AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
Committee on Research in the Social Sciences
IWIglMLsud in Audliia for transmfssion by poji as i p-riodi..
AUSTRALIAN SOCIAL SCIENCE ABSTRACTS
Dr. K. S. Cunningham (Chairman)
Professor R. M. Crawford, Professor O. A. Oesdr, Professor G. L. Wood,
Mr. H. L. White
Dr. F. Schnierer, Faculty of Economics and Commerce, University, Carlton.
AccoUNTANCY-Mr. L. Goldberg and Miss J. Kerr.
AGRICULTURE AND RURAL PROBLEMs-Professor S. MN. Wadham, Messrs.
K. P. J. Barley and E. A. Jennings.
EcoNOMNcs-Proesssor G. L. Wood. Dr. M. J. Grobtuch, Dr. J. E. Isaac,
Dr. F. Schnierer, Mr. J. F. Cairns, Misses M. G. Ronaldson and
EDucATIoN-Dr. K. S. Cunningham.
GEoGRAPHv-Mlessrs. E. J. Donath and R. K. Wilson.
HisTonR-Acting Professor K. E. Fitzpatrick, Dr. A. IM lcBrnar, Messrs.
A. L. Burns, S. M. Ingham and K. MacKirdy, Mrs. J. Philipp, Miss
LAW-Professor Z. Cowen.
PHILosoPmr-Professor A. Boyce Gibson, Professor W. Macmahon Ball.
POLITICAL SCIeNc-Messrs. L. G. Churchward, A. F. Davies, W. J. Penfold,
W. F. Petrie, D. C. Sissons and H. A. Wolfsohn.
PSYCHOLOoGY-Professor O. A. Oeser.
TERRITORIES AND NATIVE PROBLEMSs-Dr. L. Adam.
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.'ustroaan Pubhli AfJlai Information Servrce, or ..P.A.I.S., indexes books,
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AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
Committee on Research in the Social Sciences
AUSTRALIAN SOCIAL SCIENCE ABSTRACTS
A publication of the Committee on Research in the Social Sciences, Australian
National Research Council, subsidized by U.N.E.S.C.O. and the Commonwealth
Bank of Australia.
All communications should be addressed to the Editor, Faculty of Economics
and Commerce, University of Melbourne, Carlton, N.3, Victoria, Australia.
No. 12 October 1951 5s. or $i per annum
Where the size of a Government publication or Parliamentary Paper (P.P.) is not given, it is 81 ins. x 131 ins.
(A) Economics and Economic Policy
1925. Kerr, A. M., Personal Income of Western Australia.
University of W.A., Department of Economics
Publication, Series A (Economics), No. I, 1951,
An introductory chapter deals with social accounts, and
with methods of estimation in Australia. Chapter II
discusses personal income generally and in W.A. in
particular. The subsequent chapters examine the various
components of personal income in W.A. from 1941-42
to 1947-48 : wages and salaries; pay and allowances to
members of the forces; unincorporated incomes (farm
and other incomes) ; dividends, interest and rent; pen-
sions and cash benefits. Chapter VIII presents a survey
of the aggregate of personal incomes in Australia in each
of the six years investigated.
1926. The Importance of Wool in Australia's National
Income. S. P. Stevens. Economic Record, pp.
217-238, December 1950.
The costs of wool production from 1914-15 to 1948-49
are estimated, not including 'payments from one member
of the wool-growing team to the other'. Relationships
between wool income and national income (five to ten
per cent) and the effect of changes in the wool income on
national income are examined. In determining the
income series the net national product at market prices
is used, while this actual time series is 'deflated' by the
C-series retail price index. Multipliers are worked out
and a significant correlation is shown between national
income and wool income of the same year, but not
between national income and wool income lagged by one
year. The correlation is closer for the longer series of
34 years (1914-15 to 1948-49) than for the shorter of
31 years (up to 1945-46), due to the greater rise of wool
income in the last three years.
The allocation of net wool income between 'members
of the wool-growing team' is discussed-wages, interest
payments, graziers' income. Some of the excess demand
for investment goods originating with graziers should
1927. Some Problems in the Use of Theory in History.
J. F. Cairns. Economic Record, pp. 239-253,
The problem discussed is whether some kind of theory
should be used in history. Reference was made to
methodological problems in economics, physics and to
'idealist' and 'materialist' attitudes. In economic and
historical methodology there has been much 'positivist'
influence derived from the accepted characteristics of
pre-twentieth century physics, and from idealist and
materialist philosophy where 'truth' is seen as a positive
existing thing. History allows scientific statements
because neither history nor 'science' are characterized
by these 'positive' statements.
Any well-formulated social, political or economic
theory is useful in history, except theories derived from
'individual introspection', or 'point in time' variety.
The economic historian cannot confine himself to the
'economic' field, but if economics is considered at a
matter of 'following an inquiry into the effects of scarcity
upon human behaviour' then much can be done without
any real need to call it political or even social. In handling
these problems it is hoped that the economic historian
'will continue to receive as much help from the economist
as he received before the coming of the subjective theory
of value, and as he has received since its decline'.-J.F.C.
1928. Employment in the New South Wales Manufac-
turing Industries, 1877 to 1938-39. H. R.
Edwards. Economic Record, pp. 270-277,
The classification of manufacturing industries in the
Statistical Register of N.S.W. has been changed in 1886,
1902 and 1930-31, and the author had to rearrange the
figures according to a single classification, altogether in
16 classes and some subclasses. Since 1896 an establish-
ment has been regarded as a factory when it uses power
or employs at least four hands, before 1896 the minimum
was five hands. This causes a discontinuity in the series
in 1896. The total number of employees in all classes
rose from 29,0oo in 1877 to 233,000 in 1938-39. The
amplitude in cyclical fluctuations of employment varies
greatly between classes. The durability of the product is
most significant in this respect.
1929. Retail Distribution. W. T. Brooks. Economic
News, pp. 1-4, September 1950.
According to the Australian census of retail establish-
ments in 1947-48 retail sales not including car sales were
946 m., i.e., 76 per cent of total personal consumption
and 59 per cent of total personal income. The weighted
average margin as percentage of retail price is 251
(243 m.) and the value of retail distribution was z12 per
cent of the gross national product of 1947-48. The
average retail sales increase from 1939-40 to 1946-47
was i i6 per cent, but in real volume per man-hour this
meant an increase by 36 per cent, or an increase in effi-
ciency of 31 per cent p.a. The average retail margin on
foodstuffs in 1949 is 21 per cent, compared with 26 in
1939. The index of man-hour cost of distribution of
foodstuffs in Australia fell from 1-3I in 1913 to I'oo in
1939 and -60 in 1949, similarly in U.K., but more than
in U.S. In the depression years there was a rise in real
costs in U.S. and Australia.
1930. Consumption of Principal Classes of Goods and
Services as a Function of Real Income. Review
of Economic Progress, pp. 1-8, December 195o-
This article is based on data given for the volume of
international trade at 1913 prices. This is worked out in
I.U. at the rate of i : 1-248. To calculate net manufac-
turing production the primary produce incorporated in
manufacture in the form of fuel and raw materials is
deducted, so are transport and merchanting costs, for
exported goods costs of transport to the border, for im-
ports the costs of sea transport and of transport and
merchanting costs in the country of production. In this
way the I.U. of net income produced in manufacturing
in the country of origin are estimated and finally allowances
are made for manufactures incorporated in the imports
of primary produce. The relationship of net product
and of stock of manufactured goods to real income
is shown in two diagrams, and the demand for this
net product is analysed in tables for a number of countries
including Australia, U.S. and U.K. during varying
periods between 1871 and 1950.
1931. The National Aspects of the Control of Labour
Costs. Sir Douglas B. Copland. Australasian
Institute of Cost-Accountants, Cost Bulletin
No. 36, December 1950. Lecture held in Mel-
bourne 26 October 1950, pp. 14.
The present increase of the Australian population
necessitates much new capital equipment, such as power
and housing. Our development programme now involves
33, defence another 6 per cent of our national income.
This investment means rising prices and the need for
greater efficiency, which in U.K. is largely achieved by
learning lessons from U.S. If we do not want to reduce
our consumption, greater efficiency in production has to
be attained through a National Committee on produc-
tivity, by co-operation between labour and management.
Labour and management should be receptive to tech-
nological change, should understand industrial technique
(factory lay-out, standardization), provide better machin-
ery for joint consultation and improve costing including
information of the worker about his job.
1932. Use of Business Statistics. N. Trewhella. Manu-
facturing and Management, pp. 226-227, January
The general public regards filling in Government forms
as a nuisance and seldom considers the uses to which the
information may be put. The entrepreneur must spend
considerable time and labour in seemingly useless form
filling. This article sets out to show him what happens
to the information he gives and how he can use it. A
short survey is given of the available Government and
private statistical publications, their frequency and
contents. It is followed by a brief illustration of the sort
of correlation to look for and the graphical method of
using such relationships.-N.T.
I933. The Implications of World Economic Develop-
ment. James McAuley. Australian Outlook,
pp. 48-54. March 1951.
The idea of world-wide economic development receives
general support. Colonial political leaders believe that it
will increase national power, the democratic nations hope
it will combat Communism and the Communists wish to
bring all peoples into equal participation in a world-wide
industrial system. All expect that it will bring material
well-being to the peoples of the undeveloped countries.
However, economic development in Asia and Africa has
been accompanied by declining living standards, con-
sequent upon the pressure of population on productive
capacity and the difficulties of cultural adaptation to
industrialization. It is futile to show that high living
standards depend on population decline, which is itself
dependent on high living standards, particularly as
industrialization is slow in undeveloped countries. The
initial effects of Westernization has been widespread
social disorganization and instability and the over-all
tendency of Western society itself is towards disintegra-
tion. As Communist leadership within semi-developed
countries comes from the disoriented elements, the hope
that world-wide economic development will solve modern
political problems is probably over-optimistic.-M.S.R.
1934. Land Settlement in Queensland. C. Clark.
Economic News, pp. 1-9, July 1950.
The number of persons in rural occupations in Queens-
land fell by 13 per cent from 1933 to 1947. The author
discusses a map of Queensland except S.W. and penin-
sula areas showing potential land use and summer drought
frequency. The aim is 'a rural population in Queensland
three or four times the size of the present'. 'We can only
attract and hold population in these remote areas by
organising farms in compact groups around townships',
existing or to be created. 'Each township is to serve about
iio farms, and so should have a population of about
1,500 ensuring the necessary modem amenities.' The
scheme should be carried out by settlers' co-operatives.
A table shows areas of Queensland in the proposed order
of development with land description, acreage, average
size of farm required for three men, potential number of
men. to be settled, number of men already working there,
number of possible new male settlers.-E.J.D.
1935. New Approach to Regional Development. Regional
Development Journal, Canberra, pp. 32-38,
To distribute the great number of immigrants regions
must be chosen on their 'economic potential in relation
to the capital investment necessary' and the Northern
Region of Tasmania has been selected as a testing ground.
It has adequate rainfall, water resources, hydro-electric
power, mineral deposits and timber. There is a big
woollen goods factory, new industries are aluminium
production and board mills. Separate sections deal with
essential services, factory location and construction, the
need for planning which is mainly a state responsibility.
A programme is outlined contemplating a population rise
of 6 per cent p.a. over the next ten years, divided into
1936. Food. Australia as Producer and Consumer.
Research Service, Sydney (no date), pp. VII, 39
Average production of wheat was 21 per cent higher,
that of meat lower than average pre-war output. In 1949-
50 total meat production improved to 7 per cent above
pre-war, but population was 16 per cent higher than
1938-39. The annual post-war average of the butter
output was 15 per cent lower than pre-war, that of cheese,
processed milk and eggs considerably higher. The post-
war food consumption per head rose owing to a better
nutrition standard. Post-war export quantities of wheat
have declined to 87 per cent of pre-war, of carcass meat
to 76 per cent.
In 1959-60 an Australian population of io-8 m. will
mean a home consumption of staple foodstuffs 40 per
cent higher than now. This would cut exports of wheat
and flour by 14, sugar by 54, butter by 95 and cheese by
33 per cent, cause a net import of potatoes, tomatoes,
fresh fruit, eggs and particularly of meat, and reduce the
income from food exports by 100 m. An expansion of
primary rather than of secondary industry is needed.
