blainey, R. F. Ericksen, L. F. Fitz-
hardinge, J. S. Gregory and N. D. Harper, Mrs. J. Philipp
LAw-Professor Z. Cowen
POLITICAL SCIENCE-Professor W. MacMahon Ball, Messrs. L. G. Churchward,
A. F. Dasies, D. S. Sissons and H. A. Wolfsohn
PsYcnoLocy-Professor O. A. Oeser
TERRITORIES AND NATIVE PROBLEnMS-Dr. L. Adam and Mr. M. C. Groses
All communications should be addressed to the General Editor
Subscription: ss. per annum in Australian currency; 4s. sterling post free
within the Sterling area; $1 outside the Sterling area


Economics--


CONTENTS


Economics and Economic Policy .. .. .. 2058
Industry, Trade and Commerce-
(a) General Works .. .. .. .. .. .. 2o76
(b) Individual Industries .. .. .. .. .. 2084
Monetary Policy, Banking, Insurance .. .. 2105
Public Finance .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 207
Transportation and Communication .. .. .. 2112
Labour and Industrial Relations .. .. .. .. 2116
Agriculture, Land and Rural Problems .. .. .. .. 2122
Political Science-
Government and Policy .. .. .. .. .. 2134
International Relations .. .. .. .. .. 237
Social Conditions-
Housing .. .. .... .. 243
Social Security and Public Health .. .. .. 2144
Social Surreys .. 2.47
Population and Migration .. .. .. .. .. 2148
Education .. .. 2153
Geography .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 2158
History .. .. .. .. .. .. 2164
Law .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 2 77
Philosophy .. .. .. ..
Psychology .... .. .. 289
Territories and Native Problems .. .. .. .. .. 2193

Australian Public Affairs Information Service, or A.P.A.I.S., indexes books,
magazine articles and government documents on Australian political, economic
and social affairs. It is published monthly by the Commonwealth National
Library, and will be sent free upon request to the Librarian.


./









AUSTRALIAN


SOCIAL SCIENCE


ABSTRACTS


0



The SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL OF AUSTRALIA was established
in 1952 to extend the scope and functions of the former Committee
for Research in the Social Sciences of the Australian National
Research Council. Its objects as now revised are: (a) to encourage the
advancement of the social sciences; (b) to act as co-ordinating body
for promoting research and teaching in the social sciences; (c) to
foster research and the publication of studies in the social sciences;
(d) to encourage the formation of national bodies in the social
sciences; (e) to be the Australian member of international bodies
concerned with the social sciences; (f) to act as a consultant and
advisory body in matters involving the application of social science.
The scope of the Council's work includes the sociological aspects of
anthropology, economics, education, history, human geography,
jurisprudence, medicine, philosophy, political science, psychology,
public administration and statistics.



*


SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL OF AUSTRALIA









AUSTRALIAN SOCIAL SCIENCE ABSTRACTS

A publication of the Social Science Research Council of Australia, subsidized by
U.N.E.S.C.O. Co-ordinating Committee on Documentation in the Social
Sciences, and the Commonwealth Bank of Australia.

All communications should be addressed to the Editor, Faculty of Economics
and Commerce, University of Melbourne, Carlton, N.3, Victoria, Australia.


No. 13


May 1952


5s. or $i per annum


ABSTRACTS

Where the size of a Government publication or Parliamentary Paper (P.P.) is not given, it is 8J ins. x 13 ins.


ECONOMICS

(A) Economics and Economic Policy

2058. Tew, Brian. Wealth and Income. Melbourne
University Press, 1951, pp. 307. Price 2is.
An analysis of the economic systems of Australia and
U.K. Largely based on Keynes, the book deals with the
economic system as a whole, particularly with financial
institutions. The first part: assets and liabilities, ex-
amines 'paper' wealth (bank notes, bonds, etc.), especi-
ally money, equity, obligations as assets and liabilities,
banks, monetary authorities, rates of interest. Part II-
income and expenditure-describes how paper wealth is
exchanged for goods and services in a closed economy,
how expenditure generates income, the multiplier, the
consumption schedule, material investment, trade cycle,
inflation. Part III-overseas receipts and payments--
investigates financial relations between the home in-
dustries and foreign countries: balance of payments,
rates of exchange, international aspects of the trade
cycle, international monetary standards.
2059. Simkin, C. G. F. The Instability of a Dependent
Economy. Oxford University Press, pp. 208.
Price 33s. 9d.
A study of economic fluctuations in N.Z. from 1840 to
1914. The first part deals with the method of research.
The basic criterion is income. Substitute criteria and
determinants of income are net external receipts, de-
pendent imports and circulating money. Part II discusses
the application of this method to exports and primary
industries, public borrowings, immigration and public
finance, imports, manufactures and building, money
banking and the balance of payments. Between 186o
and 1914 there were four periods with different rates of
growth: vigorous development in the i86o's (goldrush)
and 70's (large external borrowing), stagnation in the
8o's and early 90's, rising prices and new exports from
1895 to 1914. Part III-'The Course of Fluctuations' is a
historical verification of the theoretical findings.
2060. Copland, D. S. Inflation and Expansion. Essays on
the Australian Economy. F. W. Cheshire, Mel-
bourne, 1951, pp. 130.
A collection of various articles and addresses some of
which have been abstracted in previous issues of this
journal, such as 'Development of Economic Thought in
Australia, 1924-1950' as abstract No. 1734, 'The Dollar
Gap and the British Dominions' as abstract No. 1784,
both in No. 11 of this periodical; and 'The National As-


pect of the Control of Labour Costs' as abstract No. 1931
in No. 12. An introductory essay deals with 'The Malady
of Economic Expansion', others with the economic im-
plications of large-scale migration, problems of an ex-
panding economy, appreciation of the fA, the price of
wool and inflation, productivity and the cost of develop-
ment, inflation and the Australian economy, a compre-
hensive plan for the control of inflation.

2061. Downing, R. I. National Income and Social
Accounts. An Australian Study. Melbourne Uni-
versity Press, 1951, pp. 58. Price 5s.
This booklet is based on the Commonwealth Govern-
ment White Papers on National Income and Expenditure
published every year since the end of the war. A section
on the income flow includes a summary of the different
methods of measuring national income. Further sec-
tions deal with saving and investment, the structure of
social accounts, scope and sources of national income
measurement, an exercise in the application of social
accounts, and finally with social account statistics for
Australia in 1949-50 with some comparisons with other
countries. An appendix presents comments on the Com-
monwealth Government White Paper 1949-50.
2062. Higgins, Benjamin. What do Economists Know?
Melbourne University Press, 1951, pp. 166. Price
15s.
Six essays: (i) What do Economists Know? (2) Econo-
mists Never Agree. (3) The Objectives of Economic Policy
and How to Attain Them. (4) Economics, Social Con-
flict and War. (5) Economic Policy and the 'Big Three';
and (6) Ethics, Politics and the Crisis of Democracy. By
the use of scientific method economists have developed
a considerable body of economic knowledge. Although
they disagree on problems at the frontiers of knowledge,
on details of methodology and on politics, the area of
agreement is wide. Economic policies should be defined
and prescribed by economists, provided that the value
judgments on which they are based, are explicitly stated.
Some desirable objectives are discussed and examined
as to whether they are likely to cause conflicts among
groups within a nation or among nations. The author
states that the objective economic bases of international
conflict are largely the same as those of internal economic
conflict, as shown by the conflict between Big Business,
Big Agriculture and Big Labour. The solution of this
type of conflict differs in various countries, giving rise
to different political systems with different ideologies. In
conclusion a definition is given of the proper role of an
economist in a democratic society with a mixed economy.
-M.G.R.








2063. Deliberate Saving and the Consumption Function.
H. W. Arndt and J. R. Wilson. Economic Record,
pp.1i-20, June 1951.
Keynesian doctrine stresses inainly consumption and
regards saving as residual, while for the neo-classical
doctrine all saving is deliberate. The authors try to show
that deliberate saving is also a determinant of the alloca-
tion of income although a minor one. Much deliberate
saving is now relatively rigid because of increasing
institutionalization of personal saving and because much
saving is contractual-most important are the cases of
insurance premia and payments into retirement funds,
furthermore debt repayments including home mortgage
credit and instalment credit. There seems to be a secular
upward trend in the relative importance of deliberate
saving.

2064. The Employment Problem in Pre-Classical Eng-
lish Economic Thought. N. J. Pauling. Economic
Record, pp. 52-65, June 1951.
According to classical theory the automatically self-
equilibrating trade mechanism cannot apply when labour
and natural resources are not fully employed. Since
Keynes' General Theory an interpretation 'of mercan-
tilist monetary policy is possible in terms of the em-
ployment effect'. The author quotes a number of mercan-
tilist writings concerned with the balance of trade as
a means to create domestic employment, mostly in con-
nection with low wages and with a theory of money. In
mercantilist literature ideas can be found 'of which the
writings of Malthus, Hobson and Keynes are the
descendants'.

2065. New Zealand's Export Supply Function. A. R.
Bergstrom. Economic Record, pp. 21-30, June 1951.
An attempt 'to establish a suitable form for N.Z.'s ex-
port supply function and to estimate its parameters' by
econometric methods. The volume of exports is a function
of the export price level and of the wage rate. The diffi-
culty in measuring supply functions is the time lag be-
tween price changes and resulting changes in supply, par-
ticularly in N.Z. with her slow mobility of labour between
primary and other industries and the high ratio of long-
term capital to other factors of production in agriculture.
The author has tried to eliminate the time factor and
shows that the short-term price elasticity of the export
supply function is almost certainly negative while the
long-term price elasticity might be positive; but to prove
this would require a longer time series than was available.

2066. A Note on Wage-Earner's Share of the Proceeds
of Industry. D. W. Oxnam. Economic Record, pp.
70-74, June 1951.
Australian and N.Z. union claims for wage increases
are largely based on the allegedly declining proportion
of the national income going to wages and salaries. The
author agrees with W. Prest's criticism of the usual
analysis of the distribution of national income (see ab-
stract No. 1736 in No. ii of this journal). A simple
percentage distribution of an aggregate is misleading, as
it may ignore structural changes, e.g., a shift to low or
high labour cost industries, or a higher or lower farm
income. In a table wages are given as percentage of the
net product of each of 16 classes of manufacturing indus-
tries from 1920/21 to 1948/49. Weighted averages for all
classes were 50-7% in 1920/21, the lowest percentage was
48-8 in 1922/23; from 1939/40 (49-0) there was a trend to
an increasing share (57-0 in 1948/49). No conclusion can
be drawn for other industries except farming where the
proportion of wages declined from 27% in 1945/46 to
15.3% in 1949-50.


2067. Production and Exchange for an Entrepreneur
Producing Two Commodities for an Imperfectly
Competitive Commodity Market. C. S. Soper. Eco-
nomic Record, pp. 166-175, December I951.
This article tries to apply the indifference curve analy-
sis, as shown by Leontief and Lerner for the case of a
producer of two commodities under perfect competi-
tion to the case of the producer of two commodities
under imperfect competition when the demand curve
is less than infinitely elastic. Partial equilibrium for the
producer in an imperfect market is first developed under
the assumption of a stable consumer demand relation
between two products. In conclusion the author enquires
into the group equilibrium as examined by Joan Robinson
and Chamberlin, when a third commodity is introduced
into the market. The market opportunity curve is here
rotating clockwise about its axis.
2068. Advertising Outlay in Australia. Ron Hieser.
Economic Record, pp. 176-189, December I951.
In the absence of accurate data on Australian adver-
tising outlay the author presents figures about the inch-
age of advertisements in metropolitan daily and weekly
newspapers from 1932-1950 according to groups of goods
and services advertised, and about the gross revenue of
Australian commercial broadcasting stations. From a
schedule of agency turnover prepared by the Australian
Association of Advertising Agencies he estimates expen-
diture on each of the major media of advertising: press
and other publications (total outlay in 1949-50 22,274m.);
broadcasting (4,132m.); screen slides and films (o-356m.);
outdoor advertising (trains, trams, o-63om.); printed mat-
ter and display material (2,498m.), totalling 29,890m.
or I132% of the national income.
2069. Lvndhurst Giblin: Note on his Influence on Aus-
tralian Political Economy. T. Hytten. Australian
Quarterly, pp.67-70, June 1951.
A brief account of Giblin's work as Government Statis-
tician of Tasmania, Ritchie Professor of Economics in
Melbourne, economic adviser of 'the Commonwealth
Government, member of the Commonwealth Grants Com-
mission and of the Commonwealth Bank Board. He was
largely responsible for the Premiers' Plan and the third
Report of the Grants Commission (1936). With four other
economists he wrote The Australian Tariff (1929), he
was the author of 'Letters to John Smith' in the Mel-
bourne Herald during the Great Depression, while his
major publication, The Growth of a Central Bank, was
not published before his death (1951). His influence on
Australian economists is far greater than might be
assumed from the relatively small size of his printed
work.
2070. The Changing Structure of Australian Industry.
H. P. Brown. Looking Ahead. Issued by Com-
monwealth Bank of Australia, August 1951, pp.
4-7.
A comparison between 19go and 1950 on the basis of
changes in occupation of the working population. There
was a fall of percentage of total work force from 30 to
17 in primary industry and a rise in manufacturing from
i8 to 28. Relatively bigger is the fall in percentage in
personal and domestic service from 13 to 6 and the rise
in government and professional service from 7 to 12. The
number of proprietors has increased by 60, that of em-
ployees by 150%. The greatest changes in manufacture
are between industries established in 1901 and 'new' in-
dustries. In 190o mainly imported raw materials were
used in manufacture, in 1950 manufacture was like that
in any highly industrialized country. Further sections
discuss changes in female occupations and State dif-
ferences.








2071. Australian Development in a World Setting. Colin
Clark. Looking Ahead. Issued by Commonwealth
Bank of Australia, August 1951, pp. 8-11.
Recent Australian development policy has neglected
primary and built up manufacturing industry. Despite
the decline of rural labour force each worker now pro-
duces 50% more goods than in 1938-39. Our factory
labour force has increased enormously, but production
per man-year has hardly risen, and we are more depend-
ent on manufactured imports than ever. Present terms
of trade are very favourable to Australia and likely to
stay so. The export price index for December 1950 was
642 (1937-39=100), even omitting gold and wool 393,
the corresponding import-price index 343. We should
raise our primary production and stop our manufactur-
ing expansion. Tertiary industries have the highest de-
mand for labour, what is left should go more to primary
and less to secondary industry.

