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Title: Australian social sciences abstracts
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076572/00010
 Material Information
Title: Australian social sciences abstracts
Physical Description: 18 no. : ;
Language: English
Creator: Australian National Research Council -- Committee on Research in the Social Sciences
Publisher: Australian National Research Council, Committee on Research in the Social Sciences.
Place of Publication: Melbourne
Publication Date: September 1950
 Subjects
Subject: Social sciences -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1-18; Mar. 1946-Nov. 1954.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00076572
Volume ID: VID00010
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 02258007

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Main
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
        Page 326
        Page 327
        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
    List of unpublished theses in the social sciences
        Page 331
        Page 332
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text


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'41






AUSTRALIAN
SOCIAL SCIENCE
ABSTRACTS















AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
Committee on Research in the Social Sciences








AUSTRALIAN SOCIAL SCIENCE ABSTRACTS

A publication of the Committee on Research in the Social Sciences, Australian
National Research Council, subsidized by the Commonwealth Government.

All communications should be addressed to the Editor, Faculty of Economics
and Commerce, University of Melbourne, Carlton, N.3, Victoria, Australia.



No. o1 September 1950 5s. or $i per annum



ABSTRACTS
Where the size of a Government publication or Parliamentary Paper (P.P.) is not given, it is 8* ins. x 13j ins.


ECONOMICS

(A) Economics and Economic Policy
I508. Renwick, C., and Simpson-Lee, G. A. J. The
Economic Pattern. Longmans, Green & Co.,
Melbourne, 1950, pp. XIX+338. Price 18s.
This is 'an elementary textbook for Australian readers'
designed for N.S.W. Leaving students, but also for
'the man in the street'. Analytical chapters are followed
by practical or application chapters. Of the four parts
of the book the first (Fundamentals) and the second
(Circular Flow of the Economy) are static, the third
(Development of the Economy) and the fourth (World
Economy) dynamic, i.e., they introduce the time factor.
The first part discusses the economic problem and its
application in the Australian war economy, economic
systems (planned, semi-planned, unplanned), consump-
tion, production, population, specialisation. Part II is
mainly concerned with the semi-planned economy, the
price mechanism, the firm and its production costs,
monopoly, pricing of productive services, again with
many practical examples referring to Australia. Part III
shows the development of the unplanned economy with
emphasis on the trade cycle, its effects on income,
savings and investment. It deals with Australia in the
Great Depression, the consequent development of a
semi-planned economy, and with full employment.
Part IV examines international trade, foreign exchange
rates and the gold standard.

1509. Hosie, R. R. Economics for Australians. F. W.
Cheshire, Melbourne, 1949, pp. XVII+ 172.
'A practical approach for beginners', primarily for
Leaving Certificate students. Section I deals with
specialisation and exchange (division of labour, industry,
trade, tariffs). Section z discusses production and
distribution (historical forms of economic organisation,
factory production including distribution of products of
industry). Section 3 examines labour and wages,
including trade unions, conciliation and arbitration,
prices, index numbers and wages. Section 4 (banking)
gives a survey of saving, trading and central banks,
money, war and post-war finance. Section 5 is con-
cerned with taxation and government expenditure.
In three appendices national income, personal income and
the relationship of unionists and non-unionists to
industrial tribunals is outlined.


15so. La Nauze, J. A. Political Economy in Australia-
Historical Studies. Melbourne University Press,
r949, pp. 136. Price 9s. 6d.
An account of Australian writings on political economy
during the nineteenth century. An introduction
briefly characterises the 'Australian economics' which
developed during the 1920's when Australian economists
began to examine the special problems of the Australian
economy. A general chapter on the Nineteenth Century
gathers together the scattered and derivative attempts
of writers in a colonial society to expound 'political
economy'. There follow full-length studies of the
three writers of more than local interest. The first deals
with the life and writings in Sydney of W. S. Jevons,
who was an assayer in the Sydney Mint in the 85go's.
The early development of Jevons' interest in economic
questions is described and an annotated bibliography
of his numerous contributions to the Sydney press
provided. The second study, on the work of William
Edward Hearn, author of Plutology, examines the
sources of a book highly praised by many leading
economists of Marshall's generation. Hearn's origin-
ality has been much overestimated; He did make
considerable use of the work of economists neglected in
his day, such as Rae and Longfield; and Plutology's
main interest lies in its reflection of the difficulties
facing those who wished to apply 'classical' economic
doctrines to the world of the i86o's. The third study
is concerned with David Syme, well-known in Australian
history as the powerful editor of the Age. The author
examines Syme's formal writing on political economy,
almost unknown in Australia but widely quoted and
praised in Germany and U.S. during the nineteenth
century. Syme's views on method and policy were
similar to, but independent of, those of Cliffe Leslie
and the German Historical School-J.A.L.N.

1511. Measurement of Economic Relationships.
D. Cochrane. Economic Record, pp. 7-23,
December 1949.
Of necessity economists use economic time series for
estimating the relationships between economic variables.
E.g., the theory of demand assumes a relationship
between the consumption of a commodity, its price, the
prices of other, goods and the disposable income of the
community. The usual method of estimating the
relationships is by means of least squares regression
which assumes that the estimated equation contains a
random error term, which is due to omitted factors and








serves as an explanation of the failure of the equation
to provide an exact mathematical formulation.
This approach oversimplifies the nature of most
economic relationships and the paper outlines four main
problems which may be encountered and briefly
indicates their solutions. These problems are (a) the
existence of systems of simultaneous relationships,
(b) autocorrelation of error terms, (c) errors of measure-
ment in each of the variables, and (d) the indeterminate-
ness created by the presence of multicollinearity.-D.C.
1512. Inflation and its Impact on Enterprises. R. R.
Hirst. Economic Record, pp. 24-30, December
1949.
The share of net debtors-Government, enterprises
in the aggregate-in the wealth of the community
increases in an inflation, that of net creditors-persons
in the aggregate-decreases. Conventional accounting
procedure based on historic costs, can lead to difficulties
in inflation. To maintain the real value of fixed assets
and of turnover, some deviations from this conventional
procedure are suggested which would affect inventory
valuation, profits and depreciation allowances. In con-
clusion the author deals with the effect of inflation on
revenue account. In Australian manufacturing oligo-
poly prevails, firms raise their absolute gross profit
margins, some costs are rigid, turnover becomes larger,
and often supply is inelastic.
1513. A Pioneer of National Income Estimates. H. W.
Arndt. Economicfournal (London), pp. 616-625,
December 1949.
This paper deals with the N.S.W. Government
Statistician, T. A. Coghlan, probably the first pioneer of
national income estimates. He attempted parallel
estimates of national income, output and expenditure.
His first estimates of national income of N.S.W. for
1886, 1887, 1889, 1891 and 1894 were mainly based on
census data and output estimates-there was no income
tax in N.S.W. before 1897. Working sheets used by
Coghlan show gradual refinement from the first crude
estimates. Income estimates were divided up according
to types of income, such as pastoral industry, manu-
facture, professional, etc. Government property in-
come was not included. From 1898 income tax data
were used. From 1899 Coghlan published four
successive national income estimates for the whole of
Australia and N.Z.
Other estimates made are concerned with expenditure
based on private consumption of food and beverages,
clothing, etc. (nothing on investment) and saving, and
with output, for which Coghlan could use official
estimates, such as in mineral production, primary and
secondary industries (values added).
1514. An Index of Business Activity. Economic News,
pp. 1-4, November 1949.
A more 'up-to-date indicator of business activity'
than that of real national income and of employment has
been constructed for Queensland for every year from
1927-28 to 1939-40 and from 1946-47 to 1948-49. The
data are used on a volume basis, only for Post Office
revenue and building permits on a value basis corrected
for changes in rates and prices. Primary production is
represented in the index by butter production, cattle
slaughterings, wool received into store, industrial
production by coal output, tertiary industry by Brisbane
Tram passengers carried, rail tonnage, petrol sales and
Post Office receipts. In addition there is an index of
import tonnages and of building operations. Basic
period is the average of 1936-39. Comparisons are
made with indexes of real national income and of


employment to judge the accuracy and usefulness of
the business activity index which in future will be
published every month.
1515. The Productivity of Manufacturing Industry.
Review of Economic Progress, I, pp. 1-6, August
1949; II, pp. 1-8, September 1949; III,
pp. I-io, October 1949.
To obtain the net contribution of manufacturing to
national income the author deducts from 'value added'
depreciation and several non-material expenses, e.g.,
advertising, insurance, etc. Based on numerous in-
vestigations he generally assumes a deduction of 30
per cent on that account. A table of value added and
net income produced by manufacture is presented for a
great many countries ranging from 1870 to 1938. This
is followed by a calculation of output per man-hour in
I.U. in tables and graphs for various years and various
countries (U.K., France, Germany, U.S., Canada,
Australia, N.Z., U.S.S.R., etc.). For some countries
the percentage distribution of value added is divided
up according to industries.
The rest of the paper discusses the problem of
increasing returns in manufacture. This phenomenon
is rare in terms of money value because the benefits of
increasing returns are mostly passed on to the consumer.
However, higher physical output with increasing size of
industry or plant is largely confirmed by statistical
evidence. The correlation between size and output
per person employed differs in different industries, as
shown in graphs. A marked positive correlation can
be found in industries with a perfect market. Some
industries have a definite maximum size.

I516. The Productivity of Tertiary Industry. Review
of Economic Progress, pp. 1-7, November 1949,
pp. i-5, December 1949.
A high level of real product in secondary industry is
generally associated with a similar level in tertiary
industry. Comparisons are made first in railway
transport (charges per 1,ooo ton-kilometres and for
15-ton loads of various specified commodities for I5o
kilometres) in a number of countries, reduced to real
costs by considering hourly wages. Low costs are
found in U.S., Sweden, Denmark, Holland, Belgium,
Australia. Further comparisons are attempted for
inland waterway transport, also for building costs in
France and U.S.
For the largest tertiary industry, retail distribution,
costs are compared between different countries, different
times, and the relative efficiency of distribution according
to size (optimum size of a shop). Special attention is
paid to comparison of fruit and vegetables distribution
costs in U.S., U.K., Australia and other countries,
while the average efficiency of shops of various sizes is
calculated for U.K., U.S. and Holland. Finally the
casualty rates of businesses of various lines in U.S. are
compared.
15I7. Stabilising our Export Income. D. Copland.
Rydge's, pp. 368-371, April 1950. Address to
Melbourne Junior Chamber of Commerce.
Australian export income has risen from 309 m. in
1946-47 to 547 m. in 1948-49, mainly owing to higher
prices. This has caused extreme monetary expansion
and 'unfettered inflation'. It could have been checked
by a general stabilisation plan and freezing 'part of the
fortuitous gains of high export prices'. Self-denying
would have been required on the part of export primary
producers and of all other sections of the community.
Expansion of public works, when export prices fall and
the producers' costs remain rigid, would not solve the







problem. Such a stabilisation plan should have been
started in 1947, but it is not too late now. Government
and representatives of sectional interests should form
an advisory council to discuss major problems of policy.
1518. Distribution of the Proceeds of Industry. I.P.A.
Victoria Review, pp. 42-50, March-April 1950.
Based on statistical data, this paper considers that
since pre-war the wage-earner is better off absolutely
and relatively to all other occupations except farmers.
The share of farmers in personal income has risen from
13-9 per cent in 1937-38 to 19-5 in 1948-49. Excluding
farmers the percentage of wages and salaries in 1938-39
was 70-6, in 1948-49 75'9, that of unincorporated
businesses was 12-8 and 13-8, of rent and interest 12'9
and 7-8, on dividends 3'7 and 2'5. Wages have in-
creased much more than salaries. In real figures
average wages earnings rose by 38 per cent from 1938-39
to 1948-49, profits of manufacturing companies fell by
40 per cent. As percentage of net value of production
in N.S.W. factories wages and salaries rose from 49'4 to
58-3. Reserves cannot be drawn upon to pay dividends.
Taxation also caused re-distribution of income in favour
of wage-earners. Similar conclusions are drawn from
savings bank statistics, food consumption and retail
sales.
I519. Price Structure and Agriculture in the E.C.A.
Programme. A. Date. Australian Quarterly,
pp. 36-50, March 1950.
This paper discusses two main topics dealt with at
the 7th Conference of Agricultural Economists, held in
August 1949 at Stresa, Italy, i.e., forward price fixing
in agriculture in U.K. and U.S., and food and agriculture
in the European recovery programme. In U.K. a
price review is conducted each February and then
prices are fixed for crops to be harvested in the following
year and for livestock for the twelve months immediately
following. In U.S. 'parity-prices' are supported based
on the relationship between costs and sales prices in
1909-14. The advantages and drawbacks of both
systems are examined. As to food and agriculture in
the Marshall Aid area the aim is increased yield without
expanding acreage. This is to be done by fertilizer
and mechanisation. The great difficulties are stressed,
so that a decline in food consumption is likely.
1520. Retail Prices in New Zealand with Special
Reference to the Consumers' Price Index.
Special Supplement to October-November 1949,
issue of Monthly Abstracts of Statistics, Welling-
ton, pp. 72 (mimeographed). Price 2s.
On the recommendation of a Government-appointed
committee the N.Z. Government Statistician worked
out a new consumers' price index, based on the first
quarter of 1949, to replace the existing series of retail
price' indexes. The new index covers a much wider
range of goods and services than the old one, including
durable consumer goods, seasonal fruits and vegetables,
costs of owner-occupied houses, etc. The weighting-
pattern represents post-war consumption habits, the
data have been compiled for 21 towns, monthly for food,
fuel and lighting, quarterly for all groups. Some 8o
per cent of total expenditure is represented in the new
index.
Appendix I represents a historical survey of N.Z.
index numbers since 1891, appendix II deals with
technical details (weighting, limits of error, etc.).
1521. What Place has Advertising in To-day's Economy?
F. Timothy Kelly. Rydge's. Part I, pp. 137-
141, February 1950; Part II, pp. 257-258,
March 195o ; Part III, pp. 396-400, April 1950.


Advertising is considered as productive factor which
creates demand for a certain product, and as a reducer
of costs. Its influence on supply of and demand for a
particular brand, on consumption, steady employment,
standard of living, is outlined. By way of informing and
instructing, advertising has some educative value,
especially by using aids (film advertising). There is
some chaff, but advertising has helped to sell good
books and music. It also has a goodwill effect and
largely protects the consumer from being cheated.
It cannot confine itself to stating mere facts, but must
have a sales appeal so that it can assist the manufacturer
of a certain brand, e.g., of motor cars or fashion goods,
to sell to consumers something they do not need but
nevertheless want. Finally the influence of advertising
on youth, its connection with press and radio is briefly
indicated.
1522. Britain under a Labour Administration. R. F.
Harrod. Institute of Public Affairs Victoria Review,
pp. 161-171, November-December 1949.
There are symptoms of a weak government in the
economic sphere since Labour's access to power quite
apart from its socialistic features. Among socialist
measures the author surveys the nationalisation of the
Bank of England, coal mining, railways, gas and elec-
tricity, and of the iron and steel industry. Particularly
doubtful are the future intentions of Labour if it
remains in power. Further sections of the paper deal
with the system of controls centred around the allocation
of resources and import restrictions-significant are the
depressing psychological effects of controls-limitation
of dividends, merciless taxation, social services (which
any other party would have to retain) and food subsidies.
The main evil of the system might be that there will
not be new recruits willing to take risks in building up
new businesses.
1523. Some Aspects of Chinese Communist Agrarian
Policy. H. Mayer. Australian Quarterly, pp.
64-72, December 1949.
This paper mainly deals with implications of land
redistribution. Before the war 30 per cent of the rural
population were tenants, 4-5 per cent of the landowners
were landlords owning 50 per cent of the land. Land-
lords were 'rent-collectors, merchants, usurers and
administrative officers'. The Chinese Communist
Party programme of October 1947 provides for abolition
of land ownership rights, cancellation of debts, equalised
land-redistribution and the grant of land deeds to
peasants. Present measures are gradual and directed
against landlords and some rich peasants, not against
middle peasants. To ease the population pressure the
productivity per unit of land might be raised, new land
might be opened (no more than Io per cent additional
land), or rapid industrialisation might be tried which,
however, would create tremendous new problems.
A swing to a more leftist agrarian policy is an immediate
possibility.

(B) Industry, Trade and Commerce

(a) General Works
1524. Trends in Management. Proceedings of the First
Top Management Conference, Adelaide, 28
September to i October 1949. Institute of
Industrial Management, Adelaide, pp. 267.
K. A. Cameron deals with 'Management's Contribu-
tion to National Development'. Most important are
human problems, such as incentives, employer-em-
ployee relations. They are management responsibilities.







B. C. Newland's subject is 'Inventories deserve Top
Management Attention'. He discusses reasons why
inventories are important, including price fluctuations
and carrying cost of inventories, factors influencing the
quantity of inventory coverage, various aspects of
inventory management.
J. G. Hurley lectures on 'Organising the Purchasing
Division for the Buyers' Market', with emphasis on
financial control of purchases and on purchasing division
activities (training of the purchasing officer and buyers,
their consideration of quality, quantity and delivery
dates of materials, material cost reduction).
S. H. Richardson's topic is 'Budgetary Control-
Particularly in Relation to Small and Medium Industries'.
The difference between fixed and variable or multiple
budget is pointed out. The most essential budgets are
set forth. Controls through the budgets are explained
in detail, especially regarding indirect labour and
indirect materials supplies.
I. J. Spencer examines 'Standard Costs and Financial
Controls' under the headings of the urgency of cost
reduction, management's approach to management by
figures, the accountant's changed approach to these
figures, management control through standard costs, the
predictive field of management figures.
E. E. Butten investigates 'The Practical Approach
to the Introduction of Incentives'. Of the three types
of incentives : profit sharing, large groups, individual
or 'logical' groups only the last is usually successful.
Co-operation with trade unions, accurate work measure-
ment, and an agreed standard of quality are essential.
B. H. Higgins discusses 'Industry's Future-Markets'.
There are three procedures of economic forecasting:
historical precedents, qualitative judgments and econo-
metric analysis. The lecturer assesses the market position
in U.S., U.K., Western Europe and Australia from the
angle of exports, private investment, Government
policy and productivity.
G. L. Wood is concerned with 'Industry's Future-
Labour'. The critical factor is the standard of effort by
wage-earners. A steep rise of wages near the peak of
inflation eventually creates unemployment. Preferred
satisfaction has effects on productivity. Arguments for
and against incentives are mentioned.
F. S. Daley reads a paper on 'Primary and Secondary
Concepts in Production Planning', first for a new
industry, then for existing departments.
E. G. Bascom, speaking on 'Production Control in the
Non-Engineering Industries' stresses the co-ordination
between sales department and production control
department regarding stocks, manufacturing, warehouse,
despatch.

1525. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research
Organisation. First Annual Report for the
Year Ended 30 June 1949. Government Printer,
Canberra, 1949, pp. 137. Price 7s. 6d.
C.S.I.R.O. was established on 19 May 1949, to
replace the then existing Council for Scientific and
Industrial Research, the functions and powers being
similar. In the period under review particular progress
has been made in research connected with the develop-
ment of the North. A survey of research activities
includes soil, plant, irrigation, animal health and
production investigations, nutrition and food investiga-
tions, entomological and fisheries investigations, forest
products, building, flax and wool textiles, industrial
chemistry, physics, mathematics, and many other
investigations. The final chapters deal with information
and library services and the library, staff, publications
and committees.-K.W.H.


1526. State Electricity Commission of Victoria. 30th
Annual Report for Year ended 30 June 1949.
P.P., Government Printer, Melbourne, pp.58.
Price 2s. 9d.
In 1948-49 the S.E.C. had a loss of 74,00oo compared
with 213,ooo in the previous year. From I October
1949, the electricity supply tariff has been raised by an
average of 9 per cent. The system generating capacity
is to be gradually increased up to 1955. Shortage of
materials and equipment compelled the commission to
overseas procurement involving Li m. additional cost.
Special sections deal with the hydro-electric resources
of the Snowy River, the use of Hume and other irrigation.
waters for power generation, and with an electricity
generation project based on Mildura. Subsequent
chapters are concerned with major extension pro-
grammes: Newport, Kiewa, Yallourn power stations,
the Morwell briquette project, coal, power and briquette
production, electricity supply, etc. Appendices con-
tain statistical material.

