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Title: Australian social sciences abstracts
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Title: Australian social sciences abstracts
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Publication Date: March 1951
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Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1-18; Mar. 1946-Nov. 1954.
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Main
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
        Page 342
        Page 343
        Page 344
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
        Page 348
        Page 349
        Page 350
        Page 351
        Page 352
        Page 353
        Page 354
        Page 355
        Page 356
    Index to Nos. 10 and 11
        Page 357
        Page 358
        Page 359
        Page 360
        Page 361
        Page 362
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text



AUSTRALIAN

SOCIAL SCIENCE

ABSTRACTS


5 Ij OI

III


March,


1951


AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
Committee on Research in the Social Sciences
Registered in Australia for transmission by post as a periodical


305
i3v








AUSTRALIAN SOCIAL SCIENCE ABSTRACTS

EDITORIAL COMMITTEE
Dr. K. S. Cunningham (Chairman)
Professor R. M. Crawford, Professor O. A. Oeser, Professor G. L. Wood,
Mr. H. L. White
GENERAL EDITOR
Dr. F. Schnierer, Faculty of Economics and Commerce, University, Carlton,
N.3, Melbourne (on leave), Mrs. A. Grobtuch (Acting)
HONORARY ABSTRACTORS
ACCOUNTANCY-Mr. L. Goldberg and Miss J. Kerr.
AGRICULTURE AND RURAL PROBLEMS-Professor S. M. Wadham and
Messrs K. P. J. Barley and K. W. Hayes.
EcoNoMIcs-Professor G. L. Wood, Dr. D. Cochrane, Dr. O. de R.
Foenander, Dr. M. J. Grobtuch, Dr. J. E. Isaac, Dr. F. Schnierer,
Dr. S. P. Stevens, Messrs. S. S. McBurney and G. S. L. Tucker,
Mrs. A. Grobtuch and Miss M. G. Ronaldson.
EDUCATION-Dr. K. S. Cunningham.
GEOGRAPHY-Mr. E. J. Donath, Dr. F. Loewe, Mr. R. K. Wilson.
HISTORY-Professor R. M. Crawford, Assoc. Professor K. E. Fitz-
patrick, Messrs. A. L. Burns, R. F. Ericksen, K. Inglis and
J. A. C. Mackie, Mrs. J. Philipp.
LAw-Professor G. W. Paton.
PHILOSOPHY-Professor A. Boyce Gibson.
POLITICAL SCIENCE-Professor W. Macmahon Ball, Messrs. L. G.
Churchward, W. F. Petrie, E. E. Ward and H. Wolfsohn.
PSYCHOLOGY-Professor O. A. Oeser.
TERRITORIES AND NATIVE PROBLEIMS-Dr. L. Adam.
All communications should be addressed to the General Editor.
Subscription: 5s. per annum in Australian currency; 4s. sterling post free
within the Sterling area, $I outside the Sterling area.


CONTENTS


Economics-
Economics and Economic Policy
Industry, Trade and Commerce-
(a) General Works
(b) Individual Industries
Monetary Policy, Banking, Insurance
Public Finance
Accountancy
Transportation and Communication
Labour and Industrial Relations..
Agriculture, Land and Rural Problems
Political Science-
Government and Politics ..
International Relations
Social Conditions-
Housing
Social Security and Public Health
Social Surveys .
Population and Migration


Education
Geography
History
Law


Philosophy
Psychology .
Territories and Native Problems


.. 1725

1748
S 1759
S 1783
S 1790
S 1793
1798
.. 1805
1817

... 1836


.. 1853
. .. . 1854

S 1857
1864
1879
1901
. 1908
1914
1915
.. 1919


Australian Public Affairs Information Service, or A.P.A.I.S., indexes books,
magazine articles and government documents on Australian political, economic
and social affairs. It is published monthly by the Commonwealth National
Library, and will be sent free upon request to the Librarian.


i ii i






AUSTRALIAN
SOCIAL SCIENCE
ABSTRACTS















AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
Committee on Research in the Social Sciences








AUSTRALIAN SOCIAL SCIENCE ABSTRACTS

A publication of the Committee on Research in the Social Sciences, Australian
National Research Council, subsidized by the Commonwealth Government.

All communications should be addressed to the Editor, Faculty of Economics
and Commerce, University of Melbourne, Carlton, N.3, Victoria, Australia.



No. 11 March 1951 5s. or $i per annum



ABSTRACTS
Where the size of a Government publication or Parliamentary Paper (P.P.) is not given, it is 8 ins. x 131 ins.


ECONOMICS

(A) Economics and Economic Policy

1725. Scott, W. Greater Production-Its Problems and
Possibilities, with a Full Treatment of Incentives.
Law Book Co. of Australasia, 1950, pp. 685-
Price 3 o1s.
The book is in three parts. The first deals in broad
outline with the problem of greater production; the
psychological aspects, the position of management,
Trade Unions and the average employee. The second
part of the book comes down to the practical question of
how to get greater production-the approach to the
solution of the problem, the reduction of absenteeism,
dealing with excessive labour turnover, strikes, improve-
ment of methods of production and management, better
employer-employee relations and 'public relations'.
Part three deals with financial incentives and the results
achieved by various incentive plans that have been
tried. The value of incentive systems generally, the
question of Union hostility to incentive systems, and
suggested patterns for agreements with the Unions are
dealt with.

1726. Halsey, T. H. Decentralisation-Its Social and
Economic Implications. Commonwealth Division
of Regional Development, Canberra, 1949,
pp. 92 roneoedd).
The present distribution pattern of Australia's popula-
tion and industry has serious social, strategic and, to
some extent, economic disadvantages. Whereas some
capital cities have tended to become too large, almost
all country towns have remained too small to function
efficiently as modern social and economic units. In
most instances remedies so far employed under the
general term of decentralisationn' have not yet passed
the initial stages, in others they have concentrated on
unsuitable objects. Measures have been based on
rather transient conditions and already appear to have
reached the limit of effectiveness. The principal con-
clusion arising from this study is the necessity for a
better balance of the distribution of population in
Australia. Clearly the most realistic way in which this
can be brought about is to influence the location of new
development and future population rather than aim at
the re-distribution of existing population and industries.
Attached are a bibliography listing 1o6 items and
five appendices.


1727. Australia. Overseas Economic Surveys. His
Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1950,
pp. 155. Price 4s.
Another report issued by the Department of Overseas
Trade of the U.K. Board of Trade presents a Survey of
Economic and Commercial Conditions in Australia.
Chapters profusely illustrated with statistics are devoted
to production, finance, transport and communications,
external trade, tariff policy and administration, and
social conditions. There are seventeen appendices and
a map of Australia.-M.J.G.

1728. National Income and Expenditure 1949-50. Com-
monwealth Government Printer, Canberra, 1950,
pp.12.
A survey of the five post-war years and a comparison
of these years with 1938-39. The national income rose
a further s6 per cent in one year and at 2,265 m. was
approaching a figure three times the pre-war level.
Personal income and gross national product show com-
parable increases. Outstanding features include the
increase in imports to five times the pre-war level and
an increase in capital investment to nearly a quarter of
the gross national product. Consumption expenditure
and standards have been more than maintained with
investment in new motor vehicles rising from less than
zo per cent to over 20 per cent of the total. Private
investment (including public housing) has been over
70 per cent of the total in each of the last five years.
Additional tables and figures show the state of trading
enterprises, financial enterprises, receipts and outlay of
public authorities, balance of international payments,
personal income and outlay and capital account.-M.J.G.

1729. Report on Prices, Wages, and Labour Statistics of
New Zealand for the Year 1948. Government
Printer, Wellington, 1950, pp. 38. Price 3s. 6d.
The upward trend of prices and wages observed
during 1947 was continued during 1948, and, in the case
of retail and wholesale prices, at an accelerated pace.
The curves for export and import prices, though still
rising, flattened considerably and share prices registered
a definite decline. A large number of statistical tables
covers prices (retail, wholesale, import and export,
shares) wage rates and hours of labour, statistics of
employment and industrial disputes as well as member-
ship of industrial unions.-M.J.G.








1730. Solving the Problems of Full Employment. Pro-
ceedings of the Australian Top Management
Conference, Institute of Industrial Management,
Melbourne, 1950, pp. 48.
This pamphlet includes the papers presented at the
Conference and also the comments and summaries of
the ensuing discussion. The titles and authors of the
three addresses are: 'Management's Problems in a
Situation of Full Employment' by D. E. Lewis, 'The
Employee's Viewpoint in a Situation of Full Employ-
ment' by M. C. Jordan, 'A Psychological Analysis of
Management's and Employees' Problems' by K. F.
Walker.
1731. Report on Food Production and the Consumption
of Foodstuffs and Nutrients in Australia. Com-
monwealth Government Printer, Canberra, 1950,
pp. 42.
The data is for 1948-49 with comparative data for the
pre-war period and for each of the years 1946-47 and
1947-48. There was a remarkable recovery in the
sugar industry and a considerable improvement in
dairying and meat production. Cereal crops were in
excess of pre-war crops. Consumption of sugar and
potatoes decreased and that of meat, vegetables and
beverages increased. Comparative figures for exports
are also provided. There was little change in the
nutritive value of the average quantity of foodstuffs
available to Australians in 1948-49 as compared with
1947-48.-M.J.G.
1732. The Australian Economy, 1950. D. Copland.
Lloyds Bank Review (London), pp. 1-21, October
i950.
Since the close of the Second World War, Australia's
most pressing economic problem has been the persistent
upward pressure on prices. This condition, associated
with a corresponding 'shortage of labour', has been
largely generated by the rise of export incomes-an
external factor similar in its effects to our overseas
borrowing in the 1920's. Sir Douglas Copland dis-
cusses the effects of this export boom, together with
internal factors, which, by either impeding a rise in
productivity, particularly in the basic industries, or by
contributing to the rapid rise of total expenditure, have
stimulated the inflation. This implies a detailed critique
of monetary and fiscal policy in the post-war period.
It is suggested that in the near future, capital develop-
ment inevitably associated with Australia's immigration
programme will supersede the rise of export incomes as
the major cause of inflation. Since this investment
programme would involve either a substantial increase
in the rate of inflation, or an increase of private saving
unattainable in a peace-time economy, external aid is
necessary. The U.S.A. is the only country in a position
to supply this aid, and it is felt that the proposition
would be acceptable in that country. Post-war economic
and political developments require a closer financial
link between the U.S.A. and Australia, particularly in
view of the role which Australia has elected to play in the
South Pacific.-G.S.L.T.

1733. Australia's Economic Future. Australasian
Business Conditions Bulletin, pp. 1-8, October
1950.
The problem is outlined and various solutions such as
revaluation of the A, export duty on wool, dollar loan,
and rationalisation of investment are discussed.

1734. Developments in Economic Thought 1924-1950.
D. Copland. An address delivered at the
University of Melbourne on 23 May, 1950,
pp. 19.


The year 1925 saw the foundation of the Faculty of
Commerce in the University of Melbourne, and the
establishment of the Economic Society of Australia
and N.Z. Sir Douglas Copland recalls both these
events, and discusses the subsequent development of
the two institutions. This leads to a survey of economic
theory and policy in Australia over the last three
decades, and an assessment of the strength and weakness
of the 'Melbourne School' during that period.
This survey covers Australia's problems associated
with economic development in the I92o's, unemploy-
ment and reduced real incomes in the early 1930's,
and inflationary pressures in the I940's. The last
problem leads to a review of the difficulties which we
may expect to be associated with full employment in the
future, and to some suggestions regarding an anti-
inflationary policy desirable to combat the current
upsurge of prices. In each instance, the lecturer
emphasises the inter-relations between the peculiar
structure of the Australian economy, the theoretical
characteristics of Australian economics, and the policies
proposed by Australian economists.-G.S.L.T.

1735. The Balance of Payments. I.P.A. Review,
pp. ixi-i18, July-August 1950.
Trade figures for the financial year 1948-49 as com-
pared with 1949-50 reveal that imports have increased
by 122 m., but exports increased only by 74 m.
A rise of 87 m. in wool exports partly offset the decline
in other exports, e.g., wheat and flour which have fallen
by 1o m. Consequently our favourable balance of
trade for the last year dropped from 127 m. to 79 m.
Our 5oo m. reserves of sterling and foreign currencies
at present amount to a little more than the cost of our
annual imports at current prices. Our increasing
dependence on imports still aggravates the situation,
in 1938-39 imports represented 14 per cent of national
income, and in 1948-49 21 per cent. Their relative
importance and composition have also changed con-
siderably, materials and capital equipment steadily
replacing consumers' goods over the last twenty years.

1736. The Wage-Earners Share of the National Income.
Memorandum from Prof. W. Prest. I.P.A.
Review, pp. 119-120o, July-August 1950.
The author enumerates some shortcomings of the
Australian National Income Statistics and questions the
reliability of conclusions based on such data. His
argument rests on: (i) Failure to show wages and
salaries separately. (2) A substantial part of 'profits
from unincorporated businesses' could be regarded as
wages or salaries in respect of the proprietors' labour.
(3) The need for more research to clarify the recipients
of rent intts, interests and dividends. (4) Misgivings as to
what part of national income is paid in a particular
form, not what part is paid to a particular class.

1737. Planned Development of Queensland's Resources.
J. R. Kemp. Queensland Government Mining
Journal, Jubilee Number, pp. 445-454, June 1950.
The author, Co-Ordinator-General of Public Works,
Queensland, first deals with water conservation and
irrigation-the Mareeba and Dimbulah and the Burdekin
irrigation projects, the Burdekin and Tully Falls hydro-
electric projects ; then with regional electrical develop-
ment and subsidies to local bodies for development.
Next follows a survey of hospitals, schools and housing
construction. Local buildings materials production
(bricks, tiles, etc.) is encouraged. Further sections are
concerned with South West Channel activities, coal
resources (Callide, Blair Athol) including transport,
activities of the Queensland-British Food Corporation








(growing of grain sorghum and cattle grazing in Central
Queensland), the Burdekin River bridge, port develop-
ment including ship building, the Bureau of Investiga-
tion, and the University of Queensland.

1738. National Output, Income and Expenditure of
N.S.W., 1891. H. W. Arndt and N. G. Butlin.
Economic Record, pp. 30-49, June 1950.
1891 was chosen for this 'pilot study', partly because
the census of that year provides detailed economic data,
partly for comparison with T. A. Coghlan's estimate
(see abstract No. 1513 in No. io of this journal). For
estimating national output (67 m. net, 8I m. gross)
the output and income methods were used for different
parts of the national output depending on the available
data. The estimate of national income is mainly a
classification of the output estimate according to the
present official concepts. The national expenditure
estimate is largely based on output and income calcula-
tions, but provides some cross-check on these estimates.
Another estimate, probably the least reliable, concerns
the balance of international payments of N.S.W.
(4,129,ooo). There may be a margin of error of
five per cent. Investment is as high as 23 per cent of
net national income or 21 per cent excluding natural
increase of livestock. The share of the tertiary industries
in net national output is 37-5 per cent.
Of two appendices the first presents detailed references
to the sources, the second a comparison with Coghlan's
estimate.

1739. The World Will Save More Money in the 1950's.
Colin Clark. Fortune (Chicago), pp. 88-91,
117-128, July 1950.
This article examines the need and possibilities of
international investment throughout the world in the
decade that has just opened. It makes estimates of the
rate of growth of world population and productivity,
in the light of which the probable rate of saving as a
percentage of national income is estimated for each
country. These calculations lead to the conclusion
that the U.S.A. and the British Dominions (outside
Asia) almost immediately, and Western Europe and
Japan as soon as war damage is overtaken, will find
themselves with a capacity to produce goods well
beyond their internal requirements for consumption and
investments. Serious difficulties will have to be faced
in the event of these 'surplus savings' countries being
unable or unwilling to invest abroad. The article
concludes that an important means of overcoming some
of these difficulties is to create a World Bank that deals
only with the Central Banks of individual countries,
and bears to them the same relation as they do to their
own trading banks.-J.E.I.
1740. Australia's Capital Requirements. Economic News,
pp. 1-4, May 1950.
Capital (the accumulation of net investments of each
year) in Australia, including private and public invest-
ment, the latter represented by loan expenditure of
public authorities on 'new works', is calculated in I.U.
for 1903, 1915, 1929, 1942 and 1949, also capital per
person in work (3556 I.U. in 1903, 5762 in 1949). Future
Australian capital requirements are estimated for I952,
1957 and 1962 under three alternative assumptions:
annual net gains by migration of I2o,ooo, I5o,ooo and
i8o,ooo, with averages for quinquennial periods. The
annual net investment in Australia was i4'9 per cent
of real national income in 1938 and I5-3 per cent in
1948-49. Comparisons of Australian savings as per-
centage of national income with those in various other
countries do not bear out the opinion that the proportion


of national income saved always increases with rising
productivity. Australia will not need overseas capital
imports, but will be one of the few capital-exporting
countries.
1741. Capital Resources and their Accumulation.
Review of Economic Progress, pp. 1-4, January
1950, pp. i-io, February-March 1950.
This paper deals with the measurement of real
national capital which presents greater difficulties than
that of real national income. A long-period function
determining capital requirements at a given level of real
income is worked out (in I.U.) Figures are given for
various years and countries for capital stock in I.U. per
person in work, and for U.S. net accumulation in billion
I.U. per decade, analysed by nature of capital and use of
capital. Next follow similar data for Canada, Chile,
U.K., France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Den-
mark, Norway, Sweden, Italy, Poland, Palestine, South
Africa, India, Japan, Australia. For a number of
countries and years net savings as per cent of national
income are compared with real income in I.U. per man-
hour, also with reference to the age composition of the
population. Further figures concern capital require-
ments at 1936 prices per decade in a number of un-
developed countries, percentages of income saved in
Japan and U.S., estimates of capital requirements in
Latin American countries, capital losses through
destruction in World War II in different countries,
foreign capital in I.U. per head of population. In
conclusion formulas are worked out for calculating the
share of labour in product in selected countries, including
Australia at various times.

1742. A Farm-Price-Tribunal. Sheila Rowley and
E. J. Underwood. The Australian Quarterly,
pp. 35-46, September 1950.
Stability of primary producers' incomes is a very
essential part of any overall plan for maintaining a high
level of employment. This article discusses the prob-
lems which arise if an attempt is made to stabilise these
incomes by means of a price determining authority.
The present Commonwealth Government has announced
its intention of setting up a Cost-Finding Tribunal and
has expressed the hope that price decisions affecting
primary industries will be removed from the arena of
political controversy. The writers consider this object-
ive will not be achieved unless the Tribunal has the
power to determine the prices to be paid to the farmers
for their produce.
This would involve an amendment to the Constitution
so that the writers are concerned to investigate the reasons
why prices of farm products should be fixed and to
complete this analysis with a discussion of the difficulties
to be encountered in arriving at a 'fair' price. Finally
an assessment of the likelihood of success of such a
policy is attempted.-D.C.
1743. Facing Inflation. Donald Cochrane. The Aus-
tralian Quarterly, pp. 90-96, September 1950.
This article gives a brief account of the extent of the
inflationary pressure existing in the middle of 195o.
The main causes of the inflation are revealed by an
examination of the factors which affect aggregate demand
and supply. On the demand side these factors are the
volume of personal wealth held in the form of money,
high current demand for consumption and investment
goods and the rising prices of exports. On the supply
side the factors distinguished are the existence of an
unbalanced production, the presence of industrial
unrest and inefficient methods of production in many
industries.








Fiscal policy measures and adjustments to the ex-
change rates can be used to reduce the pressure of
demand, while the supply of goods can be increased by
imports and improvements in productivity. It is
mainly by striving towards technical efficiency that an
increase in production is envisaged and at the same time
inflation overcome and the standard of living improved.
-D.C.

1744. Lord Keynes and Prevention of Depression.
Dudley Dillard. I.P.A. Review, pp. 144-152,
September-October 1950.
Professor Dillard gives a brief survey of Lord Keynes'
most famous book 'The General Theory of Employ-
ment, Interest and Money'. He opens with a discussion
of the relation between the theories of 'classical'
economics and the 'New' economics, continues with an
outline of the theory of effective demand and income
determination, illustrates the argument by references
to fiscal policy measures as a means of overcoming
unemployment together with an account of Keynes'
inflation and wage policies, and concludes by considering
the question of Keynes' political beliefs.-D.C.