2072. The Present Crisis in Australian Development.
E. Ronald Walker. Looking Ahead. Issued by
Commonwealth Bank of Australia, August 1951,
pp. 12-15.
For a time full employment was the principal post-
war economic aim. Now acute labour shortage impedes
national development. This could be accelerated only by
diverting resources from production of consumption
goods to investment in capital equipment, either by
increased saving or overseas borrowing. There is heavy
expenditure on housing and durable consumers' goods,
a flow of labour from basic industries to jobs with better
pay or easier work, and a decline in productivity per
worker. In December 1950 a National Security Resources
Board was set up to review weaknesses in our economy
from a defence angle, to advise the Government on the
civilian administration needed for defence preparations
and on the fight against inflation.

2073. Australia and International Economic Equilib-
rium. D. B. Copland. Econonmza Internazionale,
Genoa, pp. 45-49, February 1951.
Australia is sensitive to the value of her exports, mainly
of agricultural and pastoral products, the price elasticity
of demand for which is low, while the demand elasticity
of income in the importing countries is high. Supplies
of these goods are hard to adjust in the short run, so
that short-term remedies are outside our control. Aus-
tralian legislation affecting overseas trade is outlined.
As to international disequilibria, Australia can do little
about structural maladjustments such as the Dollar
shortage. Short-term discrepancies (droughts, bad harv-
ests) can be met through our currency reserves or short-
term loans. To prevent cyclical fluctuations, depreciation,
appreciation, stabilization of our export incomes, quanti-
tative restrictions and tariff adjustments are considered.

2074. New Zealand and International Economic Equilib-
rium. C. G. F. Simkin. Economia Internazionale,
Genoa, pp. 123-134, February 1951.
By the end of 1948 N.Z. was on the way to regaining
internal economic stability, as war-time difficulties of
obtaining imports had ceased. The recent inflation was
partly offset by repayment of large amounts of external
debts. N.Z. depends more than before the war on ex-
ternal trade, as the proportion of national income, both
from exports and imports, has risen, particularly to and
from the Sterling area. Exports are largely tied to that
area by the bulk purchase contracts with U.K. for meat
and dairy products. The appreciation of the N.Z.f in
1948 did not lead to deflation. Import controls are much
less necessary now, but they have to be gradually relaxed,
as local manufactures rely on protection.


2075. Real Income in the United States. Review of
Economic Progress, pp. 1-6, March 1951.
All incomes are calculated at 1939 prices. They range
as far back as 1799 and are given for every year from
1899 to 1949, since 1929 based on valuations by the U.S.
Department of Commerce. Depreciation presented a
serious problem, so did the omission of governmental
services by various sources. Money national income has
been divided by an index of retail prices. Imputed in-
come of farm families is a special factor. An allowance
is made for the difference between 'available' and 'pro-
duced' real income. Figures are presented for the labour
force, armed forces, numbers in work, product per person
in work, average hours per week, finally for product per
man-hour. The years before 188o show an upward trend
(average) of 0o86% p.a., from i88o-1920 of 1-62, since
1920 of 1.96.


(B) Industry, Trade and Commerce

(a) General Works

2076. Measurement of Movement in Prices Paid and
Received by Farmers. E. A. Saxon. Quarterly
Review of Agricultural Economics, pp. 91-94, July
'95.1
The index of prices paid by N.S.W. farmers includes
ioo items of expenses in three main categories: materials
and supplies; rate, interest, insurance, rent, freight;
wages. General living costs according to the 'C' series are
included. The total price index has risen from Ioo in
1945-46 to 165-5 in 1950-51. The sharpest increases are in
fencing and building materials, fertilizer and wages. The
index of prices received has been worked out for 28 major
products. For all products it was 413, for all products
excluding wool (the wool price index was 897) 182, for
all products excluding wool and wheat (wheat index
220) 168. The ratio of prices received for products to
prices paid for all items was 452 for wool, 133 for wheat,
weighted average 250, 1no excluding wool, o10 excluding
wool and wheat.

2077. The National Problem of Increasing Rural Pro-
duction. T. H. Strong. Quarterly Review of Agri-
cultural Economics, pp. 3-5, January 1952.
After the drop in the wool prices an expansion in the
volume of primary produce exported is imperative for
the whole, not only the rural community. There is a com-
parative lack of farm rural investment including repairs
and replacement. The savings of wealthy farm producers
have largely gone into secondary industrial investment.
The rural sector should have a larger share of public
investments starting with accommodation and transport.
There is need for incentives for farmers, confidence in
future market prospects of their products and for a bal-
anced wheat and livestock industry.

2078. Sampling for Farm Surveys. Reliability of Ran-
dom Selection and Measurement of Error. K. L.
Kinsman. Quarterly Review of Agricultural
Economics, pp. 143-146, October 1951.
Errors in sampling may be due to the fact that the
group surveyed does not adequately represent the popu-
lation-these errors are measurable-or to the lack of
reliability of the answers-these errors can be reduced
by using a small sample. In selecting the sample, ran-
dom sampling is possible, 'representative' sampling and
sampling conforming to a pattern. Errors in random
sampling can be measured as variance or as standard
deviation. Narrowing the limits can increase accuracy,
but at much higher cost.








2079. Australian Overseas Trade. The Pattern of Rural
Exports. E. S. Hoffman. Quarterly Review of
Agricultural Economics, pp. 12-15, January 1952.
The diversity of units of volume had to be brought to
a common basis through use of a stable price series. Items
in the Overseas Trade Bulletin were grouped into 33
rural and 7 non-rural categories, covering about 90% of
our exports excluding gold. The valuation was at pre-war
prices, the average of the three years ended 30 June,
939-100oo. The pre-war pattern was characterized by
dependence on world markets and the British Common-
wealth as major purchaser. The volume of exports has
risen after the war both in rural and total products, but
in the former it has fallen per head of population. The
post-war pattern is similar to pre-war, except for the
large fall in the proportion of meat and wine exported.
U.S. now receives a larger share of the exports. If our
population goes on increasing more quickly than rural
output, some export surpluses might disappear within
10 years.

2080. Transport Costs and the Location of Industry in
Victoria. J. H. Reeves. Economic Record, pp. 231-
236, December 1951.
The author considers a producer of cotton sheeting
who wants to start a factory in Victoria for the whole
Victorian market and has the choice between the main
population centres of the 13 regions of Victoria. The
percentage of population of each of these regions, the dis-
tances between the centres and the railway freights from
each regional centre to the centres of other regions and
the total main line transport costs are calculated for
each centre. The advantage is with Melbourne where
transport costs are only 2% of the total costs. With other
manufactured goods it goes up to 12, with agricultural
goods up to 40%. With such goods factors other than
transport costs could not be ignored. Bounties could offset
the locational advantages of metropolitan areas.

2081. Tariff Board. Annual Report for Year ended 30
June 1951. Government Printer, Canberra, pp. 40.
This report, like that of the preceding year, is par-
ticularly concerned with production costs which have
recently risen more steeply in Australia than in U.S. and
Canada, but less than in U.K. A special section deals with
the tariff as instrument in inflation control; the Board
tries to protect only efficient industries and is critical of
excess costs. Chapter 4 analyses production costs: direct
labour costs (hours, wages and earnings, labour turn-
over), material costs (metals, chemicals, paper pulp),
other costs (interest, fuel, freight rates). The efficiency
of our industry is compared with that of other countries,
the Board considers the rate of improvement in Australia
as too low; this might deteriorate our competitive
position.

2082. Training for Business and Industry Overseas.
G. L. Wood. Manufacturing and Management, pp.
17-119, October 1951.
A digest of a report made by the author to the Council
of the University of Melbourne. There is dissatisfaction
in U.K., U.S. and Canadian industry with the 'widening
chasm' between highly specialized technical training
and training of socially organized industrial leaders. In
U.K. 8 major reports have been issued on this question
between 1945 and 1950. Many U.K. industries have estab-
lished their own training schemes. Similarly, in many
U.S. Technical Institutes the social background is often
neglected. In Australia there should not be competition,
but co-operation between technical schools and Uni-
versities.


2083. Investment behind Employees. I.P.A. Review, pp.
lo6-II3, November-December 1951.
Investment by public companies in Australia in 1950-
51 was less than 20% of total capital investment. In the
22 largest Australian public companies the value of total
assets was 241.5m., the number of employees was
104,000, so that the average investment per worker was
2,300. This compares with an investment of fA7,400 per
worker in the ioo largest U.S.A. manufacturing com-
panies which shows the greater mechanization of U.S.
industry. Small business is by no means losing ground to
big business, but has developed very much in the last
few decades.

(b) Individual Industries

2084. Industrial Fibres. Commonwealth Economic Com-
mittee, London, 1952, pp. 129. Price 5s.
A summary of figures of production, trade and con-
sumption of cotton, wool, mohair, silk, flax, hemp, jute,
coir, rayon and other man-made fibres in the main pro-
ducing, exporting and importing countries of the world.
There are figures on the development from the pre-war
years up to 1950-51. Numerous data concerning Aus-
tralia are contained in the sections on cotton, wool, silk
(imports only), flax, hemp, jute, coir, rayon-the latter
four imports only. Figures relating to N.Z. are to be
found in the sections on wool, flax, hemp, coir and
rayon-the latter two imports only.

2085. Australia's Prospects for Wool 1951-52. Research
Service, pp. 28 roneoedd).
There was a steep wool price rise up to 94% from
November 1950 to March 1951, particularly in the coarser
varieties, mainly due to defence purchases and U.S. stock-
piling, but from March to June 1951 prices fell up to
60o% below the March peak. A prolonged slump, however,
is unlikely because the demand for wool products is much
more responsive to changes in the general level of world
prosperity than to changes in wool prices.
2086. Cotton Production in Australia. Prospects in Aus-
tralia for Successful Expansion. A. J. Campbell.
Quarterly Review of Agricultural Economics, pp.
139-142, October 1951.
In the last three years before World War II the average
annual output of cotton in Queensland was 5m. tons of
raw cotton from 60,000 acres, mostly under dry-farming
conditions, with labour freely available, little mechaniza-
tion and many pests and diseases. The area under cotton
was only 2200 acres in 1949, with 250,000 lb. output. In
1950 the Commonwealth Government granted a 5-year
price guarantee for seed cotton and in 1951 production
rose to 550,000 lb. from 4,000 acres. The yield per acre
in the 1930's was only I16 lb., in U.S. from 1941-50 it was
267 lb., but in the 'newer' states with much irrigation
598 lb. in California and 488 lb. in New Mexico. At pres-
ent the world supply is short, world market prices are very
high, and U.S. cotton exports are difficult because of the
currency. The high costs of ginning seed cotton could be
offset by selling cottonseed meal, irrigation and mechani-
zation would be required.
2087. Organization in the New South Wales Banana
Industry. G. C. McFarlane. Review of Marketing
and Agricultural Economics, pp. 82-95, June I951.
Starts with an account of marketing procedures, then
discusses scientific ripening. Another section deals with
the N.S.W. Banana Marketing Board, established in
1935 when prices were very low because of uneven dis-
tribution between the main markets and fluctuation of
supplies to individual agents. The Board operated for








three years, but was opposed by many individual growers,
principally on the ground that pooling of the fruit alleg-
edly resulted in lower prices for better fruit. In Sep-
tember 1938 the Board was dissolved.

2088. Copra in Papua and New Guinea. Development
and Economic Importance Outlined. F. O. Grogan
and A. J. Bennett. Quarterly Review of Agricul-
tural Economics, pp. 151-157, October 1951.
After a short survey of coconut growing some data are
given concerning exports of copra and coconut oil from
principal producing countries, among them Papua-New
Guinea, and concerning imports to the main importing
countries in 1938-39. Since the depression gold replaced
copra as the biggest export item; in the post-war period
copra regained its first place. In 1950-51 the Production
Control Board, which is marketing all exported copra, has
received nearly 70,000 tons. Plantation costs are now
much higher, including the natives' wages: native labour
is much harder to obtain. The bulk of the export goes to
Australia, the excess to U.K. (contract in 1949). Growers
contribute to a stabilization fund: they are now diversi-
fying their production by growing foodstuffs, fibres, pea-
nuts, cocoa, tea and coffee.

2089. Meat. A Summary of Figures of Production, Trade
and Consumption. Commonwealth Economic Com-
mittee, London, 1951, pp. 104. Price 5s.
In various chapters of this summary on beef, live
cattle, mutton and lamb, live sheep, pig-meat, bacon and
hams, pork, live pigs, canned meat, offals, and poultry,
there are numerous data concerning Australia and N.Z.
Appendix I on Government measures affecting meat in
certain countries includes sections on Australia and
N.Z. The Australian section deals, among other matters,
with the Australian Meat Board, the Meat Canning
Committee, U.K. meat contracts and contract prices, meat
price control and rationing. The N.Z. section discusses
organization, bulk purchase agreements, contract prices
and opening schedule prices, the meat pool account and
meat stabilization account, subsidies, rationing.

2090. Meat Consumption in Australia. T. L. Phillips.
Quarterly Review of Agricultural Economics, pp.
95-1o0, July 1951.
A review of variations over the past 30 years. Total
meat consumption varies with national income, but is,
on the whole, rather stable. The lowest meat consump-
tion in the last 30 years was 182 lb. per head in 1931-32,
the highest 238 lb. in 1937-38. When national income
falls, cheaper are substituted for dearer meats. During
the depression beef and veal-whose output was also re-
duced-was largely replaced by mutton, particularly as
wool prices had fallen more than those of mutton. In
the post-war years mutton consumption shrank, that of
lamb rose. The consumption of bacon and ham was
stable throughout the period, that of pork is now
increasing.

2091. Dairy Production. Future Supply and Demand.
I. Macfarlane. Quarterly Review of Agricultural
Economics, pp. 161-163, October 1951.
A seasonal index of Australian butter production over
the period 1941-50 is compared with the 1950-51 season
on the assumption of a certain consumption per head
of milk (preserved and fluid), butter and cheese. The
total consumption of dairy products in 1960 is calculated
for a population of Io or loIm. In view of the likelihood
of rapid price rises the range of consumption has been
estimated to be lower in 1960 than in 1950-51. Increased
production is urgently needed to secure adequate home


supplies in all seasons, not to speak of exports. Restric-
tions on margarine production and imports of dairy
products should be lifted.
2092. The Australian Mineral Industry 1950 Review,
Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geo-
physics, 1951, pp. 186.
This review is given in three parts. Part I gives a
general summary of mining activity, with reference to
production, overseas trade, assistance to mining, control'
of minerals and metals, employment, and accidents and
health in mines. Part II consists of notes and statistics on
each of the individual minerals, under the headings
domestic production, overseas trade, consumption, perils
and overseas review. Part III collates this material for
each State, e.g. the Commonwealth.-M.G.R.