To meet Australia's expected home and export food
requirements-the latter to finance her growing imports-
rural output increases from Io (dried vine fruits) to 61
(carcass meat) and 85 per cent (rice) will be required.
Finally some of the difficulties in food production:
shortages of labour and essential production goods, are
(B) Industry, Trade and Commerce
(a) General Works
1937. Rabling, H. Energy for a Greater Australia.
Tait Book Company, Melbourne, 1950, pp. 77.
Price 9s. 6d.
After discussing how the prosperity of a country is
influenced by the amount of power used, energy in the
world is surveyed, and the amount of its main sources
assessed. Australia's requirements and resources with
particular reference to petroleum are dealt with in detail.
There is also a chapter on producing oil from coal and
one on the prospects of finding oil in Australia. Ten
maps, a great number of statistical tables and a biblio-
1938. The Power Crisis in Australia, 1951. Research
Service (Stewart Howard and Associates), pp.
XXX, 174, VI.
Part I of this study deals with electric power in
Australia, starting from a comparison of Australia's basic
power resources and electric power generating capacity
with other countries. Details of power capacity are
given by states, electric power production in Australia
and other countries is compared, and the organization of
electricity supply in various states is surveyed. Part II
discusses the N.S.W. interconnected system. Over
go per cent of the total electricity is generated by only
four authorities. Government control in N.S.W. elec-
tricity generation is examined, culminating in the
Electricity Commission of N.S.W., set up in 1950. The
system is unable to meet its load fully because of deteriora-
tion of plant, inadequacy of fuel of the right type, shortage
of generating capacity and increasing load in all sections
of demand. The prospects for the future are discussed
under various assumptions.
A supplementary report is concerned with the N.S.W.
power position at April 195 .
1939. Australian Farm Income. Estimated Farm, Com-
modity and Industry Incomes 1945-46 to
1949-50. D. H. McKay. Quarterly Review of
Agricultural Economics, pp. 23-25, January 1951.
Commodity income is gross value of production less
costs. Income in the pastoral industries rose from 22 m.
in 1945-46 to 252 m. in 1949-50, from sheep and wool
from 7-4 m. to 214 m., from beef and cattle from
15 m. to 38 m. In the agricultural industries incomes
are more dependent on seasonal conditions and fluctuating
much more. Income from wheat rose from 8'3 m. to
76 m. (in 1947-48 it was Ioi m.) from sugar from
2-7 m. to 11.5 m. largely due to the expansion of
production. Incomes from potatoes and dried vine fruits
show particularly large fluctuations. Income from dairy
products rose from 25 m. to 47 m., from eggs from
1i8 m. to 5'7 m.
1940. Australian Industrial Development and Expan-
sion. Manufacturing and Management, pp.
220-221, January 1951.
As shown by statistical data for 1949-20, published by
the Division of Industrial Development, the establish-
ment of new firms which reached its peak (946) in
1948-49 fell to 730 in 1949-50, while the capital invested
fell from 1o'9 m. to 8 m. Expansion schemes con-
cerning existing businesses, however, rose in these years
from 357 with 18.4 m. capital to 463 with 29"5 m.
capital. The highest advances were made in the metal
group, followed by the food drink tobacco group, the
chemical and the textile groups. States took part in the
expansion in the following order: N.S.W., Victoria,
Queensland, S.A., W.A. and Tasmania. In the expansion
of metal production, heavy engineering, paint and oils
overseas capital took a particularly large part.
2941. Management Problems of Smaller Businesses.
Proceedings of the Conference held by Australian
Institute of Management, Melbourne Division
on 30 May 1950, pp. 80.
The president of the conference, M. Moore, stressed
that 39 per cent of all Australian wage-earners are em-
ployed in 'small' factories with less than ioo workers.
F. M. Wiltshire spoke on production problems in the
smaller business. Production control can best be under-
taken by a good incentive system. J. R. Dickson discussed
marketing channels open to the small businessman.
The marketing of a new product requires a special plan.
W. Kirkhope dealt with the finance for expansion of small
1942. New Contributions to Campaigns for Greater
Productivity. M. J. Grobtuch. Manufacturing
and Management, pp. 370-371, May 1951.
This article discusses the new terminology of produc-
tivity as published by the Organization for European
Economic Co-operation. Methods of comparison and
indexes of potential use in Australia are included. A
special section deals with L. H. C. Tippet's paper on
'The Essentials for Increased Productivity'.-M.J.G.
1943. Some Aspects of Business Management. Common-
wealth Bank of Australia, March 1951, pp. 7
(a) Methods Improvement-The Key to Increased
Productivity. W. D. Scott, pp. 1-4.
Improved methods are more important in raising
productivity than financial incentives. New machines or
raw materials are often hard to get, while methods can
always be improved. E.g., the operation of inspecting a
steel bushing can be improved from o0o150 minutes per
piece to o-oo i. Engineers in 1934 estimated that the
output of all U.S. industries could be increased by 75 per
cent with a higher level of equipment and management.
The result of better methods would be higher productivity
brought about quickly. Methods improvement could
also offset rises in costs.
(b) Methods Engineering and Work Simplification.
W. C. Bourke, pp. 5-7.
In the earlier period of industrialization design and
manufacture of machinery was stressed, later the improve-
ment of labour application. The author discusses the
functions of methods engineering, its techniques, plant;
the benefits of methods engineering, among which are
standardization and methods study as a basis of wage
incentives; work simplification in the office (office
1944. Australian Opinion and the G.A.T.T. R. F.
Holder. Australian Outlook, pp. 22-36, March
After a survey of the conferences leading to the
General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs the author
discusses the interest Australia has in these negotiations,
(imperial preference, search for markets other than U.K.,
tariff protection and primary produce stabilization plans).
The main concessions are the U.S. reductions of the duty
on wool "by 25 and on beef, mutton, lamb, butter by
50 per cent, while U.S. asked for reduction or binding of
duties on about 50o Australian tariff items. Separate
sections deal with the appreciative reaction of Autralian
wool and meat interests, the opposition of sugar, dried
and canned fruit and manufacturing industries, and the
attitudes of politicians, largely concerned with the alleged
encroachment on Australian sovereignty. The G.A.T.T.
is a compromise, a step on the road towards a code of
multilateral trade, both justified tariff protection and the
preference system have been preserved.
1945. Australian Overseas Trade. A survey of the Years
1937-38 to 1948-49. Research Service, 11
October 1949, pp. XI, 84 roneoedd).
This study discusses the trends in our trade, the
increasingly heavy gold and Dollar deficit which could
be met by directing more exports to the Dollar area or
to U.K. to ease her position. Separate sections deal with
Australia's customers, a review of market trends accord-
ing to countries ; the commodity composition of our
exports-increasing proportions of primary products;
import trade ; Australia's trade balance with Dollar and
non-Dollar areas ; the effect of price movements on the
terms of trade ; the chance of raising our Dollar-earning
capacity; shipping entrances, clearances and turn-
(b) Individual Industries
1946. Trade in Coarse Grains. Export Opportunity for
Australian Producers. A. J. Campbell. Quarterly
Review of Agricultural Economics, pp. 15-17,
In 1934-38 about Io m. metric tons of imported coarse
grains (maize, oats, barley) p.a. were fed to livestock in
Europe, particularly in Western Europe. U.K. had to
import about half of the 6 m. grain fed to livestock.
After the war the figures of cattle and pigs in Europe had
fallen considerably and large imports of coarse grains
are urgently needed. Dollar shortage prevents major U.S.
imports, while U.S.S.R. and the Danubian countries are
unlikely to export greater quantities to Western Europe.
Thus Australia has a unique opportunity of greatly
expanding coarse grain exports to Western Europe, to
2 m. tons (three times the peak exports of 1948-49).
The expansion would mainly be in grain sorghum to be
grown in central and southern Queensland and in northern
1947. World Consumption of Wool 1949. A Supplement
to Wool Intelligence. Commonwealth Economic
Committee, London 1950, pp. 167. Price 5s.
In the section on Australia (pp. 107-112) tables show
figures for the post-war years in comparison with pre-
war years concerning equipment of the wool textile
industry (combs, spindles, looms), wool production and
trade, processing of raw wool in Australia, local consump-
tion of wool, production of tops and yarn, exports of tops,
noils and waste, trade of Australia in wool yarn, output
and exports of wool tops from Australia and imports of
wool tops into Australia, etc. There was a marked
increase of the scouring of raw wool throughout and since
the war but some decline in 1947-48. Consumption of
wool in Australia has risen during the war, particularly
in the worsted section. Exports of tops, noils and yarn
have been three times the pre-war exports. Apparel
tissue production also increased.
In the section on New Zealand (pp. 151-153) tables
are presented on consumption of raw wool, production
of tops and yarn, imports of yarn, production and imports
of tissues into Australia.
1948. Beef Industry Development. Water Transport of
Cattle Supplies in Northern Australia. J. H. Kelly.
Quarterly Review of Agricultural Economics, pp.
3-6, January 1951.
A road is planned from Wyndham inland to develop
the Victoria River region in the N.W. of the N.T., but this
road would run through difficult terrain and be expensive
to maintain. However, the Victoria River is navigable
for shallow draught vessels up to Victoria River Depot.
Ten thousand head of cattle p.a. would be available for
that transport from 16 stations, from which feeder stock
routes up to i io miles are running to three loading points
through fairly good country. Fat cattle could be moved
from the beginning of April for 16 weeks. The full water
journey would take 40 hours as against 22 days by stock
route, and on the water transport there would be little
loss of weight of the cattle. The cost of water transport,
less than that of driving, would be eased by cheap back-
loads of supplies to the stations.
1949. Dried Vine Fruit. Development of the Industry in
Australia. L. White. Quarterly Review of Agri-
cultural Economics, pp. 18-22, January 1951.
The industry was set up in Australia in 1887 after
organization of irrigation systems in Mildura and Ren-
mark. The history of further settlements is outlined with
particular stress on a deep drainage system started in
1934 in Mildura. The total crop rose from 2,000 tons in
1900 to a record level of 104,000 tons in 1944, later it
declined to about 57,000 tons in 195o. The average
return to growers was 29 per ton in 1939, 70 in 1950.
There is a surplus for export up to 80 per cent of produc-
tion. Details of the four growing areas (Sunraysia,
Mid-Murray, S.A. and W.A.) including the yields per
acre, of harvesting and processing, and' of the size of
vineyards are presented.
1950. Marketing New South Wales Bananas. G. C.
McFarlane. Review of Marketing and Agricultural
Economics, pp. 5-13, March 1951.
Since 1932-33, N.S.W. has replaced Queensland as the
major banana-producing state. Various methods of
regulating production and market supplies are discussed
in relation to efficiency and the stabilization of prices
under the present demand.
The foremost factor to stimulate future expansion has
been the successful development of an attractive canned
product which may allow an increased home consumption
and, possibly, an export market.-E.A.J.
1951. Australian Timber Supply and Consumption
Requirements. Research Service, Sydney, Decem-
ber, 1950, pp. XII, 86, Supplement pp. 7
In this report there are sections on Australia's forest
area and timber potential-Australia cannot produce
beyond 1,2oo m. super feet p.a. for the lack of suitable
forest areas; Australian native timber supply-our
output in 1949-50 was 1,133 m. super feet, of which
21-4 per cent was softwood (26-7 per cent in 1938-39) ;
Australia imported in 1949-50 248 m. super feet, 33 per
cent less than 1938-39. Shipment from Dollar areas
declined, from other areas, mainly Baltic, it rose;
Australia's current and future requirements of sawn
timber-they are for 1950-51 736-4 m. super feet for
building, 836 m. for other purposes which means a
shortage-in view of native supplies and imports-of
189 m. in 1950-51 and 327 m. in 1954-55. Defence
requirements will aggravate this shortage. Further
sections deal with N.S.W. requirements and with the
1952. Timber Growing, Research, Decentralization.
A. R. L. Small. Australian Timber Journal, pp.
738-741, November 1950.