1745. Economic Effects of High Wool Prices. J. R.
Hamilton. The Accountants' Journal (N.Z.),
pp. 19-22, July 1950.
After discussing the reasons for the steep increase in
prices for New Zealand wool in 1949-50, the author
comes to the conclusion that on the whole the higher
income accruing to the wool growers should not have
a strongly inflationary effect on the country's economy.
His conclusions are based on assumptions about wool
growers' savings (trading bank advances to them
declined by about 20 per cent between 1948-50), the
effects of income taxation (if additional income from
this source is used to create a budget surplus) and
increased imports (which would channel some of the
increased expenditure to other countries). A slight
increase in home production is envisaged in the long run
as a consequence of higher wool income.-S.P.S.

1746. Employment, Productivity and Income in New
Zealand Farming. F. S. Bray. International
Labour Review, pp. 461-491, May 1950.
The gross productivity of New Zealand rural industries
and productivity per farm worker, are surveyed his-
torically and much evidence is presented to show that
New Zealand has a high labour productivity in farming.
This unique position is attributed to the combination
of a number of factors, the main ones being; mild climate,
an abundance of land, a ready availability of capital,
excellent technical farm services and marketing services,
easy transferability of land, and the tradition of the
working farmer.-R.K.W.

1747. Full Employment in New Zealand. N. Ruth.
Economic Record, pp. 98-103, June 1950.
This paper is concerned with the proportion of the
population actually in employment. The N.Z. Labour
Party, in power since 1936, pursued a policy of social
betterment for the working class which made a full
employment policy superfluous. In 1936 the total labour
force was 66.85 per cent of the total male population,
in 1945 62.53 per cent. In 1936, 36,000 people were
unemployed, i.e., 4-73 per cent of the male population.
The decline of population in the labour force in 1945 was
4'32 per cent, so that in 1945 there was no higher
percentage employed than in 1936. This is due partly to
a trend towards earlier retirement, of males aged 65 and
more 44 per cent were retired in 1936, 8o05


per cent in 1945. Children attend schools to a
later age : the percentage of children continuing to
post-primary schools was 65 in 1937, 85 in 1946.
In addition, the working week in 1936 was shortened
from 44 and 48 to 40 hours. All this explains the
labour shortage without real full employment.

(B) Industry, Trade and Commerce

(a) General Works
1748. Economic Development in Selected Countries:
Plans, Programmes and Agencies, Vol. II, pp. 3-40.
United Nations, Department of Economic
Affairs, Lake Success, 195o. Price $2.oo
The chapter on Australia contains a factual descriptive
account of the most significant aspects of the programmes
for economic development, and a brief survey of the
governmental organizations responsible for their imple-
mentation-Irrigation and water conservation, manufac-
turing industries, iron and steel, power, housing,
public works, forest conservation and development,
development and reconstruction in the Northern
Territory and New Guinea.-E.J.D.

1749. State Electricity Commission of Queensland.
Thirteenth Report. P.P. Government Printer,
Brisbane, 1950, pp. 62.
The principal characteristics in the electricity supply
field during the past year has again been the concentra-
tion on the developmental side, together with further
rapid increases in the overall demand for electricity
supply, and a continuing rise in the cost of labour and
materials. Further new works including the Tully
Falls Hydro Electricity Scheme were put in hand and
others are scheduled for commencement in the current
financial year. Their cost is estimated at 22 m.
The activities of the Commission in financial control,
central purchasing, inspectorial and approvals work,
and engineering services, as well as developments in all
parts of the State are reviewed in detail and 15 appendices
provide an abundance of statistical data.

1750. Tariff Board. Annual Report for Year ended
30 June 195o. Government Printer, Canberra,
pp. 38.
During this year, the personnel of the Tariff Board
was changed except for the Chairman, Mr. McCarthy.
The new Board furnished a rather tentative report
based on first impressions, and pointed out that it
intended to inquire fully into such questions as :-
the class of matter being referred to the Board for in-
vestigation, the pace of advancement of new industries,
the possibility of the tariff providing for price increases
in periods of rising costs, the height of the tariff, the
advantages taken by Australian and overseas suppliers,
the protection by the tariff of manufacturers paying
special wage rates to attract employees, and finally, the
simplification of the tariff. Production costs of Aus-
tralian industries are then analysed as direct, material,
and other costs and the conclusion is reached that
devaluation provides an unparalleled opportunity for a
present attack on costs.-M.G.R.

1751. The Future of Australia's Trade with Eastern
Countries. E. E. Ward and L. Davie. Common-
wealth Bank of Australia, June 1950, pp. 7.
E. E. Ward discusses the opinion in the East on the
future of trade between Australia and Eastern Countries.
He finds the official attitude to be one of encouragement
but emphasises the difficulty facing Australian products








in these markets. A separate note is devoted to trade
relations with Japan.
L. Davie gives the Australian viewpoint. Future
trade prospects in the East depend on a number of
factors such as political attitudes and trade conditions
in the East, continuity of supply and shipping, develop-
ment of secondary industries in the East, etc. Until
Australia's own demands for capital equipment are
satisfied it is not expected that she would be able to
supply other countries with this equipment.-M.J.G.

1752. Australian-American Trade Relations, 1791-1939.
L. G. Churchward. Economic Record, pp. 69-86,
June 1950.
A summary of Australian-U.S. trade relations in six
historical phases. In the period 1791-1812 U.S.
shipping to Australia was a supplement to the China
trade. After a complete standstill trade was resumed
in 1831 and until 1849 it was a supplement to the Pacific
island trade (flour, tobacco, etc.) The second period,
1849-1870 was characterized by the goldrush and its
aftermath, again there were mainly U.S. imports (flour,
tobacco, hardware, etc.) and a few Australian exports
(mainly coal). In the third period, 1871-1908, in-
creasingly U.S. machinery was imported, and Australian
wool exported, particularly after 1894. Sections IV
and V deal with Australian imports from and exports to
U.S. from 19o8 (adoption of a preferential tariff in
Australia)-1929. In the 1920's U.S. goods reached
the highest percentages in total Australian imports in
tobacco ; oils, fats and waxes; timber; scientific,
optical and medical instruments; machinery and metal
manufactures. Australian exports, mainly wool, hides
and skins, were roughly one-third of the imports.
Significant for the fifth stage, 1929-1938, was the
depression, the Ottawa preferences and the Australian
trade diversion policy 1936-38. During all these
periods Australian-U.S. trade was one-sided, except for
wool and skins U.S. does not provide a good market for
Australian goods.

1753. Trends in Oversea Trade. Trends, pp. 7-1o,
July 1950.
A brief survey of problems connected with Australian
exports and imports. In 1948-49 prices of our merchan-
dise exports were 41 times those of imports, 2z times the
pre-war level. In the first nine months of 1949-50
the value of exports rose by 9 per cent, that of imports
by 25 per cent. Forty-two per cent of our exports go
to U.K., 50 per cent of our imports come from U.K.
An increasing proportion of our imports is capital
equipment. Further sections deal with the dollar
shortage, the accumulation of funds overseas-which
might provide a 'cushion' if our export income falls-and
with the exchange rate. An appreciation of A could
not mean much in terms of cost of living because only
ith of our imports are finished goods. A fall in
export income would hit hard not wool and wheat
producers, but dairy, meat and fruit producers.

1754. Design of Buildings in Relation to Materials
Handling. W. Mahoney. Manufacturing and
Management, pp. 356-360, May 1950.
Factories, warehouses and freight terminals should
be designed according to the proposed materials handling
system. This is shown with reference to new projects
and to the replanning of old buildings which had been
designed before modern handling methods had come
into being. Special sections deal with road and rail
transport, with loading, storage facilities, warehouses
and factory buildings, doorways, wharf aprons and floors.


1755. Import Control in New Zealand 1938-1950.
R. F. Wilson. Economic Record, pp. 50-68,
June 1950.
Import control in N.Z. has remained unchanged since
its beginning in 1938, but for some minor alterations
in 1949 and 1950. An annual import licensing schedule
provides 'basic' licences, i.e., a percentage of a previous
year's licences of certain goods from specified countries.
Difficult and detailed work has to be done by the Customs
Department so that it often takes three and more months
until an application is decided. If goods can be
produced locally at a reasonable price, no licence is to
be granted. Statistics presented show fluctuations of
overseas indebtedness, N.Z. imports according to classes
of goods-imports of raw materials for manufacturers
have relatively increased, those of consumer goods
declined-the percentage of imports to the volume of
goods available for consumption, imports from certain
countries (U.K., Australia), the effects of import control
on farm production and on industrial expansion. In
conclusion the author doubts that a balanced economy
has been achieved, pre-import control industries, such as
woollen mills, show diminished output, their equip-
ment is partly idle. Protection has been given to
economic and uneconomic new industries. Import
restrictions should now be modified.

1756. Queensland's Industrial Development. Colin
Clark. Queensland Government Mining Journal,
Jubilee Number, pp. 435-437, June 1950.
The percentage of the working population in Queens-
land engaged in industry rose slowly from I6"3 in 1901
to i7'8 in 1933, but more rapidly to 19'5 in 1947, while
the percentage engaged in primary industry and in
mining fell and that in 'service' industries rose at a
higher rate. The rise in total factory employment
from 1938-39 to 1948-49 was 52 per cent, the average
size of the factory and its capital employed had become
larger. Some industries have expanded greatly as
those processing primary products, metals and other
minerals, fuel and power industries, others (textiles)
much less. In future when our cost level will rise to
that of other countries, efficiency will decide whether
some new manufacturing industries will stay in business.

1757. The Development of Hydro-Electric Power in
New Zealand. L. F. Withers. New Zealand
Geographer, pp. 53-65, April 1950.
The growth of hydro-electro power in New Zealand
over the last half-century is surveyed. The building
of power-stations has been almost wholly a Government
effort, though the power is sold in bulk to local boards
which resell to the public. More than 95 per cent of
electric power produced is hydro-generated, so that
both primary and secondary industry are heavily
dependent on this power source.-R.K.W.

1758. New Zealand Standards Council (Department of
Industry and Commerce). Annual Report for
Year 1949-50. P.P. Government Printer,
Wellington, 1950, pp. 22. Price 9d.
In the year under review I io new standard specifica-
tions (93 N.Z., 17 British) were recommended for
declaration, and 22 for withdrawal. The total stands
now at 902 (775 regular, 4 Government purchasing,
123 emergency). Forty-two new licences were issued
to use the Standard Mark, and 280 were cancelled
bringing the total of the licences in force to 825. Other
parts of the report are concerned with building and
primary industry standards as well as with technological,
commercial and domestic commodity standardisation.








Finally international standardisation and the exchange
of standard specifications with foreign countries are
referred to.

(b) Individual Industries

1759. Wool, 1949-1950. Birt & Co. Ltd., Sydney,
August 1950, pp. 64.
The last season was the most successful in the history
of the wool industry. The average prices obtained per
bale and per lb. exceeded all previous records although
the 1949-50 clip was not of super quality. The total
value of dealings in this period is estimated at A289"3 m.
compared with A2z6-4 m. in 1948-49.
The decline in the American clip position and the
continuance of the export drives in the U.K. and other
countries combined with the return of the Western
Germany and Japan to the world market account for
the increased demand for wool. There is mention of
the danger of the use of wool substitutes encouraged
by the rising prices. There follows a summary of
Australian wool exports. Next chapter includes reports
about different Australian states as well as about the
London Market, New Zealand and South Africa.
In conclusion some statistical data are presented.
176o. Sixty-First Annual Wool Review. Winchcombe,
Carson Ltd., Sydney, May 1950, pp. 2o.
A review of the Sydney, Newcastle and Brisbane wool
markets in 1949-50, arranged in a similar way as for
1948-49 (see abstract No. 1099 in No. 8 of this journal).
Record prices and quantities sold even extended to the
formerly cheaper medium to coarse types of crossbreds.
The blending of star lot skirings into large lots has
proved very valuable. U.K. has become again the
world's greatest export country of woollen goods.
One-fifth of the local clip is sold to Australian concerns.
Important is the increased buying by Italy, Germany and
Japan. The future of the wool market is believed to be
very bright. Australia now grows 60 per cent of the
world's merino wool and 36 per cent of the world's
output of apparel type wool.
1761. Wool Textile Industry in Australia. M. F.
Schwartz. The WoolDigest (Melbourne), pp. 16-
25, August 1950.
The Wool Digest reprinted this article from the U.S.A.
Department of Commerce publication 'World Trade
in Commodities', May 1950. This article is based on
the latest statistics, then available, on the manufacture
of woollen textiles and takes in the years between 1936-37
and 1947-48. The great strides made by this industry
become evident in spite of the considerable difficulties
confronting industrial expansion in the post-war period,
due mainly to a shortage of labour. Yarn production
was 34 per cent greater in Australia in 1947-48 than in
1938-39. However, imports of woollen piece-goods
showed a gain of 74 per cent between these years. At
the same time Australian exports also showed a con-
siderable increase. 1942-43 output figures remain still
higher than those available for the most recent year at
the time of writing of the article. The conclusion was
reached that Australia could be said to be self-sufficient
in wool piece-goods of all types. With more skilled
labour available it might even become independent as
far as speciality and luxury materials are concerned.-
S.P.S.
1762. Meat. A Summary. Commonwealth Economic
Commission, London, 195o, pp. ioi. Price 5s.
In Australia the number of cattle has increased from
I3-8 m. in 1948 to 14I- m. in 1949 as a result of efforts


to stimulate beef production. Sheep population is
recovering from the losses of drought of 1944-45 and
its number has increased from 1o2-6 m. in 1948 to
lo8-7 m. in 1949, but it is still well below the peak of
1942. Pig-meat production shows continuous decline
from wartime levels. In view of U.K. balance of
payments difficulties efforts have been made to expand
beef production in the Northern Territory and pig
production in Queensland; it is hoped eventually to
increase the output of beef by approximately I m. cwt.
p.a. and that of pig-meat by 500oo,ooo carcases. Export
of canned meat remains at the same level. Appendices
contain information on government measures affecting
meat production, distribution and trade agreements.

1763. Dairy Produce. Commonwealth Economic Com-
mittee, London, 1950, pp. 122. Price 5s.
This is a summary of figures on production, trade and
consumption of butter, cheese, preserved milk, casein,
eggs, egg products and margarine. Exports of butter,
cheese and preserved milk were 33 per cent of total
exports from N.Z. and 7 per cent of those from
Australia in 1948. In the separate sections on dairy
herds, milk production and utilisation, butter, cheese,
etc., there are numerous tables giving figures of produc-
tion, consumption, exports and distribution, concerning
Australia and N.Z. from 1938 to 1948 and some data
for 1949. On the whole butter production has largely
given way to cheese manufacture. Appendix I deals
with Government measures affecting dairy products in
certain countries, among them Australia (pp. 96-99):
contracts with U.K., assistance to dairy industry, price
control and rationing; and N.Z. (pp. 99-13) : U.K.
contracts, price stabilisation arrangements, rationing.

1764. The Queensland-British Food Corporation. Second
Annual Report for Year 1949-50, pp. 31.
This is the report of the Corporation on its activities
during second year of operations. The Corporation
has acquired 487,121 acres of land for the growing
of grain and grazing of cattle. In spite of adverse
climatic conditions 7,000 tons of sorghum and 40,000 lbs.
of sunflower were harvested in 1948-49 season. Out of
this crop 5,958 tons of sorghum were sold to U.K.
Ministry of Food for the total amount of Aio6,125, the
balance being retained for use as seed and pig feed and
as a drought reserve. Plant, machinery, equipment and
materials and grazing activities are mentioned. A
section on finances concludes the report. Five plates
and a map are attached.

1765. Laffer, H. E. The Wine Industry of Australia.
Australian Wine Board, Adelaide, 1949, pp. 136.
The history of growing grapes is traced back right to
the arrival of the first fleet in 1788, with special reference
to N.S.W., S.A. and Victoria and the irrigation areas.
The trade with the United Kingdom, Imperial Prefer-
ence, nomenclature, home consumption, and wine
importations into U.K. from 1786 onwards are dealt
with in detail. A great number of illustrations, tables
and graphs.-E.J.D.

1766. Australian Wine Board, 22nd Report for Year
1949-50, pp. 15-
The production of wine for 1949-50, including
distillation wine, is estimated at 32 m. gallons and
compares with a total production last year of 34 m.
gallons. Production of brandy in the same period
dropped from 804,000 proof gallons to 792,000 proof
gallons. Export of wine as a whole continued to decrease
during the past year, due mainly to the excessive duties








on dessert wines, which are still in operation in the U.K.
Total exports of wine decreased from I,879,ooo gallons
to I,o84,0oo gallons, slight increases in trade being
recorded only in trade with British West Indies, Hong
Kong, Malaya and Singapore. The position was
relieved by a continued increasing demand in Australia
reaching a new record level of 11,385,000 gallons.
There was also a decrease in total exports of brandy
(from 132,957 to 10o,oo002 proof gallons), although the
N.Z. market showed an appreciable increase. Eleven
tables present comparisons of production and trade
figures.
1767. Australian Honey Industry. G. 0. Gutman.
Quarterly Review of Agricultural Economics,
pp. 105-o18, July 1950.
Honey production in Australia has reached record
heights. The average output over the last three seasons
has been 35 m. lb., or twice the average of pre-war
production. At the same time, however, export sales
have dropped sharply, and to assist the industry 20,000
will be spent on publicity. Present and future marketing
prospects for Australian honey industry are also dis-
cussed.

1768. Jute Supply Position. J. M. Clark. Quarterly
Review of Agricultural Economics, pp. 111-115,
July 1950.
The importance to the Australian rural economy of
Indian jute supplies has been highlighted by the
recurrent shortages experienced in recent years. The
spectacular rises in the prices of jute goods have
exerted an appreciable influence on the costs of produc-
tion of the majority of Australian farm products. In
India and Pakistan (producing 98 per cent of the world's
jute) a new situation emerged as a result of partition and
currency adjustments. Stabilisation of the export
price and current economic policies of both countries
should bring about an increase in the production of
jute in the next few years, but a much longer time is
needed to catch up with the world demand.
1769. Berry Fruit Industry. Clare Macnicol. Quarterly
Review of Agricultural Economics, pp. 115-118,
July 1950.
In Australia, 6,300 acres are devoted to berry culture,
80 per cent of which is in southern Tasmania. The
following are the varieties of berry fruits grown com-
mercially arranged in order of importance: raspberry,
black currant, strawberry, gooseberry, loganberry, and
red currant. At present, the prospects for the berry
fruit industry are rather uncertain because it is threatened
with a contraction of its export to the U.K. The solu-
tion of this problem is seen in the expansion of Australian
internal markets. Air transport and new methods of
refrigeration offer an opportunity to capture new
markets and to expand the existing ones.
177o. Australian Canned Fruits Board, 24th Annual
Report for Year 1949-50, pp. 23.
A full report of the operations of the Board. The
1949-50 season's pack was the largest aggregate pack
processed to date in Australia and amounted to 3 m.
standard cases. It would have been substantially
greater, but for severe loss of fruit (principally peaches)
due to adverse conditions. The stocks available were
insufficient to meet all market demands and the prices,
particularly export prices, have been remunerative.
However, the uncertainty concerning the future of the
industry remains because of the improved dollar position
in the U.K. which may lead to imports of canned fruits
from the U.S.A., and the possibility of further contraction
of Empire tariff preferences, as a result of the I.L.O.


Conference to be held this year. Appendices give
comparative data of production, exports (and their
destination).
1771. Dried Fruits Board of South Australia. Twenty-
first Report for Year ended 28 February 1949.
Government Printer, Adelaide, pp. Io.
The S.A. pack for 1949 was 11,298 tons of dried vine
fruits (17,300 in 1948) and 1,9o1 tons of dried tree
fruits (1,645). The lean season is attributable to the
adverse climatic conditions during the drying period,
the continued diversion of drying grapes to the wine
trade as well as to the increasing demand for fresh
fruits by canneries and jam factories. Details are
given about the output of various irrigated and non-
irrigated areas, and about market allocation. Appendices
present statistical data on production.
1772. Report of the New South Wales Dried Fruits
Board for 1949. P.P. Government Printer,
Sydney, 1950, pp. 7.
Production in 1949 was the lowest since 1935, mainly
because of adverse weather. The total of vine fruits
was 4,909 tons (8,oz2 in 1948), of tree fruits 1,395 (2,837),
particularly the output of sultanas and prunes fell
heavily. The Coomealla irrigation area (Murray
River) is now the highest production area in N.S.W.
In conjunction with other State Boards the Board has to
fix quotas for home consumption, and because of the
poor harvest the local demand could not be fully
satisfied. Appendices present data on production and
finances.