1527. The Hydro-Electric Commission, Tasmania. Report
for 1948-49. P.P., Government Printer, Hobart,
1949; Pp. 19.
Although the revenue in the year under review
increased by 11 per cent, costs rose much more, and the
net profit of 4,198 was much lower than for years.
For the end of 1949 higher charges are contemplated.
Under the Commission's group nomination scheme so
far 61o U.K. and 797 Polish migrants have arrived for
employment in construction work. The largest items
for capital expenditure were for the Nive Power develop-
ment and Clark Dam, Butler's Gorge. The increase
in the system peak load was 16.7 per cent, 3,811 consumers
-63 per cent outside Hobart and Launceston-were
newly connected, with rising costs because of expansion
into more sparsely populated areas.

1528. India-Trade with Australia and other foreign
countries. Exports of Australia and New Zealand.
pp. 8-12, October, 1949.
Two tables concerning India's import and export for
the last two years provide information about Australia's
share. The principal exports from Australia to India
and vice versa are detailed. India's present adverse
balance of trade with both soft and hard currency
countries and the consequent recent import control
restrictions are discussed. India's foreign trade is
surveyed and special attention is drawn to a number
of Australian products for which there seems to be a
good market in India (milk and milk products, wheat,
domestic refrigerators, jams, jellies, etc.). The re-
emergence of Japanese imports and its importance for
Australian exporters is examined.-E.J.D.

1529. The Production Story. I.P.A. Review, pp. 15-
22, January-February 1950.
A comparison between pre- and post-war production
and prosperity in Australia and Canada. Black coal
output in Australia in 1948-49 has increased by 21 per
cent over that of 1937-39, but most of the increases were
absorbed by gas and electricity works. Brown coal and
hydro-electricity has risen by nearly Ioo per cent, but
is still short of demand. Therefore Australian steel
production rose only by io per cent compared with Izo
per cent in Canada. Building construction is now
30 per cent above 1938, in U.S. and Canada 8o per cent.
Further sections deal with the development of roads,
railways, shipping and primary production (including
agricultural machinery). The rise in production gener-
ally from 1938-39 to 1947-48 is estimated at 20-25 per







cent in Australia, 70 per cent in U.S. and 50-60 per
cent in Canada.
1530. Business and the Higher Education. G.L. Wood.
I.P.A. Review, pp. 23-32, January-February
1950.
Education for business is a necessity, to rely on
'born-skilled' business executives is unrealistic. Aus-
tralia's expenditure on University education, particularly
for economics and commerce is extremely small. The
British Carr-Saunders report on education for commerce
advocates general rather than specialised education in
the schools, while training for business should be left
to the Universities, again with the stress on general
courses. However, in Australia this would be impractic-
able because of the high cost when higher-level special
studies could not be started before the age of 25-26.
The logical expansion of commerce studies would be
a post-graduate school of business administration. The
likely expenditure required for Economics and Com-
merce in Melbourne is 200,000 capital cost, 80,ooo
annual maintenance and io,ooo annual research cost.

1531. Inspection as a Productive Function. D. J.
Highbed. Manufacturing and Management, pp.
175-179, December 1949.
The task of the inspector is not merely to sort good
material from bad, but to assist in the production of
satisfactory material. There are two methods of
inspection : 'sorting inspection' which can 'record past
errors for future guidance', and-more important-
patrol (periodic) inspection where control of quality
begins with the 'set-up'. New, re-conditioned or
sharpened tools have to be accepted by the inspector
before being used. Further sections deal with records
and advices-defective process advice, re-working and
replacement advice, re-work labels, rejected labels-
the use of these records, the failure of statistical control
of quality in Australia and its reasons.

1532. Factory Planning in Multi-Floor Buildings.
H. M. Harman. Manufacturing and Management,
pp. 185-188, December 1949.
A multi-storey factory has the disadvantage of the
necessity of vertical movement of materials, but with
successful handling of the materials problem it has
many advantages. Gravity can be used for transporting
materials from upper to lower floors. This requires
proper flow-line study. The author indicates the layout
for a two-storey factory and for multi-storey factories.
He also gives advice concerning lift accommodation and
the installation and movement of equipment.

1533. Production Planning and Industrial Expansion.
L. C. Danby. Manufacturing and Management,
pp. 209-216, January 195o.
Planning, i.e., organising refers to buying, manu-
facturing or processing, and selling, involving machines,
raw materials, labour and costing. In a small factory the
owner-manager might do the planning required, in a
large factory a planning department is needed for co-
ordinating departmental activities. Admittedly plan-
ning increases clerical work and overheads, but it can
effect much bigger savings, as is shown by an example
of planned buying so as to reduce the stocks of raw
materials, and of planned storing of raw materials
and of planned storing of raw materials according to
varied production.

1534. Measuring the Productivity of Industry. L. H. C.
Tippett. Manufacturing and Management, pp.
213-214, January, 1950.


When using an index of production, e.g., production
per man-hour, we have to eliminate the effects of the
variety of products from any comparisons: either by
choosing a narrow range of products, or by applying a
measure of the products characteristic most important
as to labour requirements, or by selecting a factor com-
mon to all varieties. Four main factors affect produc-
tivity: quality and characteristics of raw material,
degree of mechanisation, quality of technical manage-
ment, activities of operatives. Indices may measure
the effects of one or more of these factors. Finally
some U.S. and U.K. experiences are discussed.

1535. Modern Materials Handling Reduces Costly
Waiting Time. W. Mahoney. Manufacturing
and Management, pp. 215-219, January 1950.
To reduce delays in transport terminals fixed platform
trucks are replaced by trailer-tractor types which may
haul as many as a dozen trailers. Trailers can be loaded
by fork trucks. The type of equipment is to be suited
to the job. Fork trucks and pallets are more economical
for short hauls up to 150 feet. Straddle trucks also
save terminal time. Further sections deal with delay
in ports and with mechanical handling of air terminals.

1536. Large Savings from Re-organisation of Materials
Handling. F. I. H. Newman. Manufacturing and
Management, pp. 250-254, February 1950.
Describes the materials handling of a big English
engineering factory situated in a two-storey building.
The handling was carried out in five stages before and
in three stages after the re-organisation. The new
system consisted in establishing fixed transport stations,
precise adapting in size and capacity of vehicles-
petrol driven and electric fork lift trucks and manually
operated trucks according to the width of the route-
and of pallets, and in the use of a specially designed
metal container of uniform size. The installation of the
system reduced the weekly work required for materials
handling from 1,196 to 396 man-hours.

1537. Bullets to Business. Trends. Vol. I, No. 7,
pp. 8-16, May 1950.
The article deals with the change of the workshops
for the large-scale manufacture of explosives at St.
Marys (erected during the war) into a large industrial
estate, housing 94 firms spread over 24 types of industry,
employing 2,500 people. In this transformation of a
once pastoral and then munitions centre into a thriving
industrial township care was taken to assure a large
diversity of industrial activities. Details of the pastoral
history of the district and of a number of factories,
operating now at St. Marys (about 30 miles from Sydney)
are given, showing a successful example of 'decentralisa-
tion'.-E.J.D.

1538. New Zealand Standards Council (Department of
Industry and Commerce). Annual Report for
Year 1948-49. P.P. Government Printer,
Wellington, 1949, pp. 18. Price 9d.
In the year under review go new standard specifications
(57 British, 26 N.Z., 7 American) were recommended
for declaration, 4 were withdrawn, so that the total is
814 standards (670 regular, 4 Government purchasing,
emergency 140). 166 new licences were issued to use the
Standard Mark, bringing the total granted to 1,063.
Special chapters are arranged in the same way as in the
report for 1947-48 (see abstracts No. 905 in No. 7 of this
journal).







(b) Individual Industries
1539. Grain Crops. Commonwealth Economic Com-
mittee, London 1950, pp. 150.
This is, as the sub-title says, a summary of figures of
production and trade relating to wheat, wheat flour,
maize, oats, barley, rye and rice. Both in the general
review and in the separate sections on wheat and wheat
flour, maize, etc., numerous tables present figures from
1938 to 1948 concerning Australia, some also concerning
N.Z., e.g., the volume of grain production and wheat
production, prices of wheat, area under wheat, yield of
wheat per acre, exports of wheat and their distribution
among import countries. Similar figures are given
relating to wheat flour, maize and the other kinds of
grain. Appendix I discusses Government measures
affecting cereals in certain countries, among them is a
chapter on Australia (pp. 133-136) dealing with the
pre-war situation, the Australian Wheat Board, the
wheat stabilisation plan and export contracts.

1540. The International Wheat Agreement. Common-
wealth Bank of Australia, November 1949, pp. 6.
(a) Conditions and Benefits. E. E. McPherson. The
agreement was signed in March 1949 and came into
force on I August 1949 for four years. Thirty-six
import countries undertook to import up to 456 m.
bushels p.a.-U.K. with 177 m. bu. is the biggest
importer-at minimum prices ranging from $1.50 down
to $1.20 per bu. Five export countries among which
is Australia, undertook to sell certain amounts at prices
up to the maximum of $i.8o per bu. Prices are for a
certain Manitoba quality in Canadian currency, gold
content as on i March 1949. Argentina and Russia
have not signed the agreement. After some comments
the paper deals with enforcement, prices, other pro-
visions, background and advantages of the agreement.
(b) A Criticism of the Conditions. H. K. Nock
(Farmers' and Settlers' Association of N.S.W.).
The agreement means full governmental export
control. Australian farmers were not represented at
the negotiations. Quantity allocations (80 m. bu. p.a.
for Australia) are not unreasonable, but provisions
concerning breaches are inadequate, obligations of the
exporting countries are one-sided. As present world
wheat prices are high, the prices agreed upon mean
substantial concessions for the growers, and world
prices are not likely to fall so low within four years as to
compensate for these concessions.

1541. Munz, H. The Australian Wool Industry. Angus
and Robertson, Sydney and London, 1950,
pp. 162. Price 2zs.
The aim of this book is to give a general survey of the
growth and development of the wool industry in Aus-
tralia. A brief analysis of the English textile industry
in the early i9th century explains the demand for merino
wool, and the history of the merino sheep up to its
arrival in Australia is sketched. The merino sheep
districts in Australia are described in detail. The
influence of soil, vegetation and climate on the nature of
the fleece and the distribution of the flocks, and the
scientific basis underlying conventional assessment of
quality in wool are discussed in full. The chapters on
the physical and chemical properties of the wool, wool
and the other textile fibies, and wool research are
written by W. R. Lang. There are also chapters on
the evolution of the Australian merino, on British breeds
of sheep in Australia, on crossbred sheep, on the life on
an Australian sheep station, on wool classing and
marketing.-E.J.D.


1542. The Wool Outlook as at I January 1950. Bureau
of Agricultural Economics, Canberra, 1950,
PP. 53.
A statistical survey of present trends existing in all
branches of the wool industry and in particular of apparel
wools. World wool production is not increasing, even
though the world consumption rate exceeds the produc-
tion rate. World commercial stocks are low and the
large Joint Organisation and Commodity Credit Corpora-
tion wartime stockpiles are practically sold. Synthetic
fibres, in particular nylon and orlon, favoured by the
price factor, constitute a threat which can best be met
by wool research. The wool outlook from the pro-
ducer's viewpoint is favourable.-K.H.

1543. Australian Wool Board. I3th Annual Report,
1948-49, pp. 32.
A survey of the Board's work connected with wool
promotion in the year under review. Significant are the
film unit's activities, sections on wool textile labelling,
sheep branding (now optional), various publications
issued by the Board, advertising. A special chapter
deals with overseas wool promotion through the In-
ternational Wool Secretariat including economic re-
search, exhibitions touring Europe, branches of the
Secretariat in some countries of Western Europe, U.S.-
where the Wool Bureau Inc. was established-Canada,
India and Pakistan. Other sections discuss technical
research, centred at the University of Leeds, and pastoral
research.

1544. Australian Wool Realisation Commission Wool
Price Index. K. J. Wallace. Economic Record,
pp. 31-45, December 1949.
The A.W.R.C. in constructing a wool price index
must carefully select the key types comprising the Aus-
tralian wool clip which is far from homogeneous. The
choice of these types depends on : the representativeness
of the types concerned; whether the price of the type
corresponds to the average movement of wool prices ; the
adequacy of the baleage of the type. Thirty-three types
were finally decided upon. The index is based on
quality group-fine wool (in which the 64's predominate)
production has declined in the I940's in favour of
coarser wool; the analysis of quality groups by manu-
facturing system-Noble combing, French combing,
carding ; analysis according to incidence of vegetable
fault (free or nearly free, light, medium, heavy burr and/
or seed, carbonising) ; analysis according to distribution
of fleeces and pieces. The index is computed on the
basis of clean, on the floor, Australia.

1545. The Guaranteed Price for Dairy Products-
New Zealand. A. R. Bergstrom. Economic
Record, pp. 91-97, December 1949.
The insulation of the N.Z. economy through
guaranteed stable prices for export products is partly
achieved at the expense of some maldistribution of
resources. This paper deals with the problem of the
optimum distribution of N.Z. butterfat resources between
butter and cheese which requires a certain relationship
between the basic guaranteed prices and the f.o.b.
contract prices for butter and cheese. Two situations
are considered : that no attempt is made by N.Z. or
U.K. to take advantage of monopolistic or monopsonistic
conditions; and that N.Z. takes monopolistic advantage
of the difference between the elasticity of demand for
the two products. By graphical and algebraic analysis
it is shown that N.Z. has made some gains of mono-
polistic discrimination. For an optimum of distribution
of resources the gap between f.o.b. and basic prices of
cheese relative to butter should be kept smaller.








1546. The Marketing of Dairy Produce in Australia.
A. G. Lloyd. Review of Marketing and Agricul-
tural Economics, pp. 6-92, March 1950.
The author divides his survey into six phases. The
first is the stage of early dairying in N.S.W. and the
growth of co-operatives. Dairying started in the
Illawarra district which supplied Sydney with butter
since 1834. The first co-operative was formed in 1881,
co-operative manufacturing also began in the I88o's,
about 191o co-operatives were active in overseas
marketing. As the second phase are regarded develop-
ments in organised marketing prior to the Paterson plan
1926, this phase includes World War I, the U.K. con-
tract 1918-21, the establishment of the Australian
Dairy Council 1922 and the Dairy Produce Export
Control Board 1924. The third phase is that of the
Paterson plan of stabilisation, based on bounties on
butter exports, financed by levies on factory production
with the aim to support home production prices. The
fourth phase is that of compulsory equalisation 1934-36
and of voluntary equalisation 1936-50. A separate
chapter gives the legal background for controlled
marketing.
The sixth phase is that of developments of dairy
produce marketing since 1939 (rationing, subsidies,
guaranteed price, U.K. contract, stabilisation fund). In
conclusion some factors affecting future marketing of
dairy produce are set forth.

1547. Meat. Fourteenth Annual Report of the
Australian Meat Board. Year ended 30 June
1949, pp. 106.
Seasonal conditions in 1948-49 have on the whole
been favourable, only in parts of Queensland a long,
severe drought caused heavy losses of sheep and cattle.
Figures for livestock numbers, meat production and
exports are given for every year since 1937. Livestock
population has increased but for cattle, sheep and lambs
in Queensland and for pigs, whose numbers delcined
in all states except N.S.W. and Queensland. Production
of total meat increased further except in Queensland.
Exports of meat fell by 25,000 tons, those of processed
(canned) meat remained at about the same level. In the
U.K. contract there were some additions to the classes
of frozen meats and a new schedule of prices. There is
a survey of scientific investigations and of cattle trans-
port and movement. Appendices present figures on
the U.K. meat contract price schedules, Ministry of
Food and Commonwealth Government prices, weight
and grade schedules, statistical figures on production
and exports.

1548. Sugar. F. D. Gillies. Economic News, pp. 1-4,
October 1949.
From figures supplied by the Sugar Board the author
has drawn up tables and made comments on the distribu-
tion and value of sugar produced in Australia for the
average of 1937-39 and every year from 1940 to 1948,
separately for Australian consumption and surplus
(export) sugar, average prices including and excluding
'excess' sugar, i.e., in excess of the No. i pool. Further
figures and comments deal with the yield of sugar cane,
cane grown under irrigation, cutting rates, sugar mill
efficiency expressed in sugar per man-year, and efficiency
adjusted for 40-hour week. The tendency for efficiency
to improve is now prevalent as in pre-war years. In the
Queensland sugar areas 135,000 people depend directly
or indirectly on sugar.

1549. Another Mission to New Guinea. Australian
Sugar Journal, pp. 762-766, March 1950.


The Queensland Bureau of Sugar Experiment Stations
is to send another expedition to New Guinea where
previously some cane varieties were found and brought
to Queensland. The emphasis in Queensland is on
early maturing varieties to overcome the problem of
low sugar content in cane early in the season. There are
four avenues for searching : (a) in the S. and S.E. coastal
areas where natives in their gardens grow cane for
chewing; (b) in the highlands with different varieties;
(c) resistance to Fiji disease; (d) seed collected from
mature arrows. There were six earlier expeditions to
New Guinea, of which that of 1895 brought the valuable
Badila variety to Queensland, while the U.S. expedition
of 1928 discovered saccharum robustum in New Guinea.

1550. Commonwealth Dried Fruits Control Board.
Twenty-fifth Annual Report for 1948-49.
Commonwealth of Australia, 1949, pp. 18.
Of the year's total production of 55,000 tons of dried
fruits, 23,975 tons were allocated to Australia, 12,ooo
to the U.K., 14,075 to Canada, 4,450 to N.Z. and i,ooo
to. other markets. Heavy rain during harvesting
damaged 24,500 tons of the potential crop of 80,000
tons, and these fruits were diverted to distilleries. It is
noted that as the U.S. surplus production (the export
of which is subsidized) is larger than total Australian
production, expansion of the industry in this country
would be dangerous.-M.G.R.

1551. Recent Developments in Empire and some
Foreign Countries. Fruit Industry reviewed.
World Fruit Annual, Melbourne, pp. 49-62,
January 1950.
Production of deciduous fruit over the last 20 years
is discussed with special reference to U.K., Canada,
Australia, U.S.A., Argentina and some European
countries, likewise for citrus fruits (South Africa,
Australia, N.Z., Europe, U.S.A., Brazil and Palestine),
bananas (Jamaica, Australia) and pineapples (Australia,
South Africa). Recent developments as to drying,
canning, bottling, dehydration and freezing in Australia,
Europe, U.S.A., Argentina, N.Z., Canada and South
Africa are described and up-to-date figures are given.-
E.J.D.
1552. Australian Wine Board. Twenty-first Annual
Report for 1948-49. Scrymgour & Sons,
Printers, Adelaide, 1949, pp. 16.
Wine production in Australia was 24-2 m. gallons
in 1948-49 (35-7 m. in 1947-48), brandy production
804,000 (788,000) proof gallons. Most of the high
U.K. import duties were not reduced. Wine exports
fell from 2,696,ooo gallons in the previous years to
1,88o,ooo, mainly because of the fall in exports to
U.K. by 37-5 per cent and to N.Z. by 18 per cent, while
exports to Canada rose by 51 9 per cent to 21o,ooo gallons.
Brandy exports rose from 122,00ooo to 133,ooo proof
gallons, those to Canada by 41'3 per cent to 65,ooo
proof gallons, while those to U.K. and N.Z. declined.
A request of the Industry to the Minister for Trade and
Customs for 300oo,ooo for publicity purposes was
refused (see abstract No. 1349 in No. 9 of this journal).
In conclusion the Overseas Office in London presents
its annual General Statement.

1553. MacInnes, I. G. (ed.). Australian Fisheries.
A Handbook prepared for the second meeting
of the Indo-Pacific Fisheries Council in Sydney,
April 1950, pp. 103.
The geographical setting of Australian fisheries,
hydrology, planktology and fauna (fish, crustacea,
mollusca, mammals and reptiles) are fully discussed,








likewise marketing and distribution, and the many
methods of processing. There are six figures, one map,
seven photos and six pages of plates with 54 freshwater,
inshore marine, offshore demersal (trawl and long line,
handling and trap) and off-shore pelagic fishes.-E.J.D.