Private timber industry should pay more attention to
timber growing and not leave it entirely to Government
Forestry Departments. Shires should be subsidized for
the purpose of construction and maintenance of roads to
open up private timber land and to encourage private
industry. Research ought to be undertaken by private
industry, particularly by devising new equipment and
practices for using logging waste and for manufacturing
products from mill waste. Decentralization is to be
planned by sawmillers' associations, city timber
merchants and by Government Forestry Administration.
1953. Trends in the Consumption of Coal in New South
Wales, 1850-1914. A. R. Hall. Economic Record,
pp. 280-294, December 1950.
Data are given and commented upon for the distribu-
tion of N.S.W. coal 1848-1914 : Bunker, exports (inter-
colonial and overseas), and total exports including these
two categories, total available for consumption. Bunker
coal quantities had to be largely estimated. Further
tables give figures on the distribution of overseas coal
cargo exports : to N.Z., Pacific Islands, Asia, North
America, South and Central America (predominant since
1895), others; the distribution of intercolonial coal
cargo exports as between colonies, later states; the
domestic consumption of N.S.W. coal for collieries,
railways, trams, coke, gas, electricity, the balance.
Which part of the balance was used for manufacturing,
was very hard to estimate.
1954. Australia's Future in Iron and Steel. Research
Service, 23 November 1950, pp. IoI roneoedd).
The average iron content in Australian ore is 60-62 per
cent, higher than in most other countries. Estimates of
our iron ore reserves fluctuate between 332 and I,ooo m.
tons. For the future life of our ore resources there are
estimates between 147 and 218 years. The local steel
ingot production was at its peak in 1943-44, subsequently
it declined, in 1949-50 it was 1,243,000 tons (capacity
about 2 m. tons p.a.). The Australian consumption in
crude equivalent was 2,288,ooo tons in 1949-50 and might
be 2-7 to 2-9 m. tons p.a. in 1954-56. A further section
deals with past and future trends of our iron and steel
imports and exports. Imports are rising at a much higher
rate than exports. As a source of imports U.S. is of
increasing importance, particularly for tinplate. In
conclusion financial aspects are discussed, such as steel
prices-now cheaper than in U.K. and U.S.-the highly
integrated organization of the industry-costs of produc-
tion-power, fuel, raw materials, wages.
1955. Sulphuric Acid and Fertilizer Consumption in
Australia with special Reference to Future Needs
in South Australia. S. H. Dickinson. Appendix
to Annual Report of Director of Mines (S.A.)
for 1949, pp. 15.
The Australian fertilizer industry is using go per cent
of the sulphuric acid available. Australian consumption
of superphosphate was 1,407,000 tons in 1948-49, in
1959-60, it might be 3 m. tons, which means a demand
for I m. tons of sulphuric acid. Raw materials for super-
phosphate production are phosphate rock (imported from
Nauru-Ocean Island) and sulphuric acid, made from
brimstone (imported) and from local sulphur bearing
materials, i.e., zinc and lead concentrates and iron
pyrites. Under present plans no more than 680,ooo tons
of acid can be locally recovered which would leave a gap
of 320,000 tons in 1959-60. Exports of concentrates
instead of their local use for acid production should be
restricted. Production of acid from gypsum and the
development of the Nairne (S.A.) pyrites deposits
should be undertaken.
1956..Table Margarine in Australia, A. G. Lloyd.
Review of Marketing and Agricultural Economics,
pp. 24-26, March 1951.
A history of margarine production in Australia with
special reference to legislative controls preventing its
expansion. Three main points emerge. While the sub-
sidy on butter, and the present high wage economy
remain, margarine offers no serious competition with
butter. Export markets for margarine at present are too
unreliable to stimulate expansion. Both home and export
markets may change greatly, and not necessarily to the
detriment of the dairying industry, under the influence
of increased population.-E.A.J.
1957. Brief Review of the Australian Cotton Textile
Industry. No. 22 in Industry Review Series.
Division of Industrial Development, Ministry of
National Development, December 1950, pp. 32.
This review deals with the demand for and supply of
woven cotton piecegoods and cotton yarn. The piece-
goods section is separated into apparel, household, and
industrial use. The Australian industry is working far
below capacity, the great bulk of apparel is imported, 70 per
cent from U.K., while the great pre-war importance of
Japan as supply source has much declined. The estimated
demand for woven cotton piecegoods is currently 225 m.
square yard p.a., of which only 24-2 m. are locally made.
Total current demand for cotton yam is 35 m. lb. p.a., of
which 29'5 m. is spun in Australia, nearly wholly from
Separate chapters are concerned with labour, materials,
equipment, the structure of the industry-nearly 8o per
cent of total employment in 1948-49 was provided by
21 factories employing more than loo persons-Govern-
ment policies (tariffs, decentralization, etc.).
1958. Brief Review of the Australian Soap Industry.
Division of Industrial Development, Ministry of
National Development, May 1951, pp. 16
In 1948-49 94,000 tons of soap, worth 7,584,000ooo,
were produced in Australia, 59,00ooo tons in 1938-39. Of
this quantity 32 per cent were household bar saPp, 39
soap powders, flakes and chips, 14 toilet soap, 15 wool-
scouring, sand soap, soft soap and liquid soap. As to
demand, large-scale advertising is significant. Since
pre-war the demand has largely shifted from household
bar soap to soap powders, flakes and chips and to toilet
soap. The consumption of toilet soap per head of popula-
tion has nearly doubled. The development of the industry
is towards concentration in bigger companies. Glycerine
and soda crystal are included in the review. Special
sections deal with labour, materials-mainly tallow,
locally supplied, and imported coconut oil-equipment,
structure of industry, Government policies (tariff, etc.).
1959. A Report on the Tourist Industry. Prepared by the
Melbourne Junior Chamber of Commerce.
Supplement to 'The Record', February 1951,
After an introduction about the tourist industries in
some overseas countries the report outlines the tourist
traffic potential in Victoria and the suitability of accom-
modation. Hotels and guesthouses should be graded
every two years, price control for accommodation and
meals should be abolished, as to building permits the
tourist industry should be treated like factories manu-
facturing export goods. Cheap finance should be pro-
vided by the Federal Treasurer on the recommendation
of a National Tourist Industry Advisory Board to be set
up which should also be in charge of overseas publicity
on a Commonwealth-wide basis. Further sections deal
with licensing laws, tourist transport facilities, the
Victorian Government Tourist Bureau and private
(C) Monetary Policy, Banking, Insurance
1960. Giblin, L. F. The Growth of a Central Bank.
The Development of the Commonwealth Bank
of Australia, 1924-1945. Melbourne University
Press, 1951, pp. XI, 363. Price 3os.
A posthumously published work of the great Australian
economist, presenting the history of the Commonwealth
Bank from 1924, when it obtained control of the note
issue under the direction of a Bank Board until 1945
when the Board was abolished. The account of the Bank's
development at every stage has been 'set against the con-
temporary political and economic background'. In an
introductory chapter the Bank's history before 1924, the
economic and banking troubles in 1923-24 and the
Commonwealth Bank Act 1924 are discussed. Sub-
sequent chapters deal with the pre-depression years,
the depression and the Premiers' plan in operation-
these two chapters are of absorbing interest-the external
and internal problems of recovery, the Banking Com-
mission 1935-37, the pre-war years, the first and second
phase of the war period, and finally with the banking
legislation of 1945.
1961. Policy for Inflation. IPA Review, pp. 166-171,
As far as the rise in Australian prices is due to a world
expansionary situation and to our policy of large-scale
immigration and developmental programmes it is not
unhealthy. A plan to combat inflation has been worked
out in eleven points : appreciation of the A by lo per
cent; wool income to be frozen by a wool equalization
scheme; subsidies to be paid to local woollen goods
manufacturers; no budget deficit in the current financial
year ; ruthless cutting of Commonwealth developmental
programmes; cutting of Government expenditure;
Commonwealth loans and saving certificates ; spending
taxes on luxury and semi-luxury goods (services); an
investment authority to reduce private investment in non-
essential production ; to cut internal costs the Govern-
ment has to secure an understanding with unions and
employers; a national conference to be called by the
Commonwealth Government to control inflation.
1962. The Shrinking Pound. Canberra Comments,
Special Supplement, December 1950, pp. 4.
Higher export income would not have an inflationary
effect it it could be spent on a higher volume of imports.
This is prevented by the high tariff. The Minister of
Trade and Customs should have the power to admit
imports of goods in short supply at concessional rates
under by-laws. New duties have an inflationary effect :
until local manufacturers can provide greater supplies,
imports are still needed and become dearer by the amount
of the duty. The Tariff Board has worked well, particu-
larly in comparing the 'relative costs of production' of the
Ottawa Agreement, it has in many cases aptly recom-
mended bounties rather than duties. Now the payment
of Tariff Board members is not sufficiently attractive for
businessmen, there is, therefore, a trend towards a board
consisting wholly of customs officials which would en-
danger this national asset.
1963. Pros and Cons of Revaluation of Australian .
H. V. Budd. Industrial Victoria, pp. 665, 666,
March 1951 ; pp. 15, 16, April 1951 ; pp. 77, 78,
Australian primary industries are now losing ioo m.
p.a. because of low home prices. If the A is revalued
back to par with Sterling, these industries would lose
20 per cent of their export revenue, i.e., for 1949-50
123 m. Our overseas debts would also be cut by 20 per
cent, i.e., IIo m. on 30 June 195o, and the annual
interest in the same way by 3-6 m. However, our credit
balances in London would be reduced as well by 20 per
cent, i.e., 130 m., so that there would be a net capital
loss. The Government would lose 41 m. p.a. as income
tax from exporting industries and 20 per cent of customs
revenue, totalling 78 m. Costs of Australian imports last
year (538 m.) would shrink by 20 per cent, i.e., o18 m.,
but this would lower our cost of living, probably by less
than io per cent. The Tariff Board would probably be
asked to raise duties as an offset. Many commodity
prices which make up the cost of living, would not be
touched at all by revaluation. Revaluation would cause
a great increase in the weight of capital debts owed by
primary producers and in the national debt domiciled
1964. The European Payments Union. R. H. Scott.
Australian Outlook, pp. 170-178, September 1950.
Although the I.M.F., the International Bank for
Reconstruction and Development and the I.T.O. were
designed to make the world one trading area, world trade
in the post-war period has been conducted on a bilateral
basis, because the conditions for multilateral trade have
been absent. Attempts to create them have been made
by the Organization for European Economic Co-opera-
tion, the U.S. Economic Co-operation Administration
(responsible for the handling of Marshall Aid), and by the
Intra-European Payments Agreement. When the latter
agreement expired in June 1950, the European Payments
Union was set up to free European payments arrange-
ments from the restrictions of bilateral balancing and to
discourage debtors from incurring excessive debts.
This article gives details of the scheme and touches
briefly on its implications for member countries, the
sterling area and for the U.S.-M.G.R.
(D) Public Finance
1965. The Budget and the Basic Wage. Colin Clark.
Economic Record, pp. 179-185, December 1950.
Our present aim must be to convert over-employment
(mainly in manufacturing and public administration)
into full employment, either by increasing the supply of
labour or by reducing the demand for it. Appreciation
can raise imports and therefore diminish employment in
industries subject to import competition. Long-period
equilibrium can not be maintained in public finance
once taxation exceeds 25 per cent of the national income,
or 20 per cent as far as non-defence public expenditure
is concerned. Higher taxation brings about inflation.
Without currency appreciation short-run equilibrium
can be obtained principally by a sharp rise in money
wages to reduce the demand for labour. This will trans-
form 'suppressed' into 'open' inflation and ultimately
1966. Public Finance and Taxation. Colin Clark.
Rydge's, pp. 1144-1148, November 1950, pp.
1279-1283, December 1950, pp. 50-54, January
1951, pp. 168-174, February 1951. Paper read in
Arthur Capper Moore Research Series.
The principle of annual balancing the Government
budget has been replaced by that of the cyclical budget.
The primary aim of taxation is to reduce private expen-
diture, but taxes also affect the social structure. To
exceed the limit of taxation (25 per cent of national
income) causes inflation which may be supressed by price
control and rationing, but suppressed inflation always
gives way to open inflation. The general objective of
taxation should be spending, not income. Income put
back.into business is to be exempted from taxation. To
combat large monopolies companies should be liable to
a higher tax. Capital gains are to be included in taxable
income, capital losses deducted. Government expenditure
is increasingly made for social security, to keep it down
health services and old age pensions should be financed
by compulsory insurance, not by taxes.