1773. Measures of Abundance of Pelagic Fish. M.
Blackburn and J. A. Tubb. C.S.I.R.O. Bulletin
No. 251, Melbourne, 1950, pp. 74.
This is a detailed progress statement on the quantita-
tive aspects of the geographical and seasonal distribution
of certain important pelagic (surface) fishes, especially
those not yet exploited commercially, in some waters
of south-eastern Australia. The species dealt with are
the pilchard, Australian 'salmon', horse-mackerel, sprat,
and anchovy. The attempts which have been made
to develop fisheries are summarised, and some tentative
conclusions are drawn as to the lines along which success
can most probably be achieved in the future.

1774. The Australian Mineral Industry 1949 Review.
Ministry of National Development, Bureau of
Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics,
1950, pp. 186.
The Australian mineral industry in 1949 was pro-
foundly affected by two outstanding events. One of
them was the coal strike which caused a serious curtail-
ment in output, the other was the depreciation of the
pound with higher value of our metal and mineral trade
as its result. Production efforts were marked by acute
shortages of labour, housing, equipment and materials.
There was increased output of some minerals, but most
of the basic minerals showed little change and several,
particularly iron ore, showed a decided drop in output
(from 2,042,000 tons to 1,460,000 tons). The increase
in the total recorded value of the mineral production
from 64 m. in 1948 to 73 m. in 1949 follows largely
from increased prices of coal, gold, silver and zinc.
Minerals whose recorded values exceed i m. include
in order of value: coal (black and brown), lead, gold,
zinc, copper, silver, iron ore and tin. Building stones
and road materials, gravel, clays, limestone and cement
belong also to this category. In addition, the report
includes separate mineral reviews arranged in alphabetical
order and in relation to States and Territories.








1775. Department of Mines, Victoria. Annual Report,
Including Gold and Mineral Statistics for the
Year 1949. Government Printer, Melbourne,
1950, pp. 36.
Victoria produced 68,426 fine ounces of gold during
1949 (154 ounces below the figure for the previous year),
valued at A839,3i6. The north-eastern portion of
the State has become the main centre of gold-mining,
producing more than half of the gold output, and its
importance to the stability of the industry in this State
was highlighted, during 1949, by a serious decline of
prospects on the Bendigo field where only seven mines
now remain in production. The increase in the price
of gold gave tangible assistance to all gold mine operators,
and actually saved several companies from closing down.
The increase from io 15s. 3d. to 15 9s. xod. a fine
ounce compensates the gold miner to some extent for
the sharply-rising costs and the scarcity of labour and
machinery which retarded all progress throughout the
mining industry.

1776. Queensland Government Mining Journal, Vol LI,
Golden Jubilee Number, pp. 348-590, June 1950.
This well-illustrated publication, in a series of special
articles, gives a brief survey of the development of
Queensland mining over the past fifty years. The im-
portant discoveries of gold, copper, silver, lead, zinc,
tin, coal, and oil are listed and information given as
to their subsequent productivity. The relevant articles
are'Fifty Years of Queensland Mining', by J. G. Newman
and B. G. Paterson ; 'Some Notes on Gold Discoveries',
by C. B. Simmins ; 'Fifty Years Searching for Oil in
Queensland', by Dr. A. Wade; and 'Beach Sands',
by O. J. Carlsen. These authors are specialists in their
own fields. The publication also includes annual price
variations of copper, lead and zinc. Mr. I. W. Morley
in 'Post-War Mining Exploration in Queensland' makes
some forecasts as to the possibilities of development
during the next fifty years, and attention is given to the
growing importance of new minerals such as wolfram,
antimony, bismuth, extracts from beach sands, etc.
It appears that mining will continue to play an important
part in Queensland's industrial development.-M.G.R.

1777. Report on Coal, 195o. Research Service, Sydney,
September 1950, pp. 154 roneoedd).
The salient factors which emerge from a study of the
book are the immense wealth of coal available for
exploitation in Australia, a steady increase in productivity
of miners at the coal face, mainly due to improved
methods of winning coal and the gathering speed of
mine mechanisation due to the Joint Coal Board's
initiative, which is expected to reach its peak by about
1952. Two other problems confronting Australian coal
mining industry are the difficulty of obtaining enough
recruits for the mines and the considerable increase in
demand for coal which cannot be satisfied from the
present level of Australian production. Among other
aspects of coal production discussed are the increase in
the output of open cut coal and of brown coal over the
last few years and the loss of coal output caused by
strikes.-S.P.S.

1778. Croll, I. C. H. The Opal Industry in Australia.
Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and
Geophysics, Bulletin No. 17. Melbourne, 1950,
PP- 47-
A description of the industry (Australia is the principal
opal-producing country in the world) with a view to
placing it in proper perspective in relation to other
industries, and to discuss means by which the industry


might be stabilised. Five fields, their history and factors
affecting production (climate, mining methods, etc.)
are dealt with. Problems of markets, fashion, trading
methods and cutting and preparation are discussed in
detail. A detailed bibliography, tables and graphs.-
E.J.D.

1779. Brief Review of the Australian Builders' Hard-
ware Industry. No. 21 in the Industry Review
Series, Division of Industrial Development,
Ministry of National Development, June 1950,
pp. 19.
The industry, established since 1914, comprises
hardware (bolts, latches, hinges, sashlifts, drawer
handles, hooks, etc.) for doors, windows, built-in
cupboards and cabinets. The demand comes from the
building industry for new buildings, alterations and
innovations, over-the-counter-sales for home repairs
and renovations, other industries (furniture, motor
bodies). Estimates are made of the annual demand in
units of some main items (total annual value about
2J m.). Other estimates are based on a 50 per cent
increase in the annual rate of erecting dwellings and Ioo
per cent of other buildings. There are some exports,
principally to N.Z., South Africa, and India. Although
the industry works at only two-thirds of its capacity
local supply exceeds demand, there is very little import.
Other sections deal with labour, materials (mainly
metals, locally supplied), equipment, structure of the
industry and Government policy.

1780. Woven Rayon Piece Goods Industry. Tariff
Board's Report, 26 August 1949. Government
Printer, Canberra, pp. 41.
There were six previous Tariff Board enquiries on this
industry. After a section about the definition of terms,
the history and the organisation of the industry are
outlined. Pre-war Australian imports are estimated at
70 m. square yards p.a., 1947-48 about 5 m. square
yards were produced in Australia, but expansion to
27 m. is planned for 1952. The current annual demand
for woven rayon piece goods is estimated at 40-50 m.
square yards, and present stocks are very heavy. Of
imports 1937-38, 66 per cent came from Japan, in
1948-49, 56 per cent came from U.K. In the enquiry
rayon weavers requested duties on piece goods with at
least 5 per cent other than natural fibres of 2s. 3}d. per
square yard and 52a per cent ad val. (B.P.T.) 2s. 6d.
and 52) per cent (I.T.), as. 6d. and 62j per cent (G.T.).
They feared future competition from Japan and
European countries. Non-weaving printers want mainly
maintenance of existing by-laws regarding grey rayon
cloth for screen-printing. Opponents of these requests
(U.K. interests, Australian manufacturers using rayon
piece goods as raw materials) suggested assistance by
bounties rather than by duties.
The Board arranged for a comparison of prices and
costs of production in Australia and U.K. It also
reported on the future prospects of the industry, on
benefits and costs of an assistance and the amount of
assistance to be given to weaving and printing. The
Board recommended assistance of Is. 6d. per square
yard, either as a bounty on cloth produced locally, or
partly as a bounty and partly as duty on imported cloth.

1781. Cotton Canvas and Cotton Duck. Tariff Board's
Report. Government Printer, 20 March I950,
Canberra, pp. 27.
Application for protection on the cotton canvas and
cotton duck industry was made on much the same grounds
as that for protection of tyre cord fabric (see below).








The Tariff Board pointed out that at the present time,
this industry is not suffering from U.K. competition,
but that should such competition become severe, a
subsidy scheme should be introduced or facilities
developed for bulk buying of cotton.-M.G.R.
1782. Tyre Cord Fabric and Tyre Cord, Tariff Board's
Report. Government Printer, Canberra, 20
March 195o, pp. 12.
Davies Coop and Co. Ltd., and Bradford Cotton Mills
Ltd., the only Australian producers of tyre cord fabric
and tyre cord, applied for protection against the pos-
sibility of strong U.K. competition. They claimed this
on various grounds, the chief being that the U.K.
government has a liberal taxation policy, that its buying
scheme supplies cheaper raw cotton, that it may in the
future subsidise exports and that U.K. manufacturers
may be prepared to accept lower profit margins. At
the present time, however, the Australian companies
cannot meet Australian demands, and local producers
are placing only the balance of their orders abroad.
In the Tariff Board's opinion, the application appears
premature and was therefore rejected.-M.G.R.

(C) Monetary Policy, Banking, Insurance
1783. A Scheme for Decimal Coinage. C. R. Church-
ward. Bankers' Magazine of Australasia, pp.
201-205, May 1950.
After a survey of earlier attempts to introduce
decimal coinage in British countries and of the reasons
why they proved impracticable, the author sets forth
his own system which preserves the shilling, but
replaces the penny by a 'decimal penny' and the by
a unit of ioos., called Myri (myriad). Names proposed
for units are Myri(ioos.), Ryal (los.), Shilling (is.), Dime
(o-is.) and Cent (o-ois.). The coinage suggested is id.
Half Dime, id. Dime, 2d. Double Dime, 6d. Half Shill-
ing, is. Shilling, 2s. Double Shilling, 5s. Half Ryal, ios.
Ryal, i Double Ryal, 5os. Half Myri, 5 Myri, io
Double Myri. Ledgers, invoices, etc., would be headed
M-S-D instead of s. d.
1784. The Dollar Gap and the Commonwealth.
D. Copland. Foreign Affairs (New York),
pp. 671-675, July 1950.
As internal measures could not be expected, by
themselves, to correct the dollar disequilibrium, and
the probability of large-scale U.S. private investment in
Europe is negligible the author proposes a new scheme.
He lists several advantages of a plan which would involve
American investment in the Commonwealth countries
and suggests a joint approach by these countries to the
U.S. Government to obtain large dollar loans.-M.J.G.

1785. Australia and the Dollar Gap. I.P.A. Review,
pp. 139-143, September-October 1950.
An examination of the Australian balance of payments
with the dollar countries and of the relationship of this
country's own dollar problem to that of the world
dollar shortage. The article reiterates the view that
Australia would solve her dollar problem only with the
restoration of convertibility of pound sterling.-M.J.G.

1786. Insurance: Its Evolution and Function. Reprinted
from The Australasian Insurance and Banking
Record. McCarron, Bird & Co., 1950, pp. 54.
A series of lectures arranged by the Insurance
Institute of Victoria in co-operation with the Faculty of
Economics and Commerce of the University of Mel-
bourne, delivered in 1949. (i) The Role of Insurance


in the Modern Economy, by W. C. Balmford. (2)
Marine Insurance: The Sea and Its Hazards, by
A. W. Stovold. (3) Fire Insurance: The Evolution of
the Fire Office, by F. W. Cornell. (4) Life Assurance:
Social Aspects of Life Assurance, by T. P. Scott.
(5) Accident Insurance, by C. F. W. Oakley. (6)
Insurance and the Actuary, by D. Drybrough.

1787. Life Office Records for Superannuation Business.
R. L. Bienvenu, L. J. Cohn and R. F. Mc-
Donald. Actuarial Society of Australasia, 54th
Session, 1950, pp. 53-64.
The superannuation business underwritten by life
offices in this country has grown rapidly in recent years
and now constitutes a very large proportion of all
business written. This paper discusses various methods
of keeping records for its administration. The term
'superannuation business' is intended to include Pension
Schemes, Temporary Life Assurance Schemes, and
Endowment and Double Endowment Schemes.

1788. Notes on Life Insurance. Frank Ross. Actuarial
Society of Australasia, 54th Session, 1950,
pp. 18.
This paper first discusses the current cost of life
insurance, i.e., the increasing costs of management-
mainly rising salaries-and the relatively low rates of
interest obtainable on new investments. Then follows
a chapter on life office investment, the movement in
distribution of life office investments, and investment
in preference shares in proprietary companies. The
author gives arguments for and against provisions
regarding gradual redemption of such an investment,
he is in favour of such provisions. A section on life
insurance costing includes expenses connected with
loans on policies. In conclusion the question of
mechanisation in the life insurance industry is examined.

1789. Some Aspects of Assessments of Liability under the
Broken Hill Mines (Pneumoconiosis-Tuberculosis)
Scheme. M. H. Gastineau-Hills and P. C.
Jackson. Actuarial Society of Australasia, 54th
Session, 1950, pp. 32.
Broken Hill (Pneumoconiosis-Tuberculosis) Scheme
is briefly presented and its mechanism explained. Over
twenty-seven years valuable data had been collected
the analysis of which enabled the calculation of the
liabilities under the scheme and raised many interesting
actuarial problems. The latest actuarial assessment in
respect of mine workers and mine employees is from
30 June 1947. The liabilities are assessed for each mine
under the following headings: (a) Existing awards,
(b) Possible future awards, (c) Future expenses. The
number of persons involved included about 5,000
employees.

(D) Public Finance

1790. The Australian Inflation and Commonwealth
Finance. W. R. Lane. Economic Record, pp. 18-
29, June 1950.
The annual change in the banks' holdings of Govern-
ment securities is the best indicator of the inflationary
effect of the Commonwealth war and post-war finance.
Up to 1944-45 war expenditure was financed mainly by
the issue of treasury bills. All banks' holdings of
Government securities rose from 352 m. in 1938-39
to 1220 m. in 1945-46. Since 1946 higher revenue
of the Commonwealth Government enabled it to repay
221 m. treasury bills up to June 1949, the total of


341








Government securities held by banks fell by 179 m.,
but this was more than compensated by the expansion
of trading bank advances by 211 m. Part II of the
paper shows the rise in the revenue from individual
income tax and social service contribution through
inflation despite some reductions in income tax rates,
the yields of other Commonwealth taxes, the rise in
Commonwealth costs, and the 'real saving' made by
the Government in paying its annual interest on the
public debt. This saving is worked out by comparison
with a calculated interest liability risen in accordance
with the general price level at nearly 32 m. by 30 June
1949.

1791. Income Tax Provisions Relating to Pension
Funds and Retiring Allowances. L. Barrett.
Chartered Accountant in Australia, pp. 660-693,
May 1950.
This paper, presented at an accountancy congress,
held in April 1950 at Nuriootpa, S.A., by the S.A.
Division of the Australian Chartered Accountants
Research Society, is a detailed interpretation and
commentary of the relevant provisions of the Common-
wealth Income Tax Assessment Act 1936-49, divided
into four parts. The first part discusses deductions
allowable to employers for contributions to superannua-
tion funds, etc., based on the 1936 Law Revision and
its amendments in 1941 and 1944. The deductions
are different for compulsory and voluntary contributions.
To make deductions allowable, the employees' rights to
receive benefits must be fully secured. Part II deals
with deductions allowable to employers for retiring
allowances or pensions paid to former employees.
Part III examines the incidence of income tax on
retiring allowances, pensions, etc., from the angle of the
pensioner as taxpayer; part IV the incidence of income
tax on income derived from provident funds which is
exempt from income tax.

1792. Commonwealth Grants Commission. Seventeenth
Report (1950). Government Printer, Melbourne,
195o, pp. 131.
The total of the special grants recommended by the
Commission for 1942-43 amounted to 2,175,000.
In 1948-49, which is the year of review on which the
grants assessed in this Report are based, the total was
7,450,000. In 1949-50, it was 11,054,00oo, and in
that year a further 1,6o0,ooo was paid by the Common-
wealth to the three claimant States as compensation for
losses of State revenue suffered through the coal strike
in June-August 1949. In estimating budgetary trends
in 1950-51 the Commission is faced with the difficulties
of forecasting the trends of the claimant States, as it
is always possible that far-reaching changes in economic
conditions might take place. Investigations of import-
ant aspects of State finance, which had been deferred
for several years because of staff shortage, were begun
during the year. A short survey of Australian economic
and financial conditions in 1948-49 is made, and wherever
possible, the data given is brought up to the end of
1949-50. Measurement of the grants recommended
for payment in 1950-51 is explained and the total grants
recommended are set out. Twenty-seven appendices
and an index complete the Report.

(E) Accountancy

1793. Proceedings of the Australian Congress on Account-
ing, Sydney, 1949, pp. 294.
This volume includes the papers presented at the
Congress and also the commentaries and a summary of


the discussion on them. The titles and authors of the
various papers are; 'Accounting Standards' by A. A.
Fitzgerald, 'Contemporary Auditing Practice', by
F. E. Trigg, 'The Future Role of the Accountant', by
G. D. Shepherd, 'Influence of Economic Ideas on
Accounting', by F. Sewell Bray, 'New Perspectives in
Cost Accounting for Management' by Walter Scott,
'Widening Responsibilities of Accountants' by T. A.
Hiley, and 'The Status of the Accountant in Australia',
by W. S. Young.

1794. Insurance and the Cost Accountant. F. H.
Tolstrup. Australasian Institute of Cost Account-
ants, Cost Bulletin No. 34, June 195o, pp. 28.
This article discusses the relationship between
insurance and cost accounting. The relationship is
threefold, and occurs in calculating the sums insured,
in the treatment of insurance premiums in the books
of account, and in the calculation of fire loss and
subsequent book entries. The discussion covers fire
insurance, and consequential loss insurance.

1795. Depreciation-Public Utility Policy and Practice.
M. H. Rout. National Gas Bulletin, pp. 21-36,
March-April 1950.
Unlike trading concerns a large proportion of the
assets of a public utility are fixed assets, and the ratio
of annual income to average capital is low. Public
utilities are thus in a different position when rapid
changes in price levels occur, especially in view of the
fact that regulatory authorities tend to fix rates of charge
for the service on bases related to historical cost. The
bases of depreciation, the methods of depreciation
accounting for public utilities, and finally the law and
practice in the Australian gas industry are considered.

1796. Statistical Method of Cost Ascertainment in the
German Uniform Accounting System. A. Berzins.
Australian Accountant, pp. 169-174, May 1950.
According to the German system cost ascertainment
can be done either in the books of account, or by the more
statistical method. This article describes and illustrates
the expense departmentalisation, finished work analysis,
and cost of sales analysis sheets, and also includes a
diagram showing the flow of costs through the ledger
accounts.
1797. Variation of Costs with Volume. W. B. McFar-
land. Australian Accountant, pp. 272-276, July
1950.
It is a summary by the Supervisor of Research of the
National Association of Cost Accountants, New York,
of three reports recently published by that association.
The titles of the reports summarised are 'The Variation
of Costs with Volume', 'The Analysis of Cost-Volume-
Profit Relationships, and 'The Volume Factor in
Budgeting Costs'.

(F) Transportation and Communication

1798. Overseas Telecommunications Commission (Aust-
ralia). Third Annual Report for Year ended
30 June 1949. Government Printer, Sydney,
1950, pp. 22.
A survey of the Commission's activities in the above
year. The various cable and wireless services operated
by the Commission including the coastal radio service
and services with aircraft, stations in Papua-New Guinea
and Darwin, are set out in Part II, arrangements with
Cable and Wireless Ltd., which is gradually transferring
its assets and services to the Commission, in Part IV.








The revised International Telecommunications Com-
mission came into force on I January 1949, a Common-
wealth Telecommunications Board will replace an
interim organisation. Further sections of the report
deal with development, research and staff. Appendices
present financial and services statistics.