1554. Tuna Survey of North Australia. D. L. Serventy.
Fisheries Newsletter, pp. 18-20, April 1950.
In 1949 two of the C.S.I.R.O. Fisheries Division's
vessels were sent on a reconnaissance of the northern
areas from Thursday Island to the North West Cape
during the winter months. Weather conditions were
found ideal for pelagic fish observations west of Arnhem
Land. Both vessels depended on trolling and were not
fitted out for purse-seining or live bait fishing. Five
species of tuna were found, most frequently the northern
bluefin and the mackerel tuna. When the former are
regularly feeding they hardly take the lure offered,
but they do when foraging or searching for food. Both
vessels usually worked inside the ioo fathoms line on
the Continental Shelf, it is not known how far beyond
this tuna shoals extend.

1555. The Australian Mineral Industry 1948 Review.
Department of Supply and Development,
Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and
Geophysics, 1949, pp. 169.
In Part I of this review J. A. Dunn presents a general
summary of mineral production and overseas trade,
assistance to mining, and control of minerals and metals,
with some statistical figures. Total production rose
from 51-9 m. in 1947 to 61-4 m. in 1948, mainly
owing to higher prices. There was production exceeding
1 m. of: coal, lead, gold, zinc, iron ore, silver, copper
and tin, furthermore (figures not given) of building and
road materials and limestone. Exports in 1948 totalled
27-2 m., imports 6-9 m. However, not included in
imports was mineral oil (30'9 m.) and tinplate (5-4 m.),
largely from hard currency countries. Part II is a
review of a great number of minerals, such as : alumin-
ium (planned production in Tasmania), coal (black and
brown, coke), copper, iron and steel, lead, mica, mineral
oils, silver, tin, uranium, etc. Most of these reviews
have sections on domestic production, divided according
to states, prices, consumption and uses, overseas trade,
world review. Many reports include chapters on
smelting and refining, development and new projects.
Part III is a general summary of states including the
Northern Territory.

1556. Report of the Department of Mines, Western
Australia for the Year 1947. Government
Printer, Perth, 1949, pp. 2o8.
The value of W.A. mineral output in 1947 including
the premium paid to gold producers was 8,826,ooo
(compared with 7,694,000 in 1946), of which 7,576,000
was the value of gold, I,239,000 (1,o01,ooo in 1946)
that of other minerals. Of these the greatest parts were
coal with 840,000 and pyrites with 188,ooo. Of the
gold output 64-1 per cent was produced in East Cool-
gardie goldfield. Some development concerns iron ore,
asbestos, lead and tin. Other divisions of the report
deal with state batteries, the progress of the geological
survey of W.A., the School of Mines, mining statistics,
etc.

1557. CoalReview No. Four. Research Service, Sydney,
March 1950, pp. II roneoedd).
Compared with all-Australian demand for N.S.W.
coal there was a deficit of N.S.W. coal production of
9-8 per cent in 1948 and of 27 per cent in 1949 (general
coal strike); including the amount lost in the strike


the 1949 deficit would have been 14 per cent. This is
due to lower output per manshift and to higher strike
losses. Australian requirements of N.S.W. coal for
1950 are estimated at 139 per cent of average post-war
production, in 1953 at 159 per cent. Even output
according to the whole estimated capacity would leave a
deficit of 5 per cent in 195o. The record in 1950 up to
18 February involves a gap of 19-4 per cent below
capacity. Weekly strike losses in the first six weeks of
1949 are compared with those of 1950. At that produc-
tion rate the 1950 output would mean a deficit of 30 per
cent below requirements. To reach the margin of
safety for the winter demand the weekly output would
have to be 19 per cent better than the average rate this
year.

1558. Oil Search in Queensland nears its Crescendo.
C. B. Simmins. Queensland Government Mining
Journal, pp. 524-527, September 1949.
In Central Queensland Shell have undertaken surveys
and test bores, between Rollestone and Injune they will
bore down to Io,ooo feet to locate possible oilfields.
In the Roma district four associated companies with
Commonwealth assistance have recently intensified
research including geophysical, geological, aerial photo-
graphic surveys and a survey by seismic methods. Some
high-grade oil and petroliferous gas has been produced.
As boring is expensive, research is intended to deter-
mine the site of the most favourable structure before
sinking further wells.

1559. Economic Review of Copper. J. A. Dunn. The
Australian Mineral Industry. Economic Notes
and Statistics, pp. 67-87, Vol. 12, No. 3.
This paper deals in two parts with the world copper
position and with the Australian copper position. Both
parts contain sections on production, resources, move-
ment of copper, costs and prices, consumption and
future economic position. Northern Rhodesia is the
only soft-currency country with a substantial copper
output. The soft currency area requires about 850,000
tons of copper p.a., 300,000 tons more than it produces.
As to Australian resources and reserves, the Mt. Isa,
Mt. Morgan and Mt. Lyell-at present the only large
scale producer-mines, and the New Occidental Mines,
now under development, and the smeltering and refining
facilities are discussed. The costs vary largely according
to the gold, silver, lead, etc., content of the ore. Local
prices much depend on world market prices and might
sometimes not cover production costs. The future
position is estimated from 1950 to 1957, Australian
consumption cannot be satisfied without imports.

156o. Rubber Production in Papua. F. O. Grogan.
Quarterly Review of Agricultural Economics,
pp. 76-79, April 1950.
Rubber was introduced into Papua about 1903, now
rubber plantations occupy about 23,500 acres. Rubber
and copra are the main exports of Papua. The average
yield in Papua is 400 lb. of crude rubber per acre.
In Papua rubber is only a plantation, not a smallholders'
crop. Seventy per cent of Papuan production is grown
on Io plantations. Labour employed on plantations is
exclusively native, planters complain about the scarcity
and increased cost of native labour. Production of
rubber in Papua was 1,275 tons in 1947-48, it is all
exported to Australia whose total requirements are
about 25,000 tons p.a.

1561. The Steel Industry in Australia. Research
Service, January 1950, pp. 7, 60 roneoedd).







Australia plays a minor part in the world production of
iron and steel and this part has declined from I'4 per
cent in 1938 to 1-1 per cent in 1948. Until 1942, the
peak year of output with 97 per cent of steel ingot
capacity,, our iron and steel production rose and fell
with national income. Since 1943 it declined up to
1946, to recover slightly up to 1948-49. In the first
quarter of 1949-50 only 29 per cent of the capacity were
produced. In addition Australian steel output is irregu-
lar from month to month. Steel output lags far behind
local demand, exports are falling and imports rising,
although Australian iron and steel prices are now much
lower than U.K. and U.S. prices. The iron and steel
shortage is due mainly to the shortage of labour and coal,
as set out in detail. Appendix A is a historical sketch of
the Australian steel industry since 1948, Appendix B
a short technical survey of the manufacture of steel and
the location of raw materials.

1562. Newsprint Manufacture in Tasmania. Australian
Timber Journal, pp. 619-625, 645-651. 671,
October 1949.
This paper deals with the activities of the Australian
Newsprint Mills Ltd., Boyer, which has a concession of
340,000 acres of which however only one-third is valuable
forest and only o1 per cent is occupied by eucalyptus
regnans, the principal species for newsprint manufacture.
Fire fighting measures, road construction, the estab-
lishment of a forest base at Maydena, forest management
with particular attention to regeneration, are described.
A section 'from log to newsprint' examines the technical
side of manufacturing. A second paper machine is now
planned which will raise the output from 30,000 to
80,ooo tons p.a. Ninety thousand tons p.a. is the
maximum according to the available timber resources.
Twenty-two per cent of the wood required is softwood
pulp imported from Canada, the rest Australian
eucalyptus groundwood.

1563. Brief Review of the Australian Pulp, Paper and
Paper Board Industry. No. 17 in Industry
Review Series. Division of Industrial Develop-
ment, January 195o, pp. 32.
Paper has been made in Australia since the i86o's,
but mainly from waste paper and imported pulp. Only
since 1939 pulp has been produced in Australia from
local eucalyptus timber, in S.A. also from local softwood
(Monterey pine). Mechanical or groundwood pulp,
made from mountain ash, is used for newsprint, chemical
processes are used to make pulp for other purposes.
The demand and supply position is discussed separately
for newsprint-in 1948-49 95,000 tons imports and
31,000 tons Australian production, planned production
is 8o,ooo tons p.a. within 12 months, but that would
not cover more than 40 per cent of the demand ; wrapping
paper (major part made in Australia) ; paper boards-
mainly made locally from waste paper; printing,
writing, tissue and other paper the greater part of which
is imported. Wood pulp is to a greater extend made
here than imported. Further sections deal with labour
(labour force March 194.9, 6,133 as against 1,961
1938-39), raw materials, equipment, structure of the
industry which is a large-scale, highly mechanised
industry ; research, Government policies (tariff, price
control, decentralisation, sales tax).

1564. Brief Review of the Australian Construction and
Excavating Equipment Industry. No. 18 in
Industry Review Series. Division of Industrial
Development, Ministry of National Develop-
ment, January 195o, pp. 28.


The present value of local production (started in
early Igz2's) is about A3 m. p.a., but manufacturers
work only at two-thirds of their capacity, mainly owing
to iron and steel shortages. Half of local demand
depends on imports. Separate sections deal with
demand for and supply of power shovels, draglines,
skimmers and similar excavators; crawler tractors
(wholly imported) ; wheeled tractors for industrial use;
dozer blades and attachments ; shovel loader attach-
ments; graders; scoops and scrapers (mainly locally
made) ; road ploughs, rippers and rooters ; road rollers;
sheepsfoot rollers; rock buggies; miscellaneous.
Exports totalled 166,ooo in 1948-49, imports
(apart from agricultural tractors) about 22 m. Further
chapters deal with labour (present labour force 3,600),
materials (diesel engines short, principally imported
from U.S. and U.K.), equipment, structure of industry
(90 per cent concentrated in 13 firms), Government
policies (tariff, prices, etc.).

1565. Brief Review of the Australian Domestic Electric
Appliances Industry. No. 19 in the Industry
Review Series. Division of Industrial Develop-
ment, Ministry of National Development,
February 1950, pp. 32.
This review covers three categories of appliances:
(a) household electro-mechanical equipment (such as
vacuum cleaners, washing machines, but not refrigera-
tors), (b) domestic cooking equipment (such as jugs,
kettles, toasters, but not stoves and ranges), (c) electric
heating equipment (such as irons, radiators). The
demand for appliances is restricted by the limited power
supply. Details of the estimated annual demand are
given for the various appliances. Some Australian
appliances are exported, now mainly to S.E. Asia, N.Z.,
the Pacific Islands and South Africa. Of the total
supply 1948-49, 60 per cent was locally produced, the
total value of Australian production rose from 468,000
in 1938-39 to about 3 m. in 1948-49. The industry
is working at 5o-70 per cent of capacity. Imports have
increased four times in volume in the last decade,
1948-49 94 per cent of the imports came from U.K.
Further chapters deal with labour (1949 2,800 persons),
materials (shortages mainly in sheet steel), equipment,
the structure of the industry, Government policies
(tariffs, decentralisation). Production and imports are
some 25-30 per cent in excess of demand, there has been
substantial over-expansion of the industry.

1566. Brief Review of the Australian Plastics Industry.
Division of Industrial Development, March 1950,
pp. 25 roneoedd).
A survey on technology mentions the main types of
thermosetting and thermoplastic materials, the techniques
of compounding, compression and injection moulding,
extrusion, calendering, coating of textiles, laminating,
casting, and the use of casein. The Australian demand
for plastics has risen fourfold since pre-war up to
1947-48, in which year only g per cent of the local supply
was imported. Competition from imports may become
more acute in future. Exports from Australia are small.
Details are given of the market situation of plastic
electrical goods, toys, combs; cigarette, toilet and
similar cases ; buckles, clasps and costume jewellery;
buttons, laminated materials (sheets, rods, etc.), closures,
radio cabinets, transparent paper (all imported);
kitchen furniture, basins, sinks and baths; coated
textiles, garden hose, piping, insulated wire and cables.
Further sections deal with labour-the labour force
tends to stabilise at about 4,500 employees--materials,
equipment, the structure of the industry--5 per cent of







the establishments provide 44 per cent of the total
employment-Government policy-tariff, price control,
dollars, decentralisation.
1567. Cotton-Growing Industry. Tariff Board's Report,
pp. 19. Government Printer, Canberra, I Octo-
ber 1949. Price Is. 3d.
A scheme was suggested of a five-years agreement
with the industry starting from January 1949 at a
guaranteed selling price of 32d. per lb. raw cotton ; two
years before the agreement's expiry the conditions
should be re-examined with a view to an extension for
further five years. The industry is protected by tariff
duties and bounties. Tariff Board inquiries about
assistance to cotton growing had been held six times
before from 19Z2 to 1945. At present the industry is
in a state of collapse, in 1949 the crop was less than
one-tenth of the 1931-35 average, because alternative
land utilisation (wheat, cattle, dairying) gives the farmer
much higher net returns. Even with wider use of
irrigation, mechanisation and a guaranteed price to the
grower of 9gd. per lb. of seed cotton production after
three years would not be more than 3 m. lb. p.a., i.e. 5 per
cent of Australian requirements. The Board recom-
mended no further assistance to cotton-growing in
Queensland than maintenance of the existing Tariff
items and relief of the Cotton Marketing Board from
its liability to repay the rest of a loan granted by the
Commonwealth Bank to purchase ginneries.
1568. Remote Controls (of the Bowden Type) for Cycles
and Motor Cycles covered by Tariff Item 352
(A) (2). Tariff Board Report, Commonwealth
Government Printer, Canberra, 5 October 1949,
pp. 7.
These controls consisting principally of a stranded
metal cable inside a spiral metal casing, are at present
duty-free and subject to io per cent primage under
B.P.T. An Australian firm making the controls since
the end of the war applied for a 15 per cent duty in
addition to the primage under B.P.T. Representatives of
British export interests and of the Joint Committee for
Tariff Revision were opposed to this request, as the
Australian production was uneconomic, its quality
inferior, and a much higher than the requested duty
rate would be needed to bring the price of the U.K.
product up to the Australian. The Board recommended
the rejection of the application, mainly on the grounds
put forward by the opponents to the request.
1569. Tariff Board's Report on the Australian Flax
Spinning and Weaving Industry. 28 November
1949. Government Printer, Canberra, pp. 25.
During the period 1940-47, the whole of the flax-
growing industry was brought under Commonwealth
control. A quota of scutched fibre and tow was sold to
the U.K. Government at prices equivalent to those of
Northern Ireland; the balance to Australian spinners
at the same prices less allowance for freight, etc. Sale
at these fixed prices afforded the spinners a subsidy of
about 60 per ton of scutched fibre, the cost being
shared by the U.K. and Commonwealth. The U.K.
agreement ended in 1946 and the Commonwealth
abandoned fixed prices in 1948. Australian spinners
and weavers applied for tariff protection for three years,
but this claim was rejected by the Board, which recom-
mended a subsidy based on 60 per ton for C grade
tank-retted flax.-M.G.R.
157o. Tariff Board's Report on Lavender Oil-Question
of Assistance to the Australian Industry.
Government Printer, Canberra, 14 December,
1949, pp. io.


In January 1949, growers and distillers of Tasmania
and Victoria made application for assistance by subsidy
to the Australian lavender oil industry. During the war,
they were unable to meet Australian demand for their
product, but since 1946 they have been faced with
intense and increasing competition from French imports.
Devaluation of the franc has contributed to this position
and was thus made the basis of the claim. Manufac-
turing chemists using the oil as raw material objected
to protection by tariff, as the necessary rate of duty
would be about 300 per cent, but they did not oppose
the proposal for a subsidy. However, the Board con-
sidered this to be an excessive burden on the Australian
economy. It pointed out that the fall in French
prices is a result not only of devaluation, but also of
the fact that French exporters realise that the market
has changed from a sellers' to a buyers' market.-M.G.R.
1571. Baskets and Basketware. Tariff Board's Report.
Commonwealth Printer, Canberra, 13 December
1949, pp. 10.
The present duties in per cent are for picnic baskets
under item 376(B) I71(B.P.T.), 45+5 primage (I.T.),
and 47+10o primage (G.T.), for all other baskets under
item 376(C) 10+5 primage (B.P.T.), 22z (I.T.), and
47+0Io primage (G.T.). Australian manufacturing
interests requested much higher duties, e.g., for baskets
from Hongkong between 2o9 and 308 per cent ad val.,
as the market was now flooded with cheap imported
basketware, mainly because overseas industries (China
and Hongkong) had a very low cost level. Opposition
to the request stated that the industry was not suited to
Australian conditions, basketware except heavier types
should be imported duty-free. The Board recom-
mended that the existing duty and primage rates should
not be altered. For heavier baskets no further protec-
tion was needed. The duties required to bring the
landed costs of baskets from Hongkong up to local
factory selling prices, would be between 130 and 467
per cent, they would be more burdensome than the
industry's value to the Australian economy.

(C) Monetary Policy, Banking, Insurance
I572. Some Observations on Changes in Money and
Real Income in Australia 1938-39 to 1948-49.
D. W. Oxnam. Economic Record, pp. 46-63,
December 1949.
The first part of this paper gives a survey of Aus-
tralian national income and its components in 1938-39
and the years between 1943-44 and 1948-49. The
main reasons for the rise (814 m. in 1938-39, 1,955 m.
in 1948-49) are increased public spending during the
war, high export incomes, increased internal business
activities, rises in wages, in investment outlay and
consumption expenditure (excess of demand in the first
post-war years and greater imports). In the second
section exports, wholesale and retail prices are
discussed. The third section deals with the real
income of wage earners, middle income groups and the
community as a whole. In conclusion future prospects
are examined concerning wages policy, public borrowing
and spending, export stabilisation schemes and apprecia-
tion of the Australian currency.
1573. Interest and the Money Supply in Keynes'
Economics. M. C. Kemp. Economic Record,
pp. 64-73, December 1949.
In the author's view the rate of interest is hardly
determined by time preference. Savings are determined
by time preference and income, and the rate of saving
depends on the rate of investment. The long-term








(secular) rate of investment is stable. The savings lag
is overcome in the capital market by speculation, in the
money market by a flexible money supply. Secular
stabilisation of the long-term rate of interest can be
achieved by offsetting expansion of bank credit and
currency. In the past it was due to wars, gold dis-
coveries and depressions. Supply of and demand for
loan funds from within the income stream are in-
dependent variables and cannot determine the rate of
interest. Keynes' main departure from classical theory
is the determination of income: the stock of money
depends on the level of income, while the rate of interest
is determined by the banking system. It is not neces-
sary to assume rigidity of wages, the level of employ-
ment is determined by decisions to save and invest.

1574. The Plight of Socialised Sterling. C. V. Janes.
Australian Quarterly, pp. 5-14, December 1949.
The author agrees with most of the conservative
Parliamentary and press criticism, that devaluation was
a consequence of the socialist policy of the U.K. Labour
Government rather than of the war. To apply socialist
principles means rising cost and falling output. 'If
30o5 per cent is the degree of devaluation required by
economic reality, this adjustment would have been
made over the years by a free exchange market'.
Permanent exchange control is inflationary. As
Churchill said, 'devaluation is only a temporary ex-
pedient'. It was not justified on economic grounds,
it may even increase the dollar shortage.
1575. New Zealand and the Dollar Problem. A. R. Low.
Accountants' Journal, Wellington, pp. 103-Io6,
October 1949.
The paper discusses reasons for the hard currency
deficit of the Sterling area, some suggested remedies
including devaluation, and N.Z.'s hard currency gap.
As to the stimulation of exports two questions are
raised : whether the hard currency countries will buy
43 per cent more goods and services from the Sterling
area (according to the devaluation rate), and whether
the Sterling area can supply so many more goods. As to
imports the author thinks the restrictions on hard
currency spending will have to be continued or even
intensified. Of N.Z.'s exports those of wool, cattle
hides, rabbit skins and sausage casings to North America
can possibly be increased, while butter and meat exports
cannot. Finally some favourable and unfavourable
aspects of devaluation are mentioned.

(D) Public Finance
1576. Some Aspects of the Rising Cost of Government in
Australia. Research Service, Sydney, March
1950, pp. 99, 72 roneoedd).
The Commonwealth expenditure from Consoli-
dated Revenue in 1948-49 was 554 m. (477 per
cent increase since 1938-39), while state expenditure
has risen by 77-7 per cent, and total Government
expenditure by 251 per cent. Government expenditure
was 26-2 per cent of national income 1939-39, 36-4
per cent in 1948-49. Section II divides up the increase
in public expenditure among the most important items :
departmental cost (24 per cent of the increase), social
services (19), subsidies, etc. (17) and 1939-45 war
charges (I4'4). For state Governments the expenditure
on business undertakings and on education are the main
items. Section III 'The Increase in Governmental
Costs' shows the expenditure of the io old and 15 new
Commonwealth departments (the highest expenditures
by the Departments of Immigration and of Civil
Aviation). Section IV deals with the cost of Parliament,


section V with the finances of public authority business
undertakings (railways, P.M.G., broadcasting, etc.),
section VI with the duplication and overlapping of
Commonwealth and state functions (education, trans-
port, etc.).
Appendix A sets forth the present state of public
accounts.

