Front Cover
 Index to No. 8 and 9
 Back Cover

Title: Australian social sciences abstracts
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076572/00009
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Title: Australian social sciences abstracts
Physical Description: 18 no. : ;
Language: English
Creator: Australian National Research Council -- Committee on Research in the Social Sciences
Publisher: Australian National Research Council, Committee on Research in the Social Sciences.
Place of Publication: Melbourne
Publication Date: March 1950
Subject: Social sciences -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1-18; Mar. 1946-Nov. 1954.
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
        Page 263
        Page 264
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        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
    Index to No. 8 and 9
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text


March, 1950

Committee on Research in the Social Sciences
Registered in Australia for transmission by post as a periodical


Dr. K. S. Cunningham (Chairman)
Professor R. M. Crawford, Professor O. A. Oeser, Professor G. L. Wood,
Mr. H. L. White
Dr. F. Schnierer, Faculty of Economics and Commerce, University, Carlton,
N.3, Melbourne
ACCOUNTANCY-Mr. L. Goldberg and Miss J. Kerr
Messrs. K. P. J. Barley and A. J. Mclntyre
EcoNoMIcs-Professor B. H. Higgins, Professor P. H. Karmel,
Professor G. L. Wood, Dr. O. de R. Foenander, Dr. M. J.
Grobtuch, Dr. F. Schnierer, Dr. S. P. Stevens, Mr. R. L.
Mathews, Miss M. G. Ronaldson-
EDUCATION-Dr. K. S. Cunningham
GEOGRAPHY-Messrs. E. J. Donath and R. K. Wilson, Dr. F. Loewe
HISTORY-Professor R. M. Crawford, Assoc. Professor K. E. Fitz-
patrick, Messrs. L. G. Churchward, R. F. Ericksen, N. D.
Harper, S. Ingham, G. F. James and A. G. L. Shaw, Mrs. I.
Philipp, Misses M. Kiddie and A. Stretton
LAw-Professor G. W. Paton
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All communications should be addressed to the General Editor.
Subscription : ss. per annum in Australian currency; 4s. sterling, post free.

Economics and Economic Policy .. .. .. 1271
Industry, Trade and Commerce-
(a) General Works .. .. .. .. .. 1301
(b) Individual Industries .. .1315
Monetary Policy, Banking, Insurance .. .. 354
Public Finance .. .. .. .. .. .. 1363
Accountancy .. .. .. .. .. 1365
Transportation and Communication .. .. .. 1370
Labour and Industrial Relations .. .. .. 376
Agriculture, Land and Rural Problems .. .. .. 389
Political Science-
Ggvernment and Politics .. .. .. .. 14
International Relations .. .. .. .. 1415
Social Conditions-
Housing .... .. .. .. 1425
Social Security and Public Health .. .. .. .. 1426
Social Surveys .. .. .. .. .. .. 1429
Population and Migration .. .. .. .. .. 1430
Education .. .. .. .. .. 1436
Geography .. .. .. .. .. 1450
History .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1467
Law .. ..- .. * .. .. 1484
Philosophy .. .. ... -
Psychology .. .. .. 1495
Territories and Native Problems .. .. .. 1500

Australian Public Affairs Information Service, or A.P.A.I.S., indexes books,
magazine articles and government documents on Australian political, economic
and social affairs. It is published monthly by the Commonwealth National
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A publication of the Committee on Research in the Social Sciences, Australian
National Research Council, subsidized by the Commonwealth Government.

All communications should be addressed to the Editor, Faculty of Economics
and Commerce, University of Melbourne, Carlton, N.3, Victoria, Australia.

No. 9 March 1950 5s. per annum

Where the size of a Government publication or Parliamentary Paper (P.P.) is not given, it is 8J ins. x 131 ins.


(A) Economics and Economic Policy
1271. Williams, J. W. The New Zealand Economy
in War and Reconstruction. International
Secretariat, Institute of Pacific Relations,
New York, 1948, pp. 102 (mimeographed).
A survey of N.Z. economic development 1939-1947.
Chapter I 'A Dependent Economy' presents a short
account of the primary, manufacturing and tertiary
industries, of income and wealth, public debt, exports
and imports, and stresses the country's dependence on
international trade. Chapter 2 deals with economic
policy and institutions with emphasis on 'insulationism',
guaranteed prices and internal marketing, exchange and
import controls, public works and banking. Chapter 3
discusses the war effort. Peak mobilisation (middle of
1942) reached 57,000ooo, while since 1943 N.Z.'s main
part became to provide supplies. In this section there
is a survey of defence construction, manpower control,
changes in the occupational distribution, rationing,
exports of primary products, war finance. Subject of
Chapter 4 is price control and stabilisation, the estab-
lishment of the Price Investigation Tribunal in June
1939, the principles of direct control, the stabilisation of
commodity and land prices, of rents and wages. Chap-
ter 5 is concerned with demobilisation, rehabilitation,
reconversion plans, chapter 6 with employment policy.
Here the measures taken in N.Z. are compared with those
recommended by Lord Beveridge, and the National
Employment Service is outlined. Chapter 7 'Inter-
national Economic Relations' contains sections on
export markets, the I.T.O., the F.A.O. and N.Z.'s non-
membership of the International Bank and Monetary
Fund. Chapter 8 'Problems of the Future' sketches
N.Z.'s production problems including production con-
trols, inflation, population and immigration.
1272. Hutton, G., and Knox, P. Searchlight on
Australia. F. W. Cheshire, Melbourne,
1949, PP- 59-
This booklet is part of 'Quest', a series of discussion
books. It discusses (i) shortages and production with
a stress on output shortages or increases in the basic
industries : coal, steel, cement, bricks, timber. (2) The
labour problem. (3) Coal mechanisationn, labour
unrest). (4) Industrial metals-great progress in the

steel industry, but hampered by shortages of labour and
raw materials. (5) Clothes and the cost factor : wool-
lens, cotton goods, knitted goods, hosiery. (6) Housing
-the lag in building is due to shortages of labour and
materials, costs have doubled. (7) Primary industries
which constitute 80 per cent of our exports. Overseas
prices are high, but the output in most rural industries
has fallen or not risen. (8) Export opportunities slip-
In conclusion three common handicaps are stressed:
inadequate production in basic industries, labour short-
ages and the resulting scramble for labour and materials.

1273. Boom and Slump. The Challenge to Private
Enterprise. Melbourne Junior Chamber of
Commerce. Lecture Series, 1949, pp. 84.
G. L. Wood speaks on 'The Challenge to Private
Enterprise', whether there is a dilemma between the
U.S. type of capitalism and communism, or whether a
compromise is not possible in the form of a mixed
economy, the welfare state (U.K., Australia, increasingly
U.S. itself).
B. H. Higgins deals with 'the Role of Private Enter-
prise in the Stabilisation of Employment'. Govern-
ments are unanimous on 'full employment without
inflation', but there is doubt of the role of the price sys-
tem as allocator of resources and about the preservation
of freedom. To economic stabilisation private enter-
prise, labour and government can contribute in many
ways. The three factors: Management, Labour and
Government, must co-operate.
G. H. Grimwade discusses 'Economic Security and
its Effect on Economic Progress'. Security and pro-
gress can co-exist. The reasons are set forth why some
people think they must conflict. Security may lead to
a lack of incentives.
H. R. Randerson is concerned with'The Responsibili-
ties of Private Enterprises to Booms and Slumps'. For
our economy overseas prices of our export primary pro-
ducts and a much higher coal output are most important.
Banks can contribute to stabilisation by debenture and
mortgage loans to secondary industries.
H. E. Holt lectures on 'The Role of Government in
Maintaining Full Employment'. Full employment
under socialism means industrial conscription. There
must be useful full employment. Government has to
keep up sufficient demand, stimulate investment by an
appropriate financial policy, conclude long-term agree-
ments on the sale of primary export products. The

Australian White Paper on Employment of 1945 is
criticised, particularly its public works policy.
D. Copland examines 'National Teamwork to Beat
Unemployment'. There is need for Government
action influencing the general level of activity, such as
fiscal policy, stabilisation of export income. An Eco-
nomic Advisory Council is suggested constituted by
representatives of all sections of the community to
co-operate in achieving stability.
1274. A Consumer in a Planned Economy. F. R.
E. Mauldon. Presidential Address to Sec-
tion G at Hobart Meeting of the Australian
and N.Z. Association for the Advancement
of Science, 1949. Economic Record, pp. I-
17, June 1949.
There was some partial but no overall governmental
planning in Australia in the last decade before 1939,
increasing military planning during the recent war, and
full co-ordination in planning since 1941-42. The
Australian White Paper on full employment of 1945
to a large extent represents overall planning. The
author attempts to define the 'typical consumer' and to
set forth his expectations. With the help of statistical
figures the increase of residual consumption expenditure
after deduction of taxation per head from 1938-39 to
1947-48 is estimated at 14 per cent, the rise in real
earnings at 15 per cent. Through communal services
and better working conditions the rise in real consump-
tion per head is lifted from 14 to 17 per cent. Another
significant change is the shift from lower to higher
income brackets and the more equal distribution of
income. These improvements are made rather pre-
carious on account of the chase of income after prices
since 1948 and of the shortage of goods due to labour
shortages in key industries.
The typical consumer's present status is partly due to
a 'master-plan', partly to a backlog of demand. Very
serious is the problem of inflation, especially owing to
high export earnings.
1275. The Consumption Function. P. J. Lawler.
Economic Record, pp. 93-122, Supplement
August 1949.
The author reviews Keynes' formulation of the con-
sumption function (propensity.to consume) which has
contradicted Say's law and contributed much to business
cycle theory. Some criticisms against this formulation
are mentioned. Then he defines terms such as con-
sumer expenditures, disposable income, deflators
(eliminating influence of price and population changes),
various consumption functions (referring to personal,
private and national disposable income), marginal and
average propensity to consume. Section II deals with
statistical and graphical presentation of Australian data
from 1928-29 to 1938-39 at actual and at 1938-39
prices. The role of the consumption function in
economic forecasting is set forth with reference to U.S.
estimates. Section III examines variables influencing
the shape of the consumption function, such as dis-
tribution of incomes, cyclical changes, price changes and
liquid assets holdings. Section IV is concerned with
recent trends in Australian consumer expenditures from
1940-41 to 1947-48, again at actual and 1938-39 prices.
It is shown that comparisons with regressions based on
pre-war experience have little significance. Important
are shortages of consumer goods, larger social benefits,
increased rural incomes and increased urbanisation.
Some anti-inflation and anti-deflation measures are
subject of Section V. Finally the scope for further
investigations is indicated.

1276. The Position of the Australian Consumer.
G. R. Mountain. Economic Record, pp.
123-139, Supplement August 1939.
An attempt to work out the consumption potential
of the Australian consumer as a function of personal
disposable income and prices. First the weighted
average gross income and disposable income is cal-
culated for 1938-39, split up into employees, employers
and workers on own account, persons with no depen-
dant, with wife and one or two children in four income
brackets. Then the effect of wartime inflation on
income is estimated, the average propensity to consume
fell from 93 per cent in 1938-39 to 70 per cent in 1943-
44. Section IV sets out the course of prices from 1939
to 1945. The author offers some criticism of the C
series index and assumes a rise of 331 per cent in the
general price level from 1939 to 1945. Section V esti-
mates the rise in personal income in the same period
and its spread among four income brackets. Sections
VI and VII deal with the consumer's position in the
first two postwar years and the developing boom in
1948. The rise in the general price level is estimated at
5 per cent in the first period and at to per cent between
1946-47 and 1947-48. In conclusion the paper points
to 'the development of an alarming disequilibrium
between the consumption potential of employees and
that of employers and workers on own account' in
favour of the latter.
1277. Robot Economics. A Critical Introduction
to von Neumann's Theory of General
Equilibrium. Kurt Singer. Economic
Record, pp. 48-73, June 1949.
The author refers to a publication by J. von Neumann
(1938) which has been translated into English as 'A
Model of General Economic Equilibrium' in Review of
Economic Studies, 1945-46, XII (i). Neumann con-
structed a simplified model of reality discarding mar-
ginal analysis based on a study of subjective valuations
or preferences, and holding itself 'within the sphere of
objective quantities'. Time (duration) is also com-
pletely eliminated. The system is 'hyper-Ricardian'
with the worker's consumption restricted to what is
necessary, while the non-worker's income (interest) is
wholly to be reinvested, so that his consumption is zero.
Rent and quasi-rent are eliminated as well. Almost all
economic initiative is thus with the managers of enter-
The theory confirms the possibility of long-range
equilibrium (constant expansion and constant interest
rate), but without uniquely determined price systems.
The two basic inequalities-for physical quantities and
for monetary values-are linked by the postulate that
a good is declared free, i.e., its price is put at zero.
From these basic inequalities the minimum-maximum
problems briginate. Some implications of the model
are incompatible with a capitalist organisation, particu-
larly the possibility of an equilibrium in the form of
1278. The Composition of Personal Income. H.
P. Brown. Paper delivered to Canberra
Branch of Economic Society of Australia
and N.Z., November 1948. Economic
Record, pp. 18-36, June 1949.
The lecturer states the relationships between gross
product, national product, national income, private
income and personal income. Then he classifies the
different elements which constitute personal current

resources, i.e., personal income and non-pecuniary
income, the former divided into labour, entrepreneurial
and status (property and personal, viz. pensions and
benefits) income, the latter also divided into labour and
status-property income. He deals in some detail with
the subsections within each of these classes and pre-
sents statistical figures covering these various classes
and subsections of income classes in Australia in the
years 1928-29 to 1947-48.