1967. Local Government Finance. A. Mainerd. Paper
Presented to the N.S.W. Branch of the Institute
of Public Administration on 6 July 1950, pp. 27.
The N.S.W. Municipal, Shire and County Councils,
totalling 276, are financed by fees and licences for permits,
contributions to works, service charges, rates on land,
loans and Government grants. Of the latter the State
gave in 1946-47 869,ooo, and the Commonwealth for
use on roads in sparsely populated areas in 1949-50
3 m., of which 840,ooo went to N.S.W. The income
of trading undertakings must be used for specific pur-
poses. This leaves in 1947 only 11-6 m. for other pur-
poses, and under 6 m. for N.S.W. except Sydney and
Newcastle. Of this amount most goes on roads main-
tenance. Various proposals for solving the problem of
inadequate finance are discussed, such as increased rating,
greater use of borrowing power, amalgamation of areas.
The exemption of Government property from rating
should be discontinued. A Committee of enquiry should
study the financial problem.
1968. Fitzgerald, G. E. and Speck, A. E. Holding
Companies in Australia and New Zealand.
Butterworth & Co. (Australia) Ltd. Second
Edition, 1950, pp. 108.
This is an enlarged edition of a work covering the
preparation of consolidated statements for holding
companies and their subsidiaries. Statutory requirements
for each of the Australian States, for N.Z. and for England
are included, as also are the requirements of the Stock
Exchanges and the relevant recommendations of the
Institute of Chartered Accountants. Numerous worked
examples are included to illustrate the prints discussed and
an appendix contains a number of questions taken from
examination papers. While it is thus largely a students'
book, it is also useful as a book of reference.
1969. Classification of Assets and Accounting Theory.
A. A. Fitzgerald. Australian Accountant, pp.
81-93, March 1951.
This article was first published in Accounting Research
July 1950. It considers the purposes of asset classifica-
tion, the origins of the accounting distinction between,
and the accounting definitions of fixed assets and
circulating or current assets. Reference is also made to
the legal interpretations of the fixed-circulating assets
1970. The Valuation of Shares in Non-Public Com-
panies. H. Fisher. Chartered Accountant in
Australia, pp. 500-523, March 1951.
A paper, prepared by a study group and delivered by
Mr. Fisher at a Congress of chartered accountants in
April 1950, in which problems which arise in the valua-
tion of shares in non-listed companies are reviewed.
It includes, in addition to a consideration of various
methods of valuation, an exposition of the factors
affecting the value of minority shareholdings in sub-
1971. Unlisted Share Valuation by Points. F. M. Bell.
Accountants' Journal, pp. 299-302, April 1951.
The valuation of unlisted shares by the points system
explained in this article is claimed to be more acceptable
than other methods of valuation because it reduces the
number of unknown factors. Points are allocated for the
number of years the business has been in existence, the
ratios of fixed assets to fixed liabilities, current assets to
current liabilities, reserves to paid-up capital, and for the
holding of patents or trade rights.
1972. Death Duties and Antecedent Transactions.
D. E. Booker. Chartered Accountant in Australia,
pp. 321-351, December 1950.
A review of the legal and taxation position in Queens-
land relating to succession, probate and estate duties
(which are to be regarded as distinct levies) and the
influence of gifts made before death upon the incidence
of such duties.
(F) Transportation and Communication
1973. Report of the Victorian Railway Commissioners
for Year ended 30 June 1950. P.P. Government
Printer, Melbourne, pp. ioo. Price 4s.
Although the general coal strike in July and August
1949 necessitated great traffic restrictions, the tonnage
carried rose by 3-1 per cent to 8-4 m. tons, mainly owing
to the record tonnage of fuel and wheat. Largely thanks
to the overall increase of freights and fares by 20 per cent
operating since i September 1949 there was an excess
of revenue over working expenses of 2,43,00ooo com-
pared with deficit of 567,000 in the previous year.
After payment of interest, debt charges, etc., however,
there was a deficit of i86,ooo. Other sections deal with
rolling stock, the use of pulverized brown coal and
briquettes in locomotives, the pre-cut housing project
the duplication and electrification of the Main Gippsland
and Geelong lines, staff, etc., 23 appendices present
financial and traffic statistics.
1974. Department of Railways, New South Wales.
Annual Report for Year ended 30 June 1950.
Government Printer, Sydney, 1950, pp. 86.
An outline of the Department's activities. The finan-
cial position has deteriorated, largely owing to the general
coal strike and repeated floods which caused unprece-
dented traffic restrictions, so that there were less pas-
senger journeys, truck loads and locomotive mileage.
The excess of earnings over working expenses was
841,000oo (3,925,000 in the previous year). However,
the Government contributed 800,000 towards losses on
country developmental lines and 3 m. towards losses
caused by the coal strike. After paying interest, etc.,
there was a deficit of 2,415,000 (i,916,ooo in previous
year). Working expenses (wages and raw materials) rose,
while fares and freights were not increased despite the
request of the Department. Appendices present traffic
and financial statistics.
1975. Report on Civil Aviation in Australia and New
Guinea for 1948-49. DepartmentofCivilAviation,
Services in Queensland formerly operated by Qantas
were taken over by T.A.A. on 2 April 1949. Qantas
began developmental air services in Papua-New Guinea.
The fares on the main trunk services were raised by about
15 per cent in May 1949. Aviation fuel for civil aviation
continued to be rationed. A new international service
was started from Sydney to Hong Kong, new services
are proposed from Australia to South Africa and to
Portuguese Timor. Among other subjects dealt with is
Australia's participation in the International Civil
Aviation Organization, various air transport agreements
concluded by Australia, airports, air navigation and
(G) Labour and Industrial Relations
1976. New Industrial Tribunals in New Zealand.
R. S. Parker. Economic Record, pp. 254-269,
A discussion of N.Z. wage-fixing tribunals grown in
the last ten years separate from the Court of Arbitration
and still being in an experimental stage, and of their
effects on economic stabilization. Waterfront tribunals
were set up in 1940 and since 1946 repeated changes were
enacted without much success in deciding disputes, as
the waterfront union is traditionally militant. A Govern-
ment Railways Industrial Tribunal and a Post and Tele-
graph Staff Tribunal were set up in 1944, they were
fairly successful. A Government Service Tribunal-
established in 1949, although constituted like the two
last-mentioned had less success. The Government Staff
Tribunals generally relieved Cabinet Ministers of
troublesome duties. Political bargaining in the time
before the tribunals gave way to long delayed proceedings.
1977. L'Experience Australienne d'Arbitrage. (The
Australian Experience of Arbitration) M. J.
Grobtuch. Droit Social, Paris, pp. 93-96,
A discussion of several important aspects of the
Australian way of dealing with labour disputes with
special emphasis on the problem of value of judiciary
measures in times of full employment.-M.J.G.
1978. The Claim for a Io Basic Wage in Australia.
J. E. Isaac. International Labour Review (Geneva),
pp. 149-177, February 1950.
This article reviews briefly the events leading up to the
1o Basic Wage case; examines the arguments of the
unions, the employers and the judges of the Court;
and considers some important implications of the Court's
decision to raise the basic wage by 1.-J.E.I.
1979. Incentives. Industrial Victoria. Addresses
delivered at Winter Forum of Australian Institute
of Political Science held in Newcastle.
(a) The Government and Incentives. A. E. Holt,
pp. 471-475, December 1950; pp. 539-543,
(b) The Employers' Point of View. W. E. Clegg,
pp. 603-608, February 1951; pp. 667-670,
March 195 .
(a) The present development programme in Australia
will bring security from unemployment. Management
must stress better managerial technique. Unions have to
face up to the changes of a full employment economy, the
general public is interested from the angle of its standard
of living. Incentives cannot replace good management.
Plans must be comprehensible to employees and need
their co-operation, must preserve award conditions, and
should give a reward to the work at least proportionate
to the extra effort.
(b) The only sound basis for higher earnings and lower
selling prices is increased output per hour with lower
unit costs. Employees should be paid according to their
productivity. Essential characteristics of good incentives
are that they must be positive, pre-determined, personal,
fixed, assured and prompt.
1980. Wage Incentives in Operation. Case Study
No. 4. J. T. Laidlaw. (b) Case Study No. 5.
R. S. Home. Bulletin of Industrial Psychology and
Personnel Practice. (a) pp. 16-30, December 1950;
pp. 13-26, March 1951.
(a) An account of an incentive system in a Melbourne
factory of building materials with about Ioo employees.
All production in excess of a daily standard gets extra
payment. For indirect workers various plans exist.
Comparisons between 1946 before and 1949 after intro-
duction of the system show a direct production of 54 per
cent greater in 1949, unit labour costs were 6 per cent
lower, bonus earnings 19-5 per cent of total wages, labour
turnover lower than elsewhere, absenteeism was negli-
(b) Deals with a scheme in a light engineering factory
with about 9oo employees, gradually developed since
1932, about 430 employees work under incentives. There
are three sections : individual premium-bonus, group-
premium bonus, .plan for supervisory personnel. The
direct incentive plan is based on the 'time saved' principle,
that is production time less bonus time. Rate setting is
done by time study working out an allowed time, a fatigue
allowance and a personal allowance. Employees' bonuses
are about 22 per cent of total wages. Direct labour
efficiency has on the whole risen.
1981. Rural Labour Situation. L. W. McLennan and
E. A. Saxon. Quarterly Review of Agricultural
Economics, pp. 76-78, April 1951.
A survey made in MacIntyre Shire, N.S.W., a mixed
farming area (mainly sheep and wheat) by interviews
with a sample of 54 farmers. Since 1939 the number of
male rural workers has fallen by about half. The labour
problem is serious in larger (over 2,ooo acres) and
medium-sized (600-2,000 acres) holdings. This shortage
has not caused a decline in rural production, but a poor
state of repairs of fences and buildings and a lag in
developmental work. Reasons for labour shortage are
lack of adequate educational facilities, of accommodation,
of good roads, effects of the war, poor amenities and
catering difficulties. Most farmers do not want to
employ non-British migrants.
1982. The Financial Effects of Labour Turnover. Case
Study No. IV. W. K. Allen. Bulletin of Industrial
Psychology and Personnel Practice, pp. 3-12,
This study refers to a medium-sized Victorian factory
mostly employing male unskilled workers, during six
months (Ist March to 31st August 1949). Only direct
production employees were considered, of whom 153
left during that period. The effects on direct production
time (2,720 men-hours lost), production (13,097 less
sales value), production costs (wages, materials, factory
overhead, spoilage), general overhead (costs of engage-
ment, training, terminations and other costs, totalling
341) were calculated. The financial effect per separation
AGRICULTURE, LAND AND RURAL
1983. Economic Aspects of Agricultural Stabilization
Schemes. K. O. Campbell. Journal of the Aus-
tralian Institute of Agricultural Science, pp. 144-
153, December 1950.
The author outlines the principal features of Australian
stabilization schemes, and then explores the justification
for each, and how far they do, in fact, operate to the
advantage of the stability of Australian primary industries,
and the economy as a whole. 'For the promotion of
economic stability major reliance must be placed upon
the monetary and fiscal management of the government,
and this need not involve manipulation of agricultural
1984. Some Benefactors of Australian Agriculture.
R. D. Watt. Review of Marketing and Agricul-
tural Economics, pp. 265-275, December 1950.
An article revealing many of the lesser known aspects
of Australian agricultural development. MacArthur of
wool fame also 'used the plough for the first time in
Australia' and was 'the real pioneer of the agricultural
and mixed farming industry.' Macquarie, first of the
early governors to envisage Australia as more than 'a
prison camp' ; Ridley, who invented the stripper and
'refused to take out a patent, so that the farming com-
munity could have the full benefit from it straight
away' ; the real stimulus provided by Lowrie and
Farrer. Contributions of most of the agricultural
pioneers are shown in this Farrer Memorial Oration.-
1985. Land Classification in Australia. J. K. Taylor.
Australian Journal of Science, pp. 127-129,
Lands Department classifications into first, second
and third class groups are being superseded by the soil
survey. Most progress has been made in mapping the
soils in irrigation areas, where sound relations between
soils and land use have been worked out. Large gaps still
exist in our knowledge of land resources. To close these
gaps Commonwealth, State and University agencies
must co-operate in a major soil mapping programme.-
1986. The Rabbit Problem. Commonwealth Scientific
and Industrial Research Organization, 1951,
A critical comparison of methods of rabbit control,
including myxomatosis. 'The survey does not reveal a
single specific line of investigation that offers a recog-
nisable prospect of leading directly to a revolutionary
innovation in methods of rabbit control'. The nature of
the problem varied from one region to another, and is
most acute in areas of better-class grazing country. An
area control experiment is regarded as essential.-E.A.J.