2093. New South Wales Coal: Consumption, Require-
ments and Supply 1951. Research Service, 1951,
pp. 41 roneoedd).
In 1900oo N.S.W. production covered 87% of total Aus-
tralian coal consumption, in 1950 only 50%. Oil largely
replaces coal in steam raising. Iron and steel refining
and electricity generation are the largest coal consumers;
these and the building materials industry have increased
their consumption to the greatest extent since the end of
the war. Section II discusses the requirement of N.S.W.
coal; the shortages were greatest in the iron and steel
and building materials groups. The overall shortage was
20-7% of requirements in Australia, o106 in N.S.W.
Future requirements are estimated to increase by 15-4%
from 1951-54, in electricity generation by 22-9%. Section
III deals with the future supply of N.S.W. coal. Greater
improvements in supply might come from mechaniza-
tion, as the mechanical filling of underground coal rose
from 3-0% in 1937 to 35'9% in 1950, lecnanical cutting
from 27-7 to 36'4%.
2094. Coal Balance Sheet for 1951. Research Service, 17
December 1951, pp. v, 26 roneoedd).
N.S.W. coal output in 1951 may reach 13,5oo00,000 tons,
of which 11,238,ooo tons were underground; 2,260,000 tons
(40% above 1950) open-cut. The Australia-wide demand
for N.S.W. coal was 16,690,000, of which only 80'5%
could be supplied. The 1952 demand will be 17,300,000
tons. This quantity could be mined if production per
underground manshift were raised to the 1938 level, if
open cuts were further developed, and strikes were cut
by 70%. In January and March 1951 coal shortage was
worst because of one-day-a-week strikes. Output of the
Cessnock-N.W. field, where the best gas coal is mined, is
dropping steadily, coal stocks held in N.S.W. are very
small, efforts to import overseas coal to Victoria and
S.A. had little success. Reasons for the inadequate coal
supply were strikes, lagging productivity and labour
shortage.
2095 'Fool's Gold'. Trends, pp. 12-17, December 1951.
The present shortage of sulphur as raw material for
producing sulphuric acid and, in combination with phos-
phate rock, superphosphate, has made pyrite economi-
cally important, particularly in Australia. Of the world's
sulphuric acid produced today nearly 50% is derived from
brimstone, 35% from pyrite. We have only some small
brimstone deposits in the Pacific Islands, our increasing
sulphur requirements are imported or locally produced
from pyrites or other sulphide ores from lead, zinc and
copper mines, also from spent oxide and waste smelter
gases, totalling 70-80,000 tons p.a. A new project to de-
velop pyrite deposits at Nairne near Adelaide might
yield another 36,000 tons p.a. Additional pyrite mining
will be needed for urgently wanted fertilizer. Possibly
gypsum deposits can also be used for extracting sulphur.








2096. The Golden Century. A Brief Story of One Hun-
dred Years of Gold Mining. D. Swift and H.
Marcuse. Mining and Geological Journal, pp. 5-17,
September 1951 (Centenary Issue).
A richly illustrated history of Victorian gold mining,
compiled from Mining Department records. After an
outline of the discovery of gold in 1851 the authors deal
with the goldrush period of the I85o's, the opening up
of the goldfields of Ballarat, Bendigo, Gippsland, etc.,
the gold escort, the Eureka affair, early methods of
alluvial mining, deep lead mining, and the commence-
ment of quartz mining. Further sections discuss large
gold nuggets, boom and slump periods, the beginning of
large-scale dredging and sluicing, the 1929 depression
and the revival of mining, the position today, and pos-
sibilities for the future.


2097. A Hundred Years of Gold in Australia. H. F.
Pearson. Australian Mineral Industry. Economic
Notes and Statistics, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 29-37.
This paper first gives a short historical survey of gold
discoveries in various Australian states since 1851 and in
Papua-New Guinea since 1896. Further sections deal with
the distribution of gold and its production in the decades
since 1851, the methods of treatment since the primitive
recovery of alluvial gold progressing to amalgamation,
chlorination, cyanidation, dredging and refining. This
is followed by an examination of capital invested and
of employment in gold mining, government assistance
to gold mining, and of the significance of the industry to
Australia, particularly for W.A. In conclusion the author
points to the future of the industry.


2098. Oil in Victoria. N. Boutakoff. Mining and Geologi-
cal Journal, pp. 49-57, September 1951 (Centenary
Issue).
The first time in Australia oil was struck in 1924 at
Lake Bunga in Gippsland. Since that time much drilling
was undertaken in the Lakes Entrance area, particularly
since i942, but so far all projects proved uneconomic.
Further unsuccessful drilling has been done at Sorrento
and Torquay and in S.W. Victoria near the S.A. border.
Separate sections of the paper deal with geology, oil
formation and accumulation, and with conditions in
Gippsland and Southern Victoria. In conclusion the
author suggests that Jurassic sandstones may possibly
form reservoirs, where they come into contact with the
oil-bearing tertiary strata, in addition gas escaping from
Gippsland bores might be tapped.


2099. The International Materials Conference, Wash-
ington. Australian Mineral Industry Economic
Notes and Statistics, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 104-105;
Vol. 4, No. I, pp. 5-9; Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 37-38.
This conference, dealing with the acute scarcity of some
essential raw materials, had its first meeting on 26 Feb-
ruary 1951. The Central Group, which includes Aus-
tralia, has formed a number of autonomous commodity
committees. Australia is represented on three of the
mineral and metals committees: for copper-zinc-lead;
for sulphur; and for tungsten-molybdenum. A summary
is given of the activities of these committees concerned
with the allocation and distribution of the materials,
and also of the manganese-nickel-cobalt committee, of
which Australia is not a member. The allocation of
various materials to Australia for the fourth quarter of
1951 is discussed, and also her consumption of primary
copper for 1948-51.


2Ioo. Brief Review of the Australian Hosiery and Knit-
wear Industry. No. 23 in Industry Review Series.
Ministry of National Development, Division of
Industrial Development, March 1951, pp. 32.
The estimated current annual demand in million doz.
pairs is for women's hosiery 2-1 (local output in 1950-51
1-8), for men's hose 1 (16), for children's hose 0-8 (0-7);
in million doz. garments for underwear 22 (3), night
attire 0-2, swimsuits oo05, outerwear 0o65 (0-7). There is
much idle capacity due to shortages of labour and
materials, and little room for expansion, even if the now
considerable imports should cease. The industry employs
about 21,ooo workers, females are predominant. Juvenile
and skilled labour is particularly scarce. The percentage
of adult workers rose from 59 in 1939 to 76 in 1949.

21oi. Brief Review of the Australian Portland Cement
Industry. No. 25 in Industry Review Series. Divi-
sion of Industrial Development, Ministry of
National Development, May 1951, pp. 23.
The principal demand is for use in concrete parts of
buildings and public works. This demand is estimated
in each of the Australian states for housing, other build-
ings, cement products (asbestos-cement sheets, tiles, etc.),
public works, rural and miscellaneous, export. Total
Australian demand for 1950-51 is 1,617,000 tons (for
1952-53 more than 2m. tons). Plant capacity in 1950 was
about 1,325,000 tons. Production in all states except
Tasmania is practically equal to consumption. Imports
are about 5% of the total supply.

2102. Brief Review of the Australian Asbestos Cement
Sheet, Plaster Sheet, Fibre Board and Plywood
Industries. No. 27 in Industry Review Series,
Ministry of National Development, Division of
Industrial Development, Melbourne, June, 1951,
pp. 27-
All these goods are important new building materials.
For asbestos sheet the present output is only half the
industry's capacity. The basic materials are asbestos
fibre, imported from Canada, South Africa and Southern
Rhodesia, and cement. Two types of plaster sheet: fib-
rous plaster sheet and gypsum plaster wallboard, are
made in Australia. 75% of all interior sheet linings would
be plaster sheets, if available. Basic materials are plaster
of Paris-somewhat short because of transport difficul-
ties-sisal fibre, imported from British East Africa, and
plaster liner board. The two types of fibre board: hard-
boards and insulating boards, are used for interior lin-
ings and furniture manufacture. Plywood is mainly used
for furniture, joinery and doors. Materials are peeler logs,
partly imported from Borneo, and glues.

2103. Brief Review of the Australian Hard Coke In-
dustry. No. 28 in the Industry Review Series.
Division of Industrial Development, Ministry of
National Development, November 1951, pp.22.
Hard coke is made in Australia by the iron and steel
industry for its own use in iron and steel production, or-
this review is only concerned with that-for other uses:
melting of metal in foundries, smelting of non-ferrous
metals and production of heavy chemicals. This 'other
uses' production is in the hands of small independent
producers, 5 in N.S.W. and two in Queensland. Demand
is estimated at 226,500 tons in 1951-52, 330,000 in 1955,
while the supply was only 147,900 tons in 1949-50, 70%
of the plant capacity. Our total supply was in 1950-5I
224,000 tons, of which 12,000 were made available by the
steel works, 38,000 imported, mainly from South Africa.
Coking coal supplies are inadequate and contain too
much ash. The coke ovens of the commercial producers,
of the beehive type are antiquated.








2104. Post-War International Tourist Traffic in Europe.
F. Schnierer. Australian Outlook, pp. 236-242,
December 1951.
In learning how to attract foreign tourists to Aus-
tralia, the example of some overseas countries which
have succeeded in reconstructing their foreign tourist
traffic after the war, their organization of tourist propa-
ganda abroad and its costs in relation to the number
of tourists attracted and the foreign currency obtained
from these tourists, should be studied. After an outline
of the general principles of tourist traffic, its price forma-
tion and method of statistics the article deals with post-
war developments in the foreign tourist traffic of France,
Switzerland, Austria, Belgium and Great Britain. In
Australia cheap finance for building accommodation for
tourists and the granting of building permits seems of
paramount importance.

(C) Monetary Policy, Banking, Insurance
2105. Some Recent Developments in the Sterling Area.
J. O. N. Perkins. Economic Record, pp. 30-40,
June 1951.
This article examines the present position of the Stg.
area as a whole, and the 'conditions of membership'
(dollar pool; freedom of capital transactions within the
area and administration of common exchange-control);
holding of London reserves; consultation between mem-
bers over common policy. Another section discusses the
conditions under which a country might leave the area,
considering: the effect on its dollar trade of abandoning
sterling area exchange control and commercial policies;
whether it would attract more dollar loans when with-
drawing; whether its dollar reserves and future earnings
would cover future cylical or secular falls in its dollar
earnings or increased need for dollars. Reasons are given
why a country's balance does not indicate its contribu-
tion to the position of the sterling area; effects of with-
drawal on other members. The last three sections investi-
gate recent strains on the sterling mechanism; sterling
area and European Payments Union; prospects of re-
turning to non-discrimination and/or convertibility.
-J.O.N.P.
2106. Life Tables for the Australian States. S. J. R.
Chatten and P. C. Wickens. Actuarial Society of
Australasia, 55th Session, 1951, pp. 125-136.
Such life tables had not been constructed after those
based on the First Commonwea!th Census taken in 1911
and on the experiences over the years 1881-1890 and
1891-1900. The present life tables have been calculated
on the basis of the 1947 census and the experiences of
1946-48. For males the most favourable mortality of the
working years of life was experienced in S.A., the least
favourable in N.S.W. and Queensland, for females the
rates were lowest in S.A. and W.A., highest in Tasmania
and Queensland. The expectation of life at birth was
highest for both sexes in S.A., it was least for males in
Queensland, for females in Tasmania. However, on the
whole, Australian mortality is independent of the state
of residence.

(D) Public Finance
2107. Commonwealth Grants Commission. 18th Report
(1951). Government Printer, Melbourne, pp. 127.
There is a continuous deterioration in the budgetary
results of the three claimant states (S.A., W.A., Tas-
mania). The amount of the special grants to them in
1949-50 was f11,o54,ooo and 12,175,000 in 1950-51. The
grants are now a much larger proportion of their gen-
eral revenue than formerly. Chapter II presents a sum-
marized description of the economic and financial con-


editions in Australia generally and in the individual
states. Chapter III sets out in detail the claims of S.A.,
W.A. and Tasmania for 1951-52. Chapter IV explains the
principles of assessment-first part based on year of
review 1949-50 with deductions and corrections, second
part tentative assessment 1951-52). Chapter V deals with
the measurement of the special grants for 1951-52, chapter
VI with recommendations for 1951-52. Chapter VII dis-
cusses the concept of 'reasonable effort' and depreciation,
etc., of assets of state undertakings.
21o8. A Note on the Incidence on Company Tax under
the Regime of Price Control in New Zealand.
W. Rosenberg. Economic Record, pp. 207-212,
December 1951.
In N.Z. the income of companies is taxed before dis-
tribution of dividends. The argument that income tax
cannot be passed on, is based on the assumption that
price is determined by the marginal firm under free com-
petition, and by equalizing marginal cost and marginal
revenue under monopoly. Now for the monopolist the
maximization of profits is the exception rather than the
rule, and price control has eliminated free competition
in N.Z. Under price control the company tax has often
been included in price. After the post-war relaxation of
price control the quasi-monopolistic situation of the
majority of N.Z. traders still persists. So N.Z. company
tax is more an indirect than a direct tax and is passed on
to the buyer.

(E) Accountancy
2109. Sangster, A. K. Commercial Goodwill. Federal
Institute of Accountants Annual Research Lec-
ture, pp. 50, Melbourne, September 1951.
This lecture provides an exposition of selected English
and Australian legal decisions as a framework for dis-
cussion of the nature of goodwill: this is followed by
examination of the views of well-known writers on ac-
countancy of the effect of increasing taxation upon the
assessment of goodwill. Consideration is then given to
government controls and other external influences affect-
ing the future of business and the determination of
goodwill, and developments in U.S. are noted, especially
the tendency towards measurement of separate business
factors contributory to goodwill, against the background
of marketing and advertising research.
211o. The Integration of Taxation and Accountancy
Principles in Commonwealth Income Tax. J. M.
Greenwood. Australian Accountant, pp. 415-425,
November 1951, pp. 441-449, December 1951.
A study has been made of Commonwealth income tax
to find the principles of law, economics, social ethics
and accountancy which it embodies, and to enquire
whether in cases where there is a divergence of taxation
principles from accounting principles, reconciliation
could be achieved.
2111. Costs and Production Standards. H. B. Williamson.
Australian Accountant, pp. 139-147, April 1951;
pp. 173-179, May 1951; pp. 201-214, June 195i; pp.
241-253, July 1951; pp. 281-290, August 1951; pp.
331-337, September 195i.
This series of articles describes a method, suitable for
any type of production costs, whereby cost standards
may be incorporated in the financial accounts. The prin-
ciples of factory organization and production control
are considered as a preliminary to the setting of cost
standards and the preparation of the budget, due regard
being paid to the important question of the capacity at
which the plant will operate. Finally, the recording of
the cost data, and the analysis of the cost information
are considered.