1279. Recollections of Keynes. Kurt Singer.
Australian Quarterly, pp. 49-59, June 1949.
The author compares Keynes' stimulating influence
on his contemporaries with that of the German scholar
Friedrich Gundolf. He describes his impressions of his
first personal meeting with Keynes in 1926. Keynes com-
bined ingenious heterodoxy with the English insistence
on continuity. While combating Ricardo, Keynes
became 'more Ricardian in style of thought than any
other modern writer of first rank'. He could equally
well deal with the general and the significant particular,
with concrete situations, he was political economist
and economic scientist. Keynes saw the phenomenon
of 'the principle of self-frustration of good intentions',
such as saving or readiness to suffer money wage
reductions, although he may not have fully grasped the
scope of this discovery.
1280. The Demand Equation for a Raw Material
in Empirical Studies. F. B. Horner.
Economic Record, pp. 85-91, June 1949.
An equation devised by Richard Stone in 1945 well
expresses the demand for a finished consumer's good
on the retail market, but is less suited for the whole-
sale market, particularly not for raw materials. For
the wool textile industry and many other industries there
is 'the routine of substitution by consumers between
different products and the routine of substitution by
manufacturers between different raw materials and other
factors'. Therefore for the latter an equation should
express the demand of manufacturers for the raw
material in terms of output of finished products, prices
of raw materials and of other factors. The author tries
to combine Stone's equation with other equations in
which the three elements influencing the demand for
raw materials are accounted for and price relationships
are expressed as elasticities. Some empirical studies
have been made with these demand equations and the
results are shown in tables concerning income and price
elasticities of demand for wool in U.K. and U.S. 1938,
and for wheat, butter and meat in U.S. 1938.
1281. Economic Theory and Industrial Pricing.
B. M. Cheek. Economic Record, pp. 140-
157, Supplement August 1949.
The percentage gross profit margin ('g') is the per-
centage of price comprised by overheads and net profits,
or for a firm or industry over a period the relation of
total overheads and net profits to sales. Another sta-
tistical measure is the sales-prime cost ratio which is
stable when 'g' is stable. Statistical tables covering the
years 1927-1'947 show that in Australian manufacturing
industry as a whole, in 15 classes and 6 selected groups of
industry 'g' and the sales-prime costs ratio is very
stable. Various aspects of this stability are examined.
The paper's second part deals with pricing policy in
Australian manufacturing, where oligopoly is wide-
spread. The full cost theory of prices, i.e., adding a
percentage or absolute net profit margin to prime cost
plus overhead, the policy of a stable percentage net

profit margin of sales or of capital investment, the
policies of keeping prices rigid, or to charge what the
market will bear, are all inconsistent with statistical
evidence. There remains only a stable money or per-
centage gross profit margin. The former is rare, the
latter, i.e., a stable percentage addition to average prime
costs, most frequent, although many objections can be

1282. Cost of Production Surveys in Relation to
Price Fixing of Primary Products. J. S.
Crawford. Economic Record, pp. 29-58,
Supplement August 1949.
According to the kind of price and cost to be deter-
mined, historical costs, costs to establish a 'fair' price
or 'necessary' price-to induce a supply equal to demand
-are to be surveyed. The choice depends on the pre-
vailing economic conditions (stable, supply exceeding
demand or vice versa). In assessing production costs
hypothetical 'reasonable' farms keeping adequate
records and selected for the purpose have to be costed.
Field investigators are superior to mail surveys. Theo-
retical problems dealt with are concerned with selection
of samples, seasonal conditions, calculation of non-cash
costs, treatment of 'sidelines', inclusion or exclusion of
interest or rent on land. To show how prices have been
related to costs, surveys of Australian dairying and wheat-
growing are discussed and frequency arrays are pre-
A separate section tries to judge the place of cost sur-
veys and concludes that such statistics have something
to contribute to the theory of cost and price relationship
in agriculture and can provide a basis for price fixing.
An appendix contains results of wheat and dairy cost
surveys carried out in Australia.

1283. Factors Influencing Costs and Prices.
Research Service (Sydney), pp. 3+42
roneoedd), 15 February 1949.
Prices have risen : because wages are rising (97 per
cent rise from 1938-39 to May 1948) and the share of
wages and salaries in the value of manufactured goods
has increased; hours of work are shortening; produc-
tion per man-hour is falling-by 3 per cent in 1948-49
compared with pre-war ; raw materials, power, trans-
port costs, etc., are rising; subsidies have been cut.
There is a lag owing to the shortage of coal in the iron
and steel output. Profit margins in many industries
cannot absorb further cost increases, the total company
profits in 1947 were only 13.2 per cent of salaries and
wages paid. If the high export prices fall, home prices
must absorb more of the cost burden than they do now
when they are subsidized by the high level of export
An appendix presents details about the production
and consumption of coal in 1948. This is followed by
an estimate of coal needs for 1948 and by figures indi-
cating the relationship between coal output and the pro-
duction of pig-iron and ingot steel.

1284. National Income and Expenditure 1948-49.
Commonwealth Government Printer, Can-
berra, 1949, pp. 12.
A survey of the four post-war years and a comparison
of these years with 1938-39. The national income in
1948-49 is 1,955 m. or nearly two-and-a-half times
pre-war. Personal income and gross national product
show comparable increases. Large increase in public
consumption since the end of hostilities is also recorded,

but all figures represent current money values and
changes in prices must account for much of the increases
shown. Increases since 1947-48 involve: national
income-12 per cent, wages and salaries (plus pay of
forces)-I7 per cent, and other income 6 per cent. Fall
in stocks of farm products resulted in a diminished gross
private investment while absorption of goods and ser-
vices by public authorities rose by 98 m. during
1948-49. Other tables and figures show the state of
trading enterprises, financial enterprises, receipts and
outlay of public authorities, balance of international
payments, personal income and outlay and capital
1285. New Zealand Official Estimates of National
Income. W. Rosenberg. Economic Record,
pp. 74-81, June 1949.
Recently official estimates of N.Z. national income
from 1938-39 to 1947-48 have been published. The
author discusses some differences between these new
estimates and the old aggregate private income esti-
mates, such as the inclusion of the value of food, cloth-
ing, accommodation, etc., in the payment of the armed
forces, of imputed rentals of owner-occupied houses,
of balances of primary produce stabilisation accounts.
Only interest from investment in government trading
undertakings has been included in national income, but
not 'unproductive' interest which is treated as transfer
income. In this way figures are obtained for the net
national income at factor cost and at market prices.
The latter are compared with Australia, U.K. and U.S.
A table presents relative income movements in N.Z.
between various groups. The share of salaries and
wages in 1947-48 is lower than in 1939-40, that of
companies, independent businesses and professions is
higher. Government adjustments affecting the share
of the employed population, direct and indirect taxa-
tion as per cent of private income, and government
interest payment are the subject of additional tables.
Finally the presumable rate of tax evasion is estimated.
1286. The Limits of Social Control. D. B.
Copland. I.P.A. Review, pp. 149-160,
September-October 1949.
In a paper 'The State and the Entrepreneur' read at
Harvard University in 1936 the author stressed the
increasing need for state action if capitalism was 'to con-
tinue to yield its best fruits'. Since then the state has
gone much further in providing social security and in
reducing the status of agencies or commissions operating
state enterprises. Security by state intervention is not
only sought by the working classes, but also by industry
in form of the tariff and by agriculture to achieve price
stability. Fields of state intervention are: (i) State
operation of public utilities. (2) Provision of social
welfare (sickness, old age, unemployment, education).
(3) Stability of the economy-full employment, in
Australia, through fiscal policy and stabilisation of
export income. (4) Determination of wages and work-
ing conditions. (5) Redistribution of wealth and
income through taxation. (6) Checking unfair prac-
tices, e.g., of monopolies. All this may imply risks to
initiative ; 'we seem to have reached the desirable limits
of social control.'
1287. Levels of Real National Product per Man-
Hour. Review of Economic Progress (Bris-
bane), pp. 1-3, April 1949.
Productivity or real income in its historical develop-
ment in various countries is measured in International

Units (I.U.) per man-hour worked, i.e., quantities of
goods and services exchangeable for $i in U.S. over the
average of 1925-34. For a few countries figures are
given as far back as before 8oo, for some since 189o,
for most since 1913 to 1946 and 1947. In many coun-
tries data on money national incomes can be used, but
in backward countries like India, China, parts of
U.S.S.R., the subsistence peasant economy avoids most
of the costs for transporting and distributing food, and
some additional income has to be 'imputed' on that
account. In 1880 the real incomes of Canada, Aus-
tralia and N.Z. ranked highest in the world, but their
rates of growth since were slower. In 1947 U.S. ranked
highest with 119 I.U. Germany rose from "03 before
18oo to -49 in 1944, which compares with -59 for U.K.,
1-07 for N.Z., -67 I.U. for Australia in 1947. U.S.S.R.
had only -14 I.U. in 1947, about the level of 19oo.

1288. Balance of Production in Post War Eco-
nomy of Australia. D. Copland. Address
to Canberra Branch of Economic Society of
Australia and N.Z. Manufacturing and
Management, pp. 370-372, May 1949.
The volume of production in 1947-48 has risen by
46 per cent over the 1938-39 level, employment by 20
per cent, real output per man by I2"5 per cent, possibly
less. There is a lack of balance as between basic and
non-basic industries. The basic industries, i.e., basic
foodstuffs and industrial fibres; maintenance and
expansion of capital stock including housing (iron and
steel, building materials, chemicals); development of
power (coal); export industries; have been developed
far too little. This led to a lag in capital development.
An increase in the Australian population to io m. would
make Australia a net importer of meat and reduce our
exports of dairy products, wheat and sugar. An
increase in output by more than 50 per cent took place
in breakfast foods, electricity generation, processed milk
products and vegetables, canned meat, ice cream,
cricket bats, i.e., mostly non-essential products. We
should have an overall plan with priorities for basic
industries as to capital issue and bank credit. In these
industries there should be incentive systems, most of
the gross profit earned in increased output in basic pro-
duction should go to labour.