1987. The Measurement of Climatic Risk in the Western
Division of N.S.W. J. Rutherford. Review of
Marketing and Agricultural Economics, pp. 246-
264, December 1950.
'The future success of land settlement throughout the
west (of N.S.W.) will depend greatly upon the degree
to which a scientific appraisal of climatic variability
replaces existing unscientific concepts of long-range
normal conditions.' This article examines the various
elements of this problem, and includes a critical analysis
of the techniques used by Clawson, Lawrence and Prescott
and their applicability to this area. The author is
specially interested in the length of drought periods.-
1988. Progress in Land Development. Allan R.
Callaghan. Department of Lands, Adelaide, 1950,
Despite rising costs, scarcity of materials, and public
demand for greater speed, substantial progress has been
made. During 1950, 61 holdings were handed over to
settlers as 'going' farming units, and ioI allocated.
Approximately zo,ooo acres were cleared, 35,000 acres
ploughed, and 27,000 acres seeded and top-dressed.
Good progress has also been made in housing, fencing
and construction of sheds, bores and dams. Stress is laid
on the settlers' responsibilities to ensure long-term
success, and in this respect the Department of Agricul-
ture is proceeding with research and advisory work.
1989. The Forest Resources of Australia and Their
Potentialities. D. A. N. Cromer. Australian
Journal of Science, pp. 135-136, April 1951.
The total area of forested land in Australia is estimated
at 118 m. acres, of which 44 m. can be classified as
productive, and 28 m. are reserved by legislation. Annual
production of sawn timber at present is about 1oo m.
cubic feet, and the total annual cut from productive
forest is estimated at 159 m.
The expected population of 12 million by 1970, on
present consumption would require annually 50 m. cubic
feet of native timber. There is a deficiency in soft woods
which will necessitate expansion of coniferous afforesta-
tion. 'An adequate inventory of forest resources and the
growth potential of Australian forests is recommended.-
1990. New Guinea Timber to Become Available.
Australian Timber Journal, pp. 826-829, 833-837,
Description of a New Guinea timber lease area of
21,000 acres. Notes on the more abundant and important
timber species are given. Some problems exist for
transport from the area to Lae, where, however, a good
wharf is being completed. The permit allows 70 m.
square feet of nominated species to be cut over Io years.
Much of this, plus other species, will be available for
1991. Papuan Rubber Industry. F. O. Grogan. Quarterly
Review of Agricultural Economics, pp. 69-72,
Records of nine plantations, producing 70 per cent of
Papua's rubber, were examined for the years 1948-49.
The cost of total production of all rubber-at that time-
was found to be i3"4d. per pound, of which io'4d. was
due to direct plantation costs, which are detailed. Labour
shortage is a problem especially in n the collection of latex
where mechanization does not seem possible. Better
marketing methods and a standard system of grading are
considered desirable for the welfare of the industry.-
(A) Government and Politics
1992. Davies, A. F. Local Government in Victoria.
Melbourne University Press. Melbourne, 1951,
pp. oz2. Price 6s.
An account of the development and present structure
of the local government system in Victoria, with special
attention to three factors limiting municipal develop-
ment-the municipal area, the revenue base and the
municipal councillors themselves.-A.F.D.
1993. Australia. Labour and Communism. Round
Table (London), pp. 18o-186, March 1951.
A discussion of the Labour Party's volte-face on the
Anti-Communist Bill, leading to some consideration of
the danger to responsible government contained in the
subordination of Parliamentarians to a non-Parliamentary
policy-making body. Some consideration of the role of
the Arbitration Court as Government agency or indepen-
1994. The working of Parliamentary Government in
Australia. F. A. Bland. Parliamentary Affairs
(London), pp. 73-84. Winter 1950.
Brief discussion of the principal differences in Parlia-
mentary practice as it has developed in Australian
Parliaments from the House of Commons model.-
1995. Compulsory Voting in Australia. L. F. Crisp.
Parliamentary Affairs (London), pp. 84-91.
An evaluation of this device in Federal and State
1996. The Double Dissolution as a Political Weapon.
J. E. Edwards. Parliamentary Affairs (London),
pp. 92-100, Winter 1950.
A statement of the Constitutional provisions governing
deadlocks between Federal Houses and a brief recital of
events in the 1913-14, 1929-31 and 1949-51 periods of
Opposition Senate majorities.-A.F.D.
1997. New States Movement. R. G. Neale. Australian
Quarterly, pp. 9-23, September 1950.
A survey of the main New States Movements in
Queensland and N.S.W. since federation. The author
sees the chief demand for new States arising from the
inability of any of the seven governments in Australia to
provide in all territories under their jurisdiction the
finance and public works demanded of them. However,
new States movements have usually been deliberately
fostered by political groups (Federal and State Country
Parties). This is particularly so in the case of the New
England separation movement. The article concludes
by touching briefly on the reason for the failure of the
New States Movements.-L.G.C.
(B) International Relations
1998. New Hope for Asia. Released by the Department
of External Affairs, Canberra, 95 pp. 58.
This pamphlet presents the Colombo Plan in 'popular
version', as Mr. P. Spender states in his foreword. It
describes in some detail the general features of the Plan
and its application to such countries as India, Pakistan,
Ceylon, Malaya and British Borneo. There are numerous
charts and illustrations.-H.W.
1999. Partnership with Asia. P. C. Spender. Foreign
Affairs, New York, pp. 205-218, January 1951.
A discussion of the social, economic and political
problems of the peoples in six countries of South and
South-east Asia. Topics include the nature of Com-
munism, the peculiarities of Asian nationalism, the rela-
tions between the West and the independent nations of
Asia, the Colombo Plan, and the political re-orientation
of the Commonwealth in Asia. Communism is expanding,
Mr. Spender argues, as a result of its connection with the
'nationalist idea'. To counteract the Communist appeal,
the West must assist 'without strings' the free Asian
countries in their efforts of social and economic recon-
zooo. Political Developments in the Middle East.
Paul Freadman. Australian Outlook, Part I,
pp. 98-106, June 1950 ; Part II, pp. 239-245,
The Western powers believe their security depends
upon developments in the Middle East. Their post-war
policy has been to attempt to restore 'both the stability
of the area, and the predominance of Western influence
in it', and has been pursued at two levels-political and
economic. While the immediate political situation is
improving from the Western point of view and this may
assist the development of defence plans, the maintenance
of this political situation depends on the maintenance of
social stability. Plans are being made for economic
development to promote social stability, yet the existence
of this cannot be easily assumed in the future.-W.F.P.
2oos. India's Foreign Policy. J. Leyser. Australian
Outlook, pp. 37-47. March 1951.
The article covers the period from August 1947 to
February 1951 with emphasis on the latter half of the
period. There are the following sections-the general
underlying principle that world peace is essential to India
and that this requires her to remain independent of both
power blocs, India's special position as the foremost
nation in Asia, her relations with China, the Korean
conflict, her relations with the S.E. Asian countries and
her position in the Commonwealth. In each section
India's policy is illustrated by reference to the reported
statements of her official representatives.-D.C.S.
2oo2. The Kashmir Dispute and Sir Owen Dixon's
Report. Sir Frederic W. Eggleston. Australian
Outlook, pp. 3-9, March 1951.
The histories of similar disputes indicate the courses
of action most likely to succeed in solving the dispute in
question. Each step taken by Sir Owen Dixon is capable
of such historical justification. The author observes com-
mon features requiring similar solutions in the Tacna
Arica, Nicaragua, Gran Chaco, Leticia, Abyssinia,
Manchuria and Saar Plebiscite disputes. He enumerates
specific features which, these examples suggest, should be
contained in a satisfactory solution of the present dispute.
The article concludes with an appreciation of the present
situation in which the influence of public opinion in the
sub-continent is stressed.-D.C.S.
(B) Social Security and Public Health
2003. Safety in the Steel Industry. B.H.P. Review,
pp. 1-4, December 1950.
Since the safety campaign in the Port Kembla works of
Australian Iron & Steel Industries Ltd., was organized
15 years ago, the frequency-rate of lost-time injuries fell
from 6-4 to 2-5 per cent in 1950. There are departmental
safety committees, periodical talks given to these com-
mittees on special subjects, and a general safety com-
mittee. Engineering and electrical safety standards have
been incorporated in all new structures, safety instruction
handbooks have been issued. Seven types of danger tags
are used. There is special safety equipment, safety
propaganda, a safety first bonus scheme, a safety training
instruction scheme and medical services.
(C) Social Surveys
(D) Population and Migration
2004. Problems of Immigration and Industrial Develop-
ment in Australia I951. Research Service (Stewart
Howard and Associates Pty. Ltd.), pp. XV, 115.
Production has failed to meet immigration and defence
requirements. Although a higher proportion of the
immigrants are workers than of the Australian population,
immigrants produce less than half of their initial con-
sumption and investment requirements. Australia's
optimum population (2o m.) could at the present rate of
immigration and natural growth be reached in 1986.
Rural industry is unlikely to give scope for much more
manpower. Australia has sufficient reserves of coal, iron,
building materials, but not of timber. Sections III and
IV deal with post-war immigration, employment and
current manpower shortages which are greater in the case
of unskilled and semi-skilled than of skilled workers.
As to the possible increase of rural output, Australia
will export less and have to import many foodstuffs.
Too little coal and steel is produced, largely owing to
psychological factors depressing productivity. Tertiary
industries-transport, distribution, building-are not
provided on the necessary scale.
Defence cannot be cut, that effective steps to combat
inflation are taken by the Government, is unlikely. The
only alternative is to scale down immigration to manage-
2005. Investment and Immigration in Australia in the
1950's: Some Problems of Theory. D. M.
Bensusan-Butt. Paper read to the Canberra
Economic Society. Economic Record, pp. 201-216,
On the assumption that the Australian population will
increase by 3 per cent p.a., the lecturer first discusses
adjustment. If Australia has so far invested 12 per cent of
her national product p.a., the capital stock must increase
by 3 per cent p.a. and this requires the investment of
another 12 per cent p.a. of the national product. The
migrants are supposed to arrive without capital, some of
their investment demands might remain unsatisfied,
particularly in housing. The second problem examined
is that of financial stability. Inflation in connection with
migration is less serious than adjustment. The third
problem is that of progress in the standard of living.
Migration might diminish the progress in the statistical
standard of living, i.e., the quantity of marketed goods
and services consumed and invested, but possibly raise
the standard of living in the welfare sense.
2oo6. New Australians in Industry. Manufacturing and
(a) New Australians ... Their Work in Industry,
pp. 247-254, February 1951 ;
(b) Problems Relating to New Australians in
Industry. J. H. Bell, pp. 363-365, May 1951.
Both articles stress the inability of many of the recent
non-British immigrants to speak English as an important
(a) The main scope for migrants is in manufacturing
industries, in which, according to a survey, there is con-
siderable demand for them, and they are, on the whole,
regarded as satisfactory workers. Too little has been done
concerning their occupational training, mostly they
depend on their foremen and fellow-workers. Generally
New Australians do unskilled or semi-skilled work.
(b) Australian employees often resent the employ-
ment of New Australians because of their failure to speak
English in factories, their segregation, their 'money-
hungriness', their supposed threat to working conditions,
and their fear of losing jobs to immigrants. All these
objections can be overcome, assimilation of immigrants
is necessary, as the U.S. example shows. The welfare
officer should concentrate on the assimilation problem.
2007. Australian Population Policy and its Relation to
Asia. W. D. Borrie. Australian Outlook, pp.
162-169, September 1950.