(F) Transportation and Communication

2112. Hocking, D. M. and Haddon-Cave, C. P. Air
Transport in Australia. Angus & Robertson, Syd-
ney-London, 1951, pp. 188. Price 25s.
The first part of this book presents a historical survey
of Australian civil aviation in the periods of development,
1918-28, of consolidation and expansion, 1929-39, of
World War II, and of expansion, 1945-48. The second
part is concerned with policy and control. Among con-
stitutional problems discussed are the referenda of 1937
and 1944, which unsuccessfully attempted to include
civil aviation among the Commonwealth powers, and
the High Court decision against nationalization of in-
ternal airlines. In a section on the trends of air trans-
port policy the aspects of defence and of Government
enterprise in domestic aviation are considered. A chapter
on policy implementation examines financial arrange-
ments (subsidies and airmail payments), air route charges
and T.A.A. versus A.N.A. A chapter on international
civil aviation gives details on the Chicago conference,
the Bermuda agreement, the Australia-N.Z. proposal for
international ownership and operation, and on British
Commonwealth co-operation. A postscript supplies data
up to March 1951.

2113. Report of the Victorian Railway Commissioners
for Year ended 30 June 1951. P.P. Government
Printer, Melbourne, pp. 62 +34 roneoed pages.
Railway operations were greatly hampered by a 55
days' railway strike, and in February 1951 by the with-
drawal of shipping from importing South African and
Indian coal. Although railway charges were increased
by an average of 11 % on 18 December 1950, these restric-
tions and rises in costs caused a deficit in current opera-
tions of 4o9,000 compared with a net current profit of
2,043,000 in the preceding year and a deficit of
2,786,000 after payment of interest, debt, etc., as against
a deficit of 186,000 in 1949-50.

2114. Department of 1. :. , New South Wales. An-
nual Report for Year ended 30 June, 1951. Gov-
ernment Printer, Sydney, pp. 86.
The excess of earnings over working expenses has fal-
len from 841,000 in the preceding year to 280,ooo. Both
earnings and working expenses increased by more than
9m., the former owing to substantial, but still inade-
quate rises in fares and freights, the latter due to steeply
rising costs of labour and materials. After payment of
interest etc., there was a deficit of 6,417,ooo compared
with 2,415,000 in 1949-50. Shortage of staff, interrup-
tions of train services, inadequate quantity and inferior
quality of coal, shortages and delay in deliveries and
repairs of rolling stock are further features.

2115. Report on Slow Turn-Round of Shipping. I.P.A.
Review, pp. 75-84, September-October i951.
An Institute of Public Affairs Victoria Survey. Since
pre-war the rate of work on Australian wharves has
slowed down-an important factor in general price rises.
There is often much delay in the custom houses. Labour
turnover is high, specialization is lacking, working hours
and breaks should be made uniform. Often slow wharf-
side labour is due to lax supervision. An improved rate
of removal of goods from the wharves, more efficient use
of road transport, more rolling stock, additional storage
space are needed, so is increasing mechanization of load-
ing equipment and a system of incentive payments, as
successfully practised in U.K.


(G) Labour and Industrial Relations

2116. Some Economic Aspects of the Fixation of Hours
and Wages. R. J. Cameron. Economic Record, pp.
151-165, December 1951.
In a closed economy with some unemployment a re-
duction of hours causes only a small change in output
and raises employment. When there is some labour short-
age, the hours' reduction stimulates capital expenditure.
Some working of overtime lessens the reduction of work-
ing hours. Differently in an open economy some prices
will not rise after the reduction of standard hours, so
that real hourly wage rates rise. Employment and profits
will not rise in unsheltered industries, but they do rise
in sheltered industries. The introduction of the Aus-
tralian 40-hour week was possible because of very high
export prices and the absence of competition from im-
ported goods, and with labour's attitude to appreciation
and depreciation of the currency.

2117. The Commonwealth Court of Conciliation and
Arbitration. O. de R. Foenander. Industrial Vic-
toria (Special Centenary and Jubilee Souvenir
Issue), pp. 248-250, July 1951.
A broad statement indicating the achievement of, and
the prestige that has accrued to, the Commonwealth
Court of Conciliation and Arbitration; and critical of
the legislative changes affecting industrial regulation in
Australia that were introduced in 1947. This article has
been reproduced in Metal Trades Journal, pp. 272-273,
282, September 1952.-0. de R. F.
2118. Wage-Fixing by Compulsory Arbitration-The
Lesson of Australia. B. H. Higgins. Social Re-
search (New York), pp. 335-369, September 1951.
After a short historical survey the author discusses
the equalitarian social philosophy underlying the basic
wage as opposed to 'productivity ethics.' Some details
are presented concerning female wages, margins for
skill, adjustments for cost of living, 'capacity of in-
dustry to pay', wartime regulations, the 40-hours case,
the 1949 case. Another chapter deals with the effects of
the system on the distribution of income, on productivity,
industrial peace and economic stability. In conclusion
the lessons of the Australian experience are examined,
particularly the necessity of a forecast by the Court of
future economic conditions. The Australian record does
not suggest that the system should be recommended to
other countries.
2119. National Income and Wages Policy-The New
Zealand Picture. J. V. T. Baker and H. G. Lang.
Economic Record, pp. 190o-206, December 1951.
By the Economic Stabilization Regulations of 1950
the N.Z. Arbitration Court is required to take into ac-
count the relative share of the wage earner in the
national income. The authors hold that there is a slight
secular fall in the share of wages and salaries. They try
to forecast the effects of a general wage rise on the fac-
tor distribution of income and on inflationary pressures.
So far the Arbitration Court has proved an effective
guardian of real wages. Four different wages policies
open to the Government are discussed. One is to main-
tain a given distribution by intensive controls. This
way is indicated in the Regulations of 1950, but it is
impracticable.
2120. Vocational Guidance in Australia, by G. D. Brad-
shaw and R. W. McCulloch. International Labour
Review, Geneva, October 1951, pp. 303-24.
This article is a review of vocational guidance facili-
ties in Australia. The authors give a brief history of the








part played by the Education Departments of the various
states and conclude that the N.S.W. service was the
only really satisfactory one. N.S.W. alone employed
specially trained guidance officers, who used psychologi-
cal tests. In 1945 the Commonwealth service was set up
as part of the Commonwealth Employment Service. A
description is given of the organization and procedure
of vocational guidance work, the training of officers,
their relations with employment officers and with the
schools, and the attention given to special cases. The
number of people tested during the period July 1950-
June 1951 was 23,394.-M.G.R.

2121. Technical Training of Natives in Papua and New
Guinea. G. T. Roscoe. Manufacturing and Man-
agemnent, pp. 397-401, June 1951.
The Commonwealth Reconstruction Training Scheme
was, from 1946, extended to nati\es in Papua and New
Guinea. The lack of basic education is a great difficulty.
Training was offered for 13 dilcerent vocations from
carpentering to native medical practitioners, later teacher
training was included. Training centres were set up by
the Education Department in 6 places and by 39 mis-
sions. Trainees get 15s. a month, rations, clothing, etc.
Larger centres have machinery, smaller ones only hand
tools to train village tradesmen. Natives are propor-
tionally just as capable of being technically trained as
Europeans.


AGRICULTURE, LAND AND RURAL
PROBLEMS

2122. Year Book Commemoration Convention, Cham-
ber of Agriculture of Victoria, pp. 192, 1951.
(a) Growers Built Wool Industry in Freedom. Doug-
las T. Boyd, pp. 13-21.
(b) History of Victoria's Wheat Industry. S. M. Wad-
ham, pp. 23-37.
(c) Evolution of Our Dairying Industry. G. C. Howey,
PP. 39-55.
(d) How Dried Fruits Industry has Developed. D. S.
Winterbottom, pp. 57-63.
(e) Myxomatosis and the Rabbit. I. Clunics Ross, pp.
135-141.
(f) Dcevelopment of Victorian Ley Farming. B. F.
McKeon, pp. 143-150.
(g) Soil Conservation Policy and Aims. G. T. Thomp-
son, pp. 151-160.-R.H.B.

2123. Crawford, J. G. The Economics of Conservation.
Department of Commerce and Agriculture. Can-
berra, 1952, pp. 59.
An appreciation of the extent to which various Aus-
tralian systems of land use, being exploitative, are lead-
ing to soil depletion and, at times, erosion. The various
factors which can influence the tendency to depletion.
The need for a change in national policy in order to
emphasize conservation leads to a discussion of research,
education and positive policies in this regard. The sig-
nificance of the shortages of materials and labour and
of the present rates of taxation are considered.-S.M.W.

2124. Look North to New Guinea. J. K. Murray.
Regional Development Journal, pp. 192-202, Nov-
ember 1951.
Many of the tropical and sub-tropical crops, which
Australia cannot readily grow, can be grown commerci-
ally in Papua and New Guinea, and animal industries
have great potentialities. Mineral, timber, and possibly


oil resources have yet to be fully exploited. Hydro-
electric power can be produced cheaply. Fishing is vir-
tually undeveloped. Full development of the resources
of this area would lessen the dependence of these terri-
tories on Australia and also provide Australia with many
of her needs. The main check to this development is
lack of capital. Large capital grants from outside and a
friendliness with the natives are basic requirements.-
R.H.B.

2125. Expanding Agriculture in Queensland. Common-
wealth Bank of Australia, pp.x6, May 1951.
Three important fields of Queensland agriculture are
described: -
(1) The Beef Cattle Industry-W. Webster.
(2) The Sugar Industry-J. Donnollan.
(3) The Development of Tobacco Production-A. V.
Hill.
In each case the possibilities of future expansion are
discussed.-E.A.J.

2126. Merino Wool Growing. Bureau of Agricultural
Economics, pp. 22, 1951.
Wool-growers fall into two major classes; those who
breed their own replacements, and those who run wethers
and buy replacements. This survey, which included 36
graziers in the Armidale District of N.S.W., is a com-
parison of the costs and returns of these two classes. Two
main points are illustrated. Firstly, the way that recent
high prices for wool and sheep have greatly favoured
the running of wethers. Secondly, the probability that
in the long run and under more normal conditions,
breeding would be the more profitable enterprise.-
E.A.J.

2127. Wool Growing and Fat Lamb Production. W. B. C.
Mackie. Quarterly Review of Agricultural Eco-
nomics, pp. io6-iio, July 1951.
A summary of results of a study of the farm manage-
ment and financial results of three farms which are com-
parable in most respects, but differ in the types of sheep
husbandry. Seasonal conditions, pastures, feeding,
capitalization, returns, costs and income are briefly dis-
cussed with tables and graphs and show that Merino
wool growing in 1949-50 remained more profitable than
fat lambs or fat lambs and wool growing.-R.H.B.

2128. Machinery on Wheat Farms in Central-West
N.S.W. P. C. Bruce. Review of Marketing and
Agricultural Economics. (a) Machinery Usage on
Wheat Farms in the Central-West, pp. 59-81, June
1951. (b) The Cost of Operating Farm Machinery
on Central-Western Wheat Farms, pp. 128-143,
September 1951.
(a) In one of the main wheat areas of N.S.W. replace-
ment of horses by tractors is almost complete. Farmers'
preferences for tractor and implement types vary, but
those of American origin are generally favoured. The
survey reveals the trends in the demands for the various
tractors, implements and spare parts. (b) Cost figures
have been based primarily on farmers' estimates since
more accurate data cannot be obtained. The survey of
94 farms gives a fair estimate of hourly costs of operat-
ing tractors and the four main implements used on these
farms. Depreciation is discussed fully. Interest, tyres,
repairs, fuel and other costs are assessed, but the com-
parison of costs of operating diesel and kerosene tractors
is very general owing to insufficient information.-K.H.B.








2129. Some Aspects of Land Utilisation on Dairy Farms
on the Lower North Coast. J. Rutherford. Review
of Marketing and Agricultural Economics, pp.
179-247, December 1951.
This account is the result of an important survey of the
technical, economic and social structure of the dairy
industry in the Manning district, N.S.W., with special
emphasis on productivity. The general land use, geo-
graphic conditions, dairy farm organizations and climatic
conditions are described as an introduction to details
under the following headings-farm acreage, feeding,
fodder conservation, mechanization, cropping, water
facilities, labour, production and tenure. Some compari-
sons with desirable standards and some farmers' view-
points are also given.-R.H.B.

2130. The Distribution of Citrus Fruit Grown on the
Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area. Leo C. Yorke.
Review of Marketing and Agricultural Economics,
pp. 107-127, September 1951.
The economic aspects of the citrus industry in the
M.I.A. with due consideration to the industry as a whole
in Australia, are dealt with comprehensively under pro-
duction, packing, distribution, export and home markets,
and prices.-R.H.B.

2131. Australian Dried Vine Fruit Industry Economic
Survey. Bureau of Agricultural Economics, pp.
76, March 1951.
Australian production of dried vine fruit has declined
by 18% from pre-war levels. Of the 1950 total, 73% was
grown in Sunraysia, 16 in S.A., 7 in Mid-Murray, and 4
in W.A., with average cost of production and estimated
returns of 160, 78 and ja67 per ton respectively. A com-
bined Commonwealth and State investigation of the
long term problems of W.A. and Mid-Murray areas is
recommended.-E.A.J.

2132. Pig Crop Report. Bureau of Agricultural Eco-
nomics, pp. 14, December 1951.
This report is prepared from data collected by means
of questionnaires answered by representative pig pro-
ducers throughout Australia. The statistical analyses are
segregated on a geographical basis. They give approp-
riate data of the pig population and its distribution
according to type of farm.-R.H.B.
2133. Superphosphate in Australia. I. Molnar. Quart-
erly Review of Agricultural Economics, pp. III-
"5, July 1951-
This study of the usages of cereals and pastures before
and since the war was made to find the cause for the
increased demand for superphosphate in Australia. This
article shows that increased acreage of sown and fertil-
ized pastures is the main cause. Neither acreage under
cereals nor the quantities of fertilizer applied per acre
have increased much.-R.H.B.

POLITICAL SCIENCE

(A) Government and Politics

2134. Regional Councils. A Review of the (N.S.W.) Local
Government Structure designed to establish the
need for the creation of Regional Councils. Pre-
pared by Direction of the Annual Conference
(1950) of the (N.S.W.) Local Government and
Shires Associations (18 April 1951), pp. 40.
An outline of the existing N.S.W. municipal struc-
ture and of previous enquiries into methods of decen-
tralizing government is followed by detailed proposals
on powers, finance and staff for a whole new regional


tier of local government in N.S.W. The authors propose
that regional councils should comprise one representa-
tive from each local council plus the State parliamen-
tarians within the region, with wide powers of co-option.
They emphasize that the present county councils are
in no way suitable for development as all-purpose auth-
orities, while regional councils are intended to be the
avenue for a decentralization and devolution of State
powers to an authority nearer the people.-A.F.D.

2135. Morrison, A. A. Local Government in Queensland,
pp. 87, Brisbane, 1951.
A detailed and comprehensive review under the fol-
lowing chapter headings: The Beginnings; The Griffith-
Mcllwraith System; Acceleration of Development; The
Establishment of Greater Brisbane; The Latest Age;
Local Government Today.-A.F.D.