1289. Towards a Socialist Australia. N.S.W.
Fabian Society, Pamphlet No. 2, March
1949, pp. 32. Price is.
A concise summary of the case for a democratic
socialism. Section I tries to define socialism. Sec-
tion 2 deals with socialism and employment, the causes
of depression, the inadequacy of a capitalist public
works policy, while the socialist solution is the establish-
ment of the required new industries by the government
in the case of a depression. Section 3-socialism and
production-discusses the profit motive, monopoly and
trade association, efficiency under socialism, public
corporation under socialism. Section 4-socialism and
distribution-is concerned with compensation to be paid
to the owners of expropriated industries, interest,
incomes from land ownership, the elimination of
unnecessary incomes, incentives under socialism, and
how to prevent inflation. Subject of section 5 is social-
ism and international relations, of section 6 socialism
and democracy. It is contended that under socialism
there would be freedom of consumer's choice and of
occupation. An alert public opinion would be the best
safeguard of democracy under socialism. The last two

chapters refer to socialism and 'good life', i.e., non-
economic issues, and the first steps to be taken towards

1290. Regional Production and Wealth. Economic
News, pp. 1-4, May 1949.
An attempt to estimate the income produced and
consumed in each of the 18 regions of Queensland which
the State Government adopted in 1947 mainly as
economic units for developmental purposes. Figures
are given for the total Queensland gross national income
and the net income after deductions to allow for personal
and other expenses. These state figures are spread by
regions for 1947-48. Primary industries are divided
into agriculture and dairying, pastoral, mining and for-
estry, tertiary (service) industries into business services
(building, commerce and transport) and retail and per-
sonal services. Regional incomes per head of popula-
tion are calculated. Consumption and investment are
computed per region. Finally the inter-regional and
external trade (land traffic inwards from and outwards
to north, south, east, west and total) and see traffic
inwards and outwards is estimated for each region and
the balance of trade worked out as net value and as
percentage of regional income. The northern and
central groups of regions have a net export, the southern
region a net import.
To choose a particular size of administrative units and
corresponding administrative policies the government
must have information about the characteristics of each

1291. Inventories. O. M. May. Economic News,
pp. 1-4, June 1949.
Stocks (inventories) of finished and unfinished goods
are an important object of short-term investment, and,
according to Keynes, they play a greater part in deter-
mining fluctuations in employment than changes in
investment in fixed capital. The paper outlines the
cyclical variation of inventories and refers to S. Kuznets'
study of national product in that connection. In Aus-
tralian statistics no inventory data are given, the only
(inadequate) source of information are company balance
sheets. Inventories of 396 firms were examined, classi-
fied into six main groups of industries and tabulated on a
quarterly basis from I928 to 1948. Only 50-8 per cent
of the companies supplied complete inventory data.
Each group was weighted according to estimated relative
importance of stock holdings and a quarterly index was
obtained. The value of stocks held over the period had
to be calculated on the basis of a cost price index and the
wholesale price index, to work out an index held to
represent the 'lower cost or market value'. From this
series quarterly figures of stock movements (investments
and disinvestments) were computed. Money values
were expressed in terms of wage-units.

1292. A Campaign on Profits. I.P.A. Review,
pp. 79-91, May-June 1949.
The socialist argument is largely based on the sup-
posed evil of profits. There are three major miscon-
ceptions : that business profits are excessively large,
benefit only a few wealthy people, and don't perform
any useful function. Criticism concentrates on public
companies. Interest on capital borrowed by companies
must be higher than on Government bonds because of
the shareholder's risk. A substantial part of business
profits is ploughedd back' into business to modernise
plant and equipment and for expansion. Average
profits in Australia in the last decades were slightly over

6 per cent on shareholders' funds, average dividends
just over 5 per cent. Instances of excessive profits are
rare. A fixed limit cannot be placed on company
profits, because a risk-taking company should earn
higher profits to attract the capital needed. When profits
are high, wages are high too. Of the 1947-48 Aus-
tralian national income of 1,635 m. dividends paid out
were 35 m., total company income after tax payment
1o8 m. There are half a million shareholders, mostly
with small dividend incomes.
1293. Prospects of United Kingdom Recovery.
A. S. Brown. Economic Record, pp. 3-28,
Supplement August 1949.
This paper deals with U.K. recovery from the angle
of the balance of payments. Main causes of the deteri-
oration of the balance of payments are lower income
from foreign investments and increased Government
overseas expenditure. Estimates are made under seven
different assumptions concerning the volume of imports
and exports and the terms of trade, how the balance of
payments is likely to develop within four years. An
export target of an overall increase of 75 per cent can
naturally not equally affect all classes of export and
means a much higher rise in some classes. There is
also need for the expansion of world trade. The multi-
lateral pre-war pattern of trade has been largely replaced
by bilateral trade. Further sections discuss the terms
of trade, the shortage of dollars, the U.K. four-year
programme, the development in the last few years, par-
ticularly in coal and steel production. In conclusion
the effect of U.K. recovery on Australia is examined.

1294. The Economic Problems of the United
Kingdom. B. Higgins. Australian Outlook,
pp. 190-200, September 1949; pp. 237-
246, December 1949.
U.K. was a 'deflationary gap' country before the war,
and will eventually become one again. However, during
the transition period, probably 5 to 8 years, reconstruc-
tion, public investment, and equalisation of income dis-
tribution will result in an excess of investment plus
net exports over savings, and, therefore, in a shortage
of capital and inflationary pressure. To fight inflation
the government has retained high taxes, and full price
controls, and co-operates with labour and business in
limiting increases in wages and profits. The national-
isation of the Bank of England has enlarged legal control
of the bank over lending by joint-stock banks. Cheap
money policy seems to have been abandoned by Dalton's
successor. Location of industry is controlled directly
by law and indirectly through building and capital issue
control. The author outlines economic events from
1947-49. Devaluation is a means of imposing on U.K.
the limit to improvement of her living standard dictated
by the international position. Only further increases in
productivity per man-hour can solve Britain's problem
of raising her living standard while balancing her inter-
national payments. If the total volume of world trade
remains high, and Britain narrows the gap between U.S.
productivity and her own, the U.K. economy can still

1295. The American Economy. Institute of Public
Affairs, Victoria, Review, pp. 100-IIi,
July-August 1949.
In the first half of 1949 an economic recession gath-
ered way in U.S., although it is still moderate. The
number of 4 m. unemployed is far below the pre-war

average. U.S. economic influence in production,
import, export, as world financier, is enormous. U.S.
commodity prices determine world prices. The great
size of U.S. economic wealth is an element of instability.
Falling prices and costs in U.S. would inevitably aggra-
vate U.K. and Australian export problems. However,
financially U.S. is much sounder than in 1929, there is
no excessive lending or speculation. The U.S. Federal
Government is more conscious of its responsibility in
controlling economic stability than before the Great
Depression. There is also more international responsi-
bility, but business psychology is largely unpredictable.
In conclusion the trends in U.S. economy (employ-
ment, wholesale prices, production, company profits,
etc.) are shown in graphs and tables.

1296. The Problem of American Private Invest-
ment in Australia. M. J. Grobtuch.
Industrial and Mining Standard, pp. Io-II,
20 October 1949.
U.S. export surpluses in the last 35 years have been
covered by foreign investment only to the extent of
some io per cent and half of it in Canada. At present,
the leading U.S. Stock Exchanges are selling shares of
some 120 big American corporations of good standing
and high yield at prices lower than the per share values
of the working capital of these enterprises, thus making
any investment in new or overseas companies unprofit-
able. Other obstacles include convertibility of profits
into dollars, political guarantees unacceptable to a
sovereign country, triple taxation to which U.S. inves-
tors abroad are subjected, 'defreezing' of dollar assets,
demand for a joint administration of a dollar pool, etc.
Moreover, better opportunities for large profits can be
found by American investors in less developed coun-
A suggestion is made to issue a handbook for pros-
pective American investors here and to include all
relevant information on current prices, costs, dividends,
labour situation, etc.-M.J.G.

1297. Food and People. Current Affairs Bulletin,
4 July 1949, Vol. 4, No. 8.
(a) The Double Crisis. Aldous Huxley,
PP. 339-348.
(b) The Way Out ? Sir John Russell, pp.
A pamphlet published in co-operation with
U.N.E.S.C.O. as a basis for discussion.
(a) World resources are inadequate to the rapidly
increasing world population which creates a menace to
peace and liberty. Soil erosion may be more destruc-
tive than atomic war. Particularly acute is Western
Europe's food problem. Our mineral resources are
wasting assets. Different birth rates in various parts
of the world create new problems. There should be a
world population policy and science could possibly
bring about an increase in food supplies.
(b) Neither future population nor resources can be
forecast reliably. Science has achieved much improve-
ment of low rainfall farming, through dry-farming
methods and irrigation, although intensification of
farming has caused much soil erosion. However,
scientific methods of preventing erosion have also
developed. The author discusses scientific progress
of wheat, corn, rice, millet production, and the problems
of undeveloped Africa and India. In old-occupied
areas self-sufficient peasants can be converted into much
more productive farmers.

1298. The Valuation of Real National Income in
Soviet Russia. Review of Economic Pro-
gress, Brisbane, pp. I-Io, February-March
The increase of Russian real industrial production in
1949 is estimated at 24 per cent over the pre-war level,
the increase of man-hours worked at 25 per cent, but
the rate of production per man-hour is below the pre-
war rate. Different from other countries prices in
U.S.S.R. bear little relation to money costs of produc-
tion for various reasons. The paper attempts to deter-
mine the real national income of Russia for 1913, 1928,
1934 and 1938 and by interpolation for all other years
between 1921 and 1940. This is done separately for
food consumption, dwelling space value, defence (only
after 1934), other governmental services, retail sales-
non-food, net internal investment, accumulation of gold
and external balances. Prices and purchasing power
of the rouble in pence and cents are given for several
years. Real income is calculated in milliard I.U.
(International Units) (1913: 18-1I, 1928: 18:3,
1934: 16-22, 1938: 23-o8, 1940: 27-6), and figures
are presented for the real product per man-hour in I.U.
(1913 : -166, 1928 : 158, 1938 : -159, 1940: "178).
In conclusion some comparisons with other estimates
are made.
1299. Real National Income and Economic Pro-
gress in India. Review of Economic Progress,
pp. 1-3, May 1949.
Based on V. K. R. Rao's work and Indian Finance
Department research, the food, at farm, consumed by the
population of British India in 1931-32 is estimated at
Rs. 8,798 m. or 14-8 md. I.U. Figures published in
Delhi 1944 give for 1943 a food value of 20,718 m. I.U.
in 1943, i.e. for British India 15,730 m. I.U. ; for
1944-45 the estimate is 16,500oo m. I.U., of which
3,760 m. I.U. were available in Pakistan. In addition
the value of transport and distribution of food to urban
population and of all other income (the biggest item is
clothing) is estimated for British India 1931-32 and
1944-45 and for Pakistan 1944-45. The average
income per occupied person is calculated at 231 I.U. in
British India in 1931-32, 246 I.U. in the same area
1944-45, and 260 I.U. in the same year in Pakistan.
Finally there are comparisons with various other esti-
mates prior to Rao, also concerning the real income per
hour worked in I.U.

1300. What you can do to prevent depression.
M. J. Grobtuch. Australian Leather Jour-
nal, pp. 14-16, November 1949.
A discussion of the lessons of the recent American
recession with special emphasis on the part played by
excessively cautious business purchasers and the impli-
cations of the reduction in inventories when sales
remained firm. Other points discussed include the
role of lower pricing, greater variety of goods, better
quality at the same price, new methods of marketing
and the importance of optimism in business as affecting
the existence of free enterprise.-M.J.G.

(B) Industry, Trade and Commerce
(a) General Works
1301. Lengyel, S. J., and Beecroft, R. M. The
Cost of Distribution of Consumption Goods in
Australia and Elsewhere. Faculty of Eco-

nomics and Commerce, University of Mel-
bourne, 1949, pp. 200.
This is the final text of the preliminary report ab-
stracted in No. 4 of this journal (No. 348).
It forms part of a wider survey the general thesis of
which is that, with the advent of mass production, the
functions of the distributive and other service industries,
as well as their complexity and costs, have grown tre-
mendously and become of equal importance with pro-
duction itself. The increasing importance of the ser-
vice industries in our social structure has made the
problem of their efficiency or otherwise one of vital
public interest.
The dominant features of the picture, as it emerges
from a comprehensive and very detailed survey in many
trades, clearly indicate certain important trends. Dis-
tribution accounts for a very big share of the price of
consumer goods, that is actually greater than is indi-
cated by the wholesale and retail margins: Those mar-
gins do not alone tell the whole story. For inter-
national comparisons average percentage gross margins
are of limited value, but they show trends. No order
of efficiency among the countries compared can, there-
fore, be drawn up on the percentage margin basis. The
most that it is perhaps permissible to say is that per-
centage margins do not provide any evidence to show
that on its own level Australian efficiency in distribution
is lower than efficiency in other countries with a com-
parable economic structure, on their own levels of costs,
services and prices.
As far as the information goes, the relatively great
number of shops and of people engaged in distribution
in Australia would suggest that there is considerable
waste and unused capacity in the Australian distributive
set-up. This indication is strong enough to justify a
detailed inquiry into the whole structure of the system,
with every prospect that it will yield results leading to
saving in costs, manpower and resources.

1302. Tariff Board. Annual Report for Year
ended 30 June 1949. Government Printer,
Canberra, 26 August 1949, pp. 42.
A summary of the Board's activities in 1948-49,
including public inquiries covering 21 subjects, of legis-
lation and administration-the Tariff Board Advisory
Committee has been reconstituted to advise on the re-
moval of U.K. goods from existing by-laws-epitomes
of reports released to the public, principles and methods
(aspects of defence, of 'commercial manufacture' in
Australia, restrictions of imports from dollar countries).
Most important is chapter 5 on production costs, where
in continuation of the two preceding reports Australian
production costs are compared with those in Canada,
U.K. and U.S. This chapter discusses direct labour
costs, materials costs (metals, chemicals, paper pulp),
other costs (interest, fuel, interstate freights), total costs
and selling prices. A serious problem might arise in
the near future when imported goods should fall in
price and Australian production costs go on rising.
The last two chapters deal with the general efficiency of
Australian industry and with international negotiations.
An appendix contains statistical data on Australian and
overseas production costs.