After a discussion of various aspects of the present
large-scale Australian immigration policy, based on
immigration from U.K. and Europe only, the author
deals with the possibility of Asian immigration. Our high
material standard of living primarily 'determines the
type of migrant who can be readily assimilated'. Aus-
tralians, while sympathizing with the struggle of the
peoples of Asia for independence, have a fear-complex
because of the great numbers of Asiatics. To Asians the
machinery of our immigration policy suggests exclusion
on specifically racial, not only economic grounds. Immi-
gration to Australia cannot solve the difficult problem
of Asian over-population which needs 'efficient utiliza-
tion of the resources in Asia and increased availability
of resources from outside Asia.'
2008. Cunningham, K. S. (Editor). The Adjustment of
Youth. Melbourne University Press, for the
Australian Council for Educational Research.
1951, pp. 264. Price 25s.
The resources, facilities and practices available in
U.K., Canada and U.S.A. to help the 14-25 age goup
to receive education, to achieve health and physical
fitness, to enter and progress in industry, and to adjust
to the social environment are critically examined by four
Australian experts in the fields of social work (Taylor),
health and recreation (Gordon), industrial welfare
(Harris), and formal education (Cannon).
The general problem is placed in its context of the
general well-being of society. The examination then
proceeds through school education, the recruitment and
training of juveniles for industry, vocational guidance,
employment, recreation, health and youth welfare
services, to international aspects of youth work and a note
on the contribution of the social worker. Conclusions
are drawn regarding desirable developments in Aus-
tralia, the chief being the need for co-ordination and
extension of existing facilities. The danger of paternalism
as well as totalitarianism is noted.
2oo9. Rayner, S. A. The Special Vocabulary of Civics.
Melbourne University Press, for the A.C.E.R.
1951, pp. 105. Price los.
The selection of the vocabulary was based on a word
count of newspapers, overseas research and the ratings of
newspapers, overseas research and the ratings of selected
judges in Australia. The words so chosen were embodied
in sentences and children close to the school leaving age
in a selected area in Melbourne were tested on their
understanding of the words. The results are analysed
for various groups of pupils by using analysis of variance
and the 't' test. There was prevailing ignorance of very
common social concepts and factual information about
political events and persons, besides there is little relation
between the frequency of use of civic terms in history
books and in newspapers, and a knowledge of civic terms
tends to improve competency in the subject.
Appendices contain the test used, the percentages
choosing each distractor, the difficulty level of each item,
and an index of its validity, subject preferences in the
district tested, etc.
20oo. Australian Council for Educational Research
English and Arithmetic for the Australian Child,
,1951, pp. 36. Price is. 6d.
Some of the outstanding results are reported of a survey
of curricula in English and Arithmetic in the six Australian
state education departments. There is great variety in
requirements and in results. Attention is drawn to aspects
where this variety is thought too great, to the need for
clearer statements of desirable standards, to marked
differences between schools as well as between states, and
to differences between children of the same grade levels.
Suggested experimental courses in arithmetic and formal
grammar, based on current practices, are set out.
2011. Design for General Education. G. W. Bassett.
Forum of Education, pp. 54-61, October 1950.
Deals especially with secondary education. The value
of courses for the general education of pupils has received
too little attention. Attention must be directed to those
parts of a pupil's life which he will share with others.
It must take account of common needs as well as indi-
vidual variations. To do this effectively is difficult. A
suggested approach includes broadly conceived courses
in social studies, general science, general mathematics
and literature art and music, as well as the constant
fostering of the special democratic attitudes.
2012. Education in Australia since Federation. H. L.
Harris. Australian Quarterly, pp. 27-37, March
Reviews the growth of various instrumentalities to
19o0, points out the various factors such as value of child
life, the impact of new ideas in psychology, the changes in
administration, and the impact of dominant educational
leaders, which led to developments after that date.
Gives data relative to the number of schools and
pupils in state, Catholic, and other non-state schools, in
1949, and describes the types of school offered by each
of these systems of schools.
2013. Schonell, F. J. Modern Developments in Secondary
Education in England with special reference to
Queensland. Queensland Institute for Educational
Research, pp. 23.
The system of secondary education introduced in
England in 1945 under the 1945 Education Act, is
reviewed, and suggestions made that Queensland might
profit from English example in respect of parent interest
in school problems, universal secondary education,
raising the school leaving age, limitation of selection
examinations and alteration of scholarship conditions,
greater emphasis on general education and the develop-
ment of personality, and greater attention to the needs of
the majority of children who do not require an academic
2014. Rural High School Education. Tasmanian
Education, pp. 5-23, February 1951.
The growth of the Scottsdale District High School is
described. The individuals responsible for progress, and
the development of the agricultural and community
aspects of the school, are illustrated. The course is
described, and reference is made to experiments con-
ducted on the farm attached to the school.
2015. Review of Recent Developments in Migrant
Education. Education News, pp. 3-5, February
Migrant education operates incidentally within a
difficult framework. Increasing numbers of migrants
are being received, and instruction is now given not only
in reception centres but in holding centres to the wives
of migrants, while state departments deal with children.
Continuation classes, radio tuition, and correspondence
courses have increased in importance. They aim to
provide oral fluency in English as well as information on
Australia. New techniques and equipment have been
evolved and used.
2016. Army Education in New Guinea. C. D. Rowley.
Australian Quarterly, pp. 68-84, September 1950.
Surveys the activities and growth of army education in
operational and base areas in New Guinea from 1942 to
1945. Explains the role of education personnel at various
stages in campaigns, illustrates the procedures followed
and the necessary improvisations made, and discusses
the effectiveness of the various kind of work done.
2017. Education in the Territory of Papua-New Guinea.
Education News, pp. 3-5, December 1950.
The department of education, Papua-New Guinea,
was established in 1946. It administers 6o schools. There
are also over 2,ooo mission schools. The main schools
are four-year village schools, four-year higher village
schools, four-year Area schools, and three-year central
schools. There are also vocational and pre-vocational
centres. Special services include visual, radio, libraries,
art and handicrafts, music, and publications. Special
training courses are offered for education officers. Co-
operation with the missions is good.
2018. Zimmermann, E. W.: World Resources and
Industries. Harper & Brothers, New York, 1951,
pp. 832. Price $7.50.
In this revised edition the availability of agricultural
and industrial materials is appraised with up-to-date
statistics and a great number of charts, maps and tables ;
there are again numerous references to Australia,
especially iron and steel,wool and transportation problems.
2019. Ziegler, O. L. (Ed.). Official Commemorative Book
Jubilee of the Commonwealth of Australia. Dis-
tributors for Australasia, Angus and Robertson,
Sydney, 1951, pp. 256.
Among the numerous articles there is one on the story
of Federation (J. Reynolds), Architecture (R. Boyd),
Literature (N. Bartlett), Art (N. MacGeorge), Music
(W. James), Transport (J. Arthur)Aborigines (A. Elkin),
Fauna (C. Morrison). A detailed account of Australia's
primary and of 30 branches of manufacturing industries
2020. Pfeffer, K. H. Australien (Australia). Franck'sche
Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, 1950, pp. 160.
After a geographical description of Australia, its carry-
ing capacity and immigration policy is discussed. There
are chapters about the aborigines, political organization,
foreign trade, foreign policy, the present structure of
Australia's economy, and Australia's cultural life.
'The Australian fate is the trio of Isolation, Asiatic
neighbourhood and European ties. Australia's historical
task is the solution of this geographical problem.' There
is a detailed bibliography of German, French and English
2021. Ashton, H. T. and Maher J. V. Australian
Forecasting and Climate. Melbourne, 1951,
p. 72. Price 3s, 6d.
Winds, clouds, precipitation, visibility, pressure
systems, temperature changes, water in the atmosphere,
fronts and their movements are discussed, and by means
of six typical weather charts the daily forecast is explained,
which is the main theme of the book. One chapter deals
with weather lore and another one with the reasons for
the climatic differences in Australia and air circulation
and climate of Australia.-E.J.D.
2022. Masterman, M. Flinders Chase. Georgian House,
Melbourne, 1950, pp. 62. Price 7s. 6d.
Kangaroo Island, south-west of Adelaide, is the sub-
ject of this book with its interesting animals, birds and
flowers (spiny anteaters, wallabies, koala bears, sooty
kangaroos, possums, goannas). Special reference to
Flinders Chase as a sanctuary for fauna and flora, and to
the Government Apiary.-E.J.D.
2023. Hedberg, K. M. A classified and selective biblio-
graphy on Australia for regional development
purposes. Part 5. Western Australia. Ministry of
National Development, 1950, pp. 216.
This bibliography is arranged in the same way as the
bibliography of Victoria, abstracted as No. 1228 in No. 8
of this journal.-E.J.D.
2024. Notes on South-East Asia. Department of
External Affairs, Canberra, 1950, pp. 189.
This book describes the territory and history of Ceylon,
Malaya, Singapore, British North Borneo, Brunei,
Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Indonesia,
Philippines, Portuguese Timor and Netherlands New
Guinea ; separate chapters are devoted to the political,
social, economic and financial conditions in these
countries. Eight maps and a wealth of statistical informa-
tion in the numerous tables.-E.J.D.
2025. Water For Australia. E. B. Kraus. Australian
Quarterly, pp. 81-89, March 1951.
The possibilities of producing rain by means of
'meteorological engineering' are discussed; however,
'it is exceedingly unlikely that they will ever help us to
increase the water supply of Australia.' Likewise the
filling of Lake Eyre with salt water by means of a channel
would yield very little additional rain. Another possibility
is the artificial creation of a fresh water flow comparable
to the Nile in inland Australia by means of 'dissociation'.
'Something like an artificial Murrumbidgee might
become one day a not altogether impossible develop-
ment. Something bigger would seem impossible even
with the use of atomic energy.' However, the harnessing
of solar energy would open better prospects and Australia
is rich in that commodity.-E.J.D.
2026. Rice Growing in Australia. E. J. Donath. Imperial
Review, London, p. 27, June 1951.
The reasons for the restricted location of growing rice
in N.S.W. only are discussed, and special attention is
drawn to the complete mechanization of cultivation and
harvesting. Yields per acre are amongst the highest in
the world, and future locations of the industry are dealt
2027. Pastoral Highlands. Trends, pp. 9-14. March
This is an analysis of the potentialities for future
development of the rich pastoral regions of the Southern
Tablelands in N.S.W. The area is about 8,ooo sq. m.
with less thau 50,000 inhabitants, including the city of
Goulburn. Along with pasture improvement and fodder
conservation, more scientific breeding and topping off
lots, the Southern Tableland region holds a great future
for beef cattle and fat lamb production. The main acti-
vity is sheep grazing for wool, minor ones are growing
of fodder crops, potatoes, fruits, especially apples,
timber getting and bee-keeping.-E.J.D.
2028. Queensland has vast scope for settlement. C. Clark.
Record, pp. 20-29, January 1951.
A brief discussion of some areas where more intense
land utilization may be taken up because soils and rainfall
are favourable for growing maize, millet, sorghum and
peanuts (the northern part of the great strip of black soil
stretching as far north as Collinsville, Dawson and
Callide Valley, the so-called 'Wallum' near the coast,
Roma, Hughenden). 'Near the Gulf of Carpentaria are
large areas where the summer rainfall season, though
short, is almost as much of a certainty as it is in the sugar
cane land on the east coast.'-E.J.D.
2029. Ten Men With A Mission In Albany. R. J.
Dumas. Regional Development Journal, pp. 94-
so6, May 1951.
The resources and recent developments of the Albany
District in W.A. are discussed. Despite settlement for
nearly 130 years only about 4 per cent of the 2o,ooo sq.
miles have been cleared. 'The advent of the heavy tractor
with bulldozer and treedozer equipment, plus the
development of the use of trace elements have opened
the doors to the development of the immense areas of
virgin Crown Land.' Climate, terrain, mineral resources,
forests and timber, beef and dairy cattle, sheep, wheat,
fruit, vegetables, secondary industries and public services
and utilities are discussed in detail.-E.J.D.
2030. Metropolitan Auckland 1740-1945. L. L. Pownall.
New Zealand Geographer, pp. 107-124, October
An historical geography of the Auckland urban area,
with an account of its changing use and expansion, and
its function with relation to its hinterland.-R.K.W.
2031. Te Kuiti and the Northern King Country: A
Region of Agricultural Transition. J. W. Fox.