1799. Country Roads Board, Victoria. 36th Annual
Report for Year ended 30 June 1949. P.P.
Government Printer, Melbourne, pp. 54. Price
2a. 6d.
The amount spent on roads and bridges construction
in 1948-49 was 3,655,000 as against 4,121,000 in the
previous year. However, a further 370,o00 was treated
as loan expenditure. In view of the steeply rising costs
of labour and materials a lower rate of expenditure proved
necessary to avoid a deficit. Details are given of the
work done on various roads and bridges, including
works for other authorities (Forest Commission,
Morwell and Yallourn projects, soldier settlement
estates, etc.). Among other subjects dealt with are
Commonwealth aid for roads, plant, bituminous surface
treatment, road safety, decentralisation, etc. A separate
chapter is constituted by the Chief Engineer's Report,
an appendix contains financial data.
18oo. Queensland. Report of the Commissioner for
Railways for Year ended 30 June 195o. P.P.
Government Printer, Brisbane, 195o, pp. 122,
i map.
The gross earnings for the year amounted to
15,531,ooo, an increase of 604,000 over the previous
year. The expenditure during the same period in-
creased by 1,698,ooo to 15,468,000. The deficit,
owing to higher wages and prices of materials, rose from
316,000 to 1,466,ooo being 1,150,0oo greater than
that of the preceding year. The report also includes
analyses of the financial position, railway traffic, and
operating efficiency, in addition to details concerning the
purchase of new equipment and progress of major works.
Statistics are provided in twenty-one comprehensive
tables.
180x. New Zealand Air Department. Report for Year
1949-50. P.P. Government Printer, Welling-
ton, 1950, pp. 72. Price is. 6d.
The first part of this report is concerned with the
R.N.Z. Air Force the strength of which is given at
31 March 195o as 3,495. The Report of the Director
of Civil Aviation in part two contains information on
the finances of the Civil Aviation Branch with its 564
employees. N.Z. participation in the International
Civil Aviation Organisation is outlined, the construction
of new and the development of existing aerodromes is
set forth. Fifteen internal scheduled services including
one for freight are operated by the N.Z. National
Airways Corporation. The termination of New Ply-
mouth-Hamilton service is the only change of particular
significance. The Report of the Director of Meteoro-
logical Service and the Report of the Inspector of
Accidents comprise part three and four of the report.

18o0. New Zealand, Transport Department. Annual
Report for 1949-50. P.P. Government Printer,
Wellington, 1950, pp. 84. Price is. 9d
A survey of the department's activities in the year
under review. By 31 March 1950 the number of licensed
motor vehicles was 413,363 which means an increase of
6-39 per cent over 1949 and petrol consumption by
these vehicles increased from 1oz26 m. to III15 m.
gallons. There are sections on road finance and road
safety. New Zealand still continues to enjoy the lowest


death rate through motor accidents among the motorised
countries. Regulations and transport laws are discussed
and finally 75 tables present statistical material.
1803. New Zealand Railways Statement for Year ended
31 March 195o. Government Printer, Welling-
ton, 1950, pp. 50. Price Is. 3d.
The gross revenue for the year was 19,541,000 the
highest ever recorded and exceeding by 943,456 (or
5'07 per cent) the record figure of last year. Gross
expenditure totalled 20,596,ooo, a rise of 896,146
(or 4-55 per cent) compared with the previous year and
as a result actual loss amounted to 1,055,000. Pas-
senger revenue, parcels, luggage and mails, goods and
livestock are discussed under separate headings as
sources of earnings. Wages, fuels, stores and materials,
depreciation and renewals are reviewed as items of
expenditure. Shortage of staff is mentioned as a cause
of considerable concern to the department. Twenty-one
statistical tables complete the report.

1804. Shipping-The Torres Strait Route. J. A.
Hempel. Economic News, pp. 1-4, June 1950.
The unsatisfactory shipping position due to the slow
turn round of ships in Australian ports, is aggravated
in Queensland by the fact that the main route connecting
Australia with the U.K. and, the Continent is via South
States. As a result the Queensland importer gets his
goods after a considerable delay, which in the case of a
Central or Northern Queensland importer, who relies
on transhipment to a coastal ship may amount to a
period of 4-5 months. This, apart from irregular
service and additional costs, compels him to tie up his
money for an unreasonably long period. The fact that
migrant-ships call at the big southern Australian centres
handicaps the efforts to populate this State, especially
its Central or Northern part, as some of the migrants
never reach their destination being absorbed by the
capital cities in the south. The only solution to this
problem would be an agreement providing for direct
shipping services between Queensland and the U.K.
something like the one that existed from 1880-1916
under 'The Torres Strait Agreement', and which
created 'The Queensland Line'.

(G) Labour and Industrial Relations
1805. Workers' Control. N.S.W. Fabian Society, Pam-
phlet No. 6, 1950, pp. 24. Price is.
This pamphlet contains the argument that nationalisa-
tion of industry is not sufficient by itself to secure
industrial peace and to satisfy the social aspirations of
workers. Neither, it is claimed, are wage-incentives
alone sufficient to provoke an increase of effort. Thus
an extension of direct working class control of industry
is advocated. This leads to a discussion of socialist
proposals in the U.K. and Australia, and of
workers' participation in industrial problems and
management in recent years. The objectives of workers'
control in both the economic and the broader social
spheres, and its relations to economic planning in a
socialist society, are outlined. The pamphlet concludes
with a series of practical proposals based upon Australian
conditions.-G.S.L.T.

1806. Some Aspects of Labour Conditions, Australia and
Other Countries. Research Service, Sydney,
July 1950, pp. 16 roneoedd).
The survey shows that Australian and New Zealand
working conditions are the highest of any country, with
the U.S.A. as the only contender. With regard to








annual vacations, paid public holidays, Australia is in
advance of other countries and with N.Z. and the U.S.A.
she is the only country with a real forty-hour week.
Australian rate of unemployment over recent years has
been not only the lowest of any country but the only one
continuing to decrease. Although wage rates in terms
of food are higher here than in the U.S.A. the recent
increases in real wages have been lower in Australia
than elsewhere.-M.J.G.
1807. New Zealand Department of Labour and Employ-
ment. Report for Year ended 31 March 1950.
Government Printer, Wellington, 1950, pp. Ixo.
P.P. Price zs.
Employment levels and trends are discussed in part I
under the title 'The Industrial Position over the Twelve
Months'. Part II outlines departmental activities in
sections on employment, immigration, industrial welfare
in factories, shops and offices, industrial relations (Court
of Arbitration, industrial associations and unions),
apprenticeship, home aid services, I.L.O., etc. Immigra-
tion statistics show that 2,365 assisted immigrants
arrived last year in New Zealand, while 1,498 passages
were booked for those paying their own fares. In
addition arrangements were made to select and admit
I,ooo displaced persons. The appendices present
statistics and returns of industrial associations and
unions.
18o8. A Wages Policy for Australia. J. E. Isaac.
Economic Record, pp. 1-17, June 1950.
The importance of relative wages as distinct from the
general level of wages in the distribution of labour is
emphasised. A policy for the determination of relative
wage rates is suggested in the light of theoretical and
practical considerations. The application of this policy
to Australia under conditions of full employment
presents a number of difficulties because (a) the basic
wage is determined independently of margins or of the
economic conditions of particular industries ; (b) the
Commonwealth wage fixing authorities have no powers
to fix maximum wage rates ; and (c) labour is relatively
immobile in the direction of farming. Under conditions
of inflationary pressures these difficulties call for the
assistance of positive fiscal and other measures to make
a wages policy effective.-J.E.I.

1809. New Aspects of Australian Court Arbitration.
M. J. Grobtuch. The Arbitration Journal
(New York), pp. zo9-211, September 1950.
The author points to some shortcomings in the
arbitration system which became obvious during the
recent hearings for an increased basic wage in Australia.
-M.J.G.
181o. Labour Turnover Analysis Provides Useful Facts.
M. Bucklow. Bulletin of Industrial Psychology
and Personnel Practice, pp. 35-38, June 1950.
The author explains how the use of labour turnover
data can assist management, particularly when we use
not only the over-all figures, but also a finer classification
according to trade, department, shift, age, sex, etc.
We may need to supplement statistical analysis by
direct observation to see why departments are different.
Also it may be necessary to use an index of labour
stability to show whether it is the new or the longer
service employees who are departing.-S.S.McB.

z81I. Wage Incentives in Operation, Case Study No. i
M. Kangan and I. J. Simonds. Bulletin of
Industrial Psychology and Personnel Practice,
pp. 2-16, June 1950.


The paper describes the operation of an incentive
plan in a light engineering firm, with 450 employees, of
whom about two-thirds are males, mainly semi-skilled
or unskilled. The plan offers incentives on an individual
basis, time and motion study is used to set a standard
time for each job, and the employee receives as a bonus
the award wage equivalent of the time he has saved in
performing the task. The reduction in unit overhead
costs indicates that the plan led to a marked rise in
production.-S.S.McB.

1812. Wage Incentives in Operation, Case Study No. 2.
N. K. Waldron and E. J. Moran. Bulletin of
Industrial Psychology and Personnel Practice,
pp. 17-27, June 1950.
A description of the incentive plan used by a firm
manufacturing paper products. There are 250 em-
ployees, of whom 81 per cent are males. The work is
highly repetitive and requires very little technical skill.
The firm uses a group bonus plan applying to all employ-
ees as a single unit. A standard is set on the basis of
past experience and the group of employees receives
a bonus for exceeding the standard output. Those
who are absent or late are excluded from the benefit of
the plan for that period. Production has risen since
the plan was introduced, although the general feeling
among employees is that the plan has not caused them
to change their working pace.-S.S.McB.

1813. Wage Incentives in Operation, Case Study No. 3.
M. Kangan and G. D. Grant. Bulletin of
Industrial Psychology and Personnel Practice,
pp. 3-24, September 1950.
An account of the incentive plan used by a light
engineering firm with 407 employees, mostly semi-
skilled. The general policy is to concentrate on individ-
ual incentives, but for most of the indirect workers it
has not been possible to avoid using group incentive
schemes. Most of the standard setting is done by time
study methods. The company undertakes not to
increase the standard unless there is some change in the
method of production, but will reduce the standard if it
is too difficult. The scheme has led to a substantial rise
in output, and unit labour costs are lower than they
would otherwise have been. Relations between em-
ployees seem to have been adversely affected by the
scheme ; those on group incentives appear to be jealous
of those on individual incentives.-S.S.McB.

1814. The Relations of Unskilled to Skilled Wage Rates
in Australia. D. W. Oxnam. Economic Record,
pp. 112-118, June 1950.
Despite strong opposition to changes in the traditional
wage relationships the margin between unskilled and
skilled wage rates has narrowed in many countries.
In times of rising prices equal cost of living bonuses are
often awarded to skilled and unskilled workers, the
margin for skill is often kept at a fixed money rate,
trade unionism among unskilled workers has expanded,
legal minimum wages are to the advantage of unskilled
workers, there is now more supply and less demand for
skilled workers. The ratio of unskilled to skilled wage
rates was higher in 1948 than in 1914, but a little lower
than in the 192o's. The author presents some details
of the Arbitration Courts practice in determining mini-
mum and marginal wage rates and their influence on the
unskilled-wage ratio. On the whole skilled Australian
workers have maintained their margins better than in
most other socially advanced countries.








18x5. Three Views of the Foreman. K. F. Walker
and M. Kangan. Bulletin of Industrial Psychology
and Personnel Practice, pp. 28-34, June 1950.
A short account of the foreman from the point of
view of the worker and of management, and of his place
in the factory.
18x6. Giving Information through Handbooks. W. J.
Byrt and A. C. Clarke. Bulletin of Industrial
Psychology and Personnel Practice, pp. 29-39,
September 1950.
The first part is concerned with the aim and contents
of an employee handbook. According to the authors
it should contain, besides introductory statements,
information on general terms of employment, work
rates, physical working conditions, employee amenities
and services. Explanation of means of sharing informa-
tion between management and employees and a con-
cluding note are also considered essential. Finally some
points of advice are found on the process of preparation
and publishing such a handbook.

AGRICULTURE, LAND AND RURAL
PROBLEMS
1817. Wadham, S. M. and Wood, G. L. Land Utilisa-
tion in Australia, Second Edition, Melbourne
University Press, 1950, pp. 376. Price 3os.
Systems of specialised, commercial farming character-
ise Australian agriculture, their development in time and
space being controlled by the trinity 'seasons, soils and
sales'. Future growth will mainly result from more
intensive use of the wetter parts of the continent, with
probable diversification of farm enterprises.
The second edition of this best-known and most
comprehensive study of Australian land use contains
much additional and recent information, including a
chapter on the effects of World War II on farming
industries. The existing pattern of land use is described
as a stage in a long term evolution, motivated by the
great dynamic of the margin between prices and costs.-
K.P.B.
1818. Collins, H. G. Rural Economics. Common-
wealth Institute of Valuers, Sydney, 1949, pp. 384.
A concentrated assemblage of information about the
the farming industries and the land of Australia. The
first zoo pages cover a brief history of rural development,
and the relation of rural industries to the present
national economy, followed by a concise account of
each form of production considered mainly from the
point of view of markets. Climate, soil and vegetational
factors are then dealt with in turn.
The second half of the book gives first a practical
summary of the many significant points in developing
and equipping farming properties, then a description
of tenure systems followed by a summary of the signifi-
cance of farm size, the capital aspects of farming, farm
management, taxation and rating, all of which are
discussed from the valuer's point of view. The last
chapter deals with the 'productive', or economic, basis
of rural land values, and an appendix gives four hypo-
thetical examples of its calculation.
The character of the book is accurately stated by the
Hon. Mr. Justice Sugarman in a brief foreword in
which he says it will 'be welcomed . by that not
inconsiderable class of persons who, although not
Valuers by profession, have some other interest in the
valuation of rural land or the general subject of rural
economics and from time to time find themselves in
need of a guide to the underlying factors and governing
principles.'-S.M.W.


1819. The Chamber of Agriculture of Victoria. Year
Book 1950, edited by J. A. Baker. Hearne & Co.,
Melbourne, pp. 198.
An account of the proceedings of the Chamber's
Convention held at Warrnambool, and of the papers
presented there. These were 'The Place of Aircraft
in Control of Weeds & Insect Pests' (Dr. I. F. Phipps,
F/Lt. K. Busby, T. Hogan, and L. T. Ross Anderson);
'Britain's Farming & Oversea Food Supplies' (Hon. E. J.
Williams); 'Exchange Rate & Primary Production'
(Prof. G. L. Wood); 'Future of Australia's Meat
Markets' (J. L. Shute); 'Development of Victorian
Agriculture' (H. A. Mullett); 'Animal Husbandry
Research Overseas' (D. S. Wishart); The Practical
Application of Organic Farming' (Col. H. F. White);
'Bringing Science to the Sheep Industry (Dr. I. Clunies
Ross); 'History of Warrnambool' (H. J. Worland).-
S.M.W.
182o. Commonwealth Economic Committee, Plantation
Crops, H.M. Stationery Office, London 1950.
pp. 103. Price 5s.
Statistics and commentary of world production,
international trade, and per capital consumption in sugar,
tea, coffee, cocoa, spices, tobacco and rubber. World
sugar production and export in 1948-49 had reached
pre-war levels. Consumption has declined somewhat in
most European countries and increased in other parts
of the world. Tobacco production is also greater, but
exports from America have declined although those from
Africa show an increase. Rubber production shows a
considerable increase above pre-war levels, and the
production of synthetic rubber in 1949 was equal to
25 per cent of the natural product.-S.M.W.
1821. State Rivers and Water Supply Commission-
Victoria. Annual Report, 1948-49. Govern-
ment Printer, Melbourne, pp. 127. Price 5s.
The activities of the Commission are covered in
detail under the following headings, rating, irrigation
production and development, water supply, town
supplies, domestic and stock supplies pumping, new
proposals, soldier settlement and finance. The report
ends with several plates illustrating some of the Com-
mission's projects. An excellent map is published
which shows the water supply and associated works
controlled by the Commission in South Central Victoria.
-K.W.H.
I822. Fifty Years of Scientific Progress. Bureau of
Sugar Experiment Stations, Department of
Agriculture and Stock, Government Printer,
Brisbane, pp. 92.
A well-written review setting out the history of the
Queensland sugar industry in the last half century,
with special reference to its technical problems and the
methods used to overcome them.-S.M.W.
1823. Lincoln, H. B. Farm Irrigation and Drainage.
Victorian State Rivers and Water Supply Com-
mission, Melbourne, 1949, pp. 87.
A handy manual for the guidance of intending
irrigators who are not supplied with water from large
State-operated schemes.-S.M.W.
1824. Burvill, G. H., Dunne, T. C., and Underwood,
E. J. Agricultural Development in Western
Australia. Commonwealth Bank of Australia,
pp. 16, September 1950.
Three separate papers, the first of which deals with
the basic soil difficulties found in large parts of the
south-west of Western Australia. The second em-








phasises the extreme importance of various trace ele-
ments in the effective use of these soils. The third
refers to the effects which mineral deficiencies produce
on livestock health and management.-S.M.W.
1825. Callaghan, A. R., Kelly, W. S., and Prescott,
J. A., Building Soil Fertility in South Australia.
Commonwealth Bank of Australia, pp. 16,
July 1950.
A series of three separate papers by the authors.
These deal with recent developments in the south-east
of South Australia and on Kangaroo Island. The first
covers the problem from the practical farming point of
view. The second stresses the progress made on
individual properties and the larger schemes which are
now on foot. The third traces the evolution of the
technical background and the sources from which the
new knowledge behind this development has come.-
S.M.W.
1826. Progress in Land Development, S.A. (Non-Irriga-
tion), 1949. A. R. Callaghan. A Statement
Prepared for the Commonwealth Grants Com-
mission. Government Printer, Adelaide, 1949,
pp. 16.
The original scheme of settlement provided that each
area should be completely developed before any selection
or allotment took place. Shortages of materials with a
consequent lag in progress have forced the Government
to modify the scheme to allow pre-selection and allot-
ment at an earlier stage. The implications of this change
are discussed. The present position of development and
settlement is tabulated. Transport promises to be a
major problem in the development of the Kangaroo
Island project. The C.S.I.R.O. have shown that large
areas of the Ninety Mile Plain are suitable for the
development of sub-clover pastures.-K.W.H.

1827. Wheat in a Victorian Bulk Depot. C.S.I.R.O.
Bulletin No. 244, Melbourne 1949, pp. 47.
At varying points in bulk wheat stored in the Marma-
lake No. I Depot detailed observations were made of
fluctuations of temperature and moisture. The effect
of these factors on insect infestation is discussed. The
costs of insect control measures are given. The depot
structure greatly modified seasonal temperature and
moisture changes. Such a modification actually pro-
moted insect infestation.-K.W.H.
1828. Soil Investigations in the Sugar-Cane Producing
Areas of Bundaberg. N. J. King. Bureau of
Sugar Experiment Stations Technical Communica-
tions, No. 3 (Brisbane), pp. 71-1o6, 1949.
A description of the soil types used for sugar growing
in Bundaberg area, with the results of analytical and
in the experimental work, e.g., the use of trash, molasses,
etc.-S.M.W.
1829. Education for the Dairying Industry. Technical
Report No. 2. Supplement to Australian
Journal of Dairy Technology. Parts I and II.
January-March 1950, pp. 19.
The facilities available for dairy education in Australia
are outlined in Part I. An attempt to estimate the
annual requirements of technical workers and a dis-
cussion of the form dairy education should take at the
different levels comprise Part II of this report.-K.W.H.

1830. Soil Conservation in the Riverina, L. W. Smith.
The Journal of the Soil Conservation Service of
N.S.W., Vol. 6, No. 3, July 1950. Govern-
ment Printer, Sydney, pp. 113-122.


The district is divided into six land use zones, for
each of which a broad survey of the present system of land
utilisation and erosion control is described and discussed.
-S.M.W.

1831. Mass Movements of the Soil Surface, with
Special Reference to the Monaro Region of
N.S.W. A. B. Costin. The journal of the Soil
Conservation Service of N.S.W., Vol. 6, No. 3,
July 1950. Government Printer, Sydney, pp.
123-132.
An illustrated account of the erosion problem in the
Monaro district.-S.M.W.

1832. Equipment and Materials Essential for Rural
Production. E. A. Saxon. Quarterly Review of
Agricultural Economics (Canberra), pp. 147-152,
October 1950.
An examination of the present position in relation to
supply of wire, netting, piping, timber, etc., shortages
of which are preventing agricultural development in
Australia.-S.M.W.