1577. Commonwealth Disposals Commission. Fifth and
Final Report. 31 July 1949. Government
Printer, Melbourne, pp. 40.
The commission was terminated on 31 July 1949,
since 1948 its activities had been gradually integrated
with the Department of Supply and Development,
which is now in charge of the remaining disposals,
except those of real property (Department of the
Interior). The report surveys the history of the com-
mission, its early operations from 13 September 1944 to
August 1945, the major phase of the disposals pro-
gramme: September 1945 to December 1947, and the
concluding stages : January 1948 to July 1949. In
October 1946 the peak of realisations was reached with
74 m., since May 1949 monthly sales were less than
4 m. An analysis of realisations deals with the main
groups : textiles, textile products, clothing, footwear
(24-2 m. realisations); motor transport (16"5 m.),
machine tools (11i2 m.), real property (12-4 m.),
metals (16-2 m.), foodstuffs (5-6 m.). A separate
chapter discusses salvage operations and the liquidation
of special war equipment.

1578. Income Tax Assessment Act-Division 4 of
Part III-Goodwill. T.G. Matthews. Chartered
Accountant in Australia, pp. 422-434, January
1950. Address to Queensland Division of the
Australian Chartered Accountant Research
Society, October 1949.
A commentary on some particularly litigious provi-
sions of sections 83-89 of the Income Tax Assessment
Act. The lecturer first discusses the term 'lease' which
is not defined in the Act, then he deals with the definition
of 'premium' as a source of litigation. The division
of goodwill into personal and local is rather doubtful.
Subsequently he examines 'licence', 'terms of lease',
mining leases, the interpretations of improvements not
subject to 'tenant rights' in s. 87 and some other points.

1579. Income Tax Payable by Companies and Share-
holders. A. V. Adamson. Chartered Account-
ant in Australia, pp. 626-633, April 1950.
The present system is complicated and inequitable,
as it implies double taxation. The author proposes
another system which was given consideration by the
Royal Commission 1933-34. Shareholders should pay
tax on what they receive, companies on what they
retain, as it is now with co-operative companies. A
company's taxable income is to be determined by
deducting from its net income all dividends paid
within six months from the close of the year of income.
Shareholders should pay taxes on all dividends received
and normally not be given rebates on dividends. In
addition private companies should pay a secondary
tax to curb excessive retentions. The advantages of the
proposed system are discussed in some details and
examples of the proposed system are presented.
1580. Taxation of Trustees and Trust Estates. G. A.
Milne. Accountants' Journal(N.Z.), pp. 154-159,
December 1949.
An interpretation of Sections ioz, Xo8, 113, 124, 125
and 127 of the N.Z. Land and Income Tax Act 1923.
Trust estates are not only those of deceased persons, but







also assigned estates, bankrupt estates, voluntary estates,
etc. Special chapters deal among other subjects with
a deceased taxpayer, return to date of death, expenses
and deductions against income to date of death, social
security charge, accrued income, depreciation, bene-
ficiaries' and trustees' income, proprietary income,
earned and unearned income, intestate estates.

(E) Accountancy
i58i. An Academic Accountant's Apology. The Formal
Structure of Accountants-Invariance. Social
Accounting. The Principles of Accounting
Measurement. The Accounting Implications of
the Identity-Savings Equals Asset Formation.
Standards of Effectiveness. F. Sewell Bray.
Australian Accountant, pp. 389-393, 393-397,
407-411, 412-217, November 1949, PP. 444-450,
456-460, December 1949.
These articles form a series dealing with problems
arising out of the attempt to adapt accounting procedures
to the measurement of national income in terms of
Keynesian economic theory, that is, in the field of social
accounting.

1582. Accounting and Price Level Changes. A. A.
Fitzgerald. Australian Accountant, pp. 129-147,
April 1950.
A much debated problem these days is whether for
general-purpose accounting records and statements the
appropriate concepts are money-cost, money-profit and
money-capital or real cost, real profit and real capital.
This article provides a comprehensive survey of the
problem and of the many proposed solutions for dis-
tinguishing between money-profits and real profits. It
also contains a detailed example of the effect of financial
statements of the adoption of certain of the proposals
for alterations in accounting procedure.

(F) Transportation and Communication
1583. Report of the Victorian Railway Commissioners
for Year ended 30 June 1949. P.P. Govern-
ment Printer, Melbourne, 1949, pp. 71, 36.
Price 4s.
Despite a record revenue there was an excess of
working expenses over revenue of 567,000 in 1948-49
(1,o86,ooo net revenue in the year before), and after
payment of interest, etc., a total deficit of 2,734,000
(1,o47,ooo00 1947-48), mainly because of steeply rising
wages and costs of materials. The freight and fare
rises per I October 1947 had been inadequate, further
increases in freights and fares were authorised as per
i September 1949. Attention is drawn to the investiga-
tion of Vic. Railways by the English expert John Elliot
(see abstract No. 1370 of No. 9 of this journal) and to the
regrading, duplication and electrification of part of the
Main Gippsland line. Among other sections of the
report are those on competition with road and air
transport, on operating results-notwithstanding all
difficulties they show greater efficiency as expressed
in the rising total goods and livestock tonnage-rolling
stock, stores, etc.
Twenty-three appendices present financial and
traffic statistics.

x584. Transport Regulation Board, Victoria. Annual
Report for Year ended 30 June 1949. P.P.
Government Printer, Melbourne, 1949, pp. 26.
Price is. 9d.


As the railways are gradually modernised and the
abnormal railway situation somewhat improves, supple-
mentary road transport assumes slightly different
functions. A recent development is the growth of
town bus services in country centres. There are now
nine regional offices, three more are to be opened, in
addition there are five permit offices for special traffics.
Among other subjects dealt with is the interstate goods
traffic (in N.S.W. indiscriminate on payment of a ton
mile tax, in Victoria discriminate according to goods
carried), log, timber and pulpwood traffic, subsidy for
road transport of firewood, school services (now 385),
the Pan Pacific Scout Jamboree at Wonga Park, etc.

1585. Department of Railways, New South Wales.
Annual Report for Year ended 30 June 1949.
Government Printer, Sydney, 1949, pp. 79.
A survey of the Department's activities. Earnings
exceeded operating expenses by 3,925,ooo (5,891,ooo
in 1947-48), after providing for interest and other
statutory obligations there was a deficit of k,g16,ooo
(surplus of 112,ooo in previous year). Costs rose
much more than revenue. Coal shortages caused
extensive passenger and goods traffic restrictions.
Deliveries of rolling stock ordered in Australia were
seriously delayed and orders had to be placed in U.K.
and Germany. Special sections are arranged in the
same way as in previous reports (see No. 1145 in No. 8
of this journal). Financial and traffic statistics are
presented in 21 appendices.

1586. South Australian Railways Commissioners' Annual
Report for Year 1948-49. Government Printer,
Adelaide, 1949, pp. 52.
In spite of an increase in railway fares and freight
rates since I March 1949 costs of labour and materials
rose much more, so that there was a deficit on current
operations of 1,254,ooo and a total deficit of 2,550,ooo
as against 2,o26,ooo in the previous year. The
quantity and quality of N.S.W. coal supplied was
inadequate, and more of the much dearer fuel oil was
used. Further sections deal with locomotives and
rolling stock, gauge widening and standardisation, etc.
By 30 June 1949 1163 new Australians were engaged on
railway services. Financial and traffic statistics are
presented in 20 tables.

1587. Report on the Working of the W.A. Government
Railways for Year ended 30 June 1949. Govern-
ment Printer, Perth, 1949, pp. 62.
Despite the increase of freights and fares by 20 per
cent from I September 1948 the deterioration of the
railways' financial position has continued. Working
expenses were 1,487,000 higher than earnings, i.e.,
128 per cent of earnings. Total deficit was 2,550,000.
From i August 1949 freights and fares rose by another
7k per cent, yet the deficit anticipated for 1949-50 is
2,789,000. Train mileage fell, mainly owing to coal
shortage and road competition. Of 423 locomotives
309 were over 30 years old. Among other subjects
dealt with is the coaching and wagon stock, Diesel
electric cars, civil engineering, stores and materials,
standardisation of gauges, etc. Twelve tables and
13 appendices present financial and traffic statistics.

1588. Melbourne and Metropolitan Tramways Board.
Report for Year ended 30 June 1949, pp. 37.
Total revenue for the year under review was
4,053,ooo, there were 383-8 m. passengers carried, and
a mileage of 3I'2 m. was run. Operating expenses were







3,560,000 (i.e., 46,000o more than in the previous
year), however, they were still exceeded by revenue.
Total expenses including fixed charges were 4,171,00oo
which resulted in a deficit of 227,000. Total expenses
of trams were 95-4 per cent of revenue, that of buses
131-9 per cent. Of special interest among other
sections is that dealing with the conversion of the
Bourke Street-Northcote bus services to electric
traction. In conclusion financial accounts and traffic
statistics are presented.

1589. Air Transport of Fruit and Vegetables. F. D.
Gillies. Economic News, pp. 1-4., December
1949.
According to a U.S. publication by S. A. Larsen (1944)
lower air freight rates would provide a greater volume
and a larger variety of fresh fruit and vegetables for
air transport. Two hundred and fifty air miles seems
the minimum practicable distance for air freighting.
Important is the traffic's seasonal distribution. Tables
show the weight in lbs. of fresh fruit and vegetables sent
by air from Brisbane to Sydney and Melbourne and the
monthly average prices in 1948 on the Brisbane, Sydney
and Melbourne markets. The price differential between
two markets must be sufficient to cover air freight
charges, the local supply must be insufficient or too
costly, the commodity must be higher priced and
freshness must be a determinant of price. This applies
mainly to strawberries and beans which are air freighted
from Brisbane to Sydney and Melbourne.

159o. Beef Cattle Transport. Methods and Problems
in Northern Australia. J. H. Kelly and L. W.
White. Quarterly Review of Agricultural Econ-
omics, pp. 76-79, April 1950.
The authors discuss the advantages and drawbacks
of movement of cattle by stock route, road transport-
which is too expensive for store cattle-water transport
(Victoria River), aerial transport (from Glenroy station
in the Kimberleys to Wyndham), and railways. The
two most promising railway routes for investigation are
Darwin-Adelaide and Darwin (Birdum)-Dajarra in
Queensland, particularly the latter 'would enable store
cattle from the East Kimberley, Victoria River and
Darwin-Gulf districts to be moved to fattening areas
in Queensland and N.S.W.' In times of drought
railways would be especially valuable.

1591. Main Roads of New South Wales, 1925-1950-
Development and Improvements. Main Roads,
pp. 65-74, March 1959.
The N.S.W. Main Roads Act, 1924, which also
provided funds for main roads, set up a new authority,
the Main Roads Board, later Department of Main Roads.
Financing and the initial work was different in the
County of Cumberland and in the country. In the
former there were 'missing links and ends' to be built
and roads had to be gradually widened. In the country
standards of design and construction had to be prepared.
In 1928 main roads were classified into state highways,
trunk roads and ordinary main roads. Administration
was decentralised (now 12 divisions). Financial
assistance was supplied to country councils. The
mileage of main roads rose from 13,500 by the end of
1928 to 23,ooo by the end of 1949. Bridges, ferries
and certain roads including those in the Western
Division were regarded as 'national works'. Other
subjects dealt with include co-operation with councils,
publications, various types of pavement (bituminous,
gravel, etc.).


(G) Labour and Industrial Relations
1592. Recent Discussion of Keynes' Theory of Wages.
A Review. H. W. Arndt. Economic Record,
pp. 77-83, December 1949.
A discussion of six papers-particularly those by
Haberler and by J. Tobin-in 'The New Economics :
Keynes' Influence on Theory and Public Policy', edited
by Seymour E. Harris (New York 1947). Keynes tried
to refute the 'classical' doctrine that general wage
deflation was an appropriate remedy for general un-
employment; labour would resist cuts in money wages,
and even if it did not, this would not affect real wages
and employment. The author thinks that real income
and employment is not independent of the level of
money costs, but that Keynes' presumption against
wage cutting is largely justified. Keynes probably
overstated the 'irrational' behaviour of labour and was
hot realistic enough in the labour supply function.

1593. New Zealand's Industrial Relations Act 1949.
D. W. Oxnam. Economic Record, pp. 88-90,
December 1949.
This note surveys the main provisions of the Act.
Joint consultative machinery is to be set up in the shape
of Industrial Advisory Councils on a national, regional
and industrial basis, and in the shape of Works Com-
mittees in particular industries and establishments.
Conciliation Commissioners are now authorised to
summon compulsory conferences. This new legislation
is a 'greatly changed attitude towards industrial relations'
in N.Z. which for more than 50 years has relied on
compulsory arbitration that largely prevented the
growth of joint consultative machinery.

1594. The Pattern of Industrial Disputes in Australia,
the United States and Great Britain. Research
Service, February 1950, pp. 16 roneoedd).
The number of industrial disputes in each year in the
three countries reached its wartime peak in 1945, since
then it has risen in Australia, fallen in U.S. and U.K.
As to the number of man-days lost, they tend to increase
in Australia and U.S., to decline in U.K. In 1948 less
workers were involved in disputes than in 1946 in all
three countries, but more than in 1939. Theproportion
of workers involved in disputes is much higher in
Australia than in U.S. and even more than in U.K.
As to the reasons for disputes, wages and hours of work
are less important in Australia than in U.S. and U.K.
The majority in Australia were caused by working
conditions and miscellaneous factors including sym-
pathy strikes. The greatest source of disputes in
Australia and U.K. is coal mining, in U.S. manufacturing.
Compared with 1939 the trend in time-loss rates is
much higher in all three countries.

I595. Communist Initiated Disputes in Australia in the
Post-War Period. Research Service, Sydney,
30 April 1950, pp. XVI, 117, XI.
A detailed survey of communist activities in labour
disputes, particularly in N.S.W. from 1945-49. Com-
munists control ii unions in N.S.W., among them
seven key unions in the mining, engineering and metal
working and shipping industries. In section I part A
deals with the relative size of communist initiated
disputes excluding and including mining in N.S.W. and
the whole of Australia. Including mining the Com-
munist union group comprises 28 per cent of total union
membership in N.S.W., but has been responsible for
88 per cent of total man days lost from 1946-49. Part







B discusses trends of the magnitude of Communist
initiated disputes. Since 1947 man days lost by
Communist non-mining disputes rose by i8 per cent,
those by moderate unions fell by 72 per cent. Part C
examines the changing motivation of disputes. Section
II is concerned with the concentration of Communist
control in basic industry, the overall plan of Communist
non-mining unions, and the use of strike techniques.
Subject of section III is the gains from Communist
leadership, the price of that leadership (wage losses,
union finances, production losses).

1596. The Commonwealth Court of Conciliation and
Arbitration: A Brief Survey. Orwell de R.
Foenander. Quarterly Journal of Economics
(Harvard), Vol. LXIII, No. 3, pp. 408-429,
August 1949.
A general analytical study of the Commonwealth
Court of Conciliation and Arbitration explaining its
origins and showing the extension of its influence, the
growth of its prestige and its experiences in the two
World Wars and the business depression 1929-1933.
The later part of the article is devoted to a criticism of
the post-war Federal legislation in reference to the
regulation of the employer-employee relationship.
-0. de R. F.

1597. Two Years of Conciliation Commissioners.
A. C. Gray. Australian Quarterly, pp. 51-61,
March 1950.
The author gives a survey of the main features of
the 1947 amendments to the Commonwealth Concilia-
tion and Arbitration Act which restricted the Court's
powers to some more important problems, while Con-
ciliation Commissioners (now 18) were assigned to
certain industries, who have first to attempt conciliation
and, failing this, arbitrate without a right of appeal.
Most commissioners are former union officials, but
their high qualities are acknowledged by employers.
Variation of current awards in the case of a change of
circumstances is now possible which seems to have
increased the number of disputes. The prohibition
against the appearance of members of the legal profession
has made proceedings less formal. That there is no
right of appeal, has caused a lack of uniformity. The
speedier hearing of disputes is a result of a greater
number of arbitrators.
1598. A Study in Joint Consultation. M. Kangan.
Bulletin of Industrial Psychology and Personnel
Practice, pp. 3-14, December 1949.
This paper deals with the Welfare Committee in a
Victorian factory with zoo male employees. It has
functioned since 1942 and consists of nine members of
whom five are employee representatives, nominated for
each meeting (once a month) by an elected Works
Committee. The Welfare Committee is meant to
promote management-workers co-operation and has
advisory functions, but most committee proposals result
in decisions. Its success is due to adherence to purpose
--there are not two bargaining groups, and for special
purpose activities there is a Social Club and a Thrift
Club--mutual respect of management and employee
representatives, a competent committee organisation,
and the accumulating experience of achievement. It
has been rather ineffective as means of communication
in the plant and reasons for this are discussed. Foremen
are not represented which leads to certain disadvantages.

1599. This Firm Keeps its Labour. R. S. Home.
Bulletin of Industrial Psychology and Personnel
Practice, pp. 15-21, December 1949.


This article deals with a Victorian hosiery mill which in
1948-49 had a labour turnover of 57 per cent compared
with Iro in the whole Australian textile industry. In
the author's view the smallness of the firm (130 employ-
ees) is not responsible for the relatively low labour
turnover, nor are wages, working conditions and amenities
remarkable. The management is largely delegated to
the supervisors of various sections who for the workers
are 'the management'. Confidence of the employees in
these supervisors, security of employment, adequate
handling of induction, training and personnel problems
account for the favourable rate of labour stability.
16oo. Feelings of Failure and Labour Turnover.
M. Bucklow. Bulletin of Industrial Psychology
and Personnel Practice, pp. 28-31, March 1950.
As shown in a recent U.S. publication, the high
labour turnover in a U.S. clothing factory was due to
feelings of frustration because of the inability to reach
the standard rate of efficiency. This was remedied
by introducing a graded series of easily obtainable
objectives so that the standard efficiency rate could be
reached more smoothly. An investigation of three
cotton spinning mills and a rope factory in Australia
with high labour turnover yielded different results.
The high rate of turnover was not due to lack of ability
or to the intention to leave after a few weeks, but
probably to the basic attitude of the individual to work
which makes certain people unstable and less productive
employees.
16o0. Training and Learning. O. P. Wickham.
Bulletin of Industrial Psychology and Personnel
Practice, pp. 22-28, December 1949.
The author presents some major problems of learning
in industry. The worker should be adjusted to the task
with its requirements of skill, to the working conditions
involved, and to the social relations between members
of a work group. In relation to these three elements
the desire to learn and its encouragement is discussed,
the clues guiding the trainee in understanding the
requirements of the job, and the responses he must
make to these clues are examined. Preferably the
learner should have only one instructor, and the task
as a whole should be taught rather than be broken up
into its parts. Some remarks are concerned with the
learning curve in graphs. The same principles apply
to the learning of instructors.

16oz. Incentive Payments in Australian Industry.
Bulletin of Industrial Psychology and Personnel
Practice, pp. 13-17, March 1950.
The Commonwealth Statistician Quarterly Business
Survey No. io (September 1949) presents figures from
a sample covering 25 per cent of employees in private
firms. The survey divides incentives into three groups :
(i) piecework, (2) bonuses and commissions based on
output, (3) other types of bonuses (based on sales,
product prices, dividends or profits, etc.). A higher
proportion of manual workers than of other employees
received incentive payments of groups (I) and (2), while
relatively more other employees received group (3)
incentives. Among manual workers the proportion of
females is higher than that of males in the incentive
groups (i) and (2). Incentives are most frequent in
the textiles, clothing and mining industries, in the first
two classes, also in wholesale and retail trade particularly
among women. Finally comparisons are made with
surveys compiled in U.K. and U.S.