2136. Constitutional Aspects of the Communist Party
Dissolution Bill. J. G. Starke. Australian Quart-
erly, pp. 17-24, September 1951.
An analysis of the presumptive scope and ramifications
of this proposed constitutional amendment.-A.F.D.

(B) International Relations

2137. Australian Foreign Policy. W. Macmahon Ball.
Australian Quarterly, pp. 11-17, June 1951.
The author warns against overestimating the U.N.'s
abilities to solve international problems. Australia is
forced to turn to the U.S. The problem is how Australia
can avoid the dislike many Asians feel for the Ameri-
cans, because they don't understand that the Asian
revolution is made up of social, political and national-
istic elements.--H.W.

2138. The Peace Treaty with Japan. W. Macmahon Ball.
The Australian Outlook, pp. 129-139, September
1951.
The treaty has been criticized by most of U.S.'s war-
time allies and has not gained the desired good-will in
Japan. It is a reversal of the Potsdam agreement which
envisaged perpetual disarmament. The economic and
demographic factors which gave rise to past aggression
are unchanged and there has been no basic change in the
distribution of political and economic power or in the
political outlook of Japan's leaders. As an ally of the
U.S. in a future war Japan would be denied the eco-
nomic advantages of contact with China and could not
be securely defended against the continental powers.
Russia covets Japan as an ally and by playing both
g-oups against each other Japan may successfully pur-
sue a policy of aggrandizement. In a general war America
may not be physically able to protect Australia.-D.C.S.S.

2139. Australia and the Japanese Treaty. James R.
Roach. Far Eastern Survey, New York, pp. 206-
208, 21 November 1951.
In Australia it is still felt to be Japan rather than
China or Russia, that is the greater danger. But, given
the desire for close relations with the U.S., and the
Australian determination to push ahead with a generous
treaty, Australian negotiators accepted the American
terms and began to prepare the public for the retreat
from Australia's earlier position. This was done so effec-
tively that by the time of the San Francisco Conference,
public interest in the treaty was very limited. Strongest
criticism to the treaty came from certain business in-
terests and some sections of the trade union movement.
-L.G.C.








2140. Security in the South-West Pacific. N. D. Harper.
Pacific Affairs, Richmond, Va., pp. 170-178, June
1951.
Australian interest in a Pacific Pact has intensified
since 1941 with the demonstration of the inability of
the British navy to defend Australia's northern ap-
proaches. The proponents of a regional defence pact
envisage two threats, that of a resurgent, militaristic
Japan, or that of Asian communism. The original
Australian conception of a pact was one that would
include Asian members of the British Commonwealth.
There is danger in the restricted American proposal that
might be regarded in Asia as an attempt to revive West-
ern military power in Asia. The fulfilment of the Col-
ombo Plan objectives will help to obviate this danger.
Australia should serve as a bridge between S.E. Asia
and the Western colonial powcrs.-L.G.C.

2141. The Pacific Settlement Seen from Australia. R. G.
Menzics. Foreign Affairs (New York), pp. 188-197,
January 1952.
The Prime Minister explains Australian policy re-
garding Japan and Pacific security. Prohibition of
Japanese rearmament could be enforced only by U.S.,
who disagreed with that policy. Japanese industry must
contribute to her defence. Naval armaments, however,
are not justified for defence and would threaten Aus-
tralia. Reparations do not achieve the desired result,
only compensation for P.'sO.W. should be exacted. Japan
has not become democratic, but to permit the Japanese
to recover their self-respect and some measure of eco-
nomic independence will encourage democracy there.
In the Pacific Security Treaty Australia sees a means
of 'strengthening her Pacific position against a possible
future resurgence of Japanese or communist militarism'.
The obligations in this treaty are mutual.-D.C.S.S.

2142. Capitalism and Communism in Burma and the
Tropical Far East. J. S. Furnivall. Historical
Studies, Australia and N.Z, pp. 299-314, May
1951-
Capitalism as introduced by the British into Burma
has meant economic progress, but at the expense of
social welfare. The British government, by abolishing
the king, neglecting the monastic order, and removing
the hereditary local chieftains, abolished social co-
hesion, and with it the element of self-government and
democracy that was found in the structure of old Burma.
Under British rule and with capitalist economic relations
the communal society of the Burman village has been
shattered. Communism in Burma is a movement of ex-
treme and impatient nationalism which has attracted
some support amongst the peasants by land redistribu-
tion-not a movement closely founded on communist
doctrines. L.G.C.


SOCIAL CONDITIONS

(A) Housing

2143. South Australian Housing Trust. i5th Annual Re-
port for Year ended 30 June 1951. Government
Printer, Adelaide, pp. 27.
During 1950-51 3057 dwellings were completed as
against 1790 in the preceding year. 1968 of the former
were permanent houses, 1089 of the emergency type.
1323 permanent houses were in the Metropolitan area,
645 including 143 soldier settlement houses in the
country. Further 12,468 houses were under construction
or contracted for on 30 June 1951, including 1851 im-


ported pre-fabricated houses. The majority of the houses
are for sale, not for rental. Owing to higher costs of
labour and materials, rents and sales prices of Trust
houses had to go up, but the rents of recently built
houses are still between 27s. and 32s. 6d.

(B) Social Security and Public Health

2144. Tew, Marjorie. Work and Welfare in Australia.
Melbourne University Press, 1951, pp. 236.
An elementary survey of 'social economics' and social
policy in Australia. A chapter on population (natural
increase and migration, age and sex distribution, urbani-
zation) is followed by a chapter on housing, including
town and regional planning. Further sections deal with
industries and occupations; unemployment (some dis-
cussion of the multiplier); full employment, including
wartime control and problems of high employment (in-
flation, slackening of labour discipline); wages (includ-
ing the basic wage system); trade unions, including an
examination of labour disputes, Arbitration Courts, and
the impact of the trade cycle; socialization of industry;
effects of taxation on the distribution of income and
wealth; social welfare and social services.

2145. Peyser, Dora. The ,..... and the Weak. Socio-
logical Study. Currawong Publishing Co., Sydney,
1951, pp. 131. Price 12s. 6d.
The first part of this book gives i summary of the
sociological structure of assistance. Assistance is needed
because of the basic inequality of men and human con-
ditions: natural helplessness in childhood and old age,
physical helplessness of the sick, handicapped and child-
bearing women, social helplessness of widows, orphans,
strangers, the poor, absolute helplessness of groups
through famine, etc. Assistance depends on groups,
there is a law of nearness and remoteness which makes
assistance easier within social groups than outside. The
second part discusses typical social groups and their
forms of assistance: primitive society, family, church,
organization of assistance, state (social welfare) and inter-
national sphere. Part III deals with the trained social
worker in society.

2146. The Cost of Social Security in Australia. S. W.
Caffin. Actuarial Society of Australia, 55th Ses-
sion, 1951, pp. 89-104.
This paper includes forms of assistance provided by
the Commonwealth through the National Welfare Fund.
After an outline of the various benefits their costs are
shown from 1916-1951. In 1951 they totalled 122m., of
which 5i'51n. for age and invalid pensions and 48-7m.
for child endowment and maternity allowances were the
biggest items. Social security costs have gone up very
substantially in absolute figures, but not as percentages
of national income. Possible future movements in the
cost per tax-payer are worked out on the assumption of
no migration, 50,000 or 100,000 migrants p.a., the costs
of unemployment benefits are calculated with 20 and
3o% unemployment. Finally the movement in real values
of pensions since 1945 is estimated.

(C) Social Surveys

2147. Using Papuans in Social Survey Work. Cyril Bel-
shaw. South Pacific, pp. 86-88, July I951.
Such surveys are of interest to administrators and can
be eased considerably by using Papuan assistants of
some education. The Papuan is good at routine syste-
matic work under proper supervision. The author car-
ried out research work in Phpua with the help of three








natives on the basis of a typed list of questions, refer-
ring, e.g., to family diet, household income and expen-
diture budgets, etc. The supervisor has to check the
inquiry at first daily, later once a week and at longer
intervals. In more complicated questions (census of
wealth) the Papuans were slower than the supervisor.
They find it hard to understand the theory underlying
sampling. The author discusses circumstances relevant
for the selection of assistants.

(D) Population and Migration

2148. Recent Trends in Australian Fertility. R. J. Lin-
ford. Economic Record, pp. 40-51, June 1951.
The author traces the 'experience of each annual co-
hort of marriages' contracted from 1926-27 to 1946-47.
Marriage fertility has not fallen over the past 20 years,
but there is an increasing tendency of postponement.
As to the size of families in the years of marriage 1926-
27 to 1940-41 the proportion of childless marriages has
remained fairly unchanged (20%), one-child and large
families are increasingly fewer, 2 and 3 child families
increasingly frequent. In England and Wales the ex-
perience has been much the same.

2149. Completed Families. S. W. Caffin. Economic
Record, pp. 77-80, June 1951.
It is assumed that the upper limit of child-bearing age
is on the average 471 years. By derivation from the tables
in demography it is shown in two tables and a graph
that the average total issue in such a completed family
has declined from 603 in 1897 to 3-29 in 937. The
average total issue for replacement which depends on
mortality and proportions married, has declined from
3.17 in 1901-1o to 2-61 in 1947, at no time in the inter-
vening years this total issue has fallen below replace-
ment level which contrasts with decline in the net re
production rate.

2150. Australian Development and Immigration. Sir
Douglas Copland. International Labour Review
(Geneva), pp. 633-656, June 1951.
The Australian development programme is examined
in connection with the Immigration Planning Council and
the National Security Resources Board. The pressure of
investment is growing and may reach 30% of national
income in 1951. A further section discusses the direction
of the labour of D. P. migrants and their distribution in
various industries. Migration creates demand for more
labour and investment, affects the price level, and there
is need for capital imports, dollar loans and expanded
rural production. Government activities and private en-
terprise have a large scope. In conclusion the article deals
with the lessons of Australian experience for other coun-
tries with large-scale immigration, particularly regarding
housing and migrant hostels.

2151. New Australians in Industry. James H. Bell.
Manufacturing and Management.
(a) New Australians-After Two Years, What?
pp. 86-89, October 1951.
Many New Australians seem to 'desert' industry after
completing their two years' contract. This makes some
employers believe that it is a waste to train them. British
immigrants have a greater staying power, mainly be-
cause many are qualified tradesmen, while many New
Australians are professionals or otherwise unsuited to
factory work. But other New Australians have proved
themselves well in industry. If they had an industrial
occupation before immigration, it is often unsuitable
for Australia.


(b) New Australians-A Success, pp. 167-169,
November 1951.
Many factories found it advisable to employ New
Australians at the beginning only at the rate of 5% of the
payroll and to increase their numbers gradually. This
initial limitation and the work of the personnel depart-
ment is apt to overcome Australian workers' resentment.
Quality and quantity of the New Australians' work is
good and some could be promoted to supervisors. Their
dispersal through factories and social activities help in
their assimilation.
2152. Mass German Immigration in Australia's Future.
Julius Stone. Australian Quarterly, pp. 18-28, June
1951.
The history of the opposition to the Government's plan
of admitting 25,000 Germans p.a. to Australia is out-
lined. There is no probable shortage of non-German
migrants over the next to years. Our duty of refuge is
to the oppressed, not to the German oppressors. Nazism
is still very strong in Germany, screening to exclude
Nazis is impossible. The entire younger generation of
Germans is Nazi-indoctrinated.

EDUCATION

2153. UNESCO. Compulsory Education in Australia.
(No. 3 of Studies on Compulsory Education.)
UNESCO, Paris 1951, pp. 189. Price 6s.
This is a study prepared for UNESCO by the Aus-
tralian National Co-operating Body for Education.
Various aspects of the administration of a compulsory
education system are discussed, each by an authority
on the subject. The system operating in one state is
usually dealt with in detail, with reference to the other
states where relevant. The place of the non-government
schools is dealt with, and the texts of relevant regulations
and Acts of Parliament are given in a lengthy appendix.
Selection for Secondary Education in Queensland.
Research and Guidance Branch, Bulletin No. 4.
Selection for Secondary Education in Queensland.
Mimeographed. 1951, pp.33.
An investigation into the best predictors of success
in the Junior Certificate Examination in Queensland (an
external examination taken at the age of 15+ by pupils
in secondary schools). The best predictor is the Scholar-
ship Examination taken two years earlier, on the results
of which most pupils enter the secondary schools; next
comes Teachers' Estimates. Multiple correlations of '8
and above were obtained by combining marks on certain
subjects, Teachers' Estimates, and scores on an Otis in-
telligence test. A combination of Otis scores and teachers'
estimates gave a correlation almost equally high.
2155. Keats, J. A. A Statistical Theory of the Distribu-
tion of Test Scores. Australian Council for Edu-
cational Research (ACER). October 1951. Photo-
lithographed, pp. x + 46. Price 7s. 6d.
Discusses the theoretical forms that the distributions
of scores on objective tests may take, and examines em-
pirical evidence relating to the issues raised. Some cur-
rent procedures are criticized, a new index of reliability
is suggested, and procedures using ordinal statistics are
recommended.

2156. Commonwealth Office of Education. Educational
Research being undertaken in Australia. 1951.
Mimeographed, pp. 36.
A classified list of research in education being under-
taken by university faculties and students, and other
bodies in Australia, in i951.








2157. Native Education in the Northern Territory. Edu-
cation News, pp.3-5. October 195I.
Native Children at School. Education News, pp.
3-6, February 1952.
These two articles give a brief outline of the work in
Native education undertaken in the Northern Territory,
since June I95O, by the Commonwealth Government.
The origins and organization of the scheme, and its
problems, are discussed.

GEOGRAPHY

2158. Oliver, D. L. The Pacific Islands. Harvard Uni-
versity Press, Cambridge, 1951, pp. 313.
The history of Oceania-from Australia to Easter
Island and Hawaii-its physical features, climates, plants,
animals and natural resources are dealt with, and their
influence upon the many ethic groups is shown. The
influence of Christianity, trade and industry on each
group of islands is discussed, with special reference to the
change of native economies and societies by the copra,
sugar and mining industries. The impact of the two
World Wars is stressed. Communism and Communalism
are assessed in their future importance to Oceania.

2159. Ward, L. K. Underground Water in Australia.
Tait Publishing Co., Melbourne, 1952, pp. 75.
The source of underground water, the effect of climate
on water supplies, how water is stored beneath the sur-
face, its underground movement, fluctuations of water
level, ground water and pressure water, artesian basins
and springs are discussed. Every artesian basin is dealt
with in detail. There is also a great deal on the com-
position, testing, utilization, and search for underground
water supplies, a large bibliography and a great number
of tables, diagrams and maps.