1833. International Wheat Situation. A. J. Campbell.
Quarterly Review of Agricultural Economics
(Canberra), pp. 172-176, October 1950.
A review of the prospects of the world wheat position
in 1950-51.-S.M.W.

1834. Coastal River Improvement in Relation to Land
Utilisation in New South Wales-A Study of
Agricultural Conditions and Possibilities of
Supplementary Irrigation in the Warrell Creek
District of the North Coast. Alison M. Kings-
land and J. Rutherford. Review of Marketing
& Agricultural Economics, pp. 125-139, June 1950.
A consideration of the potentialities and problems in
the more intensive development of this fluviatile coastal
district.-S.M.W.

1835. The Distribution of Farming in New South
Wales. Alison M. Kingsland. Review of Mar-
keting & Agricultural Economics, pp. 160-167,
June 1950.
A brief review of the farming development in the
regions of N.S.W. as a background to an excellent large-
scale map.-S.M.W.


POLITICAL SCIENCE

(A) Government and Politics
1836. Metropolitan Government in Western Australia.
J. R. H. Johns. University of Western Australia,
1950, pp. 78. Price 5s. 6d.
This booklet outlines the scope and functions of the
metropolitan government in W.A. It covers the charac-
teristics of the metropolitan area, the public utilities
and services, local government finance, greater city
movements and other agencies of metropolitan govern-
ment such as statutory boards and commissions. In
his conclusion the author draws attention mainly to the
divided responsibility and lack of co-ordination in the
provision of metropolitan services, the lack of public
interest in local government, uneconomic areas of
government, the disparity between local needs and
rating resources, and the varying authority of Municipal
Councils and Road Boards to provide specific services.-
E.E.W.








1837. Public Relations and Local Government. D. F.
Glenny. Board and Council (Auckland), pp. 4,
5 April 195o.
This article consists firstly of an extract from a
report on Local Government and the Community
issued by the National Association of Local Government
Officers in U.K., and followed by a discussion of how
relations between local government and the public in
N.Z. can be improved. Mr. Glenny comments on the
general ignorance of the scope and functions of local
government and suggests that some form of public
relations organisation should be adopted to remedy it.
This might operate through schools, youth and adult
services, the press and the radio.-E.E.W.
1838. Dangerous Precedent. New Statesman and
Nation, pp. 563-564, May 1950.
The English liberal newspaper regards the Com-
munist Party Dissolution Bill as 'a dubious and penal
measure', running 'counter to the whole tradition of
liberty and toleration so painfully established in the
English speaking world'. In the view of this paper the
Menzies Government did not attempt to establish in any
way the assertion that the Communists are a 'clear and
present danger' to Australian democracy. The paper
regrets that the Labor Party has not sought to oppose
the measure in its entirety.-L.G.C.
1839. Australia To-day: The Policy of the New
Government. A.H.M. The World To-day, pp.
189-195, May 1950.
The article expresses the viewpoint that the most
important act of the Menzies Government so far has
been the creation of a new Department of National
Development. Difficulties in the way of the Govern-
ment realising its objectives on national development
are analysed as personal rivalry of the leaders in the
coalition, coalition conflicts, Communist control over
trade unions resulting in worker resistance to increased
production of basic materials, and inflation.-L.G.C.

1840. Elections 'Down Under'. Alzada Comstock.
Current History (Philadelphia), pp. 134-137,
March 1950.
An American economist's survey of the factors which
produced the rise and fall of the Labor Governments in
New Zealand (1935-1949) and Australia (1941-1949).
The New Zealand Labor Party's defeat is explained in
terms of old age and decrepitude; the defeat of the
Australian Labor Party mainly in terms of popular
resistance to 'socialism', especially to bank nationalisa-
tion. The article stresses the danger of generalising on
Australasian politics since the differences in political and
social tradition between Australia and New Zealand are
considerable.-L.G.C.
1841. The Australian Political Scene. F. Crean.
Australian Outlook, pp. 186-192, September 1950.
A brief survey by a Victorian Labor M.L.A. of the
legislative record of the Federal Parliament since the
elections of December 1949. The article records the
position reached by June on the Commonwealth Bank
Bill, the Communist Party Dissolution Bill, the Senate
Reform Bill, and the extension of Child Endowment to
the first child. Special attention is directed towards
explaining Labor policy on each of these Government
measures. The article concludes with a brief reference
to State General Elections over the past twelve months.-
L.G.C.
1842. Australian Politics in Deadlock. Round Table,
pp. 377-384, September 1950.


A concise but detailed summary of Australian election
results-Federal and State-over the past twelve months.
The article also covers the deadlock in the Federal
Parliament resulting from the Opposition-dominated
Senate. The analysis concentrates on the Common-
wealth Bank Bill, the Constitution Amendment Bill and
the Communist Party Dissolution Bill. The controversy
around these measures is summarised fairly adequately,
although there are a few minor factual errors in the
explanation of the measures themselves.-L.G.C.

(B) International Relations
1843. South Pacific Commission, Proceedings of the
Fourth Session, Noumea, New Caledonia,
22-31 October 1949. Government Printer
Wellington, 1950, pp. 23.
This Report deals mainly with the administrative
affairs of the Commission and little information is given
about its substantial work. A report on the Work
Programme is given as an appendix. This is mainly
useful as a summary of projects under way at the time.
It is, in fact, a progress report on action taken during
May-October 1949 for the information of the Com-
mission.-E.E.W.
1844. Australian Population Policy and its Relation to
Demographic Problems in Asia. W. D. Borrie.
Institute of Pacific Relations, Eleventh Con-
ference, Lucknow, India, 3-15 October 1950.
Australian Paper No. i.
Australia's immigration policy aims at protection of
labour standards, not exclusion on racial grounds. The
question remains-is this type of migration control
preventing the solution of Asia's problem of over-
population ? This solution, in fact, lies in rapid indus-
trial development rather than in mass migration. A
population policy aiming at increasing Australia's
economic efficiency may be justified on the grounds that
it will increase goods and services available to over-
populated areas. Such a policy involves selective
migration, and as yet a sufficient supply of suitable
migrants can be secured from traditional Western
sources. However, the implementation of such a
policy must seek to avoid racial discrimination while
taking into account cultural as well as economic assimila-
bility.-W.F.P.
1845. Australian Foreign Policy and the Indonesian
Dispute. H. A. Wolfsohn. Institute of Pacific
Relations, Eleventh Conference. Australian
Paper No. 2.
The article is divided into two sections, the first
dealing with the general principles of Australia's foreign
policy as they emerged during and after the last war ;
the second describing in some detail Australia's actions
at UNO during the period covering the two Dutch
'police actions'. There are three appendices on 'The
Attitude of the Liberal Opposition to the Dispute';
'Australian Trade Unions and the Dispute'; 'The U.S.A.
and the Indonesian Dispute'.-W.F.P.
1846. Australia and the Peace Settlements with Japan.
N. D. Harper. Institute of Pacific Relations,
Eleventh Conference, Australian Paper No. 3.
Australian short term security needs have been largely
met by success of SCAP policy for demilitarisation of
Japan. But in the long run the question of security is
intimately related to the economic and political policies
that are pursued in Japan. SCAP policy for the econ-
omic revival of Japan raises vital problems for Australia
and will force modifications in her earlier attitude.








Australian scepticism about SCAP's success in the
political sphere (e.g., democratisation) results in a desire
to see some of the essential post-war reforms (e.g.,
labour legislation, protection of human rights, etc.),
written into the peace treaty.-W.F.P.
1847. Australia's Economic Interests in the Far East.
E. E. Ward. Institute of Pacific Relations,
Eleventh Conference, Australian Paper No. 4.
A discussion of Australia's economic interests in the
Far East under the headings ; (a) stable markets for her
principal exports, (b) sources of supply for imports,
(c) opportunities for investment of capital, (d) Australian
role in Asian economic development. Tables are
included showing; (a) principal Australian trade with
Asian countries, (b) the direction of Australian overseas
trade, (c) average yield of rice in Asian countries.-
-W.F.P.
1848. Notes on Nationalism and Communism in the Far
East. W. MacMahon Ball. Secretariat Paper
No. 7 (Institute of Pacific Relations, New York),
pp. 1-41.
An analysis of the implications of what Prof. Ball has
called a 'three-fold revolution' in East Asia which con-
sists of (i) a 'revolt against foreign political control';
(2) a 'social and economic revolt' ; (3) a 'racial revolt'.
In the second part of his study, the author surveys
'some regional developments' in Japan, China, Malaya,
and Indonesia in the light of his general approach.-
H.A.W.
1849. The Self Government of Malaya. H. Mayer.
Australian Outlook, pp. 107-115, June 1950.
Conflicting objectives exist in British policy for the
self-government of Malaya. Social reform is seen as a
prerequisite of political reform ; yet there is a definite
conflict between economic recovery and social reform
which involves, in particular, the fostering of trade
unionism. But a militant trade union movement is
likely to cause a decrease in Malaya's dollar earnings.
The communist uprisings merely aggravate the issue of
economic recovery, but their suppression won't solve
the basic conflict.
The second conflict in British policy is that between
the objective of self-government and the desire to have
Malaya within the Commonwealth. If self-government
is achieved, what guarantees are there that the Chinese,
if they predominate, won't turn towards China, or the
Malaya's towards the U.S.I.-W.F.P.
1850. Indonesia. H. J. Benda. The Australian Out-
look, March 1950, pp. 41-50, June 1950, pp.
86-97.
A survey of certain features of the Indonesian dis-
pute and settlement prefaced by an analysis of the rise
of the nationalist movement in Indonesia.-W.F.P.
1851. Australian Attitudes towards Pacific Problems.
G. Greenwood. Pacific Affairs, pp. 153-168,
June 195o.
This analysis of the implications for Australia's
foreign policy of the recent change in government argues
much common ground between the policies of the Liberal
Country Party Coalition and the previous Labour
Government. An instance is the new government's
adoption of the regional attitude to Pacific problems-
a policy which it had criticised while in opposition.
In appraising the extent of the differences in policy
attitudes to U.N. and to the administration of Australia's
immigration policy are considered in particular. Finally
the policy the new government has adopted towards a


number of Pacific problems is discussed, e.g., Pacific
Pact, Colombo Conference, Japanese Peace Treaty,
etc.-W.F.P.

1852. Australia and the New Asia. Werner Levi.
Far Eastern Survey (American Institute of
Pacific Relations), pp. 73-78, April 1950.
An examination of Australia's position and attitude
towards the rising nationalism in Asia. Problems
touched on include Australia's security and the U.S.A.,
her influence within the Commonwealth and the rivalry
with India, the question of a Pacific Pact, the recognition
of Communist China, Australia's reaction to MacArthur's
policy in Japan, the 'Spender Plan', etc. Some refer-
ences to Australian public opinion on these issues are
contained in the article.-H.A.W.

SOCIAL CONDITIONS
(A) Housing
1853. Co-operative Housing Societies, Victoria. Fourth
Annual Report for Year ended 30 June 1949.
P.P. Government Printer, Melbourne, 1950,
pp. 15. Price Is. 3d.
During the year under review 1,73o advances were
approved to the total sum of 2,343,217 and 2,484
dwelling houses were completed while 2,141 are under
construction. A steep rise in building costs occurred
during the year and this naturally had a marked effect
on the completion costs of dwellings then in the course
of erection. Although the standard of the houses was
generally satisfactory, the check valuers reported a
deterioration in the quality of workmanship and materials,
except in country districts. This matter is being
closely watched and appropriate action is being taken
wherever necessary. Summary of the financial opera-
tions concludes the report.

(B) Social Security and Public Health
1854. The Growth and Development of Social Security
in New Zealand. A Survey of Social Security
in New Zealand from i898 to 1949. Social
Security Department, Wellington, 1950, pp. 178.
Price 6s.
New Zealand has an unequalled record of half a
century of progressive social legislation. A small but
important start was made in 1898 with the Old-age
Pensions Act. The conception of the responsibility of
the State to make provision for the aged, invalided, sick,
widowed, orphaned, and unemployed showed steady
realisation through forty years of slow but sure progress
culminating in 1938, with the passing of the Social
Security Act. A historical survey is followed by a
detailed discussion of the Social Security Scheme, its
functioning and financing. The statistical data are
compiled in two appendices, 12 charts and 53 tables.

1855. New Zealand, Social Security Department. Report
for Year ended 31 March 1950. P.P. Govern-
ment Printer, Wellington, 1950, pp. 28. Price 9d.
Section I is a survey of the Department's activities
and section II discusses security cash benefits. Of new
legislation, the Acts concerning reciprocity with U.K.
in family benefits, and with Australia in age, widows',
invalids', family, unemployment and sickness benefits are
important. Details are given about various types of
benefits, social security and war pensions. Section V
(General) and the appendix present statistical material.







1856. Department of Public Health, Tasmania. Report
for the period I January-3o June 1949. P.P.
Government Printer, Hobart, 1950, pp. 21.
This publication includes four reports of various
departmental branches such as : public health, hospital
and medical services, tuberculosis, and mental hygiene.
The total births for the half-year numbered 3,324,
indicating that the birth rate in Tasmania for the first
six months of 1949 was 25-31 per cent per I,ooo popula-
tion as compared with 26-51, for the same period in 1948.
Public Hospitals for the six months' period showed a
slight increase in the number of in-patients (2-4 per
cent) and also bed-days (0-5 per cent). In the same
period ior cases of T.B. were notified and 1o6 new
mental cases were discovered. The last section con-
tains vital statistics supplied by the Deputy Common-
wealth Statistician.

(C) Social Surveys

(D) Population and Migration
1857. The Impact of Immigration. Commonwealth
wealth Bank of Australia, Sydney, October 1950,
pp. 20.
A symposium in which E. J. B. Foxcroft discusses
Australian migration policy and T. H. Strong and
J. N. Lewis its impact upon rural industries. H. W.
Arndt deals with immigration and the development of
the Australian economy and P. J. Lawler is concerned
with the task facing Australia, namely, the maintenance
of living standards while increasing population.
x858. The Migration Programme and its Implications to
Industry and the Government. C. W. Branson.
The Australian Institute of Management,
Adelaide, 1950, pp. 32.
An address delivered before members of the Adelaide
Division of the Australian Institute of Management on
7 August 1950. In the first section the implications
of a population increase (planned by the Commonwealth
Government to total I m. migrants in the next five
years) on development and on the S.A. community are
discussed. Then some aspects of this problem, which
call for planning such as increased output of all agricul-
tural products, and housing are examined.
1859. Immigration. D. W. Longland. Queensland
Government Mining Journal, Jubilee Number,
pp. 482-488, June 1950.
A survey of Queensland post-war facilities for immi-
gration, particularly transitory hostel accommodation,
housing, and employment. Personal nominations by
friends and relatives, group nominations of workers
especially suitable for certain employment and nomina-
tion of family units, as soon as hostel accommodation is
available are dealt with in some detail.
186o. Population and Occupied Dwellings in Localities.
Census of the Commonwealth of Australia,
30 June 1947, part VIII. Government Printer,
Canberra, 1950, pp. 497-555. Price 2s. 6d.
The particulars shown relate to population (male and
female separately) in cities, towns, villages and other
localities throughout Australia, in which fifty or more
persons were enumerated at the Census of 30 June 1947.
The number of full-blood aborigines and the dwellings
occupied solely by them are excluded. The list of
localities is arranged in alphabetical order.
x861. Australian Life Tables, 1946-48. Report by the
Commonwealth Actuary, W. C. Balmford.


Commonwealth Government Printer, Canberra,
1950, pp. 19. Price 2s. 6d.
The report deals with the construction of life tables
based on the results of the 1947 Census. The new
tables form the sixth of the series. The principal
statistics employed are shown in Appendix C and consist
of : (a) the census population, male and female separately,
at individual ages, (b) the deaths during 1946-48, (c)
the births between 1940-48, (d) the deaths from 1941-48,
at ages under six years. The population comprised
3,797,370 males and 3,781,988 females and there were
124,707 male and ioo,261 female deaths in the three
years 1946-48.

1862. Statistical Report on Population and Buildings,
N.Z., for Year 1948-49. Government Printer,
Wellington, 1950, pp. 49. Price 3s. 6d.
For the year ended 31 March 1949, the increase of
population of N.Z. (exclusive of Maoris) was 35,365
(2-05 per cent). The number of deaths, 15,873, was
higher but the rate (9-12) was lower than in the year
1947-48. The natural increase of 28,649 accounted for
81-or per cent of the increase in population. The
level of building construction for urban districts during
the year 1948-49 showed an increase over the previous
year, the total value of all building operations (26 m.)
being the highest recorded during the 28 years in which
building statistics have been collected. The total value
of rural building operations for the same year was over
9 m., and a number of new private dwellings was
5,134. The relevant statistics are provided in 50 tables.
1863. Interstate Differentials in Human Fertility in
Australia. R. J. Linford. Economic Record,
pp. 87-97, June 1950.
A comparison of crude birthrates from 1881 to 1947
shows that since 1881 there has been a decline in birth-
rates in all States, while since 901o birthrates in Tasmania
have been constantly high, and rates in Queensland and
W.A. have been higher than in S.A., N.S.W. and Victoria.
Gross reproduction rates, calculated with the help of
Glass' substitution method (1940) show a similar result.
Differences in fertility between States are not spread
evenly throughout age groups of mothers ; there is no
evidence that these differences are caused by differences
in the specific fertility rates in various age groups.
Section IV discusses current marriage fertility rates by
States from 1943 to 1947 according to the duration of
marriage and according to marriages contracted in
particular periods.

EDUCATION

1864. Waddington, D. M., Radford, W. C., and Keats,
J. A. Review of Education in Australia, 1940-
1948. Melbourne University Press, 1950, pp.
xix and 258. Price 25s.
Major developments in education during the year
1940-48 are reviewed including commonwealth partici-
pation, administrative developments, method and
organisation, technical training, universities, adult
education and libraries, teachers, physical education,
etc. Charts give the administrative organisation of the
education departments and universities. There is a
chapter dealing with Costs of Education from 1936-46,
accompanied by graphs.

1865. The Effective Use of Sound Films. Common-
wealth Office of Education, Sydney. Research
Report No. 4, June 1950.


349








Describes an experiment conducted in six N.S.W.
secondary classes by the Office of Education to determine
the relative effectiveness of six different methods of
presenting sound films. Full details are given of the
selection of schools, methods used, and statistical
techniques employed. The method involving Discus-
sion, Film, 24 hour delay, discussion, and final filming
was found superior to the others on the basis of retention
scores in an objective test. Full statistical appendices
are given.
1866. Public Education in Australia. Commonwealth
Office of Education, Sydney. Bulletin No. 20,
May 1950, pp. 14.
Gives a brief historical outline of Australian public
education, describes the school organisation in general
terms, and tertiary education in more particular terms.
The origin and functions of the Commonwealth Office
of Education and the Universities Commission are
described. Examinations and accrediting systems,
guidance, the use of special aids, medical and dental
services, the education of the mentally and physically
handicapped, and travelling and boarding allowances,
are discussed.
1867. External Tuition in Australian Universities.
Commonwealth Office of Education, Sydney.
Bulletin No. 21, April 1950, pp. 9.
Describes the system operating in the Australian
universities (except Sydney) to provide tuition for
students unable to attend personally. Conditions of
enrollment, subjects offered, the method of instruction,
examination arrangements, and the administration
system, are outlined. Enrolment figures for various
faculties are given for 1949.

1868. Report of the Minister of Public Instruction, N.S.W.
for 1947. Government Printer, Sydney, 1949,
pp. 24.
Contains a comprehensive report by the Minister, and
statistics of schools, pupils, teachers, school leavers,
and costs.
1869. Report of the Education Department, W.A. for
1948. Government Printer, Perth, 1950, pp. 29.
Contains the report of the Minister, statistical tables
as in previous reports, and a report by the Technical
Education Branch.

1870. Report of the Minister of Education, S.A. for Year
ended 31 December 1948. Government Printer
Adelaide, 1949, pp. 29.
Begins with the Minister's report on the general
activities of the Department and contains, in addition
to statistics of schools, teachers, children, and costs,
a chart of the organisation of the Education Department.