1303. The Productivity of Primary Industry.
Review of Economic Progress, pp. 1-6, June-
July 1949.
The comparison of output values in different countries
is based on the average price received by the farmer in

$s in U.S. over the average of the decade 1925-34.
The net output-i.e., gross output less fodder, fertilizer
and livestock purchased, is given in most countries for
the average of the years 1934-35. Calculated are
values of livestock products (e.g., milk, wool), cereals for
human (not livestock) consumption, net import or
export of cereals for human and livestock consumption,
other crops-which omit all vegetables and fruits but
potatoes, grapes, olives, citrus fruits-occupied males
engaged in agriculture, net production per head in I.U.,
alternative data for net production (Prof. Moore), and
density of settlement, that is occupied males per square
kilometre of standard climate (climatic classification of
Thornthwaite). Special figures are presented on irri-
gation. Another table shows areas of standard farm
land and density of male farm population in climatic
zones in various countries. A diagram relates density
of farm population to the net product of primary indus-
try per man-year.
Agricultural productivity varies from 2,006 I.U. per
head in N.Z. to 46 in China. In Europe Denmark is
leading with 592.

1304. Industries in Australian Country Towns.
Compiled by Information Bureau, Division
of Industrial Development, February 1949,
pp. 7 roneoedd).
A survey of industries classified according to the 16
secondary industry classes of the official Common-
wealth production statistics in 64 country towns,
divided into categories dependent on size of population.
The capital cities and Launceston are not included.
Only factories in the statistical sense are considered.
There seems to be an opportunity for a wide range of
industries in Queensland country towns, particularly
fibrous plaster, boot and shoe repairing industries, dye
works and cleaning establishments. The labour posi-
tion is possibly less acute in Queensland. In class IV
electrical and radio works occur only sporadically,
agricultural machinery are more frequent in Victorian
country towns. In class VI there is hardly any cotton
manufacture outside the metropolitan areas, woollen
mills are more frequent in Victoria. Food processing
(class IX) is widely distributed.

1305. Report on Decentralisation of Industry in
New Zealand. Department of Labour and
Employment, Wellington, I June 1948, pp.
44 roneoedd).
A survey made by Sheila M. Hogben. N.Z. secondary
industry is concentrated in the four main centres with
more than 8o,ooo population. The investigation covers
28 firms with 39 factories, mainly clothing and footwear.
Industries largely depending on unskilled labour and
light equipment can most easily be established in
secondary towns, i.e., chiefly clothing and footwear
production. In the four main centres there has been
extreme shortage of female labour since 1939, lack of
housing and of premises for industry. All this is easier
in country towns. In these towns most of the factory
girls had no previous experience of the same work,
there is a high proportion of juveniles available, the
girls prefer local employment opportunities, manage-
ment-staff relations are better, the employees' attitude
to their work is more favourable. On the whole, train-
ing time is shorter, absenteeism and labour turnover
rates are lower.
Special sections deal with the employment of Maoris,
factory buildings in secondary towns, costs (transport,
rent, rates and power, management and mechanical ser-

vices), problems arising from setting up not self-
contained units. The attitude of the smaller communi-
ties towards the establishing of industries in their towns
is mostly friendly. Decentralisation is to be avoided,
unless it provides security of employment and per-
1306. Synchronisation of Decentralised Process-
ing. L. C. Danby. Manufacturing and
Management, pp. 409-414, June 1949.
The establishment of branch factories in the country
calls for co-ordinated control of raw materials and manu-
factured parts moving in and out of these branch fac-
tories, for production planning. The author presents
an example of a firm with two self-contained depart-
ments, two country branch factories and two sub-
contractors, each making component parts to be assem-
bled in the main factory to produce a particular good.
An assembly time table is used, and from this a process-
ing time table is drawn up. Various forms are inte-
grated to provide control of processing and supply from
the six sources indicated. The planning department
which receives the third copies of all forms, particularly
the records of a day's production from the six depart-
ments, has to set up a production control board to con-
trol the movement and production timing of the parts
to be made.
1307. Conference on Marketing. Institute of Indus-
trial Management, Melbourne, 1949, pp.
This is a report on the proceedings of a conference
held on 5 July 1949.
C. D. Kemp reviewed the present economic position
and predicted a recession, but not a calamitous depres-
sion, over the next two or three years. Future trends
depend on export incomes, private investment and
spending, and Government spending. For various
reasons the general outlook for Australia is reassuring.
U.K. and U.S. developments are among the important
factors to be watched.
In a paper written by T. D. Hadley on Planning for
Profit the methods of co-ordination of sales, production
and finance are discussed.
R. Morgan speaking on Marketing Research distin-
guished between information through that research on
the present and the potential market. He then dis-
cussed the practical application of research knowledge
to a particular product.
C. C. Mooney dealt with Sales Promotion, how to
market a new product, advertising budgets, timing dis-
tribution, and public relations.
G. H. Bacon examined Sales Administration under the
aspects of forecasting and budgeting, sales policies,
selling costs, selection and training of sales personnel,
quotas, inventories and controls.
1308. Small Business. Institute of Public Affairs,
Victoria, Review, pp. 120-128, July-August
A discussion of the significance of small business for
the free enterprise system. Small business is an enter-
prise with less than the average size regarding the num-
ber of employees, capital investment, annual turnover.
It is important for big business, to the wage and salary
earner who might establish himself in small business,
to democracy generally and to the customer. Big and
small businesses are interdependent. The socialist
objection that small business is wasteful, is wrong.
The comparative efficiency of small business is exam-
ined with reference to a U.S. study. There are weak-

nesses in small business-in management, financing,
specialisation and taxation.
1309. Councilfor Scientific and Industrial Research.
22nd Annual Report for Year ended 30
June 1948. P.P. Government Printer, Can-
berra, 1948, pp. 141. Price 8s.
In the period under review particular progress has
been made in wool textile research, research connected
with the development of the North, with building, fuel
and leather research. A new quarterly publication has
been started, the 'Australian Journal for Scientific
Research' with a physical and a biological section. A
survey of the Council's activities includes plant, entomo-
logical, animal health and production investigations,
biochemistry and general nutrition, soils, irrigation
settlement, forest products, food preservation, fisheries
investigations, metrology, electrology, physics, aero-
nautical investigations, industrial chemistry, radio-
physics, tribophysics, building materials, flax, dairy
products research, mathematical statistics, and other
investigations. The concluding sections deal with
information services and the library, finances, staff,
publications and committees.

1310. Electric Power Development in Australia.
Industries Information Bureau, Division of
Industrial Development, August 1949, pp.
8 and 3 roneoedd).
Electricity generated in Australia has risen from
4,688 m. kwh. in 1938-39 to 8,368 m. kwh. in 1947-48
and is still rising, j of this is consumed by industrial,
i by domestic users. The total is still far short of
demand except in Tasmania. Of the power generated
81 per cent is steam produced, 17 per cent hydro-
electric. In a separate schedule (pp. 3) the most
important supply schemes either now being built or
proposed for installation up to 1957 are listed. On
30 June 1948 in Australia 1,978,ooo kW. were installed,
1,556,ooo were being built and 2,360,000 planned
1948-57 at a proposed cost of I94 m. In conclusion
details of current and projected developments are given
in each state, such as the Snowy River project in N.S.W.
and the Kiewa and Morwell projects in Vie.

1311. State Electricity Commission of Queensland.
12th Report. P.P. Government Printer,
Brisbane, 1949, pp. 66.
A survey of the commission's activities in 1948-49.
The total estimated cost of works in hand or planned
to be begun in 1948-49 is 15 m. Separate sections
deal with generating facilities for Brisbane and S.E.
Queensland, and with development in other parts of the
state for which five Regional Electricity Boards are
operating. Western Queensland is served by a number
of small scattered power stations. The hydro-electric
utilisation of the Tully Falls in the Cairns area will
probably be the most important part of future develop-
ment. The supply position is still precarious for steel
and wooden poles.
Appendices present details of generating plant, statis-
tical material and reports of the City Electric Light Co.,
Brisbane City Council Department of Electricity,
various Regional Electricity Boards and the Toowoomba
Electric Light and Power Co.

1312. The Hydro-Electric Commission, Tasmania.
Report for Year 1947-48. P.P. Govern-
ment Printer, Hobart, 1948, pp. 19.

The system peak load in the year under review was
197,400 h.p. compared with 160,9oo in the prev ous
year. It is nearing the margin of capacity. Labour
shortage was relieved by the arrival of U.K. and Polish
migrants for developmental work, but the lack of
material (steel) and equipment is a great difficulty.
New legislation has authorised the Nive River develop-
ment. The Commission's net profit was 79,000 as
against 55,00ooo in the previous year. Capital expendi-
ture on development was biggest at Clark Dam (Butler's
Gorge), Waddamana extensions and Nive Power. The
increase in provision of electricity to retail consumers
was 16 per cent compared with 1946-47. 3,939 new
consumers have been connected, of whom 64-5 per cent
were outside Hobart and Launceston. Appendices
present financial and supply statistics.
1313. Measurements for Managerial Control.
Manufacturing and Management, pp. 77-85,
September 1949.
A summary of addresses given at a top management
conference at Melbourne University on 24 August 1949,
about the methods of obtaining facts and figures for
the effective controls of business operations.
A. A. Fitzgerald spoke on information for the Board
of Directors, mainly referring to the profit-earning
capacity of the firm and the maintenance of a sound
financial structure. To measure operating efficiency.
short-period profit and loss statements are requited,
based on a historical cost system or on a standard cost
system. For financial policy information is to be given
on long- and short-term assets and liabilities, and
actual and budgeted balance sheets have to be compared.
W. D. Scott's subject was : Facts and Figures for the
General Manager. For this purpose there are five
fundamental tools: profit control charts, budgets,
standard costs, statistical analysis and quality control
F. M. Hunter was concerned with control methods for
the Works Manager. He needs information on the
manufacturing programme by control reports, on quality
of product by quality control charts, on output and costs
(charts to check engineering costs and methods to main-
tain engineering standards). W. J. Caples discussed
control methods to be used by the foreman.
1314. Agricultural Production in New Guinea.
James McAuley. South Pacific (Sydney),
pp. 73-81, December 1948.
New Guinea is gradually returning to its pre-war
pattern of production : small private capital develop-
ment in agriculture, mining and commerce, very little
native cash cropping, and mainly native subsistence
agriculture. Private capital development is quite
inadequate, largely because of the scarcity of labour.
To settle native families permanently around working
places is not promising due to the weakness and insta-
bility of plantations and even of mining. Most of the
proceeds are transferred abroad. Native agriculture
can only be improved very gradually by small changes,
co-operative unions among native producers do not offer
good prospects. New forms are needed to raise the low
native living standards, the author discusses the govern-
ment plantation system now practised in East Africa,
and the Russian type of collective farms. A better
chance is offered in a system of vertical co-operation, as
it is carried out in the Sudan and in Fiji as a sort of
share-farming, or there could be a tripartite organisa-
tion, composed of the government, tenants and a public
utility corporation. Some such modified scheme might
be gradually introduced in New Guinea.

(b) Individual Industries
1315. International Negotiations on Wheat. Cur-
rent Notes on International Affairs, pp.
224-236, February 1949.
The 1948 International Wheat Agreement was signed
on 6 March 1949 by three export countries-Australia,
Canada and U.S.A.-and 33 importing countries. It
was to have run for five years at certain prices with
guaranteed sales and purchases of 500 m. bushels p.a.,
of which Australia was to sell 85 m. The provisions of
the agreement and the functions of the International
Wheat Council are briefly outlined. Some figures on
past movements of wheat trade are given, followed by
data concerning the extremely wide fluctuations of
wheat production, prices and exports of Australia.
Main shortcoming of the agreement was the non-
participation of Argentina and Russia and that pro-
ducers might grow more maize than wheat if the for-
mer's world market price were higher. To become
operative the agreement had to be ratified before
i July 1948. U.S. did not ratify it before that date,
therefore it lapsed.

1316. Organised Marketing of Wool. R. B.
McMillan. Economic Record, pp. 59-72,
Supplement August 1949.
Australian wool marketing in peace time has been
more competitive than for any other main export com-
modity. The supply of wool is highly stable, demand
for wool-Australian wool is apparel, not carpet wool-
depends on overseas conditions and largely on com-
petition with other fibres. It is highly unstable, wool
prices widely fluctuate from season to season. There is
no scope for fixing prices out of line with prices deter-
mined on the open market, but some scope for ironing
out short-term fluctuations. The present market
organisation is by public auction. The reserve prices
plan of the Joint Organisation has been operative very
little, but had influence on sales to private bidders.
Various graziers' organizations' plans for future mar-
keting desire floor prices. The paper gives reasons why
such schemes are unworkable without some Govern-
ment co-operation. International agreements on future
wool marketing are essential, but there are great diffi-

1317. Wool Production and Trade 1947-48. A
Supplement to Wool Intelligence Prepared
in the Intelligence Branch of the Common-
wealth Economic Committee, London 1949,
pp. 56. Price 5s. II. Chief Exporting
Countries: Australia, pp. 18-23; New
Zealand, pp. 25-28.
The sections on Australia and N.Z. contain statistical
tables and comments for both countries and for all years
between 1938-39 and 1947-48 regarding sheep popula-
tion, constitution of flocks, estimated wool production
(for N.Z. also local wool consumption), quality analysis
of wool appraised and sold, exports of raw wool, greasy,
scoured and sheepskins, the season 1948-49. Export
figures are given according to states of destination, the
figures for Australia are broken up according to states.
Concerning Australia the effects of the 1944-45 drought
and the trend away from merino is stressed.

1318. Wool 1948-49. Birt and Company (Pty.)
Limited, Sydney, August 1949, pp. 56.

Despite a decline in U.S. purchases the season was a
record in prices and output, the value of the period's
dealings being Azi6-4 m., compared with A38-7 m.
in 1938-39. The Joint Organisation will probably be
liquidated in 195o and a new Empire J.O., to be con-
trolled by graziers, is now proposed. Among reasons
for the fall in U.S. buying the U.S. recession and the
dollar 'leakage', i.e., cheaper U.S. buying of Australian
wool in European countries, are mentioned. The most
important technical development is mothproofing of
wool. Other parts of the report deal with Australian
wool'exports to U.K., France, Belgium, Italy, Western
Germany, Poland, U.S.S.R., Japan, and with sales to
Australian mills which lost the subsidy on raw wool in
July 1948 and did not buy more than 8 per cent of the
year's production. A special chapter is concerned with
sheepskins. Subject of the subsequent sections are
reports about different Australian states. In N.Z.
record export prices were attained in spite of the appre-
ciation of the currency. In conclusion statistical
figures are presented.

1319. Meat. Thirteenth Annual Report of the
Australian Meat Board. Year ended 30
June 1948, pp. 82.
Seasonal conditions in the period under review were
good in most parts of Australia. Australian livestock
numbers are given for the last 12 years, beef, veal and
lamb production was rising in 1947-48, while mutton and
pigmeat production fell. There were some changes in
the frozen meat schedule of the U.K. contract. There is
scope for large-scale expansion of beef production in
Northern Australia. The Board outlines short-range
and long-range plans for future development, par-
ticularly the construction of railway communications
with the N.T. and the Kimberleys. Among special
sections there is a discussion of the meat canning indus-
try, of a pig industry survey and of various aspects of
scientific research.
In conclusion, financial data, price schedules of the
U.K. meat contract and export statistics are presented.

1320. Australian Canned Fruits Board, 23rd
Annual Report for, Year ended 30 June
1949, pp. 19.
A full report of the operations of the Board. Pro-
duction was prevented from being a record by bad
weather during the late summer in Victoria. Prices
fixed for fruit are now 65-114 per cent above pre-war
rates. All old stocks have been cleared and the new
pack will probably be disposed of before the next crop
arrives. This favourable market position is largely
caused by difficulties of the dollar countries in trading,
which have led to some accumulation of stocks in the
U.S.A. The present buoyant position of the Aus-
tralian industry is therefore no indication of a certain
future. Appendices give comparative data of pro-
duction, exports (and their destinations).-S.M.W.

1321. Dried Fruits Board of South Australia.
zoth Report for Year ended 28 February
1949. Government Printer, Adelaide, pp.
The S.A. pack for 1948 was 17,300 tons of dried vine
fruits (9,066 in 1947) and 1,645 tons of dried tree fruits
(1,987). Seasonal conditions improved, but heavy rain
in April necessitated the dehydration of 35 per cent of

the tonnage of sultanas and lexias. The increasing
diversion of currant and sultana grapes to the wine
trade is causing apprehension. Details are given about
the output of various irrigated and non-irrigated areas
and about market allocation. Appendices present
statistical data on production.

1322. Fisheries in Australia. Exports of Australia
and New Zealand, pp. 20-33, June 1949.
After discussing the difficulty of giving accurate
figures for Australian fish production the following
topics are briefly surveyed : Production and processing,
trawler operators, pelagic fish development, marketing,
administration, whaling, pearl shell, personnel training,
publicity, research, oysters, scallops, and seaweed.

1323. Story of Australian Fish Canning Industry,
Fisheries Newsletter, July 1949, pp. 24.
Short histories of each of the canneries are presented.
Tasmania began canning in 1905, but it was not until
1938 that operations began in N.S.W., 1939 in S.A.,
and 1941 in W.A. Production rose from 1,614,718 lb.
in 1939-40 to 12,228,117 in 1947-48, encouraged by
the drop in imports from 24,603,6oi lb. in 1938-39 to
13,009,348 in 1947-48. However, because many con-
sumers do not substitute Australian canned fish for the
imported article, Australian canneries are now pro-
cessing about 6,500,000 lb. of fish p.a. in excess of
demand. Attempts will be made to open up overseas
markets and to concentrate on better quality canning
fish likely to widen the domestic market. This will
involve the canning industry in subsidising the develop-
ment of pelagic fishing in Australian waters.-M.G.R.

1324. Queensland. Annual Report of the Under-
Secretary for Mines for Year 1948. P.P.
Government Printer, Brisbane, pp. io6.
Gold production in Queensland sank from 72,300 oz.
in 1947 to 69,600 oz., partly because the gold price had
not risen as mining costs had. Copper output rose
from 2,778 tons to 3,199, the output of tin concentrates
fell from 1,396 to 683 tons. The production of lead
rose slightly, that of wolfram and zircon-rutile-ilmenite
considerably. Coal output was 1,742,ooo tons, less
than 1947 in volume, but more in value. A number of
tables present statistical tables. Wardens' reports
deal with individual mineral fields.

1325. Handling and Preparation of Wood at Pulp
Mills. R. F. Turnbull. Australian Timber
Journal, pp. 423-429, July 1949. Paper
presented at the Second Conference of the
Australian Pulp and Paper Industry Tech-
nical Association in April 1948.
An account of the combination of sawing operations
with pulpwood production. According to the type of
forest supply and to the diameter of the logs the optimum
relation between sawn timber and pulpwood output is
provided by different machines which are described in
some detail. Among these machines are the recipro-
cating frame saw, the small to medium-sized log gang
saw, the circular saw for splitting, twin circulars, the
bandmill, devices for accurate holding, setting, and
rapid driving of the logs towards the saw and return,
the breaking down saw with a rip or breast bench and
friction-driven rollers for feeding and reversing.

1326. Wills, N. R. Economic Development of the
Australian Iron and Steel Industry, pub-
lished by B.H.P., Melbourne, June 1948,
pp. 198 (mimeographed).
This is a detailed examination of the establishment of
the industry, its development, present distribution,
resources, and importance in the Australian economy.
The historical geography and economic history are dealt
with and fully documented in footnotes. An exhaustive
bibliography refers to official reports, monographs,
articles in periodicals, and statistical sources. There
is a great number of photos, diagrams, detailed tables,
plans, maps, and graphs.-E.J.D.

1327. The Leigh Creek Coalfield. L. Keith Ward.
Royal Geographical Society of Australasia,
South Australian Branch, Proceedings for
the Session 1947-48, Vol. XLIX, pp. 33-
42, December 1948.
After an outline of the geography and geology of the
four known coal basins of the area the author discusses
the nature (sub-bituminous), classification and com-
position of the coal. Actually mined is only the main
basin and two seams of the northern basin in open-cut
working. The long distance (373 miles) from Adelaide
and the break of gauge in the railway communication
are great obstacles, but the price-rise aid shortage of
N.S.W. coal made the utilisation of Leigh Creek coal
imperative. It is used for steam raising and burning
cement, mixed with N.S.W. coal also in locomotives.
Experiments are made to manufacture briquettes and
town gas from it and to dry coal by special methods.
Coal has been mined on the field on a small scale since
the I89o's, on a large scale since 1948, up to July 1948
more than 600,00ooo tons were produced.

1328. The Callide Coalfield. Its History and
Future. C. B. Simmins. Queensland Gov-
ernment Mining Journal, pp. 209-214,
April 1949.
Coal deposits in the Callide valley, 60 miles inland
from the Queensland harbour of Gladstone, were first
discovered in 1889. A syndicate was set up in England
to work the coalfields, and in 19oo the construction of a
railway to Gladstone was authorised, but in 1906 the
syndicate abandoned the project. Since 1944 various
open-cut mining operations were started; 1948 L. G.
Neil produced 7,837 tons of coal. In the same year a
company was formed which so far has removed 87,000
cubic feet of overburden, while negotiations for the
removal of further 200,000 cubic feet are in hand.
Should the output only be moderately large, a railway
line to Gladstone would have to be built. In case of a
bigger development a conveyor system is planned to
bring the coal to Gladstone.

1329. The Zinc Corporation. New Broken Hill
Consolidated. Broken Hill, 1948, pp. 90.
This richly illustrated booklet first presents an his-
torical survey of the Broken Hill field. The Zinc Cor-
poration was started in 1905 and began large-scale
mining operations in 1911 when flotation processes
enabled lead with silver to be floated separately from
zinc. 1936 the New Broken Hill Cons. was created,
associated with the Zinc Corporation. The annual out-
put of both companies is expected to exceed 660,000ooo
tons of ore by 1950, and to reach i m. tons by 1955.
Details are given of the ore bodies (lead lodes and zinc

lodes), of mining operations, ore transport, filling,
ventilation, pumping. A separate section deals with
the New Broken Hill Cons., its operations, its joint
working and sale of ore arrangements with the Zinc
Corporation. Subjects of further chapters are con-
centrating practices, engineering, workshops, the main
winding plant, power and water supply, transport, the
general office, amenities, housing for employees. In
conclusion industrial relations are discussed.

1330. Tinplate. The Projected Hot and Cold
Strip Mills and Tinplate Plant at Port
Kembla, N.S.W. I. M. McLennan.
B.H.P. Review, pp. 10-13, June 1949.
Tinplate is steel sheets coated with pure tin which
results in a strong, corrosion-resistant metal, mainly
used in making cans as containers for different articles.
The history of the industry is briefly outlined. The
latest development is the cold reducing method and the
electrolytic tinning process introduced in U.S. in the
last two decades. The paper then describes the cold
rolling method of making steel for tinplate: slabbing,
roughing, pickling to remove the surface scale, rolling
to finished tinplate gauge, cleaning of the strip, anneal-
ing. This is followed by tinning either through hot
dipping or by electrolytic means. In conclusion some
details of the planned Port Kembla plant are given
which include a programme of colliery development, a
new blast furnace and new open-hearth steelmaking

1331. Australian Aluminium Production Commis-
sion. Third Annual Report for Period I
July 1947 to 30 June 1948. P.P. Common-
wealth Printer, Canberra, 1949, pp. 17.
Price is. 3d.
Further investigation has been carried out. No new
bauxite deposits have been discovered in Tasmania, but
in the Inverell district of northern N.S.W. 6,940,000
tons of deposits have been proved. The Commission
bought from the Disposals Commissions 20,000 tons
of N.E.I. ores, imported in wartime. The use of
Malayan bauxite in Australia is also considered. The
alumina plant is to be established at Native Point on the
Tamar River, 16 miles from Launceston, to be served
with alternating current from a power station which will
be erected at Trevallyn. To set up the alumina plant
near Inverell was considered, but rejected.
Other sections of the report deal with power supplies,
plant capacity and finance.

1332. The Opal Industry in Australia. I. C. H.
Croll. The Australian Mineral Industry.
Economic Notes and Statistics, pp. i-ii,
Vol. i, No. 4, Quarter ending 31 December
There has been opal mining in Australia since 1849.
It has been concentrated since 1936 in S.A. At present
98 per cent of the Australian output comes from two
S.A. fields, Coober Pedy and Andamooka. All opal
seams occur in beds of sandstone and clay in arid areas.
A brief description of the two main S.A. deposits is pre-
sented. 1946 and 1947 brought a revival of the output,
which is now worth between 6o,ooo and 80,0oo p.a.
Further sections deal with domestic and overseas (most
important U.S.) markets, import duties on opal in vari-
ous countries, factors affecting production and markets
-climatic conditions, unwillingness or inability of

miners to prospect, superstitious prejudice against opals,
fashion. Various proposals for stabilising the industry
are mentioned, but considered impracticable. The
author is, however, in favour of licensing buyers and
valuers and of a committee of control.

1333. Search for Oil in Australia. H. G. Raggatt.
The Australian Mineral Industry. Economic
Notes and Statistics, Vol. 2, No. I, Quarter
ended 31 March 1949.
Search for oil in Australia including territories has
been going on intermittently for the last 45 years. In
Papua-New Guinea the total expenditure on oil explora-
tion up to the end of 1948 was about 4,4oo,ooo, of
which 514,ooo was spent by the Commonwealth Gov-
ernment, the balance by private companies. In
Southern Queensland so far 1,727,ooo have been
spent, at Roma petroliferous gas was discovered, but its
flow was erratic and production was abandoned in 1932.
Total expenditure in W.A. (Kimberley District, etc.)
has been 355,000, in Victoria, mainly in the Lakes
Entrance area, 255,ooo, in the three other states
589,ooo. Altogether at least 268 test wells have been
drilled, neither petroleum nor natural gas has been dis-
covered in commercial quantities, but there is strong
hope to do so in future, particularly in Papua-New
1334. Report of the Royal Commission upon the
Effects of the Organisation and Practices of
the Bread Industry in Victoria, 1949, pp.
76 roneoedd).
The report of the Commissioner Judge L. E. B.
Stretton deals with the organisation of each component
of the bread industry-flourmillers, bakers, yeast manu-
facturers, bakers' and pastrycooks' suppliers-and with
the organisation by association of its several components
in the form of the Trade Protection Committee in 1936,
possessing great disciplinary powers. This organisa-
tion has largely eliminated competition and the bread
industry has now a monopolistic character. The effect
on shopkeepers and consumers is disadvantageous,
there is no redress against poor quality and services.
The industry's main practices are: zoning, embargo,
no choice of delivery bakers, early morning baking which
has contributed to the poorer quality, on the whole
deterioration of the quality of bread and availability of
fewer types of bread, price fixing (when prices are not
fixed by authority), fining and stopping supplies.
The Commissioner suggests control and regulation of
the industry by a statutory authority which should main-
tain the present organisation of the industry, but should
encourage some competition, and control disciplinary
actions; alternatively the legal prohibition of certain
practices is proposed with a view to encourage a mod-
erate competition. In a special section the effect on the
price and quality of bread of the decrease of hours of
labour and of the increase in costs is considered, i.e.,
a higher bread price, while the poorer quality is not due
to higher wages and costs.

1335. Brief Review of the Australian Stoves, Ovens
and Ranges Industry. Department of Post-
War Reconstruction, Division of Industrial
Development, Melbourne, April 1949,
pp. 23.
The estimated 1938-39 Australian demand for domestic
ranges of all types was I 15,000 units, i.e., 42,000 for new
homes and 73,000 for replacement. At present accu-

mulated unsatisfied demand is about 55,000 a year, in
addition the current annual demand is 130,000 units
(8o,ooo for replacement and 50,ooo for new homes). In
the next five years it might rise to 50,000o. The cur-
rent demand p.a. for fuel ranges is 50,000-36,000 for
replacement and 14,000 for new homes; for gas ranges
55,000 (31,000 plus 24,000), for electric ranges 25,000
(12,000 plus 13,000). The demand for the latter tends
to increase. The future annual demand for stovettes
and grillers, mostly electric, will be about 20,000. The
demand for commercial and industrial ovens and ranges
is about 20 per cent in money terms of that for domestic
Current annual production of domestic types is about
150,000, of which in 1948 44 per cent were fuel, 35 gas
and 21 electric ranges. Production is about two-thirds
of capacity. Imports, mainly from U.K., are substan-
tial in the field of electric ranges. Further sections of
the review deal with labour, materials, equipment,
structure of industry, Government policy (tariff, price
control, etc.). When the backlog of demand will have
been satisfied, there is a tendency to oversupply of
domestic ranges and export markets might have to be
developed or output to be cut.

1336. Brief Review of the Australian Domestic
Refrigerator Industry. Division of Industrial
Development, Department of Post-War
Reconstruction, Melbourne, May 1949,
No. 13 in the Industry Review Series,
pp. 2o.
The industry originated in Australia in 1926 and has
greatly expanded after the war. There is the electric
motor compressor type and the absorption type,
operated by gas, kerosene or electricity (element). The
former type is higher priced, but has lower operating
costs. The pre-war annual demand was 45,000 units
(15 per cent more than production plus imports in
1938-39), the present demand is about 9o,ooo p.a. plus
a backlog of 80,000. Price rises since 1938 have been
between 14 and 91 per cent. In the next two years
about 130,000 refrigerators may be sold p.a., later about
80,000. There is some export. Production went up
from less than 30,000 units in 1938-39 to more than
112,000 in 1947-48 and probably 140,000 in 1948-49.
Imports have been negligible since 1938-39.
Further sections deal with labour, materials, equip-
ment, structure of the industry, government policy
(tariff, prices). There is a tendency to ovet-expansion
which might be met by reducing prices and by alterna-
tive avenues of employment of plant capacity.

1337. Brief Review of the Australian Textile
Dyeing, Printing and Finishing Industries.
Division of Industrial Development, De-
partment of Post-War Reconstruction,
August 1949, pp. 2o.
Woollen and worsted piece goods are the textiles in
which the Australian dyeing, printing and finishing
industries are most highly developed. Such processes
are carried out for the most part by the self-contained
spinning and weaving mills producing these textiles,
although commission dyers and printers finish about
30 per cent of the output. During the war, cotton and
rayon piece goods were imported in the grey and
finished in Australia, but at present Australian demand
is mainly for imported fully-finished goods. Dyeing
and printing capacity for the finishing of these materials
is therefore now well in excess of demand. However,

if Australian finishers could obtain adequate supplies
of low-cost materials in the grey, and Australian demand
could be diverted to Australian finished textiles, the
finishing industry could operate on an economic scale
even if judged by competitive standards.-M.G.R.

1338. Brief Review of the Australian Radio
Receiver Industry. Division of Industrial
Development, Department of Post-War
Reconstruction, August 1949, pp. 24.
The current annual demand for radio receivers is
estimated at 135,000 for replacement, 75,000 for new
first sets, 25,000 for later sets in the household, 15,000
for car receivers, and Io,ooo for portables. Nearly 80
per cent of the household receivers are small models,
the rest consoles and radiograms. The review then
deals with prices and the industry's future (frequency
modulation and television). Export markets-mainly
N.Z. and S.E. Asia-are referred to. Australian pro-
duction of receivers in 1948-49 is about 300,000, some
statistical figures on production are presented. Imports
are made only of some radio parts, principally valves
from U.K. and U.S. Further sections deal with labour
(about 6,ooo employees in 1948), including wages,
materials some of which have to be imported, equip-
ment (also partly imported), research, the structure of
the industry and Government policy (tariffs, decentral-
isation, etc.).

1339. Brief Review of the Australian Petroleum
Industry. Division of Industrial Develop-
ment, Department of Post-War Reconstruc-
tion, August 1949, pp. 32.
After a brief account of the technology of petroleum
refining (distillation and cracking) the review deals with
the demand for petroleum products : motor spirit,
aviation spirit, power and lighting kerosene, diesel oil,
fuel oil, bitumen, lubricating oils and greases. The total
current annual demand is 3,897,000 tons, of which 42
per cent in weight (500 m. gallons) is demand for motor
spirit, and 17 per cent each for diesel oil and fuel oil.
As to supply, only 16 per cent of our requirements of
refined petroleum come from local refineries (output
p.a. 649,000 tons, of which 266,000 are motor spirit).
Rationing and imports are discussed. Of the imports
63 per cent come from the Middle East. Further sec-
tions deal with labour, materials-including Australian
oil exploration and shale oil production, the structure
of the industry-only five petroleum refining companies
in Australia-and Government policies (tariffs, excise,
prices, dollar problem).

1340. Felt for Use in the Manufacture of Tennis
Balls. Tariff Board's Report. Government
Printer, Canberra, 13 September 1948,
pp. 13.
At present felt (in fact it is woven, not felted material)
for use in the manufacture of tennis balls is duty and
primage free under the British and Intermediate Tariffs,
and is dutiable at 121 per cent under the General Tariff.
(By-Law Item 404.) If removed from this by-law it
would under Tariff Item 105 (F) (2) be liable to a duty
of 221, 40, 471 per cent (British, Intermediate, General
Tariffs) plus io per cent primage under the General
Tariff. Two Australian firms, the sole local producers
of tennis ball cloth, applied for its removal from by-law
404. The present price of Australian-made tennis ball
cloth is considerably lower than landed cost in Aus-
tralia of imported English material. Witnesses repre-

senting Australian tennis ball manufacturers stated that
balls made of local material could not stand severe wear,
or at least that British material was a good 'selling
The Tariff Board recommended that tennis ball cloth
should be removed from the existing by-law and pay
duties under item 105 (F) (2), mainly because wool and
cotton yarn used by Australian manufacturers of tennis
ball cloth is now heavily subsidized by the Federal
Government and this subsidy will probably be discon-
tinued. Mr. W. J. Rose, a member of the Board, gave
a separate opinion that the duty should be only 5 per

1341. Bicarbonate of Soda. Tariff Board's Report.
Government Printer, Canberra, 8 October
1948, pp. 8.
Bicarbonate of soda was imported duty-free under the
British Preferential Tariff under By-Law Item 404,
from 9 September 1948 under a new sub-item 449
(A) (i). Apart from this by-law it would be liable to a
duty of 30s. per ton or 121 per cent ad val, whichever
is the higher, under Tariff Item 278 (A) (i), British Pref.
Tar. A witness representing I.C.I.A.N.Z., the only
Australian manufacturer of bicarbonate of soda, which
has been produced in Osborne, S.A., since 1940, was in
favour of increased duties under Tariff Item 278 (A) (i).
The Tariff Board referred to previous reports (1936,
1937, February 1948). The post-war prices of British
exports of bicarbonate of soda are considerably higher
than British domestic prices and the current prices of
Australian-made bicarbonate of soda. However, the
elimination of the U.K. export 'loading' might alter the
The Tariff Board recommended that the application
of the By-law Item 449 (A) (i) in relation to bicarbonate
of soda should be cancelled, because the good is com-
mercially manufactured in Australia, but unless there is
soon an inquiry on the alkali industry generally, duties
to be imposed on bicarbonate of soda should not be
higher than under by-law item 449 (A) (i). Two mem-
bers of the Board, H. E. Guy and W. G. Duffy, did not
agree with the latter recommendation and wanted main-
tenance of the rates under Tariff Item 278 (A) (I);
only when the local product would be short in supply,
individual shipments should be freely admitted.

1342. Metal Working Chucks-Tariff Board's
Report. Government Printer, Canberra,
15 October 1948, pp. 25.
Metal working chucks, i.e., drill chucks, three-jaw
self-centring and four-jaw independent lathe chucks
and non-electric magnetic chucks have been imported
under Tariff By-law Item 174 (Y), now replaced by
Tariff Sub-item 449 (A) (i), duty free under British
Preferential Tariff and dutiable at 12I per cent under
General Tariff. When removed from the by-law they
would have to pay under Item 176 (F) (I) 27 per cent
(B.P.T.) or 571 per cent duty plus io per cent primage
(G.T.). Australian manufacturers who had started
chuck manufacturing during the war requested removal
from the by-law and payment of duties of 15 per cent
(B.P.T.) or 45 per cent (G.T.) for drill chucks, 45 and 65
per cent for the three other groups. Witnesses repre-
senting British and U.S. importers and others were
against this request. The Tariff Board considered that
all these chucks are not 'commercially produced' in
Australia, the quality of some was satisfactory, but the
prices of most of them were not consistent with econo-
mical and efficient production. The Board, therefore,

recommended not to remove any of the chucks from
Sub-item 449 (A) (i).
Two Board members, H. E. Guy and W. G. Duffy,
agreed with this recommendation regarding drill chucks,
while they suggest a new item for other chucks, with
duties of 20 per cent (B.P.T.) and 35 per cent (most-
favoured nation tariff).

1343. Fuel Injection Equipment. Tariff Board's
Report. Government Printer, Canberra,
I March 1949, pp. 19.
A report on the same subject was issued by the Board
on 27 June 1947 (see Abstract No. 540 in No. 5 of this
journal). Since January 1948 nozzles, nozzle holders,
filters and single cylinder fuel injection pumps have been
removed from duty-free admission under By-law Item
174 (Y), now Sub-item 449 (A) (i), and most of them
are liable to 271 per cent duty and 5 per cent primage
(B.P.T., Item 178). Only governors, fuel feeding
pumps, couplings, advance devices, etc., are still
admitted duty-free, because the former are, the latter are
not, now locally produced by Pyrox Ltd. Pyrox was in
favour of maintaining the existing rates of duty, while
witnesses representing U.K. and U.S. manufacturing
interests requested lower duties. The Board recom-
mended duties of z12 per cent under B.P.T., otherwise
25 per cent for fuel injection equipment of the Bosch
type made in Australia, and duty-free admission under
Sub-item 449 (A) (i) for other items not locally made,
mainly to offset the somewhat lower costs of the im-
ported U.K. product, and to give the Australian product
a reasonable price advantage, particularly as the local
industry is not yet fully established.
A minority report, submitted by W. J. Rose, recom-
mended a duty of 7f per cent (B.P.T.) as giving a suffi-
cient price advantage to the local product.

1344. Pyrethrum Extract. Tariff Board's Report,
April 1949. Government Printer, Can-
berra, pp. 8.
Pyrethrum Extract, obtained from pyrethrum flowers
grown chiefly in Kenya, is a product used in the manu-
facture of insecticides and flysprays. Before the war it
was produced in both U.K. and Australia, but an extrac-
tion plant has since been set up in Kenya. Australian
manufacturers, with excess productive capacity, applied
for protection against the Kenya article, but under the
terms of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade,
this would necessitate an increase in the duty of the
U.K. product. Judged in relation to U.K. standards,
the Australian industry is neither economic nor assured
of opportunities for success ; therefore the application
for protection, which was ip any case unsupported by
Australian insecticide manufacturers processing pyre-
thrum extract for their own use, was rejected by the

1345. Various Surgical Instruments. Tariff Board's
Report. Government Printer, Canberra,
5 April 1949, pp. 1-.
Under Tariff By-law Item 419 (C) (2) surgical (dental,
chiropody) instruments, such as knives, artery and
haemostatic instruments, various forceps, needles, etc.,
are admitted duty-free under B.P.T., otherwise with
171 per cent duty and 4 per cent primage. An Aus-
tralian surgical instrument manufacturer requested
removal of these instruments from the by-law and their
dutiability at rates of 25 per cent (B.P.T.), otherwise
45 per cent, as the local industry was at a disadvantage
compared with U.K. manufacturers exporting to Aus-

tralia in costs of raw materials and labour. Witnesses
representing U.K. manufacturing and importing inter-
ests were opposed to this application. The Tariff
Board recommended removal of the instruments from
the by-law and payment of duties of 71 per cent (B.P.T.),
otherwise 25 per cent.
In a minority report W. J. Rose suggested that the
recommended duties should not be imposed.

1346. Motor Vehicle Bodies and Pressed Metal
Panels. Tariff Board's Report, April 1949,
Government Printer, Canberra, pp. 28.
Manufacturers, importers and departmental officials
are convinced that a complete review is necessary of the
tariff protection afforded to all items directly concerned
with the automotive industry. The question of defini-
tion of motor vehicle bodies and pressed metal panels is
but one aspect of the problem. Any review would need
to be exhaustive and would involve consultation with
foreign exporters, or at the very least with the U.K.
Government and the International Trade Organisation.
The Board recommended, therefore, that it be given a
comprehensive referendum rather than the narrow one
dealt with in this report.-M.G.R.

I347. Cooking Stoves and Cooking Ranges. Tariff
Board's Report. Government Printer, Can-
berra, 29 April 1949, pp. 8.
Since 1947 cooking stoves and ranges designed on the
heat storage principle, not including those using gas or
electricity, have been liable to a duty of 22z per cent
and 5 per cent primage under the British Preferential
Tariff. Representatives of British exporters applied
for duty-free admission of imported stoves and ranges
of this type used for household purposes, i.e., having a
roasting oven capacity of less than 4,000 cubic feet (under
B.P.T.), as only heavier types for commercial purposes
are made in Australia. Competition of these domestic
heat storage stoves with Australian-made gas and electric
stoves was impossible, because the former were much
dearer. Representatives of Australian manufacturers
were opposed to this request and stated that the local
making of domestic heat storage stoves was planned,
gas and electric stoves were now in over-supply. The
Tariff Board recommended to admit imported domestic
heat.storage stoves duty-free under B.P.T.

1348. Flints for Lighters-Tariff Item 413 (A).
Tariff Board's Report. Government
Printer, Canberra, 29 April 1949, pp. 12.
Flints (ferro-cerium) for use in lighters are now liable
to a duty of 20, 35, 471 per cent ad val. (British, Inter-
mediate, General Tariff) plus Io per cent primage under
G.T. During the war production from monazite sand,
available in Australia, succeeded on a laboratory scale.
Only since 1948 production on a commercial scale was
started by Rare Earth Metals Ltd. as the only Aus-
tralian producer of flints. This firm now requested a
duty of 2s. 9d. per Ioo flints from U.K. and 3s. 9d. from
foreign countries, in addition to the existing rates,
because without higher protection Australian production
could not compete with the lower prices of imports, and
could not be developed so as to produce, at lower costs
and to investigate commercial utilisation of other
materials available from monazite sand. Witnesses
representing U.K. flint manufacturers opposed the
request, because Australian production could not work
efficiently; in other countries monazite sand was first
processed for extracting thorium for gas mantle manu-

facture, which could probably not be done in Australia;
they also described the quality of Australian flints as
The Tariff Board recommended to reject the request,
as higher protection of the industry at its present cost
level could not be justified, also because the Australian
market was too small.

1349. Wine Industry Question of Granting
Financial Assistance for Advertising. Tariff
Board's Report, May 1949. Government
Printer, Canberra, pp. 15.
By the Wine Export Bounty Act of 1947, 500,000
of the Wine Export Encouragement Account was trans-
ferred to a trust account known as the Wine Industry
Assistance Account. This fund is to remain open until
1957 and may be used to assist the industry with minis-
terial approval. The Federal Viticultural Society
applied for assistance for five years at the rate of 63,ooo
p.a. for publicising Australian wine and brandy in the
Australian market. It claimed that the present pros-
perous position of the industry was temporary, and that
wider markets would be needed in the future. The
Board considered the application unjustified. At pres-
ent the industry is unable to meet existing demand, and
by offering high prices, is even encroaching on the supply
of dried fruits for export. It would be advisable to
retain the money in trust for possible future declines in
prosperity rather than to spend it in strengthening a
demand which for some time must remain unsatisfied.
1350. Foundation Garments-Tariff Item no (C)
-Corsets. Tariff Board's Report, June
1949, Government Printer, Canberra, pp. 7.
This report deals with the departmental definition
of the term 'corsets'-a definition framed in 1921. As
designs have altered considerably since that date,
importers and departmental officers were experiencing
difficulty in classifying various foundation garments.
The Board recommended an appropriate revision.
1351. Tariff Board's Reports. Commonwealth
Printer, Canberra, 2 June 1949.
(a) Home Cinematographs Tariff Item
320 (A), pp. io.
(b) Cinematographs N.E.I., including Arc
Lamps for Projection Purposes-Tariff Item
320 (B), pp. 12.
(a) Under Item 320 (A) home cinematographs using
films not wider than I7'5 mm. are admitted duty-free
under B.P.T. (io per cent duty under G.T.) plus io per
cent primage under both tariffs. Mainly during the
war Australian manufacture of 16 mm. film equipment
started. In accordance with the application of two local
manufacturers the Board recommended the restriction
of Item 320 (A) to cinematographs using films under
9-5 mm. and 15 per cent duty for equipment between
9-5 and 17-5 mm., while the applicants had applied for
duties of 30 and 65 per cent for this latter equipment.
(b) Under Item 320 (B) cinematographs n.e.i. (i.e.,
those using films wider than 17-5 mm.) incl. arc lamps
pay 30 per cent duty plus 5 per cent primage under
B.P.T. and 571 plus io per cent under G.T. The
Senior U.K. Trade Commissioner applied for a revision
of these rates. The Board held that Australian produc-
tion was overprotected in view of the very much higher
costs of U.K. equipment, but some protection was still

justified because without it U.K. manufacturers might
start to export smaller equipment to Australia. It
recommended reduction of the duty to 15 per cent with-
out primage.
In both cases (a) and (b) W. J. Rose presented a
minority report that all cinematographs of any size
should be admitted duty-free under B.P.T. and at the
lowest rates compatible with treaty obligations.

1352. Mercury Contact Tubes. Government
Printer, Canberra.
(a) Tariff Board's Interim Report, 15
October 1947, pp. 8.
(b) Tariff Board's Report, 30 June 1949,
pp. 6.
Under Tariff By-law Item 415 (A) (2), now 449 (A) (i),
mercury contact tubes for use with electric switches are
admitted duty-free under B.P.T. An Australian firm
which started the manufacture of this commodity during
the war applied for its removal (re switches over i ampere
capacity) from the by-law and its liability to duty under
Item 179 (B) (7), to 30 per cent duty and 5 per cent
primage (B.P.T.). In an inquiry in 1947 some wit-
nesses opposed the application with reference to the
inferior quality and the higher price of the Australian
product. The Board recommended that action should
be deferred for 6 months, because the request was pre-
mature, as long as the applicant could not prove his
ability of production on a commercial scale. In a
minority report W. G. Duffy recommended imposition
of the rates as provided in Item 179 (B) (7).
In another inquiry in 1949 the same applicant stated
that he had in the meantime increased the volume and
improved the quality of this product, while a witness
representing U.K. import interests upheld his previous
objections. This time the Board recommended re-
moval of the tubes from By-law Item 449 (A) (i) and
their classification under Item 179 (B) (7), i.e., now
22J per cent (B.P.T.).

1353. Spectacle Frames, Lenses and Cases : Spec-
tacles. Tariff Board's Report. Government
Printer, Canberra, 26 August 1949, pp. 29.
Reference is made to previous reports on the same
subject of 1947 and 1948 (cf. No. 533 in No. 5 and No.
925 in No. 7 of the Abstracts). At present various
ophthalmic goods are imported under B.P.T. duty-free
or at rates of Io per cent duty and 5 per cent primage
(spectacle cases not of gold), 12j per cent duty (edged
lenses) and 271 per cent duty (bifocal blanks and
lenses). Witnesses representing Australian manufac-
turing interests requested imposition of duties between
40 and ioo per cent (B.P.T.), between 75 and 200 per
cent (G.T.), to protect Australian industry against
'flooding of the market with imports', as U.K. manu-
facturers had a great advantage in cost of labour and raw
materials. Witnesses representing U.K. manufacturing
and export interests and Australian optometrists
opposed this request, some called the requested rates
outrageous and prohibitive, and held the quality of many
Australian products as inferior.
The Board dealt in detail with the divisions of the
industry (blanks, lenses, frames, cases, sunglasses and
goggles, etc.) and recommended the following duties
under B.P.T. : o per cent for all sorts of spectacle
lenses, 15 per cent for all varieties of spectacles, frames
and mountings, sunglasses and goggles, no alteration of
the rates of Tariff Item 322 for spectacle cases, i.e., Io
per cent duty and 5 per cent primage.

(C) Monetary Policy, Banking, Insurance

1354. The Future of Banking in Australia. J. S. G.
Wilson. Economic Journal (London), pp.
208-218, June 1949.
After the High Court judgment of 1947 which
declared Section 48 of the Banking Act 1945 invalid, the
Commonwealth Government decided on nationalisation
of the Australian trading banks. The article discusses
some details of the Banking Act 1947 and of the High
Court judgment handed down in August 1947 which
declared some vital sections of the Act invalid, mainly
in view of Section 92 of the Federal Constitution.
The author raises various economic arguments against
bank nationalisation. If private banks are nationalised,
several State Governments are planning to extend their
state banking activities to commercial banking. There
would be two competitive systems of government bank-
ing, possibly disagreeing on credit policy. Most of the
aims of bank nationalisation could have been achieved
under the Banking Act of 1945 or after amendments,
a quantitative control of the trading banks' credit policy,
control over the direction in which bank credit would
be available, control over interest rates, Treasury con-
trol over monetary policy. The only weakness in the
1945 Act was that the central bank was forced to com-
pete with the trading banks in banking business, which
had an inflationary effect.

1355. The Case for Bank Nationalisation. Pamph-
let No. i, N.S.W. Fabian Society, pp. 32.
Part I deals with credit policy and full employment.
Australian depressions are mainly due to slumps
abroad, but because of the important part of credit
policy adequate control of banking is essential. For
this purpose the banking legislation of 1945 was enacted.
Part II tries to prove the inadequacy of this legislation.
The trading banks attacked the 1945 Banking Act,
stressed the difficulties of the full employment policy.
Finally the High Court judgment is discussed which
declared Section 48 of the Banking Act unconstitutional.
Subject of Part III are the special advantages of nation-
alisation : rationalisation, regional development, tech-
nical advice and assistance to industry, cheaper credit,
and long-term social effects. Section IV summarises
the nationalisation bill. Section V is concerned with
the problems of the national banking system: reorgan-
isation of Australian banking as public utility, the use of
credit powers, the possibility of discrimination between
customers and lack of efficiency caused by bank mono-
poly. Section VI examines the politics of bank national-
isation, particularly with regard to the Federal Consti-
tution and to the demand for a referendum.
Appendix A describes the historical background of
the present banking crisis. Appendix B investigates
the constitutional aspects of bank nationalisation.

1356. Fighting Inflation 1945-49. Fabian Society
of N.S.W. Pamphlet No. 5, October 1949,
pp. 31. Price is.
After a brief reference to booms and slumps after the
first world war the causes of post-war inflation are set
out: accumulated savings, a backlog of demand and
short supplies which cannot be quickly increased.
Rising mechanisation, better management and steady
work by employees can have a long-run effect only.
Actually post-war shortages are mainly due to very high
demand, particularly shortages of coal, steel, materials
and work for building. As to the control of demand
business expenditure has been most effectively checked

by banking control, Government expenditure is not
excessive in proportion to national income, consumer
demand is controlled by rationing, taxation, encourage-
ment of voluntary saving, also by the rather inadequate
stabilisation of export incomes. Chapter IV deals with
price control, the defeat of the referendum on price
control in May 1948, and the abolition of price sub-
sidies. In conclusion the pamphlet considers the pre-
vention of excess profits as the heart of inflation control.
This is done only by Labour Governments, but in
Australia it is hampered by inadequate constitutional
power of the Commonwealth and also by the press.

1357. Some Aspects of Social Accounting-Inter-
est and Banks. H. P. Brown. Economic
Record, pp. 73-92, Supplement August
The social accounting approach to national income
studies has enabled estimates to be made of significant
variables such as savings, consumption and private
investment. The social accourits are derived by con-
solidating individual accounts and this paper deals with
two problems of classification involved in this process-
the treatment of interest and banks.
Some of the difficulties inherent in treating interest
as a payment to a factor of production are discussed, and
reasons are given for regarding it instead as a distribution
of surplus. Banks should be treated as a separate sub-
sector in preparing the social accounts, and, because
their function is similar to one of the functions of gov-
ernments ('oiling the wheels of industry and the com-
munity generally') it is suggested that the contribution
of banks to the national income is the same as for gov-
ernments-wages and salaries paid. On the expenditure
side, it is argued that all bank services should be regarded
as final goods, and should be recorded as a separate
category of net national expenditure. The method by
which banks are treated in the Australian national income
estimates is contrasted with the previous Australian
method and methods in other countries.-R.L.M.

1358. Role of the Banker in Boom and Depression.
B. Higgins. Bankers' Magazine of Aus-
tralasia, pp. 58-62, October 1949.
An address given to the Bankers' Institute of Austral-
asia annual meeting on 15 September 1949. The
relationship between private investments and private
savings plays a major part in the industrial cycle. The
banker can create credit when he has enough deposits
and cash reserves. The rate of interest has some influ-
ence on investment. Some errors of bankers in the
past in their credit policy in U.K., U.S. and Canada are
discussed. To-day the Central Bank largely controls
the private banks' credit policy. The role of the
banker should be to distinguish between good and bad
risks, he ought to seek a closer relationship with the

1359. Turle, C. J. Gold and World Restoration.
Problems for Washington. Patterson Press,
Perth, 1949, pp. 63. Price zs.
A compilation of articles published in the daily press
and in various periodicals and of addresses delivered
in the last two decades by the author and other persons
in favour of a rise in the price of gold. Part I deals with
'recently published world opinion on the gold question',
part II with 'the opening stages of the battle for gold',
part III with 'the author's views on gold: need for
American-Commonwealth Union'.

1360. The Actuarial Aspects of Recent Amend-
ments to Public Service Superannuation
Schemes. J. H. E. Hancock. Actuarial
Society of Australasia, 53rd Session, 1949,
pp. 209-22o.
This paper refers mainly to the Commonwealth
Superannuation Act 1947 and to the N.S.W. Super-
annuation Amendment Act of 1948. Both provide for
annuities based on units for which the employee is con-
tributing. The author first discusses the increase in
the value of the unit by 25 per cent and the higher future
commitments of the Commonwealth and N.S.W. due
to that increase. Further sections deal with the
increasing maximum number of units for which a con-
tributor may ultimately contribute; the guaranteed
interest yield ; reserve units of pension account to be
acquired by contributors, of which the Commonwealth
Act introduces four, the N.S.W. Act two ; investment
of the funds in non-redeemable securities (company
shares), as provided for in the N.S.W. Act; commuting
of certain units which may be surrendered for a cash sum
(only in N.S.W.) ; transfer of life insurance policies;
taxation of annuities.
1361. Some Remarks on the Valuation of Rever-
sions in Australia. J. C. Gray. Actuarial
Society of Australasia, 53rd Session, 1949,
pp. 233-243.
There is no organised market as in England for the
purchase of or loan on reversions by Australian life
offices, but occasionally they invest in such transactions,
and are rather flexible in the valuation of the assets of a
fund. The author makes some suggestions regarding
mortality rates of Australian life tenants and the rate of
interest to be applied ; Jellicoe's formula often brings
out unreasonably low values. He furthermore deals
with valuations of reversions for probate purposes with
special reference to reversions to shares of estates, to
the type of assets comprising the funds and to a paper
by H. G. Lafford on such valuations in England. Other
sections examine valuation of annuities left under wills,
particularly to widows until they re-marry, the appor-
tionment of estates between life tenants and rever-
sionists and the valuation of 'last survivor' reversions.
1362. Salary Scales in Pension Fund Valuations.
E. H. Templeton. Actuarial Society of
Australasia, 53rd Session, 1949, pp. 245-
In 'money purchase plans' each increase in salary is
accompanied by an increase in the contribution and the
solvency of the fund is not affected. When separate
funds are formed, however, and contributions fixed as
percentage of salaries remain unaltered during the
whole service period, assumptions must be made about
the progression of salaries to calculate adequate contri-
butions. The author discusses three types of such
assumptions and the effect of a change in the salary scale
on superannuation funds of the 'average salary' or 'final
salary' class. The significance of the 'past service
factor' and the 'future service factor' is set out. Fur-
ther sections deal with the choice of a salary scale and
with allowance for the trend of salaries.
(D) Public Finance
1363. Indirect Taxes on Income. E. P. Wills.
Accountants' Journal, Wellington, pp. 26-
33, August 1949.

To income tax, the largest single direct tax in N.Z.,
indirect methods have been extended. Wages tax is
collected so that its burden becomes indirect. Cer-
tainty, one of the most important principles of taxation,
is infringed by the wide discretion allowed by law to the
Taxation Commissioner. An inadequate rate of depre-
ciation may mean an encroachment on capital. The
influence of unassessable income on the rate of income
tax, the provisions regarding aggregation of incomes
(companies and shareholders, husband and wife), pro-
prietary companies' taxation, the treatment of bonus
shares as dividend, are all indirect methods used in
assessing income tax.

1364. New Zealand Ministry of Works Statement
for Year ended 31 March 1949. Govern-
ment Printer, Wellington, 1949, pp. o18.
Price 2s.
The expenditure on public works in 1948-49 was
31-5 m., of which 8-9 m. was on housing construction,
6-3 m. on roads, 5-1 m. on plant, material and services,
2'9 m. on hydro-electric works. About 16,ooo houses
were completed, 26 per cent more than in the previous
year, and manpower on building and construction
increased by 7-1 per cent. In public building priority
was accorded to educational buildings and hospitals.
Further sections deal with roads, aerodromes, irrigation
and water supply, soil conservation and rivers control,
Appendices B to G present reports of the Commis-
sioner of Works, the Engineer-in-Chief, the Main High-
ways Board, the Soil Conservation and Rivers Control
Council, the Government Architect, and the Director
of Housing Construction.

(E) Accountancy
1365. Irish, R. A. Auditing Theory and Practice.
Law Book Co. of Australasia, 1948, pp.
A text book covering a broad field, including aspects
of auditing practice as well as examination topics. The
treatment includes discussions of investigations, audit
programmes, share valuation, audit of mechanised
accounts, interpretation of financial statements, as well
as the usual textual material; the respective provisions
of the companies acts of the several states are included
in an appendix, and the more important legal decisions
relating to auditing are fully reported.

1366. Code of Cost Accounting Terminology. New
Zealand Standards Institute, Department
of Industries and Commerce, pp. 48.
This Standard Code has been prepared with the object
of eliminating the confusion which has existed in the
past by establishing a uniform terminology and a stan-
dard definition for each of the terms adopted. It takes
the form of a dictionary of 756 cost accounting terms,
alphabetically arranged, which it reduces to 206 stan-
dard definitions. It also includes a diagrammatic
representation of total cost and its elements.

1367. Is the Cost Accountant Necessary to Man-
agement ? G. Wright. Critical Comments
on Cost Accountants. G. L. Macdonnell.
Australasian Institute of Cost Accountants,
Cost Bulletin No. 28, 15 September 1949,
pp. 27.

Both these articles deal with the relationship between
the cost accountant and general management, and with
the information which the cost accountant should make
available to all levels of management. The second
article also examines critically several cost accounting
practices such as the presentation of monthly accounts,
and the revision of 'ideal' standards.

1368. The Accountant's Report for Prospectus
Purposes. R. Henry. Chartered Accountant
in Australia, pp. 17-35, July 1949.
A discussion of certain aspects of investigations car-
ried out for purposes of company prospectuses. Statu-
tory, Stock exchange and Chartered Institute require-
ments are set out, and compared with those in England
and U.S.A., the form and content of the investigating
accountant's report and the problems involved including
adjustments to reported profits, are considered.

1369. Accounting and Shifting Price Levels. R. J.
Chambers. Australian Accountant, pp.
313-320, September 1949.
This paper deals with some of the implications of
changes in price levels as they affect depreciation
accounting and the basis of accounting practice gener-
ally. There are important reasons for seriously con-
sidering the replacement cost or real cost basis in
depreciation accounting, and the author mentions some
of the problems seen and viewpoints held by economists,
business managers, and accountants.

(F) Transportation and Communication
1370. Report on Transport in Victoria. Govern-
ment Printer, Melbourne, 1949, pp. 85.
This is the account of an investigation carried out by
the British transport expert John Elliot at the'request
of the Vic. Government from March to May 1949.
Part I of the re transport deals with the whole of transport in
Vic. Co-ordination of the control of rail and road
transport is to be effected by a new 'Victorian Transport
Authority'. In this V.T.A. the assets of the Vic. Rail-
ways, and the Melbourne and Metropolitan Tramway
Board are to be vested. Managerial functions are to be
delegated to the Vie. Railways Board, the Vic. Tram-
ways and Omnibus Board which is to absorb all now
privately owned bus transport in Melbourne up to 15
miles distance and all city transport in other cities, and
the Victorian Road Transport Board (V.R.T.B.) which
controls and licenses privately owned transport (passen-
ger and freight) operators in the country. Branch rail-
way lines with slow and infrequent services should give
way to road transport. An independent Transport
Tribunal should decide on transport charges and on
appeals against road licensing decisions of the V.R.T.B.
Part II discusses the Vic. Railways in detail. A io-
year rehabilitation plan at the cost of 70 m. is recom-
mended, and suggestions are made regarding rolling
stock, the transportation branch, commercial organisa-
tion, rates and fares, an underground system for Mel-
bourne, etc. Appendices mainly present statistical

1371. Rail and Road Transport Services in New