1603. Overseas Experience with Employees Stock
Ownership. W. J. Byrt. Bulletin of Industrial








Psychology and Personnel Practice, pp. 18-27,
March 1950.
Plans for employee stock ownership have been mainly
introduced as incentives, social welfare measures, as a
matter of social justice, and to combat inflation. These
plans have never assumed large proportions and
particularly in U.S. they declined in times of depression.
There are sometimes restrictions of the eligibility to
participate, special types and special prices of stock and
differences in the method of purchase, in voting rights,
dividends payable and re-sale of stock. *
1604. Motion and Time Study and Incentive Payments.
R. O. Ellis. Manufacturing and Management,
pp. 324-326, April 1950.
The author first discusses the features of motion
study and how it can bring about cost saving. Its
basic principle is a simplification of movements. The
timing of an operation is done by splitting up a motion
study into basic divisions of accomplishment. Standards
of performance are developed and methods time
measurement will lead to rate-setting on a sound basis.
Incentive rates should be set so as to enable an average
operator to earn additional 30 per cent of the award rate
as bonus. Further sections deal with the importance
of inspection, training .of employees, the effect on
industrial relations and group bonus schemes.
1605. University of Melbourne. University Appoint-
ments Board. Sixteenth Annual Report. Mel-
bourne University Press, 1950, pp. 67.
Part I examines the Board's activities in 1948-49,
i.e., pre-University guidance, employment services in
three sections : odd jobs and vacation work for under-
graduates, and placement of graduates, statistical
research into employment trends, and surveys of incomes
and prospects of various professions. An employment
survey was made with the help of a field officer who paid
355 calls to potential employers. Special chapters deal
with Reconstruction Trainees on leave from the Com-
monwealth Public Service, opportunities for psychology
graduates, and openings in private enterprise for
agricultural scientists.
Part II presents statistical material, particularly on
the recorded gross demand for various categories of
graduates and undergraduates, and on placements made
by the Board.
Appendix I contains a report on the legal profession
in Victoria which has been the subject of abstract No.
1429 in No. 9 of this journal.
Appendix 2 contains a survey of the engineering
profession in Victoria. Questionnaires were sent to
1,223 members of the Institution of Engineers, Australia,
resident in Victoria, replies were given by 942. Tables
show the general field of employment of engineers
(mainly civil, electrical and mechanical), their educational
qualifications, professional status, income according to
years of experience, status and education. In conclusion
the present supply and demand and future prospects are
discussed.

AGRICULTURE, LAND AND RURAL
PROBLEMS
1606. Ashton, L. G. (ed.). Dairy Farming in Australia
(Victorian Division). Commonwealth Depart-
ment of Commerce and Agriculture, 1949, pp. 556.
The book is divided into two sections. The Common-
wealth section deals with the history of the industry,
farm records, price determination, Commonwealth
legislation affecting the industry, and farm mechanisa-


tion. The Victorian section is concerned with more
specific problems. The subjects covered are animal
breeding and genetics, herd improvement, farm manage-
ment, farm design and milking shed techniques.
Diseases in dairy cattle are discussed in detail. Officers
of the Victorian Department of Agriculture and the
C.S.I.R.O. are included in the authors. The book
marks a new advance in extension services made
available to the primary producer and can well be
regarded as a 'text book' to the dairy farmer.-K.W.H.

1607. Victoria. Department of Lands and Survey.
Report for the Financial Year ended 30 June 1948.
Government Printer, Melbourne, 1949, pp. zo.
Price is. 6d.
The various activities of the Department dealt with in
the sections of the report are, Occupation of Crown
Lands, Unused Roads and Water Shortages, Closer
Settlement, Farmers Advances and Drought Relief,
Farm Water Supplies Advances, Insurance and Wheat
Stabilisation. The appendices deal with Vermin and
Noxious Weeds and the report of the Surveyor-General.
-K.W.H.
1608. Annual Report of the Commissioner of Irrigation
and Water Supply 1948-49. Government Printer,
Brisbane, pp. 163.
Although irrigation development in Queensland is
likely to eventually exceed that in any other State, lack
of qualified staff and inadequate equipment have
resulted in appalling gaps in fundamental information,
and continue to retard that development.
This report contains information on the water
resources of the N.S.W. border, of the Burdekin and
Barron-Walsh Rivers, of certain islands, of coal areas,
and on the underground water resources of the Atherton
tableland and other areas. The design and construction
of conservation and utilisation works are described.
Administrative changes and problems of the Commission
are discussed.-K.B.

16o9. The Farmer was a Fighting Man. Department
of War Service Land Settlement, 1949, pp. 23.
A booklet telling the story of war service land settle-
ment. The losses to the Commonwealth of the State
Soldiers Settlement Schemes following the first world
war were assessed at 45 m. in 1945. To avoid similar
failures the authorities have introduced the following
principles as a basis for the present schemes. The
settler must be suitable and must invest any resources
of his own in the enterprise. Training facilities and
extension services are available to him. Settlement is
only to be carried out where the land is suitable for the
type of farming considered. The area settled is to be of
sufficient size to ensure sound economic prospects of
success. Other schemes whereby assistance is available
to the ex-service farmer or agricultural student are also
outlined.-K.W.H.
16 o. New Zealand Dairy Board. Twenty-fifth Annual
Report. Year ending 31 July 1949, pp. 83.
A short review of the Board's activities over the quarter
century since its inception opens the report. The
operations of the Board during the current season and a
statistical survey of the season's production follow.
The 1948-49 season closed the first ten years of herd
testing in N.Z. and published tables show an increase
in average butter fat production per cow during this
period. Sections dealing with investigation and re-
search discuss sire and dam registration as factors in
herd improvement. An investigation into milking
technique pays particular attention to the effect of








ceasing to hand strip and leg rope upon efficiency of
production per unit of labour. Some aspects of control
of mastitis by penicillin and of nutrition as a factor in
calf wasting are discussed. Accounts for 1948-49 end
the report.-K.W.H.

1611. The First Fifty Years of Agriculture in N.S.W.
C. J. King (Continued). Review of Marketing
and Agricultural Economics, pp. 362-444, Decem-
ber 1949.
In the short period 1831-43 the grazing industry was
established on a sound basis. General agricultural
expansion was not, however, as rapid and even in 1843
the colony was still importing grain. The mid 1830's
were a boom period with capital invested at high rates
of interest but little consideration of markets. A con-
sequent depression occurred in 1841-43. Concentration
on production of foodstuffs previously imported along
with sensible legislation regarding credit brought about
gradual recovery.-K.W.H.

1612. Expanding Services to the Man on the Land.
Arthur F. Bell. Queensland Agricultural Journal,
pp. 2-13. January i95o.
The Queensland Department of Agriculture and
Stock was reorganized in 1945. As a result new services
are available to the primary producer. Such services
are outlined in the article.-K.W.H.

1613. Mineral Deficiency in Plants on the Soils of the
Ninety Mile Plain in South Australia. D. C.
Riceman. C.S.I.R. Bulletin 234, Melbourne,
1948, pp. 45, 16 plates.
This bulletin describes the effects observed over a
three-year period of the addition of zinc sulphate and
differing quantities of copper sulphate with super-
phosphate to a mixed pasture sown without a cover crop
on recently cleared Laffer sand. The seeding mixture
consisting of sub-clover, lucerne and phalaris responded
in different ways to the varied manurial treatments.
The results of the experiment confirm that the area will
become highly productive when given the suitable
dressings of superphosphate to which has been added
the required trace elements.-K.W.H.

1614. Soil Erosion and Soil Conservation in the Hay
District. W. I. A. Knowles. Journal of the
Soil Conservation Service of N.S.W., pp. 171-177,
October 1949.
The Hay district is liable to wind erosion. Wind
erosion in this district is typified by 'scald' areas
supporting no vegetation. It is particularly bad on
'blue bush' country. Predisposing influences are
degeneration of natural herbage by overstocking, rabbits
or drought, a surface soil susceptible to drift, and a clay
sub-soil. Careful management will prevent wind
erosion. Work is now being carried out to determine
the best method of re-vegetation of existing 'scald' areas.
-K.W.H.

1615. The Control of Erosion on Farm Roads. S. R.
Wiltshire. Journal of the Soil Conservation
Service of N.S.W., pp. 86-93, April 1950o.
Farm roads are classified, and the methods of reducing
the problems of erosion and siltation caused by farm
roads are discussed. Where possible one main road
through the farm giving access to all paddocks should
be used to replace a series of individual roads to separate
paddocks, as the main road is easier to maintain, and
there is less total length of road on the farm.-E.J.D.


1616. Factors which minimise soil erosion in Great
Britain. L. E. Humphries. Journal of the Soil
Conservation Service of N.S.W., pp. 93-98,
April 1950.
A brief survey of climate, soils and slopes, methods
of cultivation, drainage, field size, crop rotation, rabbits,
and manuring which explains why the incidence of soil
erosion is so much smaller in U.K. than in Australia.-
E.J.D.

1617. Stocking and Stock Management in the Condo-
bolin District with a view to soil conservation.
D. D. H. Godfrey. Journal of the Soil Con-
servation Service of N.S.W., pp. 103-1o9, April
1950.
'Of the many factors contributing to soil erosion,
overstocking and other injudicious stock-management
practices are perhaps the most important in this district.
The principles outlined apply not only to the Condobolin
district but to grazing districts generally throughout
the State, particularly in the drier areas.' The following
topics are dealt with-signs of overstocking, carrying
capacities and stocking figures, rabbits, kangaroos and
emus, class of stock, breeding, domestic animals,
subdivision and watering places, conserved fodder,
woolshed and yards, agistment, erosion control, and
returns.-E.J.D.

1618. Soil Conservation in Queensland. I. The Erosion
Problem. J. E. Ladenig. Queensland Agricul-
tural Journal, pp. 14-25, January 1950.
The first of a series of articles on soil erosion in
Queensland. The causes and manifestations of water
erosion are discussed.-K.W.H.

1619. The Economics of Conservation. J. G. Crawford.
Quarterly Review of Agricultural Economics,
Canberra, pp.51-57, April 1950.
Conservation of the natural resources of the soil
should be a common goal of both the nation and the
individual farmer. Exploitative practices of the past
are outlined. The factors, knowledge, tenure con-
ditions, farm size, farm indebtedness, income, taxation,
supplies of labour, the availability and cost of materials
and capital equipment decide the outlook of the in-
dividual farmer towards conservation. If then the
economic position of the individual farmer is such that
he cannot afford to carry out a conservation policy it
would seem that the duty of the State is to provide
credit facilities.-K.W.H.

1620. Statistical Hand Book of the Sheep and Wool
Industry. Bureau of Agricultural Economics.
Department of Commerce and Agriculture,
Canberra, pp. 105, November 1949.
Every aspect of the industry is covered in the published
tables, figures and charts. Separate chapters are
devoted to competitive fibres and to legislation affecting
the industry.-K.W.H.

1621. Report of Investigation into Trends in the Sheep
Numbers in the Armidale Pasture Protection
District. Bureau of Acricultural Economics,
Canberra, February 1950, pp. 29.
Though there has been a general upward trend in
sheep numbers since 1905, the short term trend for the
ten year period ending 1947 has been downward. As
possible causes, many factors were investigated. The
short term trend is not attributable to any single factor.-
K.W.H.







1622. Sheepfarming Annual 1949. Massey Agricultural
College (University of New Zealand), pp. 240.
September 1949. Price los.
This publication covers the twelfth annual meeting
of sheep farmers held at the College and at Napier.
All aspects of the industry were included in the lectures.
The lectures and subsequent discussions are reported
in full. Subjects include weed control, pasture manage-
ment and disease control. Of particular interest is a
lecture advising farmers on methods by which they can
reduce the number of carcases rejected for export by
freezing works.-K.W.H.
1623. Northern Territory Beef. J. H. Kelly and L.
White. Quarterly Review of Agricultural Econ-
omics, pp. 142-145. October 1949.
Detailed plans have been made by the Common-
wealth to develop transport facilities throughout the
Northern Territory. Wheeled transport will prevent
long walks to market and will allow cattle to be held
until the end of fattening season. Such a transport
development will not ensure a greater output of high
quality animals unless it is accompanied by a vast
programme of improved station management.-K.W.H.
1624. Some Notes on Farm Power Usage and Costs on
Dairy Farms in the South Coast Milk Board
Area. P. C. Druce. Review of Marketing and
Agricultural Economics, pp. 441-452. December
1949.
The financial position of the dairy farmer has im-
proved considerably. This along with the availability
of smaller and cheaper tractors and a difficult labour
position, has brought about increased use of machinery.
Though the response to questionnaires in this district
has been poor some interesting information is available.
-K.W.H.
1625. The Cattle Cycle. G. O. Gottman. Quarterly
Review of Agricultural Economics, pp. 23-28.
January 1950.
An attempt to read into the N.S.W. beef cattle
statistical reports a 10-14 year cyclical variation.
Though the effect of wars and depressions cannot be
eliminated it is suggested that the cyclical variation is in
part due to the producers' inability to forecast markets
accurately.--K.W.H.
1626. Dairy Farming Annual, 1949. Massey Agricul-
tural College (University of N.Z.), pp. zo6,
November 1949. Price los.
A report of lectures and discussions at the second post-
war meeting of dairy farmers held at the college. The
importance of the stud breeder in producing proven
bulls is stressed. To maintain the fertility of bulls it
is essential to control both mating and nutrition.
Penicillin in mastitis control and significant changes
in milking practice are discussed. Other subjects
treated are weather forecasting, soil surveys and soil
fertility, aspects of pasture management and weed
control, identification of pasture species and adult
education. The book shows the close liaison between
the producer and the technical worker in N.Z.-K.W.H.
1627. An Economic Survey of the Productivity of
Dairy Farms on the Red Basaltic Soils of the Far
North Coast of New South Wales. Alison M.
Kingsland. Review of Marketing and Agricul-
tural Economics, pp. 93-120, March 1950.
Factory returns, Pasture Protection Board figures and
personal interview are the means by which information
obtained on the 43 farms of the sample. Total pro-
duction has declined over the period 1930-46. This


decline is general over the whole of the North Coast
Division. The decline is largely due to a lower total
production on the larger farms. Though production
per acre has decreased in all farms the decline is more
pronounced on the larger farms. The farmers attribute
this decline to lower soil fertility and bad seasons. The
author suggests the decline is due to the greater influence
of high butter prices, high taxation and shortage of
labour on the larger farms of the district.-K.W.H.
1628. Irrigated Pastures in Victoria. A. Morgan.
Journal of Department of Agriculture, Victoria.
February, March, April 1950.
These articles continue a series started in 1949 (see
Abstract No. 1403 in No. 9 of this journal). The theory
of sampling and assessing error in pasture yield trials
is discussed. Results and limitations of field trials in
frequency of grazing or cutting of irrigated pastures are
reviewed. Investigations of the soils in irrigated areas
has led to a better understanding of soil changes induced
by irrigation water.-K.W.H.
1629. Yield Trends in Wheat Belt of South Australia,
1896-1941. E.A. Cornish. Australian Journal
of Scientific Research. Series B No. 2, pp. 83-
137, 1949.
A short historical review of wheat farming in S.A.
is included as a background to subsequent discussion.
The effect of variation in rainfall about the mean on
yield figures is eliminated by partial regression. The
statistical division used is the "Hundred". The
hundreds are divided into two groups, those first cropped
before or after the advent of superphosphate. Within
each group a series of characteristic yield curves which
show the yield trends can be detected. A map shows
each hundred designated with the appropriate character-
istic yield curve. Yields are falling off except in hun-
dreds where the rainfall is high and the soils are fertile.
This is probably due to depletion of reserves of soil
nitrogen and this downward trend can best be overcome
by including in the rotation a legume, either in a
pasture or as a crop.-K.W.H.
1630. Index of Wheat Costs of Production. J. G.
Crawford. Quarterly Review of Agricultural
Economics, pp. 129-133, October 1949.
The Bureau compiled the cost of production index
provided for by the Wheat Stabilisation Scheme. It is
also responsible for an Annual revision. The methods
used in assessing cost variations are outlined. Factors
such as sideline enterprise, yield variation and differing
costs with situation are discussed.-K.W.H.

1631. The Tasmanian Apple and Pear Industry. Bureau
of Agricultural Economics. Canberra. Feb-
ruary 1950, pp. 60.
Every orchard containing more than two acres of
apples or pears was visited by a field officer. Together
with recorded annual statistics this makes a very com-
plete and interesting survey. Plantings, particularly of
apples, in recent years have been on an insufficient
scale to replace trees that are passing their commercial
bearing age. The question as to whether it is desirable
to increase plantings so as to maintain present production
is discussed. In both apples and pears production in
Northern Tasmania is declining relative to Southern
Tasmania. Plantings show that the Jonathan has
superseded the Sturmer as the most popular variety.
Winter Cole represents 38 per cent of the State's pear
tree total and is therefore the most important. However,
figures indicate an increased tendency to plant and
rework orchards with Packham's Triumph.-K.W.H.








POLITICAL SCIENCE
(A) Government and Politics
1632. Federalism in Australia. F. W. Cheshire, Mel-
bourne, 1949, pp. 189. Price 12s. 6d.
Six papers read at the 15th summer school of the
Australian Institute of Political Science. (I) G. Sawer
analyses recent trends in judicial interpretation of the
Constitution. (2) G. Greenwood states the case for
extension of Commonwealth powers. (3) T. Playford
argues for a restoration of power to the States at the
expense of the Commonwealth. (4)L. F. Giblin examines
the effect of financial changes and provisions on the
Federal balance of power. (5) J. K. McCallum discusses
the special difficulties of parliamentary government under
Australian conditions. (6) R. S. Parker examines the
fate of previous attempts to amend the Constitution,
with reference to the state of public opinion.-W.J.P.
1633. Bland, F. A. (ed.). Changing the Constitution.
The New South Wales Constitutional League,
1950, pp. 197.
A collection of the papers delivered at the All-
Australian Federal Convention (25-26 July 1949),
sponsored by the N.S.W. Constitutional League, with
a preface and introduction by F. A. Bland. In 'Why a
Federal System ?' K. H. McCaw, and Eric D. Butler
argue that 'a Federal system of government is essential
to the proper development of Australia, and the mainte-
nance of democracy'. In 'State Financial Indepen-
dence', D. H. Drummond, and A. D. Bridges argue that
'the financial independence of the States of Australia
is essential to the maintenance of the Federal system,
and the economical and efficient functioning of the
States'. Sir Earle Page and J. T. Moorehead argue
that 'new States are indispensable to the rapid peopling
and co-operative development of Australia, and will
provide safeguards against totalitarian tendencies'.
Ulrich Ellis and I. C. Black, consider certain aspects of
constitutional revision, while Dr. Frank Louat and
R. C. Wright argue the necessity of a national convention
to review the constitution and examine its difficulties.
Finally, in 'Constitution Building', Sir Robert Garran
provides some recollections of Federation, and of the
Fathers of Federation.-W.F.P.
1634. The James' Papers. By permission of Walter
James. Australian Quarterly, pp. 55-63, Dec-
ember 1949.
A collection of letters written to Sir Walter James,
an early leader of the Federal movement in Western
Australia, by Barton, Deakin, Forrest, and others.
The letters are mostly unusually frank and illustrate
the influence of personal feelings on the political issues
surrounding Federalism.-W.F.P.
1635. Some Trends in Public Administration. W. E.
Dunk. Public Administration, pp. 53-57, June-
September 1949.
A short paper by the Chairman of the Common-
wealth Public Service Board, dealing with the problems
facing the administrator in relation to two current
trends, the extended scope of Government operations
through Departmental machinery, and the growth and
development of Public Corporations.-L.G.C.

1636. The Training of Commonwealth Public Servants.
J. J. Betts. Public Administration, pp. 70-79,
June-September 1949.
A brief account of the training methods used in the
Commonwealth Public Service today by the Senior


Training Office of the Board. Formal in-training of
civil servants has developed from the refresher courses
organised for ex-servicemen at Canberra in 1946 to the
establishment in 1947 of systematic in-training schemes
in all Departments and the establishment of a regular
Central School. The most recent development is the
development of Cadet Personnel Officer Schemes in the
various Departments during 1949. The syllabuses
covered in the various courses are explained and the
article concludes with a consideration of the problems
for the future.-L.G.C.

1637. Some Aspects of Staff Training in the Post-
Master General's Department. T. W. Todd.
Public Administration, pp. 80-86, June-Septem-
ber 1949.
A summary of the main courses organised by the
Post-Master General's Department for training their
personnel to "handle specialised jobs, with a more
detailed examination of one of these training schemes,
that for Postal Clerks and Telegraphists.-L.G.C.