1871. Seventy-fourth Report of the Secretary for Public
Instruction, Queensland for Year 1949. Govern-
ment Printer, Brisbane, 1950, pp. 57.
Contains reports by the Minister and Director on the
work of the Education Department, and the report of
the Chancellor and Registrar on the work of the
university, during the year 1949. The usual statistics
are presented with the addition of an Age-Grade table.

1872. Report of the Education Department, Tasmania for
1948. Government Printer, Hobart, 1950, pp.
26.
Contains a report by the Minister and statistics of
schools, pupils, teachers and costs.
350


1873. Tasmanian Seminar on Fostering International
Understanding in Secondary Schools. Tas-
manian Education (Hobart), pp. 153-188, June
1950.
Reports a seminar conducted by the Tasmanian
Education Department from 27-29 October at which the
problems of developing international understanding,
through the courses and methods of secondary school,
are discussed. The scope, personnel and general
findings of the seminar are given. Suitable activities
and textbooks in all subjects are suggested.

1874. Technical Training in Relation to Native Educa-
tion. J. Reilly. South Pacific (Sydney), pp.
136-141, July 1950.
Technical education of New Guinea peoples is
necessary for the full development of the people and the
country. It should be integrated with custom and
tradition and aimed to produce intelligent use of
materials. Three stages of education, leading to special
technical training, are outlined. An employment
bureau to place graduates of technical schools is required.
Parents must be made familiar with the new processes
to avoid a rift between village and school

1875. Adult Education in Australia. Dave Stewart.
The Highway (London), pp. 135-137, April 1950.
The Workers' Educational Association was established
in all States between 1913-15. It operated usually in
joint partnership with the university. The exception was
W.A., where adult education did not develop until the
University Adult Education Board was established in
1928. Tutorial classes are the principal feature of the
work. There is some limitation of these to large centres
of population. In N.S.W. there is an effective Discus-
sion Group scheme, using local groups which appoint
their own leader and have a corresponding tutor. In
recent years there has been increased State support for
adult education, which has brought problems of control.
The position in Victoria, Queensland and N.S.W. is
described.

1876. Educational and Vocational Training. Colin
Clark. Twentieth Century (Melbourne), pp. 39-
48, September 1950.
Half-time education is proposed for all boys between
15 and 18 ; the other half is to be spent as apprentices
to trades and professions. Some selection may be
needed if there are too many applicants for any trade.
This part time education would be given in colleges
established by the churches ; some may be residential.
The courses would include vocational necessities and
the humanities. Teachers must be university graduates
of good general education. Some of the expenses could
be met by requiring guilds representing the trades and
professions to finance them.

1877. Vocational Education in Australia. Industry and
Labour (I.L.O. Office, Geneva), pp. 97-100oo,
February 1950.
Outlines the various activities in education of the
Commonwealth Government; the Reconstruction
Training Scheme, the Civilian Financial Assistance
Scheme (for university students) ; the rehabilitation of
the physically handicapped, the instruction of immi-
grants, textile training, financial aid to the universities
including the new National University. An outline of
the new University of Technology in N.S.W. is included.







1878. K. S. Cunningham. Australia: Education and
Occupational Distribution. Chapter 3 of The
Year Book of Education, 1950, pp. 344-361,
London, 195o.
Australia is a land of opportunity. Social mobility is
high. A Commonwealth Employment Service helps to
place applicants in suitable positions. In basic in-
dustries there is a shortage of labour. Many professions
are understaffed. There are certain limitations on
certain industries and professions. The educational
system differs in different States in its adaptation to
occupational distribution ; all systems suggest that there
is a need to clarify the relation of secondary education to
occupations. There are certain economic determinants
of education at the secondary level. Entry to the pro-
fessions is effected through various channels. New
professions are arising ; there is a tendency to upgrade
qualifications. Increasing numbers are attending the
universities. There is an increase in public service
employment. A critical re-examination is needed of
occupational needs and the relation of education to them.

GEOGRAPHY
1879. David, T. W. E. The Geology of the Common-
wealth of Australia. Edited and much supple-
mented by W. R. Brown, 3 vol. E. Arnold &
Co., London, 195o. Price 12z 12s.
The second volume, 618 pages of this huge work of
reference deals with the physiography of each State, the
soils, and the economic geology (gold, silver, iron, coal,
building stones, petroleum, artesian water, ground water,
etc.), in very great detail. Each of the 34 chapters has
a comprehensive bibliography. There are a great
number of maps, tables, sections and 84 plates.-E.J.D.
188o. Madeley, H. M. Australia. T. W. Laurie Ltd.,
London, 1949, pp. 2o8.
In brief chapters the history of Australia, scenery,
climate, main industries, population problems, social
conditions, and the political set-up are outlined. There
is a selection of stories and verse to illustrate the above
items, a selection of Australian verse and prose, and a
list of Australian words. Thirty-eight illustrations and
eighteen maps.-E.J.D.
I881. Stutterheim, Kurt. Australien. F. A. Herbig
Verlagsbuchhandlung. Berlin, 1949, pp. 157.
After surveying Australia's history up to 1949, the
country and its people are described, and the political
set-up is discussed in detail. A brief chapter deals with
the pastoral and wheat industries, mining and recent
industrialisation. The many problems of immigration
are discussed at length. There is also a brief outline of
cultural life in Australia.-E.J.D.
1882. Audas, J. W. The Australian Bushland. W. A.
Hamer, Melbourne, 1950, pp. 712.
In this huge work of reference there are seven chapters
dealing with the flora of each State, eighteen detailed
botanical excursions to practically every part of Victoria,
chapters on Forest Culture in Australia, Trees and their
uses, Pines of Australia, Australian Fodder Shrubs, True
clovers naturalised in Victoria, Australian grasses and
their economic value, introduced plants, indigenous
fibrous plants of Victoria, Ferns, Orchids, Wild-flowers,
Important cultured grasses, Australian Aborigines,
Australian birds, Australian mammals, soil erosion,
termites, and Australian exploration. There are eight
coloured plates, about zoo illustrations, a very detailed
glossary of botanical terms, and a most comprehensive
index.-E.J.D.


1883. Abbott, C. L. A. Australia's Frontier Province.
Angus & Robertson, Sydney, 1950, pp. z18.
The author, administrator of the Northern Territory
from 1937 to 1946, describes its history, especially from
the administrative side, discusses at length the report
and recommendations of the Payne Committee, and
surveys the daily life of administering a frontier province
and its capital, Darwin. A whole chapter is devoted to
the Air Raid on Darwin and to the Northern Territory in
the War years. Among the twenty-two chapters there
is one on the railways and roads, mining industry,
pearling industry, natives, Alice Springs District,
pastoral industry, and self-government. 'It is not
an impossible task to develop the resources of the N.T.,
but the trouble is that the Federal Governments have
not made any attempts to implement the main recom-
mendations submitted to them by experts commissioned
to report upon the Territory and the best methods for
its development . especially recommendations of the
Payne Committee'.-E.J.D.
1884. Kisch, E. E. Landung in Australien. Aufbau
Verlag, Berlin, 1948, pp. 365.
A translation of Kisch's Australian Landfall, published
in 1937.-E.J.D.
1885. Cumberland, K. B. New Zealand In Outline.
Whitcombe & Tombs, Auckland, 1950, pp. 84.
Price 9s. 9d.
After discussing N.Z.'s isolation by means of an
'equidistant azimuthal world map with its origin at
Wellington', the climate and physiography is dealt with.
A chapter describes the natural vegetation and its
replacement 'with a vegetation culled from the four
corners of the earth.' There are chapters on dairying,
sheep rearing, mixed-crop and livestock farming,
orcharding and market gardening, power resources,
processing and true manufacturing industries, and
internal and external trade. A feature of the book is to
'cover all the essential and more characteristic features
of the Dominion's geographic personality' by a discus-
sion of 12o photographs and nine maps.-E.J.D.
1886. Deerr, N. The History of Sugar. Chapman &
Hall Ltd., London, 1949-50, pp. 636, 2 vol.
Price 5 5s.
This is a huge work of reference dealing with practically
all problems of growing and producing sugar (both beet
and cane) from antiquity up to the latest developments.
There are chapters on nearly all countries where sugar
is grown, with a great number of references to Australia
throughout the book. At the end of each of the thirty-
three chapters is a comprehensive bibliography. Thirty-
one plates, forty-eight figures and eight maps. A com-
prehensive index enables easy information concerning
the history, production, handling, prices and research
of this world-wide industry.-E.J.D.
1887. Dakin, W. J. Great Barrier Reef and Some
Mention of Other Australian Coral Reefs. Aus-
tralian National Publicity Association, Mel-
bourne, 1950, pp. 133. Price los. 6d.
After a brief discussion of the three kinds of coral
reefs (fringing and barrier reefs and atolls) and coral
islands, the Great Barrier Reef Region and the Abrolhos
Islands of W.A. are dealt with in detail. The continental
islands of the Barrier Reef Area are described. There
is a long chapter on the coral animal and some other
creatures that help to make coral reefs, and a critical
discussion of the many theories concerning the origin
of the Barrier Reefs and Atolls. Three maps, diagrams
and fifty-six photographs and a detailed index.-E.J.D.








1888. Barrett, C. Wild Life in Australia. Color-
gravure Publications, Melbourne, 1950, pp. 252.
Australia's mammals, birds and reptiles are described
and their habits and importance are discussed in detail.
With more than zoo illustrations (a great number of
them in colour) and a comprehensive index, this book
is a work of reference for the native fauna in the Aus-
tralian region.-E.J.D.
1889. Resources Survey of the Upper Murray Region.
The Central Planning Authority, Melbourne,
1949, pp. 0OO.
This report deals with the physical resources (physio-
graphy, geology, mineral resources, climate, water
resources and utilisation, forest reserves and utilisation,
soils, land use and main agricultural features), economic
resources (population, employment, primary industry,
secondary industry, wholesale and retail trade and com-
mercial services) and services and utilities (public
utilities, housing, tourist features, health services and
educational facilities). There are fifty-one tables and
seven maps (most of them four miles to one inch) of this
region 'which comprises 7'86 per cent of the area of
Victoria and is conspicuous for the variety of its resources,
with a resultant wide range of economic activity'.-E.J.D.

189o. Are We Soil Managers? Published by the
International Harvester Co. of Australia, 1950,
pp. 95.
This book deals with the main types of soil erosion
and the numerous methods of soil conservation and
remedial operations. There are chapters on the value
of organic matter, organic manures and mineral fertilisers,
legumes, improving pastures, stubble-mulch farming,
strip cropping, and safe water disposal. Machinery
and operational methods are explained in detail. A map
shows the present extent of soil erosion in Australia
and another one where soil conservation is practised in
Victoria. There are more than one hundred photos and
a great number of diagrams, tables, plans and operational
graphs which illustrate comprehensively practically all
aspects of soil erosion and conservation.-E.J.D.
1891. Hounam, C. E. Climate of the Western District
of Victoria. Melbourne, 1949, pp. 52.
'The climate has been discussed with regard to
temperature and rainfall conditions. Rainfall has been
expressed in terms of arithmetic means, probably on a
seasonal basis and effective rainfall (the balance of
moisture received in rainfall and lost by evaporation
with the growing needs of the plant) on a monthly
basis. Special attention has been paid to the seasonal
fluctuations in pasture growth brought about by the
seasonal incidence of rainfall and temperature and, by
means of 30 maps, an endeavour has been made to
classify various parts of the district according to the
probability of seasonal conditions being dry, fair or
good. It was hoped to correlate average production
figures with a rainfall factor but it was realized that soil
conditions play a prominent part in pasture growth
and that such a correlation could only be satisfactory
if limited to similar soil tracts.'-E.J.D.
1892. The Chatham Islands. R. O. Falla. New
Zealand Geographer, pp. 1-12, April 1950.
A brief account of the geology, geography, and settle-
ment, by Maori and Pakeha, of this island outlier of New
Zealand, 480 miles east of Wellington.-R.K.W.
1893. A Land Despoiled: New Zealand about 1838.
K. B. Cumberland. New Zealand Geographer,
PP. 13-34, April 195o.


This article describes the condition of New Zealand in
1938, just before organised European colonisation began,
but following a half-century of more transient contacts.
The commercialization of the Maori economy had
proceeded a considerable distance, and had greatly
altered the direction and nature of agricultural practices
and social organisation.-R.K.W.
1894. The Growth of the Australian Iron and Steel
Industry. N. R. Wills. The Geographical
Journal, London, pp. 208-219, June 1950.
A survey of the industry dealing with the reasons for
the abandonment of Lithgow, selection of Newcastle and
Port Kembla, its development through first war, depres-
sion and up to 1950. Special attention is drawn to
Whyalla, the low cost structure of the industry, its
pre-1939 export to countries with geographical advan-
tages, as to transport costs, and the future extension
programme.-E.J.D.
1895. Dredging for gold. The work of the past twelve
years. D.Swift. Mining and Geological journal,
pp. 12-20, September 1950.
Activities on 11 dredging areas are described with
special reference to the problems of resoiling. 'Dredging
has developed from an unruly child of the mining
industry to a responsible grown-up member of the
family.' Eleven photographs and a number of tables.-
E.J.D.
1896. The Land Use Factor in Wheatland Erosion
Control. R. K. Cox. The Journal of the Soil
Conservation Service of N.S.W., pp. 159-171,
October 1950.
A discussion on the reasons and prevention of the
widespread occurrence of erosion in every wheatgrowing
area of N.S.W., with special reference to long and short
fallows, one-crop farming, the difficulties of introducing
a diversified rotation system, stubble and stubble-mulch
farming and contour working. 'From the point of view
of erosion control and continued soil fertility, it is
hoped that the short fallow, leyland farming system,
will completely replace the interminable long fallow
wheat rotation that has exhausted much of our best
wheat country.' Eight photographs.-E.J.D.

1897. The 'Yobarnie' Methods for Soil and Water
Conservation. J. M. Holmes, P. J. Devery and
P. A. Yeomans. The Australian Geographer,
March 195o, pp. 15-23.
This method which has been tried on a property
forty-five miles north-west of Sydney on the Hawkes-
bury River since 1944, includes some of the usual
procedures such as contour terracing, 'but we claim
that our application has been unique for the class of
country, while contour tree clearing, and contour
ripping have not been tried before anywhere in the world
as far as we are aware.' Contour clearing, ripping and
fencing are discussed at length. 'These practices were
associated with subdivision into small paddocks for
intensive rotational pasturing.' Contour tree-planting
was also carried out. Three photographs and two maps.
-E.J.D.
1898. Sand Dunes near Castlereagh, N.S.W. D. S.
Simonett. The Australian Geographer, March
1950, pp. 3-11.
'In the western part of the Sydney Plain fixed longi-
tudinal dunes are found which are miniatures of the
Central Australian sand-ridges . they lack nothing
in interest since, occurring in an area now receiving
thirty inches of rainfall, they serve to emphasise the








drastic decline in rainfall which must have preceded
their formation and the resultant wholesale transfer of
vegetation.' The origin of the sands and the age of the
dune formation are discussed at great length.-E.J.D.

1899. The Measurement of Precipitation Effectiveness.
J. Gentilli. Scope, July 1950 (Perth), pp. 43-49.
'A search for the ideal formula has occupied climatolo-
gists, biologists and agricultural scientists for the last
half century ... they could be classified as functions of
annual total precip. and mean temp., annual total
precip. and max. and min. temp., of total precip.,
number of wet days and temp., of annual total precip.,
temp. and latitude, of seasonal precip. and seasonal temp.,
of monthly total precip. and mean monthly temp., of
monthly total precip., length of day and mean monthly
temp., of precip. and saturation vapour pressure, of
precip. and relative humidity, of precip. and sat. def.,
of precip. and evaporation, of precip. and evapo-trans-
piration.' A very detailed bibliography follows the
discussion of these formulae.-E.J.D.
19oo. Climatological Work in W.A. J. Gentilli.
Westralian Farmers' Co-operative Gazette (Perth),
April 1950.
A brief non-technical survey of the climate of Western
Australia with special emphasis on points of interest to
the man on the land. It deals with the moisture climates
of Western Australia, discusses the connection between
wheat yield and the rainfall of the different months,
the variability of monthly and annual rainfall, the
measurement of evaporation, the efforts to determine the
actual evaporation from plant-covered soil, and finally
the 'rainfall effectiveness' according to the formulae of
Thornthwaite and Precott which try to connect rainfall,
evaporation and plant life taking account of water storage
in the ground and run-off. Charts and tables covering
conditions in Western Australia are added.-F.L.


HISTORY
1901. Public Education in N.S.W. before 1848. Vernon
W. E. Goodwin. Royal Australian Historical
Society-Journal and Proceedings. Vol. xxxvi,
Parts I & II, 1950.
These two articles, together comprising fifty-eight
pages, cover the history of public education in N.S.W.
from the inception of what may be termed a 'State
system'-from practically the first year of settlement-
under control of the Governor, until the time of Governor
Bligh. The articles are to be continued in later series
of the Journal.
1902. Gurr, T. S. and Harrowsmith, G. Blue Moun-
tains Story. Shakespeare Head Press, Sydney,
1949, pp. 2zo, Seventeen illustrations, two maps.
Price ios. 6d.
This book is a narrative of the crossing of the Blue
Mountains by Blaxland, Lawson and Wentworth, of
the subsequent survey by George Williams Evans, of
the building of the road across the mountains and of the
pioneers who made their homes on the other side. The
story is told in novel-form and includes many conversa-
tions between historical characters. Well-printed and
bound, and lavishly illustrated, it will be of less interest to
the specialist than to the general reader, as although
based on primary sources in the Mitchell Library the
work is undocumented and lacks a bibliography.

1903. The James Papers-Letters on Federalism.
Australian Quarterly, pp. 54-63, December 1949.


A series of twenty-one brief letters to Sir Walter
James, one of the leaders of the Federal movement in
W.A., from various federal leaders in the Eastern
States-Deakin, Barton, Wise, Peacock, Hackett-and
Forrest. James' replies are unfortunately not available.
1904. The Role of Economic Interests in Australian
Federation: A Reply to Prof. R. S. Parker.
Blainey, G. Historical Studies, Australia and
N.Z. Vol. 4, No. 15, November 1950, pp. 224-
237.
A close examination with a wealth of statistical data,
of the thesis, principally in terms of regional economic
interest, advanced by Professor Parker in Historical
Studies, November 1949. The author criticises
Professor Parker for skirting detailed electoral analysis in
the federal referendums, for designing maps which give
a misleading view of the issues, and for preferring the
1899 referendum returns to those of 1898.
The main body of the article is a colony-by-colony
examination of 1898 returns, intended primarily to show
that Professor Parker's analysis conflicts with actual
voting figures.
Several suggestions for further research are offered:
the influences of the daily press, of the church, and of the
Amalgamated Miners' Association, it is argued, need to
be analysed.
The author concludes that the appeals of cam-
paigners were so confusing, the interests of the voters
so confused, that it is dangerous to make more than a
tentative explanation without a thorough study of par-
ticular localities.
The material is drawn from a very wide range of
contemporary sources.
A short reply from Professor Parker is appended
(pp. 238-240).
1905. The Germ of Federation in Australia. J. M. Ward.
Historical Studies, Australia and New Zealand,
Vol. 4, No. 15, November 195o.
In this article, Professor Ward examines the thesis
put forward by C. D. Allin in The Early Federation
Movement of Australia, that the origins of Australian
federalism are to be found in Colonial tariff rivalry of
the mid 1840's, resulting in Edward Deas Thomson
recommending a federal government in 1846. Thus
Deas Thomson was hailed by Allin as 'par excellence
the Father of Australian Federation'. In testing this
thesis, Professor Ward examines in detail the debate of
the Legislative Council of N.S.W. in which the Deas
Thomson proposals were put forward, and comes to the
conclusion that Allin's interpretation must be consider-
ably modified : that, in fact, it is extremely improbable
that Deas Thomson in 1846 envisaged anything in the
nature of a federal executive.