2160. Report by the Burdekin River Authority on the
Burdckin River Irrigation and Hydro-Electric and
Flood Mitigation Project. Government Printer,
Brisbane, December 1951, pp. 116.
The purpose of the Burdekin River project is three-
fold-as seen from the title. In the first instance, lands
close to the river will be irrigated for the production
of tobacco and mixed agricultural crops. Later lands on
the coastal plains from Bowen to north of Townsville
will be irrigated. The dam will appreciably modify the
effects of floods from the Burdekin and its tributaries.
Ultimately some 350,00o acres will be irrigated and the
hydro-electric power station will have an installed cap-
acity of 120,000 kW; population is estimated to increase
by 50,0oo when full development is attained. The capital
cost of the project is estimated at 69,248,ooo and 3640
new farms will be established.

2161. (a) Upper Goulburn Region. Government Printer,
Melbourne, 1951, pp. 90.
(b) Loddon Region, Government Printer, Mel-
bourne, 1952, pp. o05.
These two resources surveys have been prepared by
the Victorian Central Planning Authority and contain
a number of large-scale maps. Their contents are ar-
ranged exactly in the same way as that of the Goulburn
Region, abstracted under No. 1233 of No. 8 (September
1949) of this journal.
2162. National Mapping. L. Fitzgerald. Australian Geo-
grapher, pp. 242-250, June 1951.
A survey is given of the history of the topographic
base map in Australia going back to Dampier's mapping
in 1688. The technique of using air photos is dealt with


in detail, and a number of suggestions are made how
the work of the many Commonwealth and States authori-
ties concerned with mapping could be co-ordinated. The
composition of the two main mapping bodies is dis-
cussed.

2163. Man and Nature in New Zealand. R. C. Murphy.
New Zealand Geographer, pp. I-15, April 1952.
A study of the impact of man upon nature dealing with
physical features, indigenous fauna, European invasion
and plant introductions, agricultural development, soil
erosion, animal pests and the future of the two islands.
'With butter and beef and the best of mutton at a
quarter or a fifth of prices prevailing in the United States,
the average New Zealander rejoices in present abundance
and dreams of the future io or 15 million countrymen
whom his arable land could never support in the com-
fort he enjoys.'

HISTORY

2164. Miller, Harold. New Zealand. Hutchinson's Uni-
versity Library, London, 1950, pp. 150.
This volume in Hutchinson's series on British Empire
History is a discussion of selected themes rather than
a pocket general history of N.Z. The first half of the
book, 'The Period of Race Conflict: 1814-1865', traces the
changing pattern of race contact and the effects of
European settlement on Maori culture. The wars of
1856-1865 brought to an end a period of strikingly suc-
cessful adjustment by a native people to the challenge
of a new civilization. The theme in the second half, 'To-
wards a Socialist State: 1865-1947', is N.Z.'s political ex-
periment, which more and more 'has taken the shape of
an attempt to marshall all the resources of the community
to minister to the wants of the average man'.

2165. Gordon, D. C. The Australian Frontier in New
Guinea, 1870-z885, Columbia University Press,
New York, 1951, pp. 301, map. Price $4.25.
A study of the development of Australian interests in
New Guinea leading to annexation by an American
scholar working on printed material in New York. It
was written during the war when there was no oppor-
tunity to draw on Australian material. The author dis-
cusses the exploration and early economic contacts that
produced an Australian awareness of N.G. and attempts
by Australian companies to exploit its resources; the
extension of the missionary interest; the growth of Ger-
man interests in the Pacific; and the rise of an adolescent
colonial imperialism. The actual annexation is set against
the background of British party politics, and he con-
cludes that it was peripheral rather than metropolitan
pressure that led to annexation. He brings out clearly
the strategic interests of the colonies in N.G.

2166. Waters, Thorold, Much Besides Music, Georgian
House, Melbourne, 1951, pp. x + 231.
The author has had a full and varied life as a political
journalist, singer of repute and music critic. Most of the
great figures in Australian political life from 1890 to
1930 appear in these pages. The material on Syme is par-
ticularly useful, and also, to a lesser extent, the remarks
on Deakin, Reid, Monash, Holman and Hughes.

2167. Pearce, Sir G. F. Carpenter to Cabinet. Hutchin-
son, London, 1951, pp. 216.
This is the autobiography of one of the three sur-
vivors (up to 1952) of the 1901 Commonwealth Parlia-
ment-union leader in W.A., Defence Minister in the
Fisher and Hughes Labour governments, Acting Prime








Minister and Senior Nationalist and U.A.P. Minister in
various governments from 1917 to 1937. It contains a
limited amount of private detail concerning federal
politics of the period, especially with regard to Pearce's
Defence administrations.

2168. Cumpston, J. H. L. Charles Sturt: His Journeys
and Explorations. Georgian House, Melbourne,
'951.
A detailed account, based largely on careful study of
Sturt's own papers and writings, of his explorations of
the Murr.ay River system and in Central Australia. Brief
chapters on his early life and later settlement in South
Australia round out the biography.

2169. Hughes, Mary Kent. Pioneer Doctor: a Biography
of John Singleton. Oxford University Press, Mel-
bourne, 1950, pp. 163. Price los. 6d.
Dr. John Singleton emigrated in 1851 from Dublin to
Victoria, where he practised in the city and also for a
time on the goldfields and in the Western District. An
earnest Evangelical, he also engaged in many forms of
social work in Melbourne. This account of his life draws
most of its episodes from his Incidents in the Life of a
Physician (Melbourne, 1891), and also makes use of his
diary and notebooks, and of family tradition. Written
largely in direct-speech dialogue, it is a book for the
general reader rather than the historian.

2170. Pridmore, Adele. The Rich Valley: An Account of
the Early Life of McLaren Vale. Advertiser Print-
ing Office, Adelaide, 1949, pp. 114, illustrated.
McLaren Vale is a small agricultural settlement 25
miles south of Adelaide. In the I850's it was a valley of
grain, with a brewery and flour mills. In the i86o's the
soil was overcropped; and vineyards, planted by Thomas
Hardy, rapidly invaded the impoverished wheatfields.
Chapters on housing, Tsong Gyiaou-a fashionable girls'
school 1862-99, and the congregational church would
interest the social historian. The story is cut short early
in this century.

2171. An Outline History of the New Zealand Labour
Movement, 1894-1913 and A Critical Bibliography
of the New Zealand Labour Movement. D. W.
Crowley. Historical Studies, Australia and N.Z.,
pp. 367-375, May 1951.
This period saw the invasion of the N.Z. labour scene
by militant unionism on the I.W.W. pattern, some major
strike struggles, and shifting and competing political
groupings which were eventually superseded by the pres-
ent Labour Party, formed in 1916. The basic conflict was
between industrial unionism and direct action on the
one hand and craft unionism and reliance on political
patronage through arbitration on the other. The small
numbers and scattered distribution of the workers and
the dependence of union security on arbitration (estab-
lished by the Act of 1894, which denied the right to
strike) largely explain the limited support commanded
by the 'Red' Federation. The Bibliography covers the
general N.Z. labour history and includes a good deal of
comment.

2172. Problems of Research on Contemporary Official
Records. P. Hasluck. Historical Studies, Australia
and N.Z., pp. 1-13, November 1951.
The author discusses the difficulties which the research
worker encounters in finding his way through the great
bulk of departmental files which vary greatly in order-
liness and completeness. The contemporary historian has
his own special problems of research method, by no means


all of which are due to faults in the filing techniques of
government departments. The very nature of the records
may threaten the research worker with 'the death of an
intellectual silver-fish'.


2173. Missing Land Grants in New South Wales, 1792-
18oo. A. G. L. Shaw. Historical Studies, Australia
and N.Z., pp. 68-78, November 1951.
Two returns of land grants by early N.S.W. gov-
ernors from December 1794 to September 1796 and from
7 February 1800 to 25 September 1800, which have been
missing until recently, are here published in full. The
discovery of these returns fills a gap in the evidence re-
lating to land disposal which was serious, for, to quote
Dr O'Brien, 'from the land grants then made originated
the land problems which were partly solved by the aboli-
tion of the free grant system in 1831'.


2174. Federation and Western Australia: A Contribu-
tion to the Parker-Blainey Discussion. J. Bastin.
Historical Studies, Australia and N.Z., pp. 47-58,
November 1951.
This article is concerned with the influence of eco-
nomic interests in the Federal movement in W.A. and
suggests qualifications to some parts of Parker's paper
(in Historical Studies, November 1950). It analyses the
attitudes towards Federation of the mining groups in the
community, the rural areas, the immigrants from the
East and the older settlers, the press, churches, public
opinion and W.A. Labour. An interpretation of the
Federal vote in W.A. in terms of large regional interests
has many pitfalls. Certain groups and interests did have
certain economic interests in Federation, but often such
groups were opposed in the same electorate and even in
the same district.


2175. English Opinion on the Australian Colonies Gov-
ernment Act (1850). W. A. Townsley. Historical
Studies, Australia and N.Z., pp. 38-46, November
1951.
The Australian Colonies Government Act determined
at once the constitutional growth of at least four Aus-
tralian States and its passage came at a formative period
in the development of British Colonian policy. With
this latter point the article is primarily concerned. The
English Parliamentary background in 1850 is outlined-
the position of the chief parties in Parliament, their
attitudes to the Bill and their political principles which
touched on this matter. The debates on the Bill which
were prolonged and at a high level are then analysed in
some detail.


2176. Bismarck and the Annexation of New Guinea.
Marjorie G. Jacobs, Historical Studies, Australia
and N.Z., pp. 14-26, November 1951.
A re-examination of the reasons for Bismarck's change
of front on the colonial question in 1884, the conditions
under which he reversed his attitude, and the methods
by which the German annexation in New Guinea was
achieved. 'The decision to acquire colonies was made sud-
denly and ... Bismarck took advantage of the opportunity
offered by a favourable combination of circumstances
in that year.' Miss Jacobs shows both the development
which produced the favourable situation in 1884 and the
considerations which advised action in that year. The
problem is examined in the context of German, English,
French relations and the changing situation in the
Pacific in the i88o's.









LAW


(A) Constitutional Law

2177. The Defence Preparations Act 1951. R. Ellicott.
Australian Law Journal, pp. 162-165, August 1951.
A survey of the provisions of this Act which as the
writer observes invokes the defence power of the Com-
monwealth in peace time on a scale hitherto unknown.
Some consideration is given to the constitutionality of
the legislation.

2178. Judicial Review under Section 90 of the Consti
tution-An Economist's View. H. W. Arndt.
Australian Law Journal, pp. 667-677, 706-711,
March and April 1952.
Professor Arndt attempts to discover what aid the
High Court could have received from the special know-
ledge of economists in resolving constitutional issues
under section 90 of the Constitution. His article falls
into three parts: in the first the relevant decisions are
critically reviewed; in the second the problems dealt with
by the Court are examined in the light of modern eco-
nomic theory; and in the third an explanation of the
process of judicial review, as seen in the light of the
cases discussed, is attempted.

2179. (a) Constitutional Liability in Tort and the Exer-
cise of Discretion. G. Sawer. Res Judicatae, pp.
14-20, August 1951.
A critical study of doctrines exempting the Crown
from liability in circumstances where discretionary
powers are conferred directly on the police and other
Crown officers.
(b) Liability of Highway Authorities. W. Fried-
man. Res Judicatae, pp. 21-28, August 1951.
A critical examination of decisions restricting the
liability of highway authorities for injuries suffered due
to the defective conditions of highways.

2180. A Privilege of Parliament. F. R. Beasley.
University of Western Australia Annual Law
Review, pp. 105-116, December 1951.
A critical examination of Mr Speaker Cameron's in-
terpretation of the rule that a member of parliament
should not bring forward, promote or advocate in Parlia-
ment any proceeding or measure in which he may have
acted or been concerned for or in consideration of a
pecuniary reward or fee.

(B) Domestic Relations

2181. (a) Divorce Jurisdiction and Recognition of
Divorce Decrees-A Comparative Study. E. N.
Griswold. Australian Law Journal, pp. 248-
269. Discussion, pp. 269-277, September 1951.
A consideration of the problems of jurisdiction in
divorce and of the recognition of foreign divorce de-
crees. Paper prepared for the Australian Jubilee Law
Convention, Sydney, August 1951.
(b) Domestic Relations: Actions for Loss of Con-
sortium. Zelman Cowen. Australian Law
Journal, pp. 390-394, October 1951.
(c) Consortium and the Alleged Emancipation of
The Married Woman. R. W. Baker. University
of Western Australia Law Review, pp. 80-93
A critical examination of the law relating to the rights
of spouses to sue for interference with the elements in
the marriage relationship.


(C) Industrial Law
2182. The Right to Strike under Federal Law. J. A.
Keely. Res Judicatae, pp. 38-44, August i95I.
A consideration of the question whether an organi-
zation registered under the provisions of the Common-
wealth Conciliation and Arbitration Act retains the legal
right to strike.

(D) Legal Biography

2183. Biographies. Australian Law Journal.
(a) Sir Edmund Barton. J. Reynolds, pp. 62-65,
June 1951.
A brief biographical sketch of Sir Edmund, first Prime
Minister of the Commonwealth, and one of the original
Justices of the High Court.
(b) Richard Edward O'Connor. Sir Henry Man-
ning, pp. 116-118, July 1951.
A similar sketch of the career of the third member of
the High Court as first constituted.
(c) Henry Bourne Higgins. G. V. Portus, pp. 453-
455, November 1951.
A short biographical sketch of H. B. Higgins, who was
appointed to the High Court Bench in 19o6.

(E) Legal Education
2184. A Note on Legal Education. G. W. Paton. Res
Judicatae, pp. 50-52, August 1951.
A brief review of recent discussions of legal education
in Canada and England. This is followed by a considera-
tion of the local position at the University of Melbourne.

(F) Legal History
2185. The Study of Legal History. K. O. Shatwell. Uni-
versity of Western Australia Annual Law Review,
pp. 94-104, December 1951.
A critical study of the teaching of legal history in
University courses.

2186. An Outline of the Historical Development of the
Legal Profession in New South Wales. R. Z.
de Ferranti. Australian Law Journal, pp. 298-308.
Discussion, pp. 308-313, September 1951.
A paper prepared for the Australian Jubilee Law Con-
vention, Sydney, August 1951.

(G) Legal Organization

2187. Decentralization of the Administration of Justice
in New South Wales. F. C. Hutley, Australian Law
Journal, pp. 530-532, December i951.
The concentration of legal machinery in Sydney is
bad. The administration of justice should be decentral-
ized with permanent centres in country areas. This
should also apply in the case of various offices-Stamp
Duties and Land Titles offices, and also to University
legal education.

(H) Legal Profession

2188. A Review of the Profession of Barrister and Solici-
tor in Western Australia. University of Western
Australia Annual Law Review, pp. 12-35,
December 1951.
A survey, with tables, of the current position of the
legal profession in Western Australia.








PHILOSOPHY

PSYCHOLOGY

2189. The Resolution of Grating Test Objects during
the course of Dark Adaption. A. J. Marshall and
R. H. Day. Australian Journal of Psychology, pp.
1-21, June 1951.
The direction of the parallel bars on a grating can
be seen at continuously diminishing test brightnesses as
the eyes recover from a period of adapting to relatively
high field brightnesses. The rate and extent of this drop
in threshold may be shown to vary with a number of
conditions. The present article reports some findings on
changes in thresholds (or recovery times) resulting from:
(a) varying the widths of the component black and white
bars of the grating; (b) early practice effects; (c) the use
of binocular or of monocular vision.


2190. Social Theory and Minority Group Behaviour.
F. E. Emery and F. M. Katz. Australian Journal
of Psychology, pp. 22-35, June 1951.
The concept of 'reference groups' was applied to a body
of data gathered from a sample of Jewish citizens in
Melbourne with the following results: (a) Selection of
reference groups is affected by relative group statuses.
(b) Perception of the extent of anti-semitism in Aus-
tralia was a function of reference group orientations.
(c) Attribution of blame for anti-semitism was explic-
able in terms of these group orientations. (d) The be-
lieved solutions to anti-semitism followed from the same
orientations. Thus, the concept of reference groups is a
useful tool, particularly in establishing causal connec-
tions between sociological and psychological data.


2191. The Vocabulary of the Australian Child. K. S.
Cunningham. Australian Journal of Psychology,
pp. 36-42, June 1951.
This article discusses some of the background issues
in the planning of an exploratory investigation into
language development immediately prior to entry into
school. As there are wide variations in vocabulary and
expression in children of different ages and in different
situations, the likely effects of different social settings
are discussed. Next procedural differences in vocabulary
studies are dealt with, and a distinction made between
power to use a word and power to talk about a word so
as to define it. The concept of degrees of mastery is in-
troduced. The criterion of frequency of use is discussed
and the question whether an individual has more than
one vocabulary.


2192. A Suggested Method for Combining Criterion
Groups. D. W. McElwain. Australian Journal of
Psychology, pp. 47-54, June 1951.
The problem is that which faces a psychometric test
maker who has for each of the members of several groups
criterion information which is comparable only within
groups. Two methods are suggested for combining groups
so as to have distributions for the criterion rating over
all groups: (i) by using a score derived from the pool
of test items to give intra-group variances and inter-
group differences; and (ii) by using a group criterion
such as the group's total production and combining
this with the intra-group criterion values by statistics
derived from the pool of test items; a 'synthesis of vari-
ance'. An example of the first method is given.


TERRITORIES AND NATIVE
PROBLEMS

2193. Taylor, C. R. H. A Pacific Bibliography: Printed
Matter relating to the Native Peoples of Poly-
nesia Melanesia and Micronesia. The Polynesian
Society, Wellington, N.Z., 1951, pp. xxix + 492
+ map.
This Bibliography is in four main sections. Section I,
'Oceania', contains reference to those works which cover
the whole area. In the other three sections, 'Polynesia',
'Micronesia' and 'Melanesia' are separately treated. With-
in these latter three sections, lesser areas are separately
treated in individual sub-sections. Within almost all of
the sub-sections, and in the general sectional biblio-
graphies, the references are classified according to the
following scheme:- 'Bibliography', 'General Works',
'Ethnology, general', 'Physical and mental characteris-
tics', 'Origins and migrations', 'Culture contacts', 'Tribal
organization', 'Family organization', 'Rank, property and
ceremony', 'Religion', 'Magic and sorcery', 'Science and
medicine', 'Language', 'Folklore', 'Traditional history',
'Music, arts and recreation', 'Warfare', 'Archeology',
'Hunting and food gathering', 'Food, agriculture, cook-
ing', 'Dress and ornament', 'Houses and settlements',
'Handcrafts and artifacts'.-M.C.G.

2194. Hogbin, H. Ian. Transformation Scene: The
Changing Culture of a New Guinea Village. Rout-
ledge and Kegan Paul Ltd., London, 1951, pp. xiv
+ 326.
This is an account of the social life of Busama Village,
in the Huon Gulf area of New Guinea, during and since
the recent war. Dr Hogbin has paid particular attention
to problems of social change. Some attempt is made to
fill in the earlier history of the village, and there are
occasional references to written sources, but primarily
the study is based on the author's own observations in
the village, which he has visited on a number of occa-
sions since 1944.-M.C.G.

2195. Report of the South Pacific Commission for g95i.
Noumea, 1952, pp. 40.
There was a total expenditure approved for 1952 of
stg.i7i,68o (149,165 in 1951). A section (pp. 31, 32)
shows the scope and distribution of the various publica-
tions of the S.P.C. Four reports on social development
were completed for publication, viz., 'Vocational Train-
ing in the South Pacific' by R. A. Derrick; 'A Review of
Research in Social Anthropology, Polynesian Section' by
F. M. Keesing; do. 'Melanesian Section' by A. P. Elkin;
'A Linguistic Survey of the South-Western Pacific' by
A. Capell. Report No. I on Project S. o1, 'Some Notes
and Suggestions regarding Conservation of Important
Archeological Sites and Objects in South Pacific Terri-
tories' by F. M. Keesing, has come out. Attached is a
bibliography of the Archaeology of South Pacific Terri-
tories up to 1951.-L.A.

2196. South Pacific Commission Quarterly Bulletin,
Noumea, New Caledonia.
In this periodical S.P.C. official announcements, work
programmes, etc., personal contributions by members of
the S.P.C. and of the administration of S.P. areas, and
bibliographical surveys are published. Vol. i, No. 3
(July 1951) includes papers on 'Child Nutrition in the
S. Pacific' by E. Hipsley, on 'Community Development
on Moturiki Island' by Howard Hayden, and a report on
'Medical Care of School Children in New Caledonia' by
P. Filippi. Vol. i, No. 4 (October 1951) contains a compre-








hensive survey of the whole S.P.C. work programme in
the form of extracts from official progress reports of the
Health, Economic Development and Social Development
departments. Sheila Malcolm has done research on ali-
mentation in the New Hebrides. Another progress report
is by Mr Peters on biochemical studies of foodstuffs. A
tuberculosis research team under Dr. G. Clerc continued
research work in American Samoa, Rarotonga and French
Oceania. Among the economic projects were experiments
concerning rubber and rice growing in New Guinea.
Various Pacific areas are plant sources for the synthesis
of the new drug Cortisone. A paper on Land Utilization
in Tropical Australia has been read by C. S. Christian
to an F. A. 0. meeting in Ceylon (September 195i). In
New Guinea indigenous plant pests, such as Mirid Leaf
Bugs have spread from the bush to cacao plantations.
Vol. i, No. 4 also contains a review of the new educa-
tional journal of New Guinea, Hari Dina (Today), pub-
lished by the Hanuabada Social Club, first in June 1950.
An annotated bibliography of the Kon-Tiki expedition
by A. T. Dix is published in pp. 39ff. of Vol. ii, No. 4.
No. i (January 1952) has an article on the Institut
Frangais d'Oceanie by F. Bugnicourt. Housing prob-
lems in the South Pacific have been studied by J. P.
Thijsse. On pp. 29ff. is a report on the value of the
coconut as human foodstuff by F. E. Peters.-L.A.

2197. Aborigines and the Ministers' Welfare Council.
A. P. Elkin. Australian Quarterly, Vol. xxiii, No. 4,
pp. 9-20, December 1951.
Whereas the great need 16 years ago was for new
policies, amended laws, changes in administration and
'new deals', now, except for the removal of a few anoma-
lies and the making of the basic constitutional amend-
ment, the real problem is sociological and psychological.
It is a matter of human relations. Further adaptation and
understanding are required. The solution must come
from administration or ministerial fiats. It must be sought
logically. The chief help could come from well-selected
and specially trained welfare officers. The problem is
one of personalities, and persons must solve it.-L.A.


2198. New Zealand. Department of Island Territories.
Report for Year ended 31 March 1951. Govern-
ment Printer, Wellington, pp. 19. Price 9d.
A report on administrative activities in the various
islands belonging to N.Z., but situated outside N.Z. it-
self. Separate reports are published regarding the Cook
Islands (including Niue), Western Samoa and the Toke-
lau Islands. In collaboration with other authorities the
Department ships general supplies, building and other
technical equipment to the several island administrations.
The vessel Maui Pomare is the sole regular link be-
tween the Cook Islands and N.Z. Main cargo items on
the journeys back to N.Z. were citrus fruit, tomatoes,
bananas and basket ware from Niue. Over 2000 islanders
from the territories are now in N.Z., some 70% of these
resident in Auckland. A branch office of the department
in Auckland is looking after the welfare of these
islanders.-L.A.



2199. Tokelau Islands. Report for Year ended 31 March
i951. New Zealand Department of Island Terri-
tories. Government Printer, Wellington, 1951, pp.
16. Price 6d.
The first part of this report contains general informa-
tion about geography, population and administration.
Local public services are done by native officials ap-
pointed on each island. Chief representative of Govern-
ment is the Faipule, who acts as supervisor over Gov-
ernment officials on his island, and also acts as magis-
trate. The islands are included in the South Pacific Com-
mission area and the appointment of a local correspond-
ent is attempted. The only industries of the group are
copra production and manufacture of plaited ware and
woodwork. To have wider opportunities and higher in-
come, many islanders desire to take up employment in
Western Samoa. Yaws and filaria are the main causes
of sickness. Teaching and sporting equipment is sup-
plied to all schools by the N.Z. Government.-L.A.








INDEX TO Nos. 12 AND 13


A.
Aborigines, 2197.
Accountancy, 1969, 21io.
Advertising, 2068.
Agricultural Stabilization, 1983.
Agriculture, 1984, 2122, 2125.
Allen, W. K., 1982.
Aptitude, Reasoning, Fluency, Concentration, 2046.
Arbitration, 1977, 2117, 2118.
Arithmetic, 2010.
Army Education, 2016.
Arndt, H. W., 2063, 2178.
Arnhem Land, 2052.
Asbestos, 2102.
Ascertainment, Probability, Evidence in History, 2036.
Ashton, H. T., 2021.
Asia, Partnership with, 1999.
Asia, Population, 2007.
Assistance, Sociological Structure of, 2145.
Auckland, 2030.
Australia, 1936-1940, 1945, 1954, 1977, 1984, 1993, 1994,
2020, 2060, 2073, 2097, 2112, 2118, 2153.
Australia, Tropical, 2196.
Australian Colonies Government Act, 2175.
Australian Development, 2071, 2072, 2150.
Australian Industry, 2070.
Australian Politics, 1993, 1994.
Aviation, 1975, 2112.

B.
Baker, J. V. T., 2119.
Baker, R. W., 2181.
Ball, W. Macmahon, 2043, 2137, 2138.
Bananas, 1950, 2087.
Barton, Sir E., 2183.
Basic Wage, 1965, 1978.
Bassett, G. W., 2011.
Bastin, J., 2174.
Beasley, F. R., 2039, 2040, 2180.
Beef Cattle Industry, 2125.
Bell, F. M., 1971.
Bell, J. H., 2006, 2151.
Belshaw, C., 2147.
Bennett, A. J., 2088.
Bensusan-Butt, D. M., 2005.
Bergstrom, A. R., 2065.
Berndt, C. and R., 2052.
Bibliography, 2023, 2193.
Bismarck, 2176.
Bland, F. A., 1994.
Booker, D. E., 1972.
Borrie, W. D., 2007.
Bourke, W. C., 1943.
Boutakoff, N., 2098.
Boyd, D. T., 2122.
Bradshaw, G. D., 2120.
Brooks, W. T., 1929.
Brown, H. P., 2070.
Bruce, P. C., 2128.
Buck, Sir P., 2050.
Bucklow, M., 2049.
Budd, H. V., 1963.
Budget and Basic Wage, 1965.
Burdekin River, 2160.
Burma and Far East, 2142.
Burns, A. L., 2036.
Busama, 2194.
Business Statistics, 1932.
Business Training, 2082.


C.
Caffin, S. W., 2146, 2149.
Cairns, J. F., 1927.
Callaghan, A. R., 1988.
Cameron, R. J., 2116.
Campbell, A. J., 1946, 2086.
Campbell, K. 0., 1983.
Cannon, 2008.
Cattle Transport by Water in N.T., 1948.
Champion, R. A., 2047.
Chatten, S. J. R., 2106.
Christian, C. J., 2196.
Citrus Fruit, 2130.
Civics, 2009.
Clark, C., 1934, 1965, 1966, 2028, 2071.
Clegg, W. E., 1979.
Climatic Risk, 1987.
Clunies Ross, 2122.
Coal, 1953, 2093, 2094.
Coarse Grains, 1946.
Colombo Plan, 1998.
Commonwealth Bank, 1960.
Commonwealth Constitution, Section go, 2178.
Commonwealth Constitution, Section 92, 2038, 2039
Commonwealth Grants Commission, 2107.
Communist Party Dissolution Bill, 2136.
Company Tax, Incidence of, 2108.
Completed Families, 2149.
Compulsory Voting, 1995.
Conciliation and Arbitration Court, 2117.
Consortium, 2181.
Consumption, 1930, 2062.
Cook, C. E. A., 2053.
Co-operation and Political Education, 2035
Copland, Sir D., 1931, 2060, 2073, 2150.
Copra, 2088.
Costs and Production Standards, 2111.
Cotton, 1957, 2086.
Cowen, Z., 2181.
Crawford, J. G., 2123.
Crisp, L. F., 1995.
Criterion Groups, Combining of, 2192.
Cromer, D. A. N., 1989.
Crowley, D. W., 2171.
Cumpston, J. H. L., 2168.
Cunningham, K. S., 2008, 2191.

D.
Dairy Produce, 2091, 2122, 2129.
Davies, A. F., 1992.
Day, R. H., 2189.
Death Duties, 1972.
Defence Preparations Act, 2190.
Democracy, 2041.
Dickson, J. R., 1941.
Dickinson, S. H., 1955.
Disturbance Experimentally Induced, 2047.
Divorce, 2181.
Donath, E. J., 2026.
Donnollan, J., 2125.
Double Dissolution, 1996.
Downing, R. I., 2061.
Dried Fruits, 1949, 2122.
Dumas, R. J., 2029.

E.
Echuca and Murray River Trade, 2037.
Economic Equilibrium, 2073, 2074.
Economics and Economic Policy, 2063.








Education, 2011-2013, 2017, 2153.
Education, Rural High School, 2014.
Education, Secondary, Selection for, 2154.
Educational Research in Australia, 2156.
Edwards, H. R., 1928.
Edwards, J. E., 1996.
Eggleston, Sir F. W., 2002.
Elkin, A. P., 2052, 2197.
Ellicott, R., 2177.
Emery, F. E., 2190.
Employee Rating, 2049.
Employment, 1928, 2063.
Energy, 1937.
English, 2010.
Expansion, 2060.
Export, 2065.

F.
Farm Income, 1939.
Farm Survey, Sampling, 2078.
Fat Lamb, 2127.
Federation and W.A., 2174.
Ferranti de, R. Z., 2186.
Fertility, Australian, 2148.
Fertilizer, 1975.
Fibre Board, 2102.
Fisher, H., 1970.
Fitzgerald, A. A., 1969.
Fitzgerald, G. E., 1968.
Fitzgerald, L., 2162.
Flinders Chase, 2022.
Foenander, O. de R., 2117.
Food, 1936.
Forecasting and Climate, 2021.
Foreign Policy, Australian, 2137.
Forests, 1989.
Fox, J. W., 2031.
Freadman, P., 2000.
Freudianism v. Marxism, 2042.
Friedmann, W., 2179.
Furnivall, J. S., 2142.

G.
Garaina, 2032.
Geelong, 2034.
Geography, 2158-2163.
German Immigration, 2152.
Gibb, C. A., 2044.
Giblin, L. F., 2013, 2019.
Gibson, E. Boyce, 2041.
Glicksberg, C. I., 2042.
Gold, 2096, 2097.
Goodwill, Commercial, 2109.
Gordon, 2008.
Gordon, D. C., 2165.
Grating Test Objects, 2189.
Greenwood, J. M., 2110.
Greig, A. R., 2045.
Griffith, Sir S., 2041.
Griswold, E. N., 2181.
Grobtuch, M. J., 1942, 1977.
Grogan, F. O., 1991, 2088.

H.
Haddon-Cave, C. P., 2112.
Hale, J., 2033.
Hall, A. R., 1953.
Hard Coke, 2103.
Hari Dina, 2196.
Harper, N. D., 2140.
Harris, 2008.
Harris, H. L., 2012.


Hasluck, P., 2172.
Hedberg, K. M., 2033.
Hieser, R., 2068.
Higgins, Benjamin H., 2062, 2118.
Higgins, Henry Bourne, 2183.
Hill, A. V., 2125.
Hocking, D. M., 2112.
Hoffman, E. S., 2080.
Hogbin, H. I., 2194.
Holder, R. F., 1944.
Holding Companies, 1968.
Holt, A. E., 1979.
Home, R. S., 1980.
Hosiery, 2100.
Hours and Wages Fixation, 2116.
Housing, 2143.
Howey, G. C., 2122.
Howie, D., 2046.
Howley, C. D., 2016.
Hughes, M. Kent, 2169.
Hutley, F. C., 2187.
Hutton, F. C., 2217.
I.
Immigration, 2004, 2005, 2150, 2152.
Imperfect Competition, 2067.
Incentive Wages, 1979, 1980.
Income, National, 1926, 2o61, 2119.
Income, Personal, 1925.
Income Real, 1930, 2075.
Income Tax, Commonwealth, 2110.
India's Foreign Policy, 2001.
Industrial Development and Expansion, 1940, 2059.
Industrial Fibres, 2084.
Industrial Tribunals, 1976.
Inflation, 1961, 1962, 2060.
International Materials Conference, 2099.
International Trade, 1942, 1945, 2079.
Investment, 2005, 2083.
Iron and Steel, 1954.
Isaac, J. E., 1978.
J.
Jacobs, Marjorie, 2188.
Japan, Peace Treaty with, 2138, 2139, 2141.
Job Expectations and Preferences, 2045.
Jubilee of Commonwealth, 2019.
Justice Administration, Decentralization of, 2187.


Kashmir Dispute, 2002.
Katz, F. M., 2190.
Keats, J. A., 2154.
Keely, J. A., 2182.
Keesing, F. M., 2195.
Kelly, J. H., 1948.
Kerr, A. M., 1925.
Kinsman, K. L., 2078.
Kirkhope, W., 1941.
Knitwear, 2100.
Kraus, E. B., 2025.


Labour and Communism, 1993.
Labour Costs, Control of, 1931.
Labour Movement (N.Z.), 2171.
Labour Turnover, 1982.
Laidlaw, J. T., 1980.
Land Classification, 1935.
Land Development, 1988.
Land Grants, Missing, 2173.
Land Settlement, 1934.
Land Utilization, 2129, 2196.


403








Lang, H. G., 2119.
Legal Education, 2184.
Legal History, 2185.
Legal Profession in N.S.W., 2186.
Legal Profession in W.A., 2188.
Ley Farming, 2122.
Leyser, J., 2001.
Liability, Constitutional, 2179.
Liability of Highway Authorities, 2179.
Life Tables, 2106.
Linford, R. J., 2148.
Lloyd, A. G., 1956.
Location of Industry, 2080.
Local Government, 1992, 2134, 2135.
Local Government Finance, 1967.
Loddon Region, 2161.

M.
McAuley, J., 1935, 2054.
McCulloch, R. W., 2120.
McElwain, D. W., 2192.
McFarlane, C. G., 1950, 2087.
McFarlane, I., 2091.
McKay, D. H., 1939.
McKeon, B. F., 2122.
Mackie, W. B. C., 2127.
McLaren Vale, 2170.
McLennan, L. W., 1981.
Machinery on Wheat Farms, 2128.
Maher, J. V., 2021.
Mainerd, A., 1967.
Management, 1941, 1943.
Manning, Sir H., 2183.
Maori, 2050.
Mapping, 2162.
Marcuse, H., 2096.
Margarine, 1956.
Marshall, A. 2189.
Marshall, B. R., 2035.
Masterman, M., 2021.
Maxton-Grahame, P. M., 2032.
Meat, 2089, 2090.
Menzies, R. G., 2141.
Merino Wool, 2126.
Methods Engineering, 1943.
Methods Improvement, 1943.
Middle East, 2000.
Migrant Education, 2015.
Miller, H., 2164.
Mineral Industry, 2092.
Minority Group Behaviour, 2190.
Molnar, I., 2133.
Moore, M., 1941.
Morris, A. H., 2037.
Morrison, A. A., 2135.
Murphy, R. C., 2163.
Murray, J. K., 2124.
Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area, 2130
Music, 2166.
Myxomatosis, 2122.

N.
Native Education, 5, 2 2157
Native Problem Unsolved, 2053.
Neale, R. G., 1997.
Netherlands, 1955.
New Australians in Industry, 2006, 2151.
New Guinea, 1975, 1990, 20oi6, 2017, 2054, 2088, 2121,
2124, 2165, 2176, 2194.
New South Wales, 1928, 1950, 1974, 1987, 2074, 2087,
2093, 2114, 2128, 2134, 2173, 2186, 2187.
New States Movement, 1997.


New Zealand, 1976, 2059, 2065, 2io8, 2119, 2163, 2164,
2171.
New Zealand Island Territories, 2198.
Northern Territory, 1963, 2157.

0.
O'Connor, R. E., 2183.
Oil, 2098.
Oliver, D. L., 2158.
Oxlade, M. N., 2048.
Oxnam, 2066.

P.
Pacific Islands, 2158, 2193.
Papua, 1991, 2017, 2088, 2121, 2147.
Parker, R. S., 1976.
Parliament, Privilege of, 2180.
Parliamentary Government, 1994.
Pastoral Highlands, 2027.
Paton, G. W., 2184.
Pauling, N. J., 2063.
Payments Union, European, 1964.
Pearce, Sir G. F., 2167.
Pearson, H. F., 2097.
Perkins, J. 0. N., 2105.
Peyser, Dora, 2145.
Pfeffer, K. H., 2020.
Phillips, T. L., 2090.
Pig Crop, 2132.
Pioneer Doctor, 2169.
Plaster Sheet, 2102.
Plywood, 2102.
Population Po!icy, 2007.
Portland Cement, 2101.
Portus, G. V., 2183.
Power Crisis, 1938.
Pownell, L. L., 2030.
Price Movement, Farmers, 2076.
Pridmore, Adele, 2170.
Productivity, 1942.
Public Finance and Taxation, 1966.
Public Service, 2083.
Pyrite, 2095.

Q.
Queensland, 1934, 2013, 2028, 2125, 2135, 2154.

R.
Rabbits, 1986, 2122.
Rabling, H., 1937.
Railways, 1973, 1974, 2113, 2114.
Rayner, S. A., 2009.
Reeves, H. R., 2080.
Regional Councils, 2134.
Regional Development, 1935.
Research on Official Records, 2172.
Retail Distribution, 1929.
Revaluation of Australian 1, 1963.
Reynolds, J., 2183.
Rice, 2026.
Right to Strike, 2182.
Roach, J. R., 2139.
Robson, Nancy, 2057.
Roscoe, G. T., 2121.
Rosenberg, W., 2108.
Rubber, 1991.
Rural Exports, 2079.
Rural Labour, 1981.
Rural Production, Increasing, 2077.
Russell. B., 2043.
Rutherford, J., 1987, 2129.









Safety, Industrial, 2003.
Sangster, A. K., 2109.
Saving, Deliberate, 2063.
Sawer, G., 2177.
Saxon, E. A., 1981, 2076.
Schnierer, F., 2104.
Schonell, F. J., 2013.
Scott, R. H., 1964.
Scott, W. D., 1943.
Selection Tests, Power Machine Operators, 2048.
Settlers, 2033.
Share Valuation, 1970, 1971.
Shatwell, K. O., 2185.
Shaw, A. G. L., 2173.
Shipping, Slow Turn-Round, 2115.
Simkin, C. G. F., 2059, 2074.
Singleton, J., 2169.
Small, A. R. L., 1952.
Small Business, 1941.
Soap, 1958.
Social Accounts, 2061.
Social Psychology, 2044.
Social Security, Cost of, 2146.
Social Surveys, Papuans, 2147.
Soil Conservation, 2122, 2123.
Soper, C. S., 2067.
South Australia, 1955, 1988, 2143.
South East Asia, 2024.
South Pacific Commission, 2056, 2057, 2195, 2196.
South Sea, 2251.
South West Pacific, Security in, 2140, 2141.
Speck, A. E., 1968.
Speiser, F., 2051.
Spender, P., 1999.
Starke, J. G., 2136.
Steel Industry, 2058.
Sterling Area, 2105.
Stevens. S. P., 1926.
Stone, J., 2038, 215.2.
Strike, H. E., 2126.
Strong, T. H., 2077.
Sturt, C., 2168.
Sugar Industry, 2125.
Sulphuric Acid, 1955.
Superphosphate, 2133.
Swift, D., 2096.

T.
Tariff Board, 2081.
Tasmania, 1935.
Taylor, 2008.
Taylor, C. R. H., 2193.
Taylor, I. K., 1985.
Tea, 2032.
Technical Training of Natives, 2121.
Te Kuiti, 2031.
Te Rangi Hiroa, 2050.
Test Scores, Distribution of, 2154.


Tew, B., 2058.
Tew, Marjorie, 2144.
Theory in History, 1927.
Thompson, G. T., 2122.
Timber, 1951, 1952, 1990.
Tobacco, 2125.
Tokelau Islands, 2199.
Tourist Industry, 1959, 2104.
Townsley, W. A., 2175.
Trade and Tariffs, General Agreement on, 1944.
Transport Costs, 2080.
Trewhella, N., 1932.

U.
Underground Water, 2159.
United States, 2075.
Upper Goulburn Region, 2161.

V.


Victoria, 1973, 1992, 2080, 2096,
Vine Fruit, Dried, 1949, 2131.
Vocabulary of Child, 2191.
Vocational Guidance, 2120.


2098, 2113, 2122.


W.
Wadham, S. M., 2122.
Wage Earners' Share, 2066.
Wage Fixing, 2124, 2126, 2127.
Walker, E. R., 2072.
Ward, L. K., 2159.
Water Supply, 2025.
Waters, T., 2166.
Watt, R. D., 1994.
Wealth and Income, 2058.
Webster, W., 2125.
Western Australia, 1925, 2023, 2174, 2188.
Wheat, 2122, 2128.
White, L., 1949.
Wickens, P. C., 2106.
Wild, D., 2034.
Williamson, H. B., 2118.
Wilson, J. R., 2062.
Wiltshire, F. M., 1941.
Winterbottom, D. S., 2122.
Wood, G. L., 2082.
Wool, 1926, 1947, 2085, 2122, 2126, 2127.
Work and Welfare in Australia, 2144.
World Economic Development, 1933.
World Resources, 2018.

Y.
Yorke, L. C., 2130.
Youth, Adjustment of, 2008.

Z.
Ziegler, O. L.. 2019.
Zimmermann, E. W., 2018.













































THIS publication of abstracts in the social sciences is intended to provide a survey
of important material, published in, or related to Australia. New Zealand and
their territories. dealing with the various social sciences. The field of the survey dealt
with in these Abstracts is indicated by the classification of the subjects on the inside
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S'Ili aim i- to provide the specialist in any particular held uith a survey of recent
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At present it is intended to publish the Abstracts half yearly: but if, in the future,
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Copies of this and subsequent issues of the Abstracts will be sent on application
(enclosing subscription of 5s. in Austrlian currency, i dollar, per annum) to the
Editor, Faculty of Economics and Commerce, University of Melbourne, Carlton, N.3,
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SMembers of the Social Science Research Council of Australia


ALEXANDER, Prof. F., University of Western Australia
BAILEY, Prof. K. H., Solicitor-General, Canberra
BALL, Prof. W. Macmahon, University of Melbourne
BORRIE. Dr. W. D., National University, Canberra (Secretary)
BUTLIN, Prof. S. J., University of Sydney
.:I DCONLON, Mr. A. A.. Sydney
COPLAND, Prot. Sir Douglas. National University, Canberra
(President)
SCRAWFORD, Prof. R. NI., University of Melbourne
CUNNINGHAM, Dr. K. S., Director, Australian Council for
Educational Research, Melbourne
ELKIN, Prof. A. P., University of Sydney
FIRTH, Prof. G., University of Tasmania
GIBSON, Prof. A. Boyce, University of Melbourne
GIFFORD, Prof. J. K., University of Queensland
GREENWOOD, Prof. G., University of Queensland
HOGBIN, Dr. H. I.. National University, Canberra
HYTTEN, Prof. T.. University of Tasmania
LA NAUZE, Prof. J. A., University of Melbourne
M'IcRAE, Prof. C. R., University of Sydney
MAULDON, Prof. F. R. E., University of Western Australia
OESER, Prof. 0. A., University of Melbourne
O'NEIL, Prof. W. NI., University of-Sydney
PARTRIDGE, Prof. P. H.. University of Sydney
PREST. Prof. \., University of Melbourne
SAWER, Prof. G., National University, Canberra
SHATWELL, Prof. K. O., University of Sydney
STONE. Prof. J., University of Sydney
STOUT, Prof. A. K., Univtrsity of Sydney
WHITE, Mr. H. L.. Commonwealth National Library, Canberra
WOOD, Prof. G. L., University of Melbourne













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