1638. The Administrative Structure and Problems of
State-Owned Utilities in Western Australia.
Bruce Graham. Public Administration, pp. 116-
124, June-September 1949.
The author discusses in turn the administrative
structure of the Government Railways, Government
Tramways, the State Electricity Commission (1945),
the State Shipping Service, and the Metropolitan Milk
Board. The survey shows that, despite a complex
variety of patterns in other directions, the structure of
all State-owned organizations in W.A. reflects the
determination of the political executive to maintain
control.-L.G.C.
1639. Personnel Management in the N.S.W. Public
Service. H. L. Craig, T. P. Pauling and C. W.
Wearne. Public Administration, pp. 143-161,
October-December 1949.
Three articles are grouped under this heading:
(a) a review of action taken by the N.S.W. Public
Service Board on the question of personnel manage-
ment; (b) an account of the activities of the Personnel
Officer's Group; (c) the implementation of personnel
policies in the Department of Agriculture. (a) Is an
account of the appointment of Personnel Officers in the
main Departments early in the war, services to enlisted
officers, education and training for officers, employee
services and adjustment and research projects. In (b)
an outline is given of reports prepared by the personnel
officers' group under the headings : induction, training
of personnel officers, employee services, training of staff,
personnel records and the duties and responsibilities of
personnel officers. (c) Covers mainly recruitment
activities, staff training, amenities, social activities and
miscellaneous concerns of the personnel section of the
Department.-E.E.W.
1640. Commonwealth-State Relations in Administra-
tion. F. R. E. Mauldon. Public Administration,
pp. 138-142, October-December 1949.
An address given to the Central Training School of the
Commonwealth Public Service Board in Perth, Septem-
ber 1949. There are three planes of government in a
federation: Commonwealth,* State and Local. Some
kinds of service may be the concern of government on
each of these planes and to avoid overlapping the
officers concerned should appreciate 'the necessities of
the entire framework of the country's administration'
and 'the requirements of mutual respect among adminis-
trators themselves'. There is the problem of estab-


320







lishing sufficient centralisation in administration to
obtain uniformity where necessary, such as in some
standards, while permitting sufficient freedom of action
to officers 'in the field' to obtain efficient service and to
enlist their initiative and imagination. The attitude
of the Commonwealth Official where co-operation with
State officials is necessary, should be flexible, to allow
for local variations, and not aggressive.-E.E.W.

1641. The Personnel of Commonwealth Government
Corporations. T. H. Kewley and Joan Rydon.
Public Administration, pp. 132-137, October-
December 1949.
A short account of the trend in staffing policy adopted
by the Commonwealth for its Public Corporations.
Examples are given from the history of the Common-
wealth Shipping Board, the Australian Broadcasting
Commission, the Airlines Commission, the Telecom-
munications Commission, the Aluminiurri Commission
and the Joint Coal Board. The trend has been away
from almost complete independence in staffing questions
allowed the earlier corporations (Shipping Board),
towards uniformity in accordance with the conditions
of the regular public service. This has resulted in
considerable limitation on the Corporations in appoint-
ment of staff and salaries. Two exceptions are the
Joint Coal Board and the Aluminium Commission.
These, however, are joint Commonwealth-State Authori-
ties.-E.E.W.

1642. Socialism and Australian Labour-Facts, Fiction
and Future. Lloyd Ross. Australian Quarterly
(Sydney), pp. 21-35, March 1950.
An historical review of the relation between socialism
and the A.L.P., and a restatement of socialism in more
positive and exact terms. A warning that, unlike
'statism', socialism can only be built in a politically
educated community.-W.J.P.

1643. The Immaturity of Party Politics. Kenneth
Henderson. Australian Quarterly, pp. 29-47,
December 1949.
The forces that divide and create tension in democratic
societies have been growing at the expense of the forces
which hold a democracy together. Since party govern-
ment is the instrument of democracy, party warfare
must be 'contained' within a system of common agree-
ments if democracy is to survive. Thus those engaged
in the struggle for political power should forcefully re-
assert their belief in democracy as a force capable of
resolving tension and discord. This step towards
political maturity is now due.-W.F.P.

1644. Action Against Communism. Norman Cowper.
Australian Quarterly (Sydney), pp. 5-12, March
1950.
A case against the Anti-Communist Bill, suggesting
that only the commission of certain acts, not the holding
of certain doctrines, should be prohibited, and that
amendments to the Crimes Act would effectively and
justly deal with industrial difficulties.-W.J.P.

(B) International Relations
1645. A Foreign Policy for Australia. W. Friedmann.
World Affairs (London), pp. 72-82, January 1950.
Like the Dominions of Canada and India, Australia has
recently begun to play a major distinctive part in foreign
affairs. For Australia's continuing attachment to
Britain there are, apart from loyalty, practical reasons,
as about half of Australia's foreign trade is with U.K.


Economic conditions in Britain, her relations with
Western Europe and U.S., closely affect Australia.
Most important for Australia is her future relationship
with the peoples of overcrowded Asia which has become
a vigorous factor in world politics. A mitigation of the
rigours of the White Australia policy and close political
and economic collaboration with India, Pakistan, Ceylon
and Indonesia, particularly active trade relations, are of
paramount importance.

1646. S.C.A.P.'s Statements on the Occupation of
Japan. D. C. Sissons. Australian Outlook,
pp. 29-40, March 1950.
Contrary to General MacArthur's optimistic faith in
Japanese democracy, the author shows on the basis of
some evidence that the Japanese 'change of heart' should
be accepted with considerable scepticism. The new
Constitution was adopted under American pressure
rather than as a result of a conversion to the ideals of
democracy which, unless supported by a capable
administration on all levels, are not by themselves
invincible. Allied economic policy, which favours the
heavy industries to increase Japan's export trade,
strengthens the position of the very people responsible
previously for militarism and war. Among the Japanese
people wage-earners are the most vigorous opponents
of militarism, but their strength is being undermined
by rising inflation, unemployment, and limitations on
the right to strike.-H.W.

1647. Changes in the Attitude to Japanese Reparations
Since the Surrender. W. F. Petrie. Australian
Outlook, pp. 51-61, March 1950.
The successive steps in the scaling down of the
Japanese reparations programme are traced from the
stringent provisions of the 1946 Pauley plan, through
the recommendations of the Strike and Johnson missions,
to the virtual abandonment of reparations in 1949.
An examination of the factors which contributed to
changing the U.S. attitude shows that the most significant
was that political and strategic considerations assumed
primary importance for the U.S. in the Far East in the
post-war period. This was largely responsible for
changing U.S. policy from one of tearing Japan down
(viz. the Pauley proposals) to one of building her up.-
H.W.

SOCIAL CONDITIONS
(A) Housing
1648. Post-War Housing in Australia. Research Service,
Sydney, II May 1950, pp. VI, 42 roneoedd).
By 30 June 1947 (census) there was a shortage of
79,000 or, including houses due for demolition, of
123,000 houses in N.S.W., of 197,000 and 310,000
respectively in the whole of Australia. Additional
18o,ooo houses in Australia needed major renovations.
By the end of 1949 these figures had risen to 90,ooo
(134,000) in N.S.W., 212,ooo (325,000) in Australia.
Allowing for marriages, deaths and net immigration
between the end of 1949 and of 1955, 266,000 houses
will have to built in N.S.W., 724,000 in Australia.
Part II discusses post-war plans and achievements.
Even if the industry produces at double the 1949 rate,
importation of at least 57,000 pre-fabricated houses will
be needed to overcome the shortage by the end of 1955.
Part III deals with factors limiting housing construction.
Additional building workers are required, including many
more immigrants. Fibre cement has largely replaced
bricks, concrete, stone and timber. Other factors are
coal shortage, labour disputes (play a minor part), the








high level costs which restricts effective demand, rent
pegging. In conclusion housing is considered as
anti-depression measure.
1649. Ninth Annual Report of the Housing Commission
of Victoria, I July 1946 to 30 June 1947. P.P.
Government Printer, Melbourne, 1949, pp. 38.
Price 2s.
During the above financial year, the Housing Com-
mission received 9,311 applications for housing.
Wastages of previous applications through ballot was
679. Houses completed in the metropolitan area were
921 and in the country 542, and housing allotments
acquired were 10,701. Provision for shopping facilities
is being made on the larger estates. Because of
deterioration of many existing houses, the Commission
urged the introduction of a system of priorities for
maintenance work.-M.G.R.
1650. South Australian Housing Trust. Thirteenth
Annual Report for Year ended 30 June 1949.
Government Printer, Adelaide, pp. 25.
In 1948-49 1,252 houses were completed, 886 in the
Metropolitan Area, 366 in the country, where the Trust
in now building more. On I July 1949, 1,339 houses
were under construction, further 4,590 houses had been
contracted for. Houses completed for sale for the
first time exceeded in numbers those for rental. By
August 1949 all-inclusive prices of five-room standard
houses were 1,715 and 1,760. Weekly rentals for a
semi-detached house ranged from 16s. 6d. to 27s. 6d.
Special sections deal with shops provided by the Trust,
houses for soldier settlers and housing at Leigh Creek
coalfield. Appendices present details on the location
of houses and financial statistics.

(B) Social Security and Public Health
1651. Eighth Report of the Director-General of Social
Services. Year ended 30 June 1949. P.P.
Government Printer, Canberra, pp. 31. Price
is. 6d.
As the seventh report, the present report deals with
13 different types of social benefits. The maximum
weekly rate of age and invalid pensions was raised by
another 5s., that of allowances to wives and to unendowed
children of invalid pensioners by 4s.. of widows'
pensions by 5s., and that of endowed children by
2s. 6d. The means test for various benefits was
further liberalised. The number of age and invalid
pensioners rose by 21,000. Unemployment insurance
was severely taxed by the great number of claims due
to the general coal strike called for 27 June 1949.
A separate section discusses the rehabilitation of
physically handicapped persons. The reciprocity with
N.Z. was extended from age and invalid pensions to
other social benefits.
1652. Report of the Acting Secretary for Public Health,
Tasmania, for Year ended 31 December 1948.
P.P. Government Printer, Hobart, pp. 38.
This report is divided into the same four sections with
similar contents as the report for 1947 (see No. 1206 in
No. 8 of this journal). A fifth section presents vital
statistics. The birthrate in 1948 fell by 1-31 to 26-38
per i,ooo, the death rate by o038 to 9-55. There were
very few notifiable infectious diseases. Owing to the
smallness of the population most medical officers of
health give part-time office only.
1653. Eye Protection for Workers in Industry. H.
Greenwood Thomas. Manufacturing and Man-
agement, pp. 139-143, November 1949.


Personal protective equipment for the worker's eyes
is less important than complete elimination of risks,
which might be done by careful design of plant and
machinery, improvement of plant and processes.
Individual jobs can be safeguarded. Further sections
of the paper deal with personal protective equipment,
the organisation of eye protective services, the cost of
eye accidents, and what is being done in Australia in this
field.

(C) Social Surveys

(D) Population and Migration
z654. Borrie,W.D. Immigration-Australia's Problems
and Prospects. Angus and Robertson, Sydney
(1949), pp. 104. Price I2S. 6d.
This work reviews Australia's contemporary immigra-
tion policy. Beginning with a consideration of demo-
graphic trends in Australia, the author then discusses
our potentialities as an immigrant country. He con-
cludes that a greater use of resources in the near future
is desirable on both economic and strategic grounds, and
postulates a target of 70,000 immigrants per annum.
This is related to Australia's post-war immigration
policy, which sets a similar target. Finally, questions
of the source of migration involve discussion of demo-
graphic and economic trends in areas from which
migrants are being sought, and of problems connected
with the assimilation of both British and non-British
peoples.-M.G.R.
1655. World Resources and World Population. Econ-
omic News, pp. 1-4, July 1949, pp. 1-4, August
1949, pp. r-6, September 1949. Paper read
By Colin Clark at U.N. Scientific Conference on
Conservation and Utilisation of Resources in
Washington on 17 August 1949.
The world will be able to support an increasing
population with a substantial rise in the prices of farm
products relative to the prices of industrial goods.
From 1850 to 1914 the -world's population has been
rising at about t per cent p.a., since 1920 at about
I per cent p.a. which is likely to continue to 1970.
In countries of primitive or stagnant civilisation reproduc-
tivity is high and stationary, in countries of western
civilisation, later in Japan and South America, declining
or rising at a lower rate. 'The real quantity of farm
products per man-hour can increase by 1i per cent per
year', which exceeds the rate of population growth of
I per cent. But there are qualifications: Demand for
food increases with increasing real income; an increased
agricultural population must not be crowded into a
limited area, but re-distributed by migration; farmers
will want to work shorter hours and take longer holidays ;
the assumption is that farm populations remains constant
while in fact it declines.
Farm products must rise in price, enormous capital is
to be invested in so far unused cultivable land-Africa
and Latin America-the rate of industrialisation in
countries without agricultural population pressure has
to be slowed down.
1656. Population and Policy. P. H. Karmel. Econ-
omic Society of Australia and N.Z., pp. 23.
The pamphlet contains an address given to the
Victorian Branch of the. Economic Society on 24 June
1949. It emphasises the economic and social significance
of population size and growth. A summary of past
trends in the demographic situation of the world is
given, together with an indication of what the future
may bring. The different problems which face areas
322








of rapid population growth and those of potential
population decline are set out and attention is drawn to
the need for population policies. The population
policies which some European countries have followed
are outlined and particular reference is made to the
problems facing U.K. and Australia.-P.H.K.
1657. Population Replacement-Australia 1947. P. H.
Karmel. Economic Record, pp. 83-88, December
1949.
In this note calculations of the 'index of current
marriage fertility', first introduced in a paper by the
same author in the Economic Record, June 1944, are
brought up to date. It is shown that there has been a
rise in current marital fertility since 1942, although this
rise is considerably less than that indicated by the
conventional Net Reproduction Rate. It is also shown
that there is no evidence as yet of there having been any
appreciable rise in family size and consequently there
must still be considerable doubt as to whether there has
been any permanent increase in fertility over the past
fifteen years.-P.H.K.
1658. Population and Mortality in Queensland, 1860-
1947. R. E. Dyne. Economic News, pp. 1-4,
February 1950.
In the early pioneering days a greater proportion of
the population were young and vigorous migrants and
their children, now the population has more matured
and its masculinity has declined. The lowest crude
death rate occurred in the depression period 1930-34.
The death rate of the 1-4 years age group has fallen
from 31"5 per s,ooo (1860-64) to 2-o (1945-47). The
infant death rate in the i-ii months group in 1945-47
was 6-2 per cent of that in 1860-64. The overall
improvement of death rates was greater in Queensland
than in England and Wales. Further calculations were
made of the number of infants out of I,ooo surviving
to a specified age and of the life expectations at specified
ages in various periods.
1659. Immigration and Labour Shortage. R. J.
Cameron. Australian Quarterly, pp. 104-112,
March 1950.
There are three main arguments for the present high
rate of immigration into Australia. (r) That of defence
is not valid, because with the hundreds of millions of
Asiatics 8 or 20 m. in Australia would not make any
difference. (2) That our present population is in-
sufficient for developing our resources. In fact, there
are not many undeveloped agricultural resources and
manufacturing depends on coal and steel. (3) Labour
shortage : this results from an excess of demand for
goods over supply and large immigration would not
raise the supply of goods to the same extent as demand.
It would also contribute to inflation. The author is
in favour of a slower rate of migration, but also of
fairer treatment of those migrants who have arrived.

EDUCATION
166o. Rayner, S. A. Correspondence Education in
Australia and New Zealand. Melbourne Univer-
sity Press, 1949, pp. 119. Price ios.
About i6,ooo pupils in Australia receive their
education by correspondence from special schools
established by the state education departments. In
most states this takes them to matriculation standard.
There are also strong, efficient technical correspondence
schools in all states catering for pupils remote from
schools, handicapped by illness, etc. Their curricula
are not very different from normal schools ; their
methods result in individual instruction being given.


The attainments and progress of their pupils compare
favourably with children receiving normal schooling.
Some attention is given to correspondence work for
teachers and university students, and an appendix gives
the opinions of many former correspondence school
pupils on their early schooling.
1661. Deviations Occurring in Children of Pre-School Age.
University of Queensland, Brisbane, 1949, pp. 78.
Price 7s. 6d.
Data was obtained from the records at the Brisbane
Lady Gowrie Kindergarten, and observations made for
between 30 and 50 school days of four hours each, on
each of ioo children aged 2z to 5s years of age attending
the kindergarten. The children were observed in
groups of from 25 to 40, and records kept of behaviour
which appeared deviant-such as aggression, jealousy,
fear, nailbiting, pantwetting, etc. Careful analysis of
the observations was made and the data correlated with
information obtained from the records. Some associa-
tions were noted between behaviour and home con-
ditions. Most behaviour is episodic rather than habitual.
Aggressiveness, however, tends early to become habitual.
Careful research on its origins and development is
needed. Longitudinal studies of these same children
are desirable.

1662. Hill, C. The Lady Gowrie Centres. Common-
Wealth Department of Health, Canberra, 1949,
pp. 117.
The records are examined of 462 children enrolled in
the Lady Gowrie Pre-School Centres in Australia for
at least two consecutive years from 1940 to 1945. The
ages on enrolment range from less than 24 months to
60 months. Fifty-three per cent had both parents at
home for the period of their enrolment; 76 per cent
were Australian born of Australian parents. Seventy-
two per cent of the mothers did no other work outside
the home; health of the household was satisfactory
for 75 per cent of cases, although only 58 per cent of the
children had satisfactory health throughout. There
was no significant association between handedness and
speech defect. Housing was inadequate in 25 per cent
of families ; home playing space insufficient in 30
per cent ; cleanliness of the home bad in 8 per cent.
There were 51 cases of unhappy parental relationships;
the home atmosphere was bad in 17 per cent of homes.
Additional analyses are made of many aspects of
social and emotional behaviour, fears, speech develop-
ment, jealousy, negative behaviour, temper tantrums,
thumbsucking, attention seeking behaviour and enuresis.
1663. Annual Report. Commonwealth Office of Educa-
tion and Universities Commission, 1948, Sydney,
1949, PP. 45.
The functions, organisation and activities of the
Commonwealth Office are listed, together wish concise
information on its relationships with other departments,
universities, state departments, overseas authorities, and
semi- and non-governmental bodies. Reports are given
on research projects in wastage at the secondary school
level, the ability of university students, and in special
fields (deaf, cerebral palsied, visual aids, etc.). Pub-
lication and information services are described,
UNESCO activities are listed, and the education of
migrants is described.
The report of the Universities Commission gives
details of financial assistance given to students under
various schemes, and describes assistance given to
Universities. Research work on future enrolments,
and on the comparative performances of assisted students,
is described.








1664. Schools, Pupils and Teachers in Australian Primary
and Secondary Schools. Commonwealth Office
of Education, Sydney, April 1950. Bulletin
No. 17, pp. I9.
This bulletin contains a brief account of the Australian
educational system, and tables giving the number of
primary and secondary schools controlled by the
government in each state, with their enrolments ; the
number and sex of teachers in those schools; the
number of pupils and teachers in one-teacher schools ;
the number of pupils and teachers in non-government
schools; and comparative age levels and educational
levels in the six states.

1665. Classification of Teachers. Commonwealth Office
of Education, Sydney, March 195o. Bulletin
No.15, pp. i .
The methods of classification used in the six states of
Australia, with explanations of how the system operates
in regard to promotion, appointment, and salary.

1666. Educational Guidance Services in Australia.
Commonwealth Office of Education, Sydney,
December 1949. Bulletin No. 14, pp. 117.
Contains statements on guidance services operating
in the six Australian states in 1948 and 1949, together
with papers delivered at a conference of guidance
officers from all states held in Sydney in May 1948.
Resolutions passed at the conference, and a select
bibliography, complete the bulletin. The accounts of
the guidance service cover staff testing programmes, the
use of record cards, clinical services, vocational guidance,
etc.

1667. An Administrative Challenge in Australian
Education. P. Hughes. Tasmanian Education,
pp. 245-253, December 1949.
The present systems of administration of education
in Australia do not encourage initiative or develop
critical insight. They tend to create conformity and
to stifle freedom. In particular, the inspectorial
system does not encourage the development of pro-
fessional qualities by the teachers.

It68. Socialisation, the Large School, and the Rural
Child. W. C. Radford. Forum of Education
(Sydney), pp. 64-74, October 1949.
Claims that the consolidated school is superior to the
small rural schools which it replaces, fall into three
categories ; educational, psychological and sociological.
No recent scientific studies have been made to prove the
claims. It may well be that the personal relations in the
small schools are better suited to rural life than are the
similar relations in a large school; for example, hetero-
geneous school groups ihay strengthen the structure of
rural life, where homogeneous groups weaken it.

1669. Opening University Doors. Ministry of Post-War
Reconstruction. Canberra, 1949, pp. 15.
The University Commission, established in 1943 by
the Commonwealth Government, has administered and
supervised a generous scheme of assistance to enable
able students to undertake tertiary education. Financial
and other assistance has been given to ex-servicemen and
women and to able pupils from families of low income.
The academic results of these groups have been con-
sistently high. In 1951, 3,000 scholarships are to be
awarded to assist deserving students to attend the
university or other tertiary institution.


GEOGRAPHY
1670. Southwell, E. A. Food, Soil and Civilisation.
Longmans, Green & Co., London, Melbourne,
195o, pp. 175. Price i2s. 6d.
Chapters of this anthology deal with Malthus, with
past civilisations, agricultural development in Australia,
future rural possibilities, Australia's water supplies,
with the problems of soil erosion and conservation, with
soil, food and health, standards of living and with an
assessment of the national character of Australia.-E.J.D.

I671. The Australian Environment. Handbook prepared
for the British Commonwealth Specialist Agricul-
tural Conference on Plant and Animal Nutrition
in relation to Soil and Climate Factors held in
Australia, August 1949. Second Edition, Janu-
ary 1950. C.S.I.R.O., Melbourne, pp. 183.
Price ios. 6d.
This handbook contains chapters on the Physical
Geography (E. S. Hills), the climates (Leeper), the soils
(J. K. Taylor), the development of Australian agricul-
ture (S. M. Wadham), water conservation and irrigation
(J. A. Aird) the vegetation (J. G. Wood), on pastures
(C. S. Christian, C. M. Donald, H. C. Trumble),
field crops (H. C. Forster, A. J. Vasey, C. Barnard,
W. J. S. Sloan, A. V. Hill), sheep, cattle and pigs
(R. B. Kelly). There are four maps (orographical, soils,
vegetation and pasture), 35 figures and a great number
of photographs.-E.J.D.

z672. Cawte, F. G. N. Australia and Ourselves.
Rigby Ltd., Adelaide, 1949, pp. 80.
A survey of Australia's history, land utilisation,
mineral and power resources, secondary industries, trans-
port, commerce, banking, and governmental institutions.
A great number of photos, diagrams and maps.-E.J.D.

1673. Lock, A.. C. Tropics and Topics. Invincible
Press, Sydney, 1949, pp. 285. Price 15s.
A narrative discussion of Queensland's agricultural
and industrial possibilities, with special reference to
Northern Queensland. There are chapters on the
Blair Athol open cut mines, the tobacco growing
country, the huge cattle stations, the water conservation
scheme of the Burdekin River, the Barrier Reef, the
Atherton Tableland, the sugar cane country and on the
Cape York country.-E.J.D.

1674. Gurr, T. Stuart, and Harrowsmith, Gwen. Blue
Mountains Story. Shakespeare Head Press,
Sydney, 1949, pp. 120o.
The Victoria Pass Road that crosses the Blue Moun-
tains and connects Sydney with the West is discussed
in detail. We read of the many failures to conquer this
rough mountainous barrier, and in detail of the first
crossing by Blaxland, Lawson and Wentworth. Twelve
full-page photos show the beetling cliffs and stupendous
ravines and valleys of this range that once formed an
impenetrable barrier to the rich lands beyond.-E.G.D.

1675. Brogden, Stanley. Tasmanian Journey. Morris
and Walker, Melbourne, Second Edition 1949,
pp. 96.
A narrative description of Tasmania's past and future
possibilities, with special reference to the Huon Penin-
sula, Tarraleah, Lake St. Clair, Queenstown, Deloraine,
Swansea and Launceston.-E.J.D.








1676. James, Walter. Barrel and Book. Georgian
House, Melbourne, 1949, pp. 109. Price 152.
The author-an Australian winegrower-discusses
the history of a number of wines, the introduction of the
grape into Australia, and the characteristics of the
Australian wines which 'fall into three broad groups . .
fortified wines, mostly sweet and sometimes sickly . .
white and red beverage wines which are sold under
European type-names . and the 'real' wines .. .; in
the case of the blended non-vintage they have been
properly matured in the wood.'-E.J.D.

1677. Scholes, Arthur. Fourteen Men. Story of the
Australian Antarctic Expedition to Heard
Island. F. W. Cheshire, Melbourne, 1949,
pp. 273. Price 15s.
The author was one of the 14 men who spent over a
year on Heard Island (2,400 miles S.W. of Freemantle
and about the same distance to the South Pole). Apart
from details about the expedition, the history, animal
life, climate and physical features of this antarctic island
are dealt with in detail.-E.J.D.

1678. Regional Planning in Australia. A History of
Progress and Review of Regional Planning
Activities through the Commonwealth. Com-
monwealth Department of Post-War Recon-
struction. Canberra, 1949, pp. 103.
This is an official account of the measures taken in
the direction of planning for future development on a
regional basis, and of the progress made up to the middle
of 1948. The measures taken at the Commonwealth
and State Government level to establish a policy for
regional planning are described. Attention is drawn
to the organisation and functions of the Regional
Development Committees. The method of regional
surveys and planning are briefly discussed; likewise the
progress in the regions of each State and in Common-
wealth Territories and other regions in which the
Commonwealth is interested. A map showing the 93
regions of Australia.-E.J.D.

1679. Hedberg, K. M. A Classified and Selective
Bibliography on Australia for Regional Planning
Purposes. Part 2. New South Wales Common-
wealth Regional Development Division, Can-
berra, 1949, pp. 149.
This bibliography is arranged in the same way as
the bibliography of Victoria, abstracted as No. 1228 in
No. 8 of this journal.-E.J.D.

1680. Future Development of the Latrobe Valley Sub-
Region. A Report and Planning Scheme pre-
pared by the Town and Country Planning Board,
Melbourne, 1949, pp. 58, 8 maps.
Relates to 334 square miles of the Latrobe Valley
where future development is largely dependent upon
the brown coal beds near the towns of Morwell and
Traralgon. The existing conditions are described (and
use, brown coal undertakings, communications, public
utilities, population, climate and geology). Then the
plan is set forth with its recommendations, as to future
land use, communications, public utility reserves and
the Morwell River Diversion. There are also four
special reports (on climate, geology, land use and a
technical description of the Latrobe Valley Sub-region)
and the Draft Planning Scheme Ordinance.-E.J.D.

1681. The Morwell Development Project. A. G.
Coulthard. Regional Development Journal, pp.
38-44, November 1949.


Morwell is about zoo miles east of Melbourne in
Gippsland; its brown coal deposits are discussed, and
the future development of the whole area is surveyed
with special reference to the limitation of town develop-
ment, Morwell Project Co-ordinating Committee, water
supply, highways and main roads, railway facilities,
future population, housing, educational facilities, health
services and The Latrobe Valley Development Act.-
E.J.D.
1682. River Murray Commission. Report for the Year
1948-49, Melbourne, 1949, pp. 46.
This report deals with the many activities of the
Commission, such as expenditure on works in the three
States, maintenance, operation, and control of completed
works and gauging stations, regulation of the flow of the
Murray and Murrumbidgee, pH tests, salinity, algae,
evaporation losses, and gives detailed statistical material
concerning these activities.-E.J.D.
1683. Research Reports of the Geographical Laboratory.
University of Western Australia, No. Ii, The
Geography of Fremantle Harbour (J. Guthrie
and L. Rowe, January 1950). No. 12, The
Pearling Industry in Western Australia (F. G.
Atkins, February 1950). No. 13, The Geo-
graphy of the Fitzroy River Valley, W.A.
(L. Johnston, March 1950).
These reports are about 16 pages long, contain an
up-to-date bibliography, maps and diagrams.-E.J.D.
1684. The Story of Whyalla. E. Edwards. B.H.P.
Review, pp. 1-8, December 1949.
The story of a little community-originally (1896)
suffering from the discomforts of isolation in an area
of scanty rainfall-growing in less than 50 years to be
the second largest country town in S.A., a very impor-
tant industrial centre with a population of about 8,ooo,
and an assured water supply. If all the plans of the
B.H.P. are carried out, Whyalla will be in another
decade the largest S.A. town other than Adelaide,
with a population of 20,ooo00.-E.J.D.

1685. Foundations of Australian Bird Geography.
J. Gentilli. The Emu, pp. 85-130, October 1949,
14 maps.
The effect of geographic and climatic factors on birds
is reviewed and the nature and purpose of bird travels,
geographical barriers and intercontinental migrations
are discussed. In Australia the most important geo-
graphical barriers are climatic, and the climatic control
of Australian bird habitats is dealt with in detail. The
correlation between moisture and vegetation is especially
noticeable in Australia and this point is illustrated in
maps. The effect of the great recent aridity is stressed,
and the few refuges available to birds are listed and
mapped. Present-day bird species follow distribution
patterns corresponding to well-defined types. They
may be interpreted in the light of the refuge theory.-
E.J.D.
1686. Riches of the Richmond. Trends, pp. 15-21,
April 195o.
The history and geography of the region comprising
the valleys of the Tweed and Richmond on the north
coast of N.S.W. are given in detail and their importance
in the rural economy of N.S.W. is stressed. There is
a great variety of industries in the district.-E.J.D.
1687. Hybrid Maize. Trends, pp. 10-13, January 1950.
In Australia hybrids are not released commercially
unless they give at least 20 per cent above average







yields. In 1948-49 about 12,ooo acres (in a total of
78,000 acres for grain) were sown with hybrid seed in
N.S.W. 'The pig and dairying industries should
benefit because the increased efficiency in maize produc-
tion resulting from the sowing of hybrids could result
in lower feed costs to both these industries.'-E.J.D.
1688. Soybeans-A Leading World Oil Crop. Trends,
pp. 3-6, January 1950.
A survey of the recent spectacular rise of soybeans to
one of the major crops in the U.S., with special reference
to its many uses, physical requirements and to breeding
better adapted varieties. The future importance of
this crop in Australia is discussed. 'It is illogical to
assume that, because the U.S.A. has expanded the
acreage of soybean more than any other field crop
producing oil and stock food concentrates, that this
crop is most desirable to utilise for supplying the future
needs of Australia.'-E.J.D.
1689. Australien's fiinfte Kolonne(Kaninchen verwiisten
einen Kontinent) (Australia's fifth column:
rabbits devastate a continent). E. J. Donath.
Passat, Hamburg. pp. 1-8, No. 3, 1949.
A survey of the rabbit problem in Australia with
special reference to the origin of the pest, its influence
on soil erosion, and the many methods of combatting
their increase and spread.-E.J.D.
169o. Weather Cycles and Short Term Climatic Trends
in the Monaro Region of New South Wales.
A. B. Costin. Journal of Soil Conservation
Service of New South Wales, pp. 178-186,
October 1949.
Weather cycles involving fluctuations in mean annual
temperatures and annual precipitations show no sig-
nificant relation to the sunspot cycle, nor can a progres-
sive trend of these elements be established from observa-
tions at Kiandra. The evidence of changes in stream
flow, vegetation and soils suggesting declining precipita-
tion and increasing temperatures can be explained by
practices of land use as ring-barking, burning, over-
stocking and selective grazing.-F.L.
1691. Climate of the Queensland Wheat Belt. W. T.
Brooks. Economic News, pp. 1-4, January 1950.
A steady increase in the acreage devoted to wheat
growing in Queensland raises the question of the
boundaries of successful wheat cultivation. They
depend upon climate and soil conditions. For S.E.
Queensland the author computes the probability of a
monthly rainfall exceeding the potential evapo-trans-
piration. The percentage chance of receiving a precipi-
tation equal to or greater than the evapo-transpiration
for each month of the wheat-growing period (May to
September) is compared with the wheat yield. The
probability of o07 per cent represents the minimum
precipitation for successful wheat-growing (io bushels
per acre). With a probability of ii per cent the
maximum wheat yield is reached. With a probability
of exceeding 2z per cent the yield seems slightly
to fall. The wheat belt could still be considerably
extended, but economically wheat production in these
regions would have to compete with wool and fat lamb
production.-F.L.
1692. Campbell Island. A Subantarctic Meteorological
Station. M. G. Hitchings. Weather (London),
PP. 389-392, December 1949.
In 1941, following German raider activity, watching
parties were established on Auckland and Campbell
Islands and on the latter (53S, 1690E) meteorological
observations have since been continued. The climate


is typically oceanic subpolar, with 322 rain days per
year and only 685 hours of sunshine. The air tem-
perature averages 44 with a coldest month of 400 and
a warmest of 49". Gales are very frequent.-F.L.

HISTORY
I693. Garnett, A. Campbell. Freedom and Planning in
Australia. University of Wisconsin Press, 1949,
pp. x.+331. Price $4.
An attempt at an interpretation of Australia to
American readers. Chapter I, 'Land and People',
contains a brief sketch of the major phases in the develop-
ment of an Australian community. Chapter 2, 'The
Making of a Democracy', treats the growth of Australian
political life historically, beginning with the rule of the
governors, and becoming more detailed with the working
out of the colonial constitutions of the i850's. This
section includes discussion of the land question and of
the struggle between free-traders and protectionists in
the second half of the century. The chapter concludes
with the formation of the Commonwealth and the
working out of relations between Commonwealth and
States. Chapter 3 is an account of the rise of industrial
and political labour movements in Australia. Chapter 4
is devoted to 'The Battle with Depression'. Chapter 5
both narrates the history of arbitration in Australia and
discusses its present position and possible future.
Chapters 6 to 8-'The Social Service State', 'Employ-
ment Policy', and 'To Socialise or Not'--are mainly
contemporary, but contain historical comment. Chap-
ters 9 and io-'Nationalism' (including immigration)
and 'Concepts and Attitudes'-contain a good deal of
historical discussion of Australian assumptions and
attitudes.-R.M.C.
1694. Clark, C. M. H. Select Documents in Australian
History, 1788-185o. Angus & Robertson, Syd-
ney, 1950, pp. XII, 450.
Of the eight sections of this volume Section I, 'The
British Background' illustrates (a) social and economic
conditions in U.K. and their bearing on crime and
transportation ; and (b) the criminal code and conditions
in prisons. Section 2, 'The First Settlements', docu-
ments the proposals for a settlement in N.S.W., the
first five years of Port Jackson ; and in separate sub-
sections the settlement of Norfolk Island, Van Diemen's
Land, Moreton Bay, Swan River and Port Phillip.
Section 3 discusses transportation to Eastern Australia.
Section 4, 'Immigration', includes documents illus-
trating the ideas of the systematic colonisers, the founda-
tion and early history of S.A., and statistics of immigration
from U.K. Section 5 illustrates land policy from land
grants to the Order in Council of 1847. Section 6,
'The Squatters', includes the early history of the wool
industry, problems of setting up a station, and the life
of the squatter. Section 7, 'Constitutional History',
deals with the separate colonies-N.S.W., 1787-1842,
Van Diemen's Land, 1803-42, W.A., 1829-50, S.A.,
1834-42, and the separation of Port Phillip, 1840-50-
and concludes with the passing of the Australian
Colonies Government Act, 1844-50. The last section,
'Economic and Social Conditions' is arranged under
these headings : Finance, Whaling, Farming, Population,
Classes and Class Relations, Masters and Servants,
Town Life, Leisure, Australian Behaviour.
The documents are given with a minimum of com-
ment. Each section concludes with a note of the
sources used, and a general note on Australian historical
sources forms a concluding appendix. The documents
have been selected from a variety of sources, official and
unofficial, printed and manuscript.-R.M.C.







1695. Brown, Max. Australian Son: The Story of Ned
Kelly. Georgian House, Melbourne, 1948, pp.
282.
The story of Kelly told for its popular interest and
with a strong disposition to justify and present him as
the champion of. the poor and of the cocky farmers.
Undocumented, but in many parts a lively picture of
social conditions in the seventies. Much of the story
derived from Kelly's 'Jerilderie letter', allegedly given
to Living for publication but hitherto unpublished:
the 8,300 word letter is printed but no guarantee of
authenticity shown, although it is the longest written
defence of Kelly's actions yet discovered.-J.M.

1696. Kiddle, Margaret. Caroline Chisholm. Foreword
by D. Copland. Melbourne University Press,
1950, pp. 295. Price 21s.
The first comprehensive biography of the greatest
Australian woman pioneer. This book is the story of
how Caroline Chisholm fulfilled her vow to devote
her life to philanthropy. During the depression of the
early i840's in N.S.W., her work in assisting the home-
less immigrants was achieved. In spite of all obstacles
(many caused by her Roman Catholic faith) she estab-
lished a system of country dispersion, and in six years
settled II,ooo people. In 1846 she returned to England
where, with her husband's help, she founded the Family
Colonisation Loan Society which sent over 5,000
emigrants to Australia. She came to Melbourne in 1854
and busied herself by having shelter sheds build on the
road to the goldfields. Her health failed and she went
to Sydney where she founded a girls' school to finance
the education of her six children. In 1866 she returned
again to England where she died in poverty and obscurity
I1 years later.
This description of Caroline Chisholm's work has
involved a discussion of Australia's economic develop-
ment during the three vital decades when the influx of
free immigrants dissipated the evil effects of convictism.
-M.K.

1697. McLeod, A. R. The Transformation of Manellai:
A History of Manilla. Manilla, N.S.W., 1949,
pp. 223.
The author, a resident of Manilla, for nearly 40 years,
has been prominent in the public life of the district,
notably as Mayor and the editor of the Manilla 'Express'.
The book is divided into 27 short chapters covering a
wide range of topics. The bulk of the book consists
of details about individuals and families and brief
reports of local events, with a limited amount of analysis.
The following are some of the chapter headings : Coloni-
sation; Founding Manilla; The Pioneers (short notes
on a number of early settlers) ; Parliamentary Represen-
tatives ; Education ; Business (a list of the businesses
established in Manilla); Religion; The Railway; a
group of chapters on primary production; Rainfall
(statistics) ; Local Government; Public Affairs.-R.E.

1698. Dunn, N. A. A History of Point Lonsdale.
Cheshire (Melbourne), 1949, pp. 62. Price 8s. 6d.
This slim volume is both an appreciation of the
natural beauty of Point Lonsdale and an outline of the
Point's history down to 1910. The steps which led
to the building of the light-house are traced and a good
deal of space is given to accounts of shipwrecks in the
vicinity. The writer sketches the development of the
Point as a holiday resort, drawing its first enthusiasts
chiefly from Ballarat, and suggests the part which such
resorts in Australia have played in the lives of many
families.-R.E.


1699. Lett, Lewis. Sir Hubert Murray of Papua.
Collins, Sydney, 1949, pp. 317. Price 2Is.
This is primarily a biographical work. Although the
author devotes some attention to Sir Hubert Murray's
early career, the main emphasis is placed on his long
term as Lieutenant-Governor of Papua. The author has
also attempted to trace the development of the colonial
regime with which Sir Hubert's name has been in-
variably identified. The achievements of the Murray
regime are weighed against the difficulties which it had
to overcome-financial embarrassment, the ignorance of
Australian politicians, the jealousies of colonial civil
servants, the backwardness of the native people, and the
natural poverty of the country's resources. Con-
siderable emphasis is placed on Sir Hubert's attitude
to the native population. This work brings forward
much new material, culled from Sir Hubert's unpub-
lished memoirs, diaries, and correspondence, and from
the author's own store of reminiscences.-M.C.G.

1700. Ure, D. E. It Happened Since 1871 : Seventy-
four years of L.M.S. Achievement in New Guinea.
London Missionary Society, Sydney, 1949, pp. 20.
This brief account of the work of the London Mission-
ary Society in Papua outlines the major role of the
mission in the initial stages of European penetration,
points to the highlights of mission activity at each
particular station, and concludes with an account of the
mission's contribution to native health and education.
Much of the material comes from sources which are not
readily accessible.-M.C.G.