19o6. The Van Diemen's Land Government and the
Depression of the 1840's. R. M. Hartwell.
Historical Studies, Australia and New Zealand,
Vol. 4, No. 15, 195o, pp. 12.
In the first detailed examination of this subject by an
economic historian, Professor Hartwell traces the history
of the depression of the 4o's in Van Diemen's Land, its
relation to the difficulties encountered by Sir John
Franklin and Sir John Eardley-Wilmot as Lieutenant-
Governors, and its effect in promoting the colonial
demand for the abolition of transportation and of arbit-
rary government. The depression, which began towards
the end of 1840, followed a boom in exports and in the
influx of English and Anglo-Indian capital, which led to
expansion of banking and credit facilities and invest-
ment in land. In x840 the prices of wool and wheat,








the colony's staples, fell; banks curtailed credit and a
deflationary moment began. Government revenue was
affected when land sales fell and large-scale immigration,
undertaken during the boom, had to be paid for during
the depression. Simultaneously the abolition of trans-
portation to New South Wales, and a change in the
method of convict discipline brought increased social
evils and deprived the colonists of cheap labour.
Loans and the reduction of public works failed to
meet the government's deficit. Wilmot's attempt to
impose taxation caused a constitutional crises in the
Legislative Council which produced the paralysis of
government. The depression ended in 1846, but
hostility to transportation and to arbitrary government,
which had grown greatly during the depression did not
die away with it, and continued agitation led to the
abolition of transportation and the grant of self-govern-
ment.

1907. The New State Movement in Queensland.
R. G. Neale. Historical Studies, Australia and
New Zealand, pp. 198-213, November 1950.
A preliminary interpretation of Separation movements
between 1859-19oo. The argument is that these
agitations 'were the outcome of difficulties encountered
by a new society in its attempts to solve a basic problem
of government'. First, the legislative and administra-
tive powers centralized in Brisbane had to be adjusted
to suit an expanding and varying economy. Secondly,
the lack of effective local government aggravated the
inconveniences of centralisation. Thirdly, separation
was sought as an end in itself as a sole remedy for these
problems. A survey of attempted solutions to the
problem of adequate representation for the North
leads to consideration of the part played by sugar interests
in first supporting and later opposing the Northern
separation movement.

LAW

(A) Constitutional Law
1908. Friedmann, W. Principles of Australian Adminis-
trative Law. Melbourne University Press, 1950,
pp. ix8. Price 12s. 6d.
This work, a guide to the principles of administrative
law, is especially concerned with Australian materials.

1909. The Australian Banks Case. The Round Table
(London), December 1949, pp. 36-41.
A discussion in non-technical language of the issues
in, and the results of, the decision of the Privy Council
restraining the Federal Government from giving effect
to the Act passed for the nationalisation of banking.

191o. Trethowan's Case, Parliamentary Sovereignty
and the Limits of Legal Change. W. Friedmann.
Australian Law Journal, pp. 103-108, July 1950.
The conclusions are, first, that the restrictions on the
power of Parliaments regarding the 'manner and form' of
legislation apply to sovereign as well as to non-sovereign
Parliaments. Second, there may be borderline cases in
which a statute purporting to be 'manner and form' may
be in substance a law of wider significance and subject to
invalidation. Third, English Courts, as distinct from
Australian Courts, will not normally adjudicate on
legislation, either while it is pending, or after it has been
passed, but there are extreme cases in which they would
be likely to depart from this practice.


1911. Paramountcy of Commonwealth Industrial
Awards over Inconsistent State Awards. E. F.
Healy. Australian Law Journal, pp. 103-1o8,
July 1950.
A discussion of a recent decision of the Commonwealth
Court of Conciliation and Arbitration and the relevant
statutes.

(B) Jurisprudence
1912. Friedmann, W. Legal Theory. Second Edition,
1949, London, Stevens & Sons, pp. xxiii and
470. Price 3os.
This work was enthusiastically reviewed when the
first edition appeared. The substantial character of the
work is unaltered, but there has been a thorough revision
to take account of new developments both in the litera-
ture and in the practice of the law. The thesis of such
an extensive treatment cannot be abstracted-all that
can be done is to call attention to the importance of
the work.
(C) Legal History
1913. Windeyer, W. J. V., Lectures on Legal History,
Second Edition. Law Book Co. of Australasia,
Sydney, 1950, pp. 364. Price i i5s.
The first edition was well-received both in England
and Australia. It is the best modern introduction to
legal history for those who wish for an interesting and
intelligible treatment with a minimum of technical
terms.
PHILOSOPHY
1914. Morality and Nature. W. D. Falk. Australasian
Journal of Philosophy, pp. 69-92, September 1950.
'Morality and Nature' examines the view that moral
obligations have their basis in the rational and appetitive
nature of man. There is a 'natural machinery for
self-control' in virtue of which men tend to live on two
levels of volitional consciousness: the level of their
immediate desires, and the level of what, under the
influence of forethought (exploration and contemplative
evaluation of fact) their desires would become. Judg-
ments about obligations, about 'ought' and 'ought not',
are about people's practical attitudes as they would be
if their ordinary powers of self-control were exercised
not just casually, but exhaustively, in accordance with a
principle of sufficiency. Such judgments are thus
about a species of psychological fact, i.e., conative
attitudes, but not about them as they actually are, or
normally tend to be, but about them as, in ideally
defined conditions, they would be. Discourse of this
kind is hereby marked off from the range of discourse
which psychology as a science regards as its own. The
paper attempts to defend this view against the two
fashionable doctrines of the present day : the doctrine
that moral judgments are about some esoteric 'fact'
accessible only to a special faculty of moral intuition,
and the doctrine that they are not proper judgments, but
only exhortations in disguise.

PSYCHOLOGY
1915. Backward Children-A Review. H. Maddox.
Australian Journal of Psychology, pp. 1-18, June
1950.
The American and British Literature on mentally
handicapped children is critically reviewed. One
hundred and thirteen references are cited. Conflicting
approaches to the measurement of abilities are discussed.








It is emphasised that intelligence tests should be
interpreted with caution; emotional and social relation-
ships may be more important. The literature on reading
backwardness is reviewed at some length and there is
some discussion of school provision and occupational
placement.
1916. The Research Background of An Interactional
Theory of Leadership. C. A. Gibb. Australian
Journal of Psychology, pp. 19-42, June 1950.
The evidence of the researches reviewed points to the
conclusion that determination of the leader of a given
group and of his leader behaviour is, in some part,
a function of the syntality characteristics of the group
in a particular situation. Some experimental studies of
leadership in actual group situations have been made.
Their emphasis, however, has been upon individual
behaviour while only passing reference has been made to
the behaviour of the group as such. In recent years
more attention has been given to the part played by the
group structure in determining which individual charac-
teristics will be qualities of leadership and the type
of leader behaviour that is appropriate. The Illinois
studies represent the beginnings of an attempt to make
an experimental, quantitative assessment of both
individual and group behaviour in the effort to discover
the way in which these two sets of variables interact in
the emergence of leadership.
1917. A Note on the Notion of Psychological Signifi-
cance. D. W. McElwain and A. Lubin. Aus-
tralian Journal of Psychology, pp. 43-51, June
1950.
A distinction is made between the notions of 'statis-
tical' and 'psychological' significance. A statistical
difference may or may not be psychologically significant.
The psychological significance of an observed difference
is established when the observed difference results in
a change of outcome. It is suggested that the criterion
of 'change of outcome' can be approached usefully by
using the psychophysical notion of 'just noticeable
differences'. It is shown that it is possible by the
application of Weber's Method of Right and Wrong
cases to find the size of the j.n.d. for any size of correla-
tion coefficient between the observed variable and the
outcome or criterion. An empirical method of estab-
lishing these values is given, as well as a set of general
equations applicable when the usual assumptions of
normality of distributions and rectilinearity of regres-
sions can be made.
1918. Grading Tests in English and in Language
Ability for New Australians. H. A. Presser and
B. B. Harold. Australian journal of Psychology,
PP. 52-57, June 1950.
New Australians on arrival in Australia were graded
into school classes for instruction in English. The
task of the authors was to devise a system for grading
migrants into classes, so that each class would be as
homogeneous as possible in ability to profit from the
instruction given. Two group tests were constructed-
the 'English Directions Test' and the 'Non-English
Speakers Test'. It was found that these tests were
effective for grading.

TERRITORIES AND NATIVE
PROBLEMS
1919. Mannzen, W. Die Eingeborenn Australiens. Ge-
bruder Weiss, Berlin, 1949, pp. 260.
This book may be described as a concise handbook of
the social anthropology of the Australian aborigines,


written from the point of view of Marxist theory.
After definition of law and the method of historical
materialism, theories about the origin of mankind and
the most primitive social unit, the 'horde' are discussed.
A survey of aboriginal man and his environment, of the
aborigines' mode of life and their technical achievements
is made. Then follows a treatise on property, on the
economic and general privileges of the male sex,
particularly of the privileged position of the old men.
'Phratry', marriage groups, kinship terminology and
totemism with its economic and social functions are
being dealt with. An account of the 'friendly' and
'hostile relations between the local groups' and the
chapter on the 'Mentality of the Australians' conclude
the book. A comprehensive bibliography of thirteen
pages is also included.
192o. Annual Report of the Board of Maori Affairs and
of the Under-Secretary, Department of Maori
Affairs, for Year ended 31 March 195o. Govern-
ment Printer, Wellington, 1950, pp. 24. Price 9d.
The Report shows the following arrangement of
subjects: Land Development, Housing and Building,
Training of Maori Youths, Maori Welfare, Maori
Trustee, East Coast Trust Lands, Maori Land Boards,
Rehabilitation of Maori Ex-servicemen, Legislation,
Maori Claims, Consolidation of Titles, and Maori
Interpreters' Board of Examiners. Then follow reports
on the staff and on finances and subsidies. Six statis-
tical tables are attached. In the section on 'Training of
Maori Youths' it is stated that the number of youths
of Maori race reaching working age is now estimated
at 2,ooo males per annum. Therefore, it has been
found necessary to consider plans for their absorption
in the industrial, commercial and professional life of
the country, and to this end the Maori Education and
Employment Committee has been set up.
1921. Annual Report of the Aborigines Welfare Board,
for Year ended 30 June 1949. Government
Printer, Sydney, 1950, pp. Iz. Price iod.
An important objective of the Board is to assist
aborigines to prepare for eventual assimilation into the
white community. A prerequisite to acceptable assimi-
lation is good housing and home management. Con-
siderable advance in this direction was made during the
year under report, including the re-housing of a complete
community group in attractive modern cottages at the
Murrin Bridge Aboriginal Station. The other sections
of the Report deal with labour conditions, health and
hygiene, agricultural activity, education, social and
sporting life. A number of other aspects of the Board's
activities is also discussed.
1922. South Pacific Commission, Proceedings of the
Fifth Session, Suva, Fiji, ii to 19 May 1950,
PP. 33 roneoedd).
The Fifth Session of th e Commission took place
immediately after the First South Pacific Conference,
held at Nasinu College, Fiji, from 25 April to 5 May 1950.
The principal part of the Agenda consists of the Report
on the First South Pacific Conference, while Appendix I
is a reproduction of the 'Resolutions of the Conference'.
The rest of the 'Proceedings' is predominantly adminis-
trative.
1923. South Pacific Commission. Report of the Sec-
retary General on the First South Pacific Con-
ference, Nasinu, Fiji, 25 April to 5 May 1950,
pp. 23 roneoedd).
For the first time in history, members of several
native peoples of the Pacific came together to discuss
matters of vital importance common to all the widely








distant territories scattered over the southern Pacific
area. The Agenda for the First South Pacific Con-
ference consisted of the following items; Public Health
(Mosquito Control, The Healthy Village); Social
Development (The Village School, Vocational Training,
Co-operative Societies); Economic Development
(Fisheries Methods, Improvement and Diversification
of Food and Export Crops). Member Governments
were responsible for the preparation of introductory
papers on all these subjects. The Appendix to the
Report contains the 'Decisions of the South Pacific
Commission at its Fifth Session on the Resolutions of the
First South Pacific Conference'. The various decisions
are records of the general attitude of the Commission
rather than administrative measures.

1924. Man and his Cultural Heritage. A. P. Elkin.
Oceania, September 1949, pp. 1-28.


This lecture is a popular survey of anthropology, both
physical and cultural and was given by Prof. A. P. Elkin
during the Hobart meeting of the A.N.Z.A.A.S. The
author explains that there are 'three main anthropological
highways, the study of biological evolution which leads
to physical anthropology, then the study of social
structure and of man's relationship to his society, and
finally, the study of man's culture.' The next section is
a survey of the history of prehistory, physical anthropo-
logy and human palaeontology. The main chapter
deals with the 'Progress of Cultural and Social Anthro-
pology'. The difference between cultural changes and
revolutions in the total structure of a people is defined
and illustrated by examples. The author then discusses
the tasks of Applied Anthropology, especially in Australia
where, he says, 'theoretical knowledge is at a discount'.
The lecture concludes with a paragraph entitled 'The
Dignity of Man'.











INDEX TO Nos. o1 AND ii


A.
Aborigines, 1919, 1921.
Abott, C. L. A., 1883.
Accountancy, 1581, 1582, 1793, 1795, 1797.
Adamson, A. V., 1579.
Administration, Commonwealth-State Relations, 1640.
Administrative Law, 1908.
Adult Education, 1875.
Advertising, 1521.
Agriculture, 1611, 1612, 1819, 1824, 1825, 1826.
Agriculture, Price Structure in E.C.A., 1519.
Air Transport of Fruits and Vegetables, 1589.
Allin, C. D., 1905.
Anthropology, 1924.
Apples and Pears, 1631.
Armidale, Pasture Protection District, 1621.
Arndt, H. W., 1513, 1592, 1738, 1857.
Arnhem Land, Ceremonial Exchange Circle, 1721.
Ashton, L. G., 1606.
Atkins, F. G., 1683.
Audas, J. W., 1882.
Australia, 1529, 1671, 1672, 1727, 1798, 1817, 1839, 1879,
1880-1884, 1888.
Australian Economy, 1725, 1732, 1733, 1734, 1751.
Aviation, 18oi.

B.
Baker, J. A., 1819.
Balance of Payments, 1735.
Ball MacMahon, W., 1848.
Balmford, W. C., 1786, i861.
Bank Nationalization, 1909.
Barret, C., 1888.
Barret, L., 1791.
Barrier Reef, 1887.
Bascom, E. G., 1524.
Baskets and Basketware, 1571.
Beef Cattle, Transport in N.T., 1590, 1623.
Bell, A. F., 1612.
Bellevue Intelligence Tests, 1720.
Benda, H. J., 1850.
Bergstrom, A. R., 1545.
Berry Fruit, 1769.
Betts, J. J., 1636.
Bienvenu, R. L., 1787.
Bird Geography, 1685.
Blackburn, M., 1773.
Bland, F. A., 1633.
Blue Mountains, 1674, 1902.
Blainey, G., 1904.
Bligh, W., 1701.
Borrie, W. D., 1654, 1844.
Bostock, J., 1661.
Bray, F. Sewell, 1581, 1746, 1793.
Branson, C. W., 1858.
Brisbane, 1912, General Strike, 1704.
Britain under Labour, 1522.
Broken Hill Pneumoconiosis-Tuberculosis Scheme,
1789.
Brooks, W. T., 1691.
Brown, M., 1695.
Brogden, S., 1675.
Bucklow, M., 16oo, 181o.
Builders' Hardware, 1779.
Burt's Type Factors of Temperament, 1717.
Burvill, G. H., 1824.
Busby, K., 1819.


Business Activity, Index of, 1514.
Business Education, 1530.
Butlin, N. G., 1702, 1738.
Butten, E. E., 1524.
Byrt, W. J., 1603, 1816.

C.
Callaghan, A. R., 1825, 1826.
Cameron, K. A., 1524.
Cameron, R. J., 1659.
Campbell, A. J., 1833.
Campbell Island, 1692.
Canada, 1529.
Canned Fruit, 1770.
Capital Requirements, 1740.
Capital Resources, Accumulation of, 1741.
Carlsen, O. J., 1776.
Cattle Cycle, 1625.
Cawte, F. G. N., 1672.
Chatham Islands, 1892.
Children, Personality Deviations, 1661.
Children, Backward, 1915.
Chinese Communist Agrarian Policy, 1523.
Chisholm, Caroline, 1696.
Churchward, C. R., 1783.
Churchward, L. G., 1752.
Clarke, A. C., 1816.
Clark, Colin, 1655, 1739, 1756, 1876.
Clark, C. M. H., 1694.
Clark, J. M., 1768.
Climate, 1690, 1691, 1885, 1891, 1900.
Clunies Ross, I., 1819.
Coal, 1557, 1777.
Cochrane, D., 1511, 1743.
Cohn, L. J., 1787.
Collins, H. G., 1818.
Commonwealth Government Corporations, Personnel,
1641.
Commonwealth Grants Commission, 1792.
Commonwealth and State Industrial Awards, 1911.
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research
Organization, 1525.
Communications, 1798.
Communism, Action against, 1644.
Communist Party Dissolution Bill, 1838, 1842.
Comstock, Alzada, 1840.
Compulsory Unionism, 1707.
Conciliation and Arbitration, 1596, 1597, 1809, 1814,
1911.
Condobolin District, 1617.
Conflict, 1714.
Constitution, 1633, 1709.
Construction Industry, 1564.
Copland, D., 1517, 1732, 1734, 1784.
Coral Reefs, Australian, 1887.
Cornell, F. W., 1786.
Cornish, E. A., 1629.
Correspondence Education, 1660.
Cost Accounting, 1794, 1796.
Costin, A. B., 1690.
Cotton, 1567.
Cotton Canvas and Cotton Duck, 1781.
Coultherd, A. G., 1681.
Country Roads, 1799.
Cowper, N., 1644.
Cox, R. K., 1896.








Craig, H. L., 1639.
Crawford, J. G., 1619, 1630.
Crean, F., 1841.
Croll, I. C. H., 1778.
Cumberland, K. B., 1885, 1893.
Cumpston, J. M., 1706.
Cunningham, K. S., 1878.

D.
Dairy Farming and Products, 1545, 1546, 16o6, 161o,
1624, 1626, 1627, 1763.
Dakin, W. J., 1887.
Daley, F. S., 1524.
Danby, L. C., 1533.
Date, E., 1519.
David, T. W. E., 1879.
Davie, L., 1751.
Decentralization of Industry, 1537, 1726.
Deerr, N., 1886.
Deportation, 1710.
Depression 1840, Tasmania, 1906.
Design of Buildings in Relation to Materials Handling,
1754.
Devery, P. J., 1897.
Dillard, D., 1744.
Disposals Commission, 1577.
Distribution of Industry's Proceeds, 1518.
Documents in Australian History, 1694.
Dollar Problem, 1575, 1784, 1785.
Domestic Electric Appliances, 1565.
Donath, E. J., 1689.
Dried Fruits, 1550, 1771, 1772.
Drybrough, D., 1786.
Druce, P. C., 1624.
Dunk, W. E., 1635.
Dunn, J. A., 1555, 1559.
Dunn, N. A., 1698.
Dunne, T. C., 1824.
Dyne, R. E., 1658.

E.
Eardley-Wilmot, J., 19o6.
Economic Development, Selected Countries, 1748.
Economic Pattern, 15o8.
Economics, 1508, 1509, 1510, 1725, 1732-1734, i8i8.
Education, 166o, 1663, 1664, 1666, 1668, 1864-1866,
1868-1872, 1874-1878, 19o1.
Education, Dairying Industry, 1829.
Educational Guidance, 1666.
Educational and Vocational Training, 1876, 1878.
Edwards, E., 1684.
Elections, Federal, 1840.
Elkin, A. P., 1924.
Ellis, R. 0., 1604.
Employee's Handbook, 1816.
Employees Stock Ownership, 1603.
Employment Levels and Trends, N.Z., 1807.
Evans, G. W., 1902.
Export Income, Stabilizing of, 1517.
Eye Protection, 1653.

F.
Factory Planning, 1532.
Falk, W. D., 1914.
Falla, R. O., 1892.
Farming, N.Z., Employment, Productivity, Income,
1746.
Farming, Distribution, N.S.W., 1835.
Farming Industries, x818, 1832.
Farm Power Usage, 1624.
Farm Price Tribunal, 1742.