New Zealand Geographer, pp. 125-153, October
A description of the land use of the area and its past
development bringing out its transitional stage from
extensive use to intensive.-R.K.W.
2032. The Administration Tea Project at Garaina.
P. Maxton-Grahame. South Pacific, p. 58,
A brief survey of the work completed at the station
(2,500 ft. north of Port Moresby) and plans for the future
of the project, with special reference to the prospects for
tea growing in New Guinea.-E.J.D.
2033. Hale, John (ed.). Settlers. Faber, London, 1950,
pp. 408. Price 31s. 6d.
This is an anthology of extracts from the journals and
letters of early colonists in Canada, Australia, South
Africa and N.Z. with maps and illustrations. The
sources are printed materials, and although the selection
for his own country is likely to be familiar to the student
of history, those for the others may be new to him. The
work makes possible a composite and comparative view
of pioneering problems and conditions of life throughout
the British Commonwealth.
2034. Wild, David. The Tale of a City : Geelong 1850-
1950. F. W. Cheshire, Melbourne, 1950, pp. 113.
A brief sketch of the city's history. The first house was
built in 1837, in 1850 a town council of twelve was
elected. By then Geelong had become the exporter of
wool from the rich Western District and with the dis-
covery of gold, began to grow apace. In 1858 the
Geelong-Melbourne railway was opened.
The town developed on well-planned lines. The
dredging of the harbour was completed in 1893 and in
191o Geelong became a city. To-day it is highly indust-
rialized, (motor cars, agricultural machinery and woollen
goods.) Moreover it is an educational centre and its
development is being guided by the Town and Country
Planning Act under which it is the first experimental city
2035. Co-operation and Political Education. B. R.
Marshall. Historical Studies, Australia and N.Z.,
pp. 257-268, November 1950.
The association between political educational ideals
and the Co-operative movement, so characteristic of
England, is almost lacking in Australia. The idealists,
or theorists, when they have existed, have made little
impression on the movement. Despite vicissitudes, rural
producer co-operatives have been advancing in some
fields, particularly dairy farming and fruit growing.
Economic pressure has been the main stimulus to their
creation. The co-operative movement in Australia needs
a new outlook if it is to become a great social force.
2036. Ascertainment, Probability and Evidence in
History. A. L. Bums. Historical Studies, Aus-
tralia and N.Z., pp. 327-334, May 1951.
The background is a controversy between two rival
epistemologies of history, represented by Carl Hempel
and R. G. Collingwood. Historical explanation is
created by the first view as something quite distinct from
ascertainment, whereas the 'Collingwood tradition'
asserts 'Once ascertained, already explained', as far as
history (not natural sciences) is concerned.
The article tries translating Collingwood's theory into
Hempel's terminology with the aid of symbolic logic in
certain cases. The cumulativenesss' of evidence for
historical hypotheses is analysed, as is the effect of
'consilience' amongst historical hypotheses themselves,
i.e., the 'heaping together' of two hypotheses when it is
noticed that both, if true, would be explicable by a third
hypothesis. Collingwood's epistemology is vindicated for
consilient hypotheses at least, for once their consilience
is noticed and they are thus ascertained, they are ipso
facto already explained.
2037. 'Echuca and the Murray River Trade'. A. H.
Morris. Historical Studies, Australia and N.Z.,
PP. 340-354, May 1951.
This article deals with the importance of Echuca
as a transport centre for the greater part of N.S.W. and
S.W. Queensland during the hey-day of the river traffic
last century. It contains comparative costs for horse and
bullock teams and boats, details of boat organization for
the wool season, and gives statistics indicating the value
of the trade to Victoria.
(A) Constitutional Law
2038. Stone, J. A Government of Laws and Yet of Men.
Annual Law Review, University of Western
Australia, pp. 461-515, December 1950.
An elaborate study of the interpretation of Sec. 92 of
the Commonwealth Constitution (trade, commerce and
intercourse among the States . shall be absolutely
free.) Whereas in the U.S. the commerce power has
been the main channel of expansion of the central power
and has drastically impinged on individual freedom of
contract and vocation, Sec. 92 as interpreted has severely
hemmed in legislative power by establishing guarantees
of individual rights of freedom of contract and disposition.
This interpretation disregards the historical roots of the
section. The current interpretation of the section leaves
the law confused, and is productive of the greatest
inconveniences in the life of the Australian community.
2039. Beasley, F. R. The Commonwealth Constitution :
Section 92. Annual Law Review, University of
Western Australia, pp. 433-440, December 1950.
An examination of the history of this provision in the
Federal Conventions. The conclusion is that its pro-
hibitions were directed against all laws which would have
had the necessary effect of destroying in whole or in
part the economic unity of Australia, which it was one of
the principal objects of federation to create. The pro-
hibitions of Sec. 92 were not aimed at laws which do not
have that object or result.
2040. Beasley, F. R. Sir Samuel Griffith. Australian
Law Journal, pp. 8-9, May 1951.
A brief biographical sketch of the first Chief Justice of
the High Court of Australia.
2041. Nature and Convention in the Democratic State.
A. Boyce Gibson. Australasian Journal of Philo-
sophy, pp. 1-2o, May 1951.
An attempt to support Lindsay's attack on the theory
of sovereignty, with some suggestions for amending
Lindsay's own theory and the fundamental fact about a
democratic society, i.e., the existence of fundamental con-
2042. Freudianism v. Marxism. C. I. Glicksberg.
Australian Quarterly, pp. 104-112, March 1951.
Marxism and Freudianism are incompatible in spirit
and substance. The Marxists see in Freudianism an
attempt to understand the individual without his social
milieu; the Freudian sees in Marxism an 'explosion of
vengeful violence against parental authority.'-A.B.G.
2043. Bertrand Russell. W. Macmahon Ball. The
Australian Outlook, pp. 80-85, June 1950.
A discussion of the guiding ideas in Russell's political
and social writings, with emphasis on his efforts to
reconcile individual initiative and freedom with the need
for social organization and political authority.-W.M.B.
2044. The Contemporary American Scene in Social
Psychology, C. A. Gibb. Australian Journal of
Psychology, pp. 65-79, December 1950.
Examining American psychological research 1946-
1949, the author finds the boundaries between psychology,
social psychology, sociology and cultural anthropology,
fluid, and at times, non-existent. The high correlation
between personality content variables or group popula-
tion traits and the purely group or syntality variables
suggests that a very large part of social psychology may
eventually turn out to be concerned with attempts to
predict the syntality of a group from the population
characteristics and structure.
Present trend in research is towards inter-disciplinary
team work, and future teaching will follow in the same
direction, with a growing recognition of social psychology
as the basic social science.
2045. A Study of Job Expectations and Preference of
Form III Students in Victorian Technical
Schools. A. R. Greig. Australian Journal of
Psychology, pp. 80-89, December 1950.
Job expectations and preference of 117 Form III boys
of a Melbourne Technical School were studied by means
of psychological tests, questionnaires, essays and inter-
views. Qualitative information was quantified by ratings
on ability to succeed in preferred job, adequacy of reasons
for preference, knowledge of educational pre-requisites
and training requirements for preferred job, likely
ability to succeed on chosen job as shown by psycho-
logical tests and examination results, relation of students'
job preferences to their subject and hobby preferences,
discrepancies between job preference and job expecta-
tion, parents' attitudes to the problems of the vocational
placement of children, and relation of job preferences
to their fathers' occupations.
2046. Scholastic Aptitude, Reasoning, Fluency and
Concentration. Duncan Howie. Australian
Journal of Psychology, pp. 1oo-113, December
The inter-correlation of scores by 252 children
on 36 variables selected to examine possible relationships
between fluency, concentration and scholastic aptitude
were examined by Burt's Group Factor Method. The
Factorial description accounted for 48-3 per cent of the
variance and indicated the following factors: (i) A
general factor identified with Spearman's 'g'. (2) A
verbal group factor identified with Burt's verbal factor
shown primarily in the mechanics of reading ability.
(3) A group factor akin to Thurstone's reasoning factor
but described here as a factor of conceptual concentra-
tion. (4) A group factor of associative fluency identified
with Cattell's description as fluency of association under
restrictions. (5) A group factor in tests involving speed in
simple routine activities.
2047. Studies of Experimentally Induced Disturbance.
R. A. Champion. Australian Journal of Psycho-
logy, pp. 90-99, December 1950.
Three experiments were made on experimentally
induced disturbance, with the G.S.R. as an index.
(i) Disturbance was created in 24 students under con-
ditions of no movement, non-adaptive movement and
movement. (2) Stress was induced in 12 students, 6 of
whom then took part in general discussion about the
disturbance whilst 6 merely rested. The former showed
less disturbance in an after-test. (3) Ioo G.S.R.'s
following strong electric shock were recorded and
represented in terms of three units, viz., RQs, RQo and
change in conductance, in order to validate the units
against the criteria of independence and normality.
Only the two RQ units proved acceptable.
Attitude is an important factor in the explanation of
the first two results ; all three experiments provide
evidence that the RQ is a valid and useful means of
expressing the G.S.R.
2048. Further experience with Selection Tests for
Power-Sewing Machine Operators. M. N.
Oxlade. Bulletin of Industrial Psychology and
Personnel Practice, pp. 27-37, March 1951.
In 1948 and 1949 the Minnesota Paper Form Board,
the N.I.I.P. Paper Folding Test and the Otis Higher
Examination were given to every junior who applied for
work in a clothing factory. This article discusses the
effectiveness with which the tests would have predicted
success in the training school and on the job. Three
criteria of success were supervisors' ratings in the training
school, supervisors' ratings on the job and a combination
of these. Both the Minnesota Paper Form Board and the
N.I.I.P. Paper-folding Test were of value for predicting
the success of operators, both in training and on the job.
2049. Reviewing Employee Rating. M. Bucklow.
Bulletin of Industrial Psychology and Personnel
Practice, pp. 3-15, December 1950.
Prior to the war, it was assumed that once the perfect
rating scale was found, most of the problems concerned
with rating would be solved. War-time experience
brought a new awareness of the pitfalls of rating scales.
There is frequent failure to relate the traits selected to
the actual requirements for job success. Often too many
traits are included, as factor analysis reveals. Often results
reflect the personal-social relationships between super-
visor and subordinate better than the actual productivity
of the subordinate in question. There are dangers of
biased rating when ratings have to be discussed with
employers. Recent developments in rating, such as the
American Forced Choice Technique, are dealt with.
TERRITORIES AND NATIVE
2z50. Buck, Sir Peter (Te Rangi Hiroa) : The Coming of
the Maori. Wellington. Maori Purposes Fund
B6ard, Whitcomb & Tombs Ltd., 1949 ; 548 pp.,
text figures and 24 plates. Price i los. (stg.).
The author, now Director of the Bernice Pauahi
Bishop Museum, Honolulu, and Professor of Anthro-
pology at Yale, here presents a comprehensive account of
the prehistory and history of the Maori people and of
practically all sides of their culture. The bulk of the
volume is a scholarly description of the material culture
(including art), while the other sections deal with the
social organization and religion.
2051. Siidseestudien-Etudes Sur L'Oc6anie-South
Seas Studies, Gedenkschrift zur Erinnerung an
Felix Speiser, Basle (Switzerland), Museum ffir
V1lkerkunde, 1951. 426 pp., 26 plates.
This volume had been prepared by a number of friends
and colleagues of Professor Felix Speiser as an anniver-
sary volume on the occasion of his seventieth birthday.
After Speiser's death in 1949, it was decided to publish
the material as a memorial volume. The seventeen
contributions, all archaeological or ethnological, cover the
whole Pacific area, from Indonesia to Easter Island. The
authors include, among others, Professor Alfred Biihler
(Basle), Beatrice Blackwood Oxford), Maurice Leen-
hardt (Paris), Georg H61tker (Fribourg), G. H. G. von
Koenigswald (Utrecht), Robert H. Lowie (Berkeley),
Henri Lavachhry (Brussels). Papers are in German,
French and English.
2052. Elkin, A. P., and Berndt, Catherine and Ronald.
Art in Arnhem Land. Melbourne & London
(F. W. Cheshire), 1950; XII and 123 pp.