1701. Some Correspondence of Captain William Bligh,
R.N., with John and Godolphin Bond, 1777-181 .
George Mackaness. Royal Australian Historical
Society, journall and Proceedings, Vol. XXXV,
Part II, 1949.
Three of the letters printed in this paper contain
comments on the deposition of Bligh and the trial of
Johnson. The remainder have little bearing on N.S.W.
-J.P.
1702. Company Ownership of New South Wales
Pastoral Stations, 1865-19oo. N. G. Butlin.
Historical Studies, Australia and New Zealand,
pp. 89-IIo, May 1950.
This article examines the thesis argued by B. Fitz-
patrick in The British Empire in Australia that after
about 1870 independent pastoralists were replaced by
banks and other financial institutions as the typical
owners and operators in the N.S.W. pastoral industry.
The registered holders (owners and lessees) of pastoral
properties and the position of mortgagees are discussed
with the conclusion that there was a 'growing control
over the enterprise of individuals accepting mortgage
finance and atconsiderable degree of diffusion in the title
to assets in the industry. Pastoralists retained merely
an equitable interest in mortgaged stations and became
technically tenants or occupiers at will'. This loss of
freedom and security which was more apparent than
real did not mean the elimination of the individual
pastoralists. B. Fitzpatrick appends a brief note to the
discussion.-A.G.L.S.

1703. The Historian's Craft and Scientific History.
D. Asking. Historical Studies, Australia and
New Zealand, pp. 112-124, May 1950.
This is a comment on R. M. Crawford's article in the
same journal of November 1947. Crafts are said to
become more scientific as their rules advance from
highly specific rules to general laws, and it is asked:







how can the 'craft of history' become more scientific ?
Crawford had suggested that historical laws could be
discovered by making explicit the assumptions of
'skilled historical craftsmen'. This is shown to be
inadequate where (as is usual) the conditions are sufficient
or necessary only in relation to certain standing con-
ditions. In this case, making assumptions explicit
would result in making the rules more detailed and
specific, and the problem of arriving at the few and
general laws of science would remain. The method
recommended on analogy with other sciences, is the
adoption of a standard or norm ('natural law') from
which deviations can be measured, leading eventually
to the construction of a 'theory' (i.e., a body of natural
laws). These are distinguished from 'general guiding
pictures' (merely recipes for framing hypothetical natural
laws), and both are distinguished from very general
empirical laws. The article refers to vagueness in
historical terminology and queries whether historians
must adopt a jargon of their own devising.-A.M.M.

1704. The Brisbane General Strike of 1912. A. A.
Morrison. Historical Studies, Australia and
New Zealand, pp. 125-144, May 1950.
This article discusses the methods of conducting the
strike of 1912, and gives an outline of the events of the
strike and its results within the Labour movement itself
and in Queensland and the Commonwealth as a whole.
-A.G.T.

1705. Historical Revision : No. I : I89go-The Turning
Point in Labour History ? June Philipp. Histori-
cal Studies, Australia and New Zealand, pp. 145-
154, May 1950.
This article examines the verdict of historians that
the defeat of the unions in the Maritime Strike of 189o
represented one of the great turning points in the history
of the Australian Labour Movement-that after the
events of 189o the policy and attitude of the Labour
Movement undergoes a fairly sudden and profound
change. The writer points out that the interpretation
needs considerable modification and the article em-
phasises the elements of continuity and similarity in
Labour policy both before and after 1890.-J.P.

1706. Further Documents for the Life and Times of
Charles Sturt. I. M. Cumpston. Historical
Studies, Australia and New Zealand (Melbourne),
pp. 156-161, May 1950.
The occasion for writing this article was the gift of an
extensive collection of Sturt documents to Rhodes
House Library, Oxford. The documents, which include
a large number of private and official letters and several
journals, cover more than 40 years of Sturt's life from
November 1828, to April, 1869. The scope and nature
of the documents are described and illustrated by
quotation and an assessment is made of their value to
scholars.-R.E.

LAW

(A) Constitutional Law
1707. Compulsory Unionism in Australia. N. G.
McWilliam. Australian Law Journal, pp. 597-
601, March 1950.
There is no power under the Commonwealth Con-
stitution and Arbitration Act, 1904-48, for the concilia-
tion commissioners to impose compulsory unionism as
a condition precedent to the obtaining or the retention
of employment.


1708. The Privy Council and Constitutional Appeals.
A. B. Weston. Annual Law Review, University
of W.A., December 1949.
A historical study of the right of appeal so far as it
affects Australia.
1709. The Constitution of India. H. S. Nicholas.
Australian Law Journal, pp. 638-40, April 1950.
India is now a Sovereign Independent Republic but
she still desires to remain a member of the Common-
wealth of Nations and accepts the King as the symbol
of free association of its independent member nations.
The Constitution is federal, but the Union is the
residuary legatee-not the States as in Australia. The
Constitution relates to the States as well as the Union.
There is no referendum. The President holds office
for five years and is eligible for re-election. He is
chosen by an electoral college consisting of elected
members of both houses of the Union and of the State
Parliaments. The President is advised by a Council
of Ministers, but he may return a Bill passed by Parlia-
ment and suggest amendments. The relations between
the two Houses are much the same as in England.
171o. Deportation under the Immigration Power. Jean
Malor. Australian Law Journal, pp. 3-7, May
1950.
A study of the effect of recent High Court decisions
on the power to deport.

(B) Jurisprudence
1711. Logic and the Legal Process. F. C. Hutley.
Annual Law Review, University of W.A., pp. 172-
192, December 1949.
An examination of Professor Stone's approach to the
use of logic in the judicial method. The writer claims
that Stone confuses the popular and scientific meanings
of logic. Logic eliminates certain types of legal theory,
e.g., natural law, and by its canons the formal validity
of arguments advanced by counsel or the court is
determined. The material for these arguments includes
many rules excluding from consideration propositions
which could be advanced in other places. The relative
weight to be given to these various propositions, the
determination of kinds of considerations which may not
be regarded by the judges, etc., are political, not logical
questions. Arguments on these matters may or may not
be logical, depending upon the formal relations between
the propositions of which they consist. It is immaterial
whether or not the propositions are factual or evaluative.
1712. English Precedents in Australian Courts. R. W.
Parsons. Annual Law Review, University of
W.A., pp. 211-222, December 1949.
A critical survey of the doctrine that Australian courts
should follow decisions of the House of Lords in all
cases and those of the Court of Appeal unless there are
very strong reasons to the contrary. The writer
advocates greater independence in the Australian courts.

(C) Property
1713. The Story behind the Torrens System.
P. Moerlin Fox. Australian Law Journal, pp.
489-493, January. 1950.
Few books have described the circumstances surround-
ing the origin of the Torrens system. It is curious that
Torrens, as a layman, was so interested in the reform
of conveyancing. Torrens was convinced of the
feasibility and practicability of his scheme by the
arguments against it of the Chief Justice and a leading
solicitor. The Government at first would not support







him, but the proposal was carried by a majority and
the Act came into force in 1858. Thus S.A. introduced
a reform which is probably Australia's most significant
contribution to the development of law.

PHILOSOPHY
1714. (a) Singer, Kurt. The Idea of Conflict. Mel-
bourne University Press, 1949, pp. 181.
(b) The Meaning of Conflict. Kurt Singer.
Australasian Journal of Philosophy, pp. 145-170,
December 1949.
(a) A study of the contributions made by various
elements in our culture-primitive, Semitic, Iranian,
Greek, Christian and Nordic-to modern conceptions
of conflict.
(b) The field of conflict is that of 'normic incom-
patibilities' and the characteristic case of conflict is
that in which the conscious mind affects a decision.

PSYCHOLOGY
1715. Group Methods of Selection in Industry. D. E.
Graves. Bulletin of Industrial Psychology and
Personnel Practice. pp. 2-12, March 1950.
After a short discussion of the inadequacies of the
conventional interview as a method of selection in
industry the history of the group method is outlined.
The group method was first used on a large scale in the
British Army for the selection of officers. It involves
an extended period of contact between the candidates
and the selection committee and thereby enables
observations and comparisons of the candidates'
behaviour to be made. The group method was used
recently in an Australian firm and an account of the
selection programme is given. It was concluded that
the greater time and effort which this method involves
is well justified by the information yielded and the
confidence which everybody had in the final selection.
1716. Talent for Leadership. C. A. Gibb. Australian
Quarterly, pp. 73-84, December 1949.
Leadership is not one dimension of personality, but
rather the quality of the role the individual plays within
a social system. Studies have demonstrated that
leadership roles cannot all be described in terms of a
global 'leadership ability' and have suggested a number
of dimensions of leader behaviour the use of which will
permit the more accurate description of what it is that
leaders do and how they do it. The relative weights
to be attached to the many dimensions of leadership
depend largely upon the nature of the group, its organisa-
tion and activities. Any of the many dimensions of
individual differences may be leader traits depending on
the situation and the group to be led.
1717. A Study of Some Self Estimates with Reference
To Burt's Type Factors of Temperaments.
D. Howie. Australian Journal of Psychology,
pp. 92-97, January 1950.
The author gives a brief report of a factorial study of
some self estimates. The subjects were I16 students,
mean age 18 years 11-8 months. Assessment data in-
cluded (a) each subject's ranking of ten of Burt's Traits
in the order he believed indicated their relative strengths
for his own disposition; and (b) subjects' scores on
Personality questionnaires and other tests. Analysis of
the intercorrelation between the order in which the
subjects ranked the traits and the order established by
Burt's factorial studies, together with the data obtained
from (b) revealed meaningful factors. It is suggested
that this procedure should provide a useful instrument
for personality evaluation.


1718. Theory and Practice of Personality Assessment.
P. Lafitte. Australian Journal of Psychology,
pp. 65-91, January 1950.
The confusion of mental testing practice warrants a
comprehensive new experimental method which might
be built around needs and goals, and requires extensive
study of situations rather than persons or traits. Trait
rating systems are inefficient because they substitute the
indifferent dimensions of the factorial hyperspace for
the complexly connected dimensions of behaviour. It is
therefore likely that they will fail to meet their own
claims, and this is demonstrated by analysis of the
results of one system. In the same way, the analysis
of abilities has led only to confusion because it has
sought for reified factors of the mind instead of trying
to classify tests as situations which are similar or different.
A method of re-classification for tests of abilities is
suggested. Present practice is shown in its historical
setting and in its relation to future structurally designed
experiments.
1719. An Exploratory Course in Therapeutic Tech-
niques. P. Pentony and E. A. Morey. Australian
Journal of Psychology, pp. 98-107, January 1950.
A brief description of a course in the principles and
practice of counselling and play therapy given at the
University of W.A. in 1948. It is concerned mainly
with the problems encountered in such a course and the
means of dealing with them. The authors conclude
that such a course is practicable despite the difficulties
involved.
1720. A Factorial Analysis of the Bellevue Intelligence
Tests. A. G. Hammer. Australian Journal of
Psychology, pp. Io8-114, January 1950.
The intercorrelations of the sub-tests of the Bellevue
Adult Intelligence Scale, as given by Wechsler, are
factorised by the centroid method. An interpretation is
suggested and the various sub-tests evaluated. The
adequacy of the test as a whole, and of the component
scales is considered, and it is finally concluded that
caution must be exercised in giving diagnostic significance
to the sub-test profiles.

TERRITORIES AND NATIVE
PROBLEMS
1721. Thomson, Donald F. Economic Structure and
the Ceremonial Exchange Cycle in Arnhem Land.
Macmillan & Co., Melbourne, 1949, pp. o16,
II plates, 2 maps.
The book explains the social organisation and
economic structure of native society in Arnhem Land;
the organisation of work and division of labour between
the sexes ; the native conception of wealth, the giving
of presents and the idea of 'payment'. The author
believes that the ceremonial exchange cycle is due to
Indonesian influence. Almost every stage of initiation
and the termination of each critical stage in a man's
life is marked by ceremonial presentations largely
consisting of vegetable food. For this, a man depends
on the women, while he has to reciprocate by hunting to
provide animal food. By making periodic presentations,
a man not only gains greatly in prestige and social status,
but also acquires spiritual power, called marr (identical
with the Melanesian Mana).
1722. Price, Grenfell A. White Settlers and Native
Peoples. Georgian House, Melbourne, and
Cambridge University Press, 1949, pp. VI, 232.
'An historical study of racial contacts' between







English-speaking whites and four selected groups of
aboriginal peoples, viz., the North American Indians
in U.S. and Canada, the Australian aborigines and the
Maori of N.Z. There are three stages. In an opening
pioneering period 'the whites decimated the natives with
diseases; occupied their lands by seizure or pseudo-
purchase; slaughtered those who resisted;' and
'generally reduced the unhappy peoples to a state of
despondency under which they neither desired to live
nor to have children to undergo similar conditions.'
In a second stage largely resulting from British philan-
thropic movements about 8oo 'the whites attempted to
remedy their mistakes.' In a third stage which 'opened
slightly before the 193o's, certain governments began to
realise the importance of scientific policy and adminis-
tration ; of adequate reservations ; of practical educa-
tion ; and of industries suited to the native temperament
and traditions.'
1723. The Provisional Administration of the Territory
ofPapua-New Guinea. Its Policy andits Problems.
J. K. Murray. John Murtagh Memorial Lecture,
22 and 24 April 1947. University of Queensland,
Brisbane, 1949, pp. 71.
Actually a condensed handbook with chapters on
administration, climate, mapping, population and
history. The lecturer estimates the population of the
two territories between ,250o,ooo and 1,5oo,ooo. Village
feuds have been 'a very seriously contributing factor to
a fall in population.' There are varying standards of
health and much malnutrition. Infant mortality prob-
ably lies between Ioo and 500 per I,ooo births. The
book's main part is divided into five parts. Part I,
'New Guinea and the Commonwealth' has subsections
on international obligations and 'Activities of the
Provisional Administration', the latter dealing with the
activities of the former ANGAU (Australia-New
Guinea Administrative Unit), replaced in 1943 by the
Australian New Guinea Production Control Board.
Then follows Part II, 'Some Problems of Social Policy'
with chapters on health, education, native labour and
race relations. 'Prejudices of racialism on the European


side' should be combated by the example of adminis-
trative officers. Part III, 'The Economic Problem'
deals with the natural resources and the present stage of
their exploitation. Part IV, 'Political Development'
outlines the history of the Legislative Council since 1888
and the relation of the Administrator and the legislative
organs to the Commonwealth Government. Rights of
self-government cannot 'be extended to New Guinea
until the native majority is politically organised ; any
demand from the European minority for further power
would be the consignment of the natives to the rule of a
colour-conscious oligarchy'. Officialdom must 'act as
the guardian and mentor of native political advancement'.
'It is now proposed that councils chosen or elected by
the people will be given rule-making and executive
powers in local affairs and encouraged to handle their
own treasuries. Native courts will also be set up with
jurisdiction in minor civil and criminal matters.'

1724. The Prehistoric Cultures of Australia. F. D.
McCarthy. Oceania, Vol. XIX, No. 4, pp. 305-
319, June 1949.
A survey of our knowledge of prehistoric (pre-white)
cultures in Australia. The older view that Australian
stone implements developed without any outside
influence, and that the nature and shape of an implement
depended primarily on the rock material, was a fallacy.
Modern theory regards the technique employed in the
manufacture of stone implements as the principal
criterion, since identical types made from widely
different materials are common in Australia as elsewhere.
The study of the fossil prehistoric remains in Australia
can only be systematically pursued in its context with
prehistory of other parts of the world. In agreement
with Baldwin Spencer and others the author suggests a
relationship between the stone industries of Tasmania
and S.W. Victoria (Portland area). The former land
bridges between Tasmania and Australia and New
Guinea and Australia are the areas where we must
search on a wider scale for early evidence of Man in
Australia.








APPENDIX

List of Unpublished Theses in the Social Sciences

Written by Graduates of Australian Universities in 1949 and 1950.
This is the second list of that kind, the first having been published in No. 8 of this journal.


(I) University of Melbourne.
(a) Department of Economics, 1949.
(i) for Master's degrees.
H. F. Bell. The Relationship of Life Assur-
ance to Full Employment in Australia.
J. F. Cairns. Preliminary Studies in the
Analysis of Economic Growth.
A. T. Carmody. The Australian Tariff in
Operation- 1929-39.
(2) for Bachelor's degrees.
J. T. Attridge. The A.C.T.U.-Its Origin
and Development.
A. H. Boxer. Method in the History of
Economic Theory.
W. M. Corden. Economic Aspects of the
Advertising Industry.
R. Daniel. The General Printing Industry in
Victoria.
R. C. Mathews. An Essay in Social Account-
ing.
S. S. McBurney. Gross Profit Margins and
Pricing Policy.
J. G. Perry. Some Aspects of Railway
Economics with Special Reference to the
Theory of Rate Fixing.
S. Soper. Preliminary Investigations for a
Production Index for Australia.
G. S. L. Tucker. Rates of Growth of
Australian Secondary Industries.

(b) Department of History, 1949 and 1950.
(1) for Ph.D. degree.
F. K. Crowley. History of Working Class
Conditions in Australia, 1788-1850.

(2) for M.A. degree.
S. M. Ingham. Some Aspects of Victorian
Liberalism i88o-i900.
G. H. Nadel. Mid-Nineteenth Century Politi-
cal Thought in New South Wales and
Victoria.

(c) Department of Political Science, 1949-50 (for
M.A. degrees).
A. L. Hall. The New Orders: A Monograph
concerning the Nature and Scope of Dele-
gated Legislation and Executive Powers in
Australia, A Social Service State.
Carlotta Ellis. Why does the A.L.P. Support
the 'White Australia' Policy ?
Lu Ih-Ming. A Comparative Study of
Immigration Policy.
W. J. Byrt. Joint Consultation: Its Develop-
ment and Importance to the Study of
Politics.


(2) University of Sydney.
Department of Education, 1949 and 1950.
(1) for M.A. degrees in Education.
H. W. Baker. An Investigation of the
Social Determinants in Education with
Special Reference to Education in Religion.
F. V. Cloran. The Place of Latin in General
Secondary Education.
H. R. McWilliam. Mathematics for the
Young Citizen.
Beryl E. Mottershead. A Comparison of the
Aims and Methods of Elementary Education
in New South Wales and California.
L. A. Whiteman. The Reading Interests of
High School Boys.
(2) for M.Ed. degree.
T. H. Ransley. Problems of Speech in Spoken
English in Schools.
(3) University of Queensland.
Department of Economics.
E. W. Easton, B.A. Public Works in Relation to
Employment, with particular Relation to
Queensland (1947)
W. R. Lane, B.Com. A Survey of Queensland
Public Finances (1950).

(4) University of Western Australia.
Department of Economics, 1949.
(1) for M.A. degrees.
C. Gamba. Italian Immigration into Western
Australia.
A. M. Kerr. Personal Income of Western
Australia.
(2) for B.A. degrees.
D. A. Allan. Some Economic Problems of
W.A. Government Railways.
J. M. Clark. The Economics of the Western
Australian Potato Industry.
R. D. Egerton. An Enquiry into Working
Conditions in the Printing Industry.
K. S. Frearson. The Measurement of Demand
with Special Reference to a selected Primary
Product in W.A.
A. S. Holmes. The Present Adequacy of
Data Collected for the Purposes of Imple-
menting a Commonwealth Policy of Full
Employment.
J. P. Kemp. An Estimation and a Compara-
tive Study of the Extent of Redistribution
of Income in W.A. for the Years ended 3oth
June 1939 and 1946.
A. W. Meecham. A Survey of the Poultry
Industry in W.A.
Marina Nicholas. Women in Employment.
L. E. Prentis. Competition between Road,
Rail, Sea and Air Transport in W.A.
D. F. N. Reid. Some Aspects of Public
Investment in Housing in W.A.


331



















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publicationof abstracts in he Wdial sciences is intended to provide assurve
T11's t material, published in; or related to Australia, New Z aland and their,
e itories, dealing with the various social sciQnces-. The field of the survey 641t with'_!',
in these Abstracts is indicated, by the classifi cation of the subjects on the ijaside covert.'],
The(ain'is to'help the specialist in any particular field to decide.wat works he"
should read. and what he may, oinit ;. and to indicate to other workers, in allied fitl
whaVis being-done. For these purposes it has been decided that the abstracmshaJ1 be,-
genumepr6cis of the.w6rkstovered
At present it Is intended to publish the Abstracts half yearly; but if, in the futlire"".l
'larger v work is produced, it is- intended to pub h:th:,-Abi
olume, of. on 1. lis e I iaeti,_l
More frequentlyso that. all, deserving work may be c6vered -as soon after publicatio-,."
SA po`sible
Copi":Iof this and subsequpmt'issues .6f -the Abstracts will be sent, on applim
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