Federation in Australia, 1632, 1903-1905.
Federation in Australia, Role of Economic Interests,
1904.
Fisheries, 1553.
Fitzgerald, A. A., 1582, 1793.
Fitzpatrick, B., 1702.
Fitzroy River, 1683.
Flax Spinning and Weaving, 1569.
Foenander, O. de R., 1596.
Food, Soil and Civilization, 1670.
Food Production and Consumption, 1731.
Foreign Policy for Australia, 1645, 1845, 1846, 1851,
1852.
Fox, P. Moerlin, 1713.
Foxcroft, E. J. B., 1857.
Franklin, J., 1906.
Freedom and Planning in Australia, 1693.
Fremantle Harbour, 1683.
Friedmann, W. G., 1645, 1908, 1910, 1912.
Fruit Industry, 1551, 1770-1772.
Full Employment, 1730, 1747.

G.
Garnett, A. C., 1693.
Gasking, D., 1703.
Gastineau-Hills, M. H., 1789.
Gentilli, J., 1685.
Geology-Economic, 1879.
Geography, 1889-1892, 1896-1900.
Gibb, C. A., 1716.
Giblin, L. F., 1632.
Gillies, F. D., 1548, 1589.
Glenny, D. F., 1837.
Godfrey, D. D. H., 1617.
Gold, 1895.
Goodwin, V. W. E., 1901.
Gottman, G. 0., 1625.
Government Finances, 1790, 1792.
Government, Rising Costs of, 1576.
Graham, B. A., 1638.
Grant, G. D., 1813.
Graves, D. E., 1715.
Gray, A. C., 1597.
Great Britain, 1594, 1616, 1753.
Greenwood, G., 1632, 1851.
Grobtuch, M. J., 1809.
Grogan, F. 0., 156o.
Gurr, T. S., 1674, 1902.
Guthrie, J., 1683.
Gutman, G. 0., 1767.

H.
Halsey, T. H., 1726.
Hammer, A. G., 1720.
Hamilton, J. R., 1745.
Harman, H. M., 1532.
Harold, B. B., 1918.
Harper, N. D., 1846.
Harris, S. E., 1592.
Harrod, R. F., 1522.
Harrowsmith, G., 1674, 1902.
Hartwell, R. M., 19o6.
Hay District, 1614.
Healy, E. F., 1911.
Heard Island, 1677.
Hedberg, K. M., 1679.
Henderson, K., 1643.
Higgins, B. H., 1524.
Highbed, D. J., 1531.
Hiley, T. A., 1793.
Hill, C., 1662.








Hill, E., 1661.
Hirst, R. R., 1512.
History, 1703.
Hitchings, M. G., 1692.
Hogan, T., 1819.
Holmes, J. M., 1897.
Honey, 1767.
Home, R. S., 1599.
Hosie, R. R., 1509.
Hounam, C. E., 1891.
Housing, 1648-1650, 1684, 1853.
Howie, D., 1717.
Hughes, P., 1667.
Humphries, L. E., 1616.
Hurley, J. G., 1524.
Hutley, F. C., 1711.
Hybrid Maize, 1687.
Hydro-Electric Commission, Tasmania, 1527.
Hydro-Electric Power, N.Z., 1757.

I.
Immigration, 1654, 1659, 1857, 1859.
Import Control, N.Z., 1755.
Incentives, 16oz, 1604, 1725, 1811-1813.
Income Tax, 1578, 1579, 1791.
India, 1528, 1709.
Indonesia, 1845, 1848, 1850.
Industrial Development, Queensland, 1756.
Industrial Disputes, Australia, U.K., U.S.A., 1594.
Industrial Disputes, Communist-Initiated, 1595.
Industrial Relations, N.Z., 1593.
Inflation, 1512.
Inspection, as a productive function, 1531.
Insurance, 1786-1789, 1794.
Interest and Money Supply, 1573.
International Investment, 1739, 1741.
International Trade, 1528.
International Understanding, 1873.
Investment, 1740, 1741.
Iron and Steel Industry, 1894.
Irrigation, 16o8, 1628.
Isaac, J. E., 18o8.

J.
Jackson, P. C., 1789.
James' Papers, 1634, 1903.
James, W., 1676.
Janes, C. V., 1574.
Japan, Occupation, 1646, 1848.
Japan, Reparations, 1647.
Johns, J. R. H., 1836.
Johnston, L., 1683.
Joint Consultation, 1598.
Jordan, M. C., 1730.
Jute Supply, 1768.

K.
Kangan, M., 1598, i81i, 1813.
Karmel, P. H., 1656, 1657.
Keats, J. A., 1864.
Kelly, F. T., 1521.
Kelly, J. H., 1590, 1623.
Kelly, N., 1695.
Kelly, W. S., 1825.
Kemp, J. R., 1737.
Kemp, M. C., 1573.
Kewley, T. H., 1641.
Keynes, J. M., 1573, 1592, 1744.
Kiddie, Margaret, 1696.
King, C. J., 1611.
King, N. J., 1828.


Kingsland, A. M., 1627, 1834, 1835.
Kisch, E. E., 1884.
Knowles, W. I. A., 1614.

L.
Labour History, 1890 Turning Point, 1705.
Labour Statistics, N.Z., 1729.
Labour Conditions, 18o6.
Labour Relations, 18o5, I815, i8i6.
Labour Turnover, 1599, 16oo, 18io.
Ladenig, J. E., I618.
Lady Gowrie Centres, 1662.
Lafitte, P., 1718.
La Nauze, J. A., 1510.
Land Development, S.A., 1826.
Lands and Survey, Department of, 1607.
Land Utilization, 1817, 1834.
Language Ability Tests, 1918.
Latrobe Valley, 168o.
Lavender Oil, 1570.
Law, 1908, 1912, 1913.
Lawler, P. J., 1857.
Leadership, Interactional Theory of, 1916.
Leadership, Talent for, 1716.
Lett, L., 1699.
Lewis, D. E., 1730.
Lewis, J. N., 1857.
Life Insurance, 1788.
Linford, R. J., 1863.
Lloyd, A. G., 1546.
Lock, A. C. C., 1673.
Logic and Legal Process, I711.
London Missionary Society, 1700.
Longland, D. W., 1859.
Low, A. R., 1575.
Lubin, A., 1917.

M.
McCallum, J. L., 1632.
McCarthy, F. D., 1724.
McDonald, R. F., 1787.
McElwain, D. W., 1917.
McInnes, I. G., 1553.
Mackaness, G., 1701.
McLeod, A. R., 1697.
Macnicol, Clare, 1769.
McPherson, E. E., 1540.
McWilliam, N. G., 1707.
Maddox, H., 1915.
Madeley, H. M., 1880.
Mahoney, W., 1535, 1754.
Malaya, Self-Government of, 1849.
Malor, Jean, 1710.
Management, 1524.
Manellai, Manilla, 1697.
Maoris, 1920.
Mannzen, W., 1919.
Materials Handling, 1536, 1537.
Matthews, T. G., 1578.
Mauldon, F. R. E., 164o.
Mayer, H., 1523, 1849.
Measurement, Economic, 1511.
Meat, 1547.
Metropolitan Government, W.A., 1836.
Milne, G. A., 158o.
Mineral Resources, 1555, 1774.
Mining, 1556, 1775, 1776.
Monaro Region, 1690, 1831.
Money and Real Income, Changes, 1572.
Moran, E. J., 1812.
Morality and Nature, 1914.








Morey, E. A., 1719.
Morgan, A., 1628.
Morley, I. W., 1776.
Morrison, A. A., 1704.
Morwell Development, 1681.
Motion and Time Study, 1604.
Mullett, H. A., 1819.
Munz, H., 1541.
Murray, J. K., 1723.
Murray, Sir Hubert, 1699.
Murray River, 1682.

N.
National Income, 1513, 1728, 1736, 1738.
Native Education, 1874.
Neale, R. G., 1907.
New Guinea, 1549, 1700, 1723, 1874.
Newland, B. C., 1524.
Newman, F. I. H., 1536.
Newman, J. G., 1776.
New South Wales, 1585, 1591, 1611, 1639, 1679, 1702,
1738, 1772, 1830, 1831, 1834, 1835, 1868, 1896-1898,
1901.
Newsprint, 1562.
New Zealand, 1520, 1538, 1545, 1575, 1580, 1593, 16io,
1729, 1746, 1747, 1755, I757, 1758, 1801-1803, 1807,
1837, 1854, 1855, 1862, 1885, 1892, 1893.
Nicholas, H. S., 1709.
Ninety Mile Plain Mineral Deficiency, 1613.
Nock, H. K., 1540.
Northern Territory, 1554, 1590, 1623, 1883.

O.
Oakley, C. F. W., 1786.
Oil, 1558.
Opal Industry, 1778.
Oxnam, D. W., 1572, 1593, 1814.

P.
Paper and Pulp Industry, 1563.
Papua, 156o, 1723.
Parker, R. S., 1632, 1904.
Parliamentary Sovereignty and Legal Change, 1910.
Parsons, R. W., 1712.
Party Politics, 1643.
Pastoral Stations, Company Ownership, 1702.
Paterson, B. G., 1776.
Pauling, T. P., 1639.
Pearling Industry, 1683.
Pelagic Fish Survey, 1773.
Pentony, P., 1719.
Personality Assessment, 1718.
Petrie, W. F., 1647.
Philipp, June, 1705.
Phipps, I. F., 1819.
Plantation Crops, 182o.
Plastics Industry, 1566.
Playford, T., 1632.
Point Lonsdale, 1698.
Politics, 1839, 1841, 1842.
Population, 1655-1658, 1844, 1861, 1863.
Population, Occupied Dwellings, Census of, 1860, 1862.
Precedents, English in Australian Courts, 1712.
Precipitation Effectiveness Measurement, 1899.
Prehistoric Cultures, Australia, 1724.
Presser, H. A., 1918.
Prest, W., 1736.
Price, Grenfell, A., 1722.
Price Level, N.Z., 1729.
Price Level Changing and Accounting, 1582.
Privy Council, 1708.


Production, Australia, Canada, 1529.
Production Planning, 1533.
Production Problems, 1725.
Productivity of Manufacturing, 1515, 1534.
Productivity of Tertiary Industry, 1546.
Psychological Significance Notion, 1916.
Public Administration, 1635.
Public Education in N.S.W., 1901.
Public Health, 1652, 1856.
Public Relations, 1837.
Public Service, Personnel Management, 1639.
Public Service, Training for, 1636, 1637.

Q.
Queensland, 1558, 16o8, 1612, 1618, 1658, 1673, 1691,
1737, 1749, 1756, 1764, 1776, i8oo, 1804, 1822, 1828,
1859, 1871, 1907.
Queensland-British Food Corporation, 1737, 1764.

R.
Rabbits, 1689.
Radford, W. C., 1668, 1864.
Railways, 1583, 1585-1587, 18oo, 1803.
Rayner, S. A., 1660.
Regional Planning, 1678, 1679.
Reilly, J., 1874.
Remote Controls for Cycles, 1568.
Renwick, C., 1508.
Retail Prices in N.Z., 1520.
Riceman, D. B., 1613.
Richardson, S. H., 1524.
Richmond, 1686.
Riverina District, 1830.
Roads, N.S.W., 1591.
Ross Anderson, L. T., 1819.
Ross, Frank, 1788.
Ross, Lloyd, 1642.
Rowe, L., 1683.
Rowley, Sheila, 1742.
Rubber, 156o.
Rural Economics, i818.
Rural Production, Equipment, Materials for, 1832
Ruth, N., 1747.
Rutherford, J., 1834.
Rydon, Joan, 1641.

S.
Sand Dunes, 1898.
Sawer, G., 1632.
Saxon, E. A., 1832.
Scholes, A., 1677.
Schools, Primary and Secondary, 1664.
Scott, T. P., 1786.
Scott, W., 1725, 1793.
Selection in Industry, Group Methods, 1715.
Self-Estimates, Study of, 1717.
Separation Movements, 1859-1900, Queensland, 1907.
Serventy, D. L., 1554.
Sheep, 162o-1622.
Shepherd, G. D., 1793.
Shipping, 1804.
Shute, J. L., 1819.
Simmins, C. B., 1558, 1776.
Simonds, I. J., 1811.
Simonett, D. S., 1898.
Simpson-Lee, G. A. J., 1508.
Sissons, I. C., 1646.
Singer, K., 1714.
Social Services, 1651.
Social Security, N.Z., 1854.
Socialized Sterling, 1574.








Socialism and Australian Labour, 1642, 18o5.
Soil Erosion and Conservation, 1614-1619, 1830, 1831,
1890, 1896, 1897.
Soil Fertility, S. A., 1825.
Soil Investigations, 1828, 1889.
South Australia, 1586, 1613, 1629, 1650, 1771, 1825,
1826, 1870.
South Pacific Commission, 1843, 1922, 1923.
Southwell, E. A., 1670.
Soybeans, 1688.
Spencer, I. J., 1524.
Standards Council, N.Z., 1538, 1758.
State Electricity Commission, Victoria, 1526.
State Electricity Commission, Queensland, 1749.
Steel Industry, 1561, 1894.
Stewart, D., 1875.
St. Marys, 1537.
Stock Management, 1617.
Stovold, A. W., 1786.
Sturt, Charles, 1706
Strong, T. H., 1857.
Stutterheim, K., 1881.
Sugar, 1548, 1549, 1822, 1886.
Superannuation Business, 1787.
Swift, D., 1895.

T.
Tariff Board, 1750.
Tasmania, 1527, 1562, 1631, 1652, 1675, 1856, 1872,
1873, 1906.
Taxation of Trustees, 1580.
Teachers, 1664, 1665.
Telecommunications, 1798.
Therapeutic Techniques, 1719.
Thomas, H. Greenwood, 1653.
Thomson, D. F., 1721.
Tippett, L. H. C., 1534.
Todd, T. W., 1637.
Tolstrup, F. H., 1794.
Torres Strait Route, 1804.
Torrens System, 1713.
Trade, 1751-1753, 1847.
Training in Industry, 16o1.
Tramways, Melbourne, 1588.
Transport, 1584.
Trethowan's Case, 191o.
Trigg, F. E., 1793.
Tropics, 1673.
Tubb, J. A., 1773.
Tuna Survey, 1554, 1773.
Tyre Cord Fabric and Tyre Cord, 1782.

U.
Underwood, E. J., 1742, 1824.
Universities Commission, 1663, 1669.
Universities, External Tuition, 1867.
University of Melbourne Appointments Board, 1605.
Upper Murray Region, Survey, 1889.
Ure, D. I., 1700.
Utilities, State Owned, W.A., 1638.


V.
Van Diemen's Land, 1906.
Victoria, 1526, 1583, 1584, 1607, 1628, 1649, 1775, 1799,
1819, 1827, 1853, 1889, x891.
Vocational Education, 1876, 1877.


W.
Waddington, D. M., 1864.
Wade, A., 1776.
Wadham, S. M., 1817.
Wage Incentives in Operation, 1811-1813.
Wage Policy for Australia, 18o8.
Wage Rates, Skilled and Unskilled, 1814.
Wages, N.Z., 1729.
Waldron, N. K., 1812.
Walker, K. F., 1730, 1812.
Wallace, K. J., 1544.
Ward, E. E., 1751, 1847.
Ward, J. M., 1905.
Warrell Creek District, 1834.
War Service Land Settlement, 1609.
Water Supply, 1608, 1821.
Wearne, C. W., 1639.
Weber's Method of Right and Wrong Cases, 1917.
Western Australia, 1555, 1587, 1638, 1683, 1824, 1836,
1869, 1900.
Western District, Victoria, 1891.
Weston, A. B., 1708.
Wheat, 1540, 1629, 1630, 1691, 1827, 1833.
White, H. F., 1819.
White, L. W., 1590, 1623.
White Settlers and Natives, 1722.
Whyalla, 1684.
Wickham, O. P., 16o1.
Wild Life, 1888.
Williams, E. J., 1819.
Wills, N. R., 1894.
Wiltshire, G. R., 1615.
Windeyer, W. J. V., 1913.
Wine, 1552, 1676, 1766.
Wishart, D. S., 1819.
Withers, L. F., 1757.
Wolfsohn, H. A., 1845.
Wood, G. L., 1524, 1530, 1817, 1819.
Wool, 1541-1544, 1620, 1745, 1759-1761.
Wool Price Index, 1544.
Wool Textile Industry, 1761.
Workers' Control, 1805.
Worland, H. J., 1819.
World Resources and Population, 1655.
Woven Rayon Piece Goods, 1780.

Y.
Yeomans, P. A., 1897.
'Yobarnie' Methods for Soil and Water Conservation,
1897.
Young, W. S., 1793.















































THIS publication of abstracts in the social sciences is intended to provide a survey
of important material, published in, or related to Australia, New Zealand and their
territories, dealing with the various social sciences. The field of the survey dealt with
in these Abstracts is indicated by the classification of the subjects on the inside cover.
The aim is to help the specialist in any particular field to decide what works he
should read, and what he may omit; and to indicate to other workers in allied fields
what is being done. For these purposes it has been decided that the abstracts shall be
genuine precis of the works covered.
At present it is intended to publish the Abstracts half yearly; but if, in the future,
a larger volume of original work is produced, it is intended to publish the Abstracts
more frequently so that all deserving work may be covered as soon after publication
as possible.
Copies of this and subsequent issues of the Abstracts will be sent on application
(enclosing subscription of 5s. in Australian currency, 4s. sterling, per annum) to the
Editor, Department of Commerce, University of Melbourne, Carlton, N.3.









AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL

COMMITTEE ON RESEARCH IN THE SOCIAL SCIENCES

The Committee on Research in the Social Sciences is a special
committee of the A.N.R.C. charged with the duty of reporting upon
the main investigations which appear to be required in the social
field, of considering the best machinery for conducting these enquiries,
and of arranging for finance.
The Committee is also making a detailed examination of the
position in Australia with regard to training in the social sciences at
the various universities, with special attention to the provision of
research workers. The scope of the committee's work includes the
sociological aspects of such studies as anthropology, economics,
education, history, human geography, jurisprudence, medicine,
philosophy, political science, psychology, public administration and
statistics.
An outline of the history and functions of the committee by the
chairman, Dr. K. S. Cunningham, was recently published; and
may be obtained free of charge on application to the Australian
Council for Educational Research, T. & G. Building, Russell St.,
Melbourne, C.I.

Members of the Committee:
ALEXANDER, Prof. F., University of Western Australia.
BAILEY, Prof. K. H., Solicitor-General, Canberra.
BALL, Prof. W. Macmahon, University of Melbourne.
BLAND, Prof. F. A., University of Sydney.
BORRIE, Dr. W. D., University of Sydney.
BURTON, Prof. H., Canberra University College.
BUTLIN, Prof. S. J., University of Sydney.
CONLON, Mr. A. A., Sydney.
COPLAND, Prof. Sir Douglas, National University, Canberra.
CRAWFORD, Mr. J. G., Bureau of Agricultural Economics, Canberra.
CRAWFORD, Prof. R. M., University of Melbourne.
CUNNINGHAM, Dr. K. S., Director, Australian Council for Educational
Research, Melbourne (Chairman).
CURTIN, Dr. P. W. E., Public Service Board, Canberra.
ELKIN, Prof. A. P., University of Sydney.
FIRTH, Prof. G., University of Tasmania.
GIBLIN, Prof. L. F. Hobart.
GIBSON, Prof. A. Boyce, University of Melbourne.
GIFFORD, Prof. J. K., University of Queensland.
GREENWOOD, Prof. G., University of Queensland.
HASLUCK, Mr. P., House of Representatives, Canberra.
HITTON, Prof. T., University of Tasmania.
LA NAUZE, Prof. J. A., University of Melbourne.
McRAE, Prof. C. R., University of Sydney.
MAULDON, Prof. F. R. E., University of Western Australia.
MAZE, Mr. W. H., University of Sydney.
OESER, Prof. O. A., University of Melbourne (Secretary).
O'NEIL, Prof. W. M., University of Sydney.
PARTRIDGE, Prof. P. H., University of Sydney.
PREST, Prof. W., University of Melbourne.
SHATWELL, Prof. K. O., University of Sydney.
STONE, Prof. Julius, University of Sydney.
STOUT, Prof. A. K., University of Sydney.
WHITE, Mr. H. L., Commonwealth National Library, Canberra.
WOOD, Prof. G. L., University of Melbourne.
WRIGHT, Prof. R. D., University of Melbourne.






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