The book is based on the collections brought together
by Mr. and Mrs. Berndt during their field work in Arn-
hem Land and now at the Department of Anthropology,
Sydney University. The objects are of two kinds, viz.,
firstly, paintings on bark sheets, technically similar to,
but stylistically different from those collected by Sir
Baldwin Spencer and other earlier visitors in other parts
of Arnhem Land. Secondly, there is a large number of
wooden statuettes, with polychrome decoration, real
sculpture in the round but belonging to the primitive
category known as 'pole sculpture'. These were obtained
at Yirrkalla. The authors have been able to ascertain the
esoteric meaning of both bark paintings and statuettes,
and the book largely deals with the religious back-
ground and the function of art in the tribal life of the
2053. The Native Problem-Why is it Unsolved ?
C. E. A. Cook. Australian Quarterly, Vol. XXII/4,
pp. I1-24, December 1950.
The author gives an account of the historical develop-
ment and examines the economic and psychological
factors responsible for it. The treatment of the abori-
gines has been decidedly wrong from the outset, as the
natives were never given a chance of living with self-
reliance in the white community but always had to live
in a position of complete dependence. 'In short, the white
man's philanthropy may largely have been responsible
for defeating its own purpose.' 'If the native is successful
to achieve integration into the general community he
must evolve under environmental stresses from which
he has hitherto been sheltered. This will involve com-
plete recasting of native administration policies in con-
siderable areas of this continent.'
2054. Defence and Development in Australian New
Guinea. James McAuley. Pacific Affairs. Vol.
XXIII/4. Richmond, Va., 1950, pp. 371-380,
A Royal Commission on Papuan affairs in 1906,
stated that general economic development would fulfil
requirements better than expenditure on military or
naval projects ; but the Commonwealth authorities took
no steps for any reasons to stimulate development. It is
arguable that it was precisely the undeveloped state of
New Guinea that favoured the Allies and hindered the
Japanese during the last war. The latest proposals for
a rapid development, however, are explicitly based on
security considerations. Any development of New
Guinea will be restricted by the generally poor soils, the
limited opportunities for irrigation, the huge area of
mountains, the rushing rivers, vast swamps and scat-
tered islands that make up most of the country. In
addition, the quantity of labour is quite inadequate.
Introduction of Asiatic labour is ruled out by public
opinion in Australia. Another possibility now being
discussed is resettlement of the natives in proletarian
communities attached to industrial sites. In this way
New Guinea could develop a labour force as large as
that of Queensland. The author examines the possible
effect of such a development, especially the reaction of
the natives themselves. The U.N. Visiting Mission of
1950 failed to realize the importance of the crucial
question of labour and to offer a solution.
2055. Williams, F. E. The Blending of Cultures : An
Essay on the Aims of Native Education. (Papua and
New Guinea, Official Research Publication No. i,
SGovernment Printer, Port Moresby, 195 ), pp. 44.
In this work, originally published as 'Territory of
Papua Anthropology Report No. 16', the late Papuan
Government Anthropologist sets out his views on native
education. Rejecting the two opposite views of those
who urge complete Europeanization and those who urge
the total preservation of indigenous culture, Williams
argues for 'the development of a new culture in which
all that is best in the old native life shall blend with
elements and forces derived from our own civilization'.
After discussing the dangers associated with the 'elimina-
tion' of 'bad' features from the old culture, Williams
proceeds to discuss three main contributions which
European culture might make-a reformed horticulture,
command of English, and Christianity.
2056. Publications of the South Pacific Commission. The
following publications of the South Pacific Com-
mission appeared recently :
(a) Report or the Year 1948 (Wellington, N.Z.,
43 pp.). The report, delivered to the Govern-
ments of Australia, France, The Netherlands,
N.Z., U.K. and U.S., is divided into three parts.
The first part consists of a historical survey of the
establishment of the S.P.C., the second deals with
the activities of the Commission from May i to
December 31, 1948, followed by a summarizing
conclusion (Part III). There are appendices, of
the second is a reprint of the International Agree-
ment establishing the Commission.
(b) S.P.C. Quarterly Bulletin, Published by the
South Pacific Commission from Its Headquarters
at Noumea, New Caledonia. Vol. No. i, Fourth
Quarter, 1950, January, 1951, pp. 23. Price 2s.
This is a new periodical. The first number contains a
report on the Sixth Session of the Commission held at
Noumea from October 23 to November 2, 1950. The
main subjects considered included the Commission's
work programme for 1951 in the fields of health, econo-
mic development, social development; the resolutions of
the First South Pacific Conference, the date of the second
Conference, to be held in April, 1953, and other items,
among others 'relationship with U.N. and specialized
agencies'.-The Annual Budget for 1951 totalling
149,165 (stg.) was adopted during the Sixth Session.
2057. The Suva Conference of South Pacific Peoples.
Nancy Robson. Australian Outlook, Vol. 4/3,
1950, pp. 179-185, October 1950.
A popular account of the activities and results of the
South Pacific Conference, April, 1950, as they are known
from the numerous publications of the South Pacific
List of Unpublished Thesis in the Social Sciences
Written by Graduates of Australian Universities in 1950 and 1951.
Previous lists of the same kind have been published in Nos. 8 and so of this journal.
(1) University of Melbourne.
(a) Department of History, 1950-51 for M.A.
Joan Buchanan. Mrs. Charles Meredith: A
J. S. Gregory. Church and State in Victoria,
L. K. Kerr. Communal Settlements in South
Australia in the 189g's.
Rose Mary McGowan. Social Life in Victoria in
N. McLachlan. Larrikinism in Australia.
D. J. Mulvaney. The Belgae and English
L. F. Whitfield. 'The Age' on Public Affairs,
(b) Department of Psychology, 1951 for M.A.
Gwendoline Dorothy Miller. Clique Structure-
Its Definition and Determinants.
Margaret Rendall Middleton. The Australian
Urban Family-A Study in Group Inter-
(2) University of Sydney Faculty of Economics, 1950, for
J. D. B. Miller. Political Parties and Parliament-
ary Government in Australia, with special
Reference to the Influence of the Australian
(3) University of Queensland.
(a) Department of Economics, 1950, for M.Comm.
W. R. Lane. A Survey of Queensland Public
(b) Department of Education for B.A. degrees,
L. G. Grulke. The Need for Reform in Second-
ary Education in Queensland (also for Dip.Ed.)
K. S. Harvey. Films as VisualAids in Education.
R. T. McDonnell. The Education of the Aus-
tralian Aboriginal in Queensland.
J. W. Redford. A Statistical Investigation of the
Employment and After-School Interests of
Fifty Past Pupils of the Wynnum State High
W. J. Brown. Aptitude Testing for the Industrial
Course in a Secondary School.
S. J. Campbell. The International Correspond-
ence Schools as a Means of Adult Corres-
pondence (also for B.Ed.).
J. H. Foster. An Investigation of the Predictive
Value of Certain Tests for the Selection of
Students for Bookkeeping and Shorthand.
A. C. Growder. An Evaluation of Certain non-
Intellective Factors which Contribute to
Academic Success at University Level.
R. Mackie. A Critical and Constructive Survey of
the Organization and Administration of
Schools for Mentally Backward Schools in
G. Sample. The Selection and Training of
Teachers of Academic Subjects for the State
Secondary Schools of Queensland (also for
E. F. Shogren. The Prediction of Success in
Some Secondary School Subjects.
(c) Department of Psychology, for M.A. degrees.
Joan D. Gill. A Survey of (a) Hearing Levels;
(b) Intelligence, of Children attending the
School for the Blind and Deaf, Brisbane.
H. W. Thiele. Factors Retarding Visual Percep-
(4) University of Western Australia. Department of
Economics. For M.A. degrees, 1951.
G. A. Gardiner. Women as Wage Earners in
Australia : A Study in International Relations
for B.A. degrees, 1949.
J. S. Conroy. Employment Problems of the
Wheat Belt of Western Australia,
for B.A. degrees, 1950.
M. Maxwell. Terms of Trade between Industry
Groups in Australia, with a Critical Appraisal
of the Method of Income Analysis.
G. W. Russell. London Funds and the Austra-
lian Banking System.
P. C. K. Tan. The Character and Significance of
Western Australia's Trade with Malaya.
G. E. Wright. A Survey of the Increase in
Butter Production in Western Australia-
1928-29 to 1938-39.
THIS publication of abstracts in the social sciences is intended to provide a survey
of important material, published in, or related to Australia, New Zealand and their
territories, dealing with the various social sciences. The field of the survey dealt with
in these Abstracts is indicated by the classification of the subjects on the inside cover.
The aim is to help the specialist in any particular field to decide what works he
should read, and what he may omit; and to indicate to other workers in allied fields
what is being done. For these purposes it has been decided that the abstracts shall be
genuine pricis of the works covered.
At present it is intended to publish the Abstracts half yearly; but if, in the future,
a larger volume of original work is produced, it is intended to publish the Abstracts
more frequently so that all deserving work may be covered as soon after publication
Copies of this and subsequent issues of the Abstracts will be sent on application
(enclosing subscription of 5s. in Australian currency, 4s. sterling, per annum) to the
Editor, Department of Commerce, University of Melbourne, Carlton, N.3.
AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
COMMITTEE ON RESEARCH IN THE SOCIAL SCIENCES
The Committee on Research in the Social Sciences is a special
committee of the A.N.R.C. charged with the duty of reporting upon
the main investigations which appear to be required in the social
.. field, of considering the best machinery for conducting these enquiries,
i'' and of arranging for finance.
The Committee is also making a detailed examination of the
.. position in Australia with regard to training in the social sciences at
the various universities, with special attention to the provision of
research workers. The scope of the committee's work includes the
sociological aspects of such studies as anthropology, economics,
education, history, human geography, jurisprudence, medicine,
philosophy, political science, psychology, public administration and
An outline of the history and functions of the committee by the
..^ chairman, Dr. K. S. Cunningham, was recently published; and
may be obtained free of charge on application to the Australian
Council for Educational Research, T. & G. Building, Collins St.,
Alembers of the Comnmitee:
:" ALEXANDER, Prof. F., University of Western Australia.
BAILEY, Prof. K. H., Solicitor-General, Canberra.
BALL, Prof. W. Macmahon, University of Melbourne.
BLAND, Prof. F. A., University of Sydney.
BORRIE, Dr. \V. D., National University. Ganberra.
BURTON, Prof. H., Canberra University College.
BUTLIN, Prof. S. J., University of Sydney.
CONLON, AMr. A. A., Sydney.
COPLAND, Prof. Sir Douglas, National University, Canberra.
CRAWFORD, Mr. J. G., Bureau of Agricultural Economics, Canberra.
CR4AWFORD, Prof. R. NI., University of Melbourne.
CUNNINGHAM, Dr. K. S., Director, Australian Council for Educational
SResearch, Melbourne (Chairman).
CURTIN, Dr. P. W. E., Publc Seivice Board, Canberra.
ELKIN, Prof. A. P., Universit of Sydney.
FIRTH, Prof. G., L'niversity of Tasmania.
GIBSON, Prof. A. Boyce, University of Melbourne.
GIFFORD, Prof. J. K., University of Queensland.
GREENWOOD, Prof. G., University of Queensland.
-HASLUCK, AMr. P., House of Representatives, Canberra.
SHYTTEN, Prof. T., University of Tasmania.
IA NAUZE, Prof. J. A., University of Melbourne.
SMcRAE, Prof. C. R., University of Sydney.
MAULDON. Prof. F. R. E., University of Western Australia.
SMAZE, Mr. W. H.. University of Sydney.
OESER, Prof. O. A., University of Melbourne (Secretary).
.... O'NEIL, Prof. W. AM., University of Sydney.
i:.. PARTRIDGE, Prof. P. H., University of Sydney.
PREST, Prof. W., University of Melbourne.
SHATWELL, Prof. K. O., University of Sydney.
-STONE, Prof. Julus, University of Sydney.
STOUT, Prof. A. K., University of Sydney.
~WHITE, Mr. H. L., Commonwealth National Library, Canberra.
I";. WOOD, Prof. G. L., University of Melbourne.
WRIGHT, Prof. R. D., University of Melbourne.
Priedinndi Australia y .
Melbourne University # ess
Carlton, N.3, Victoria
:... .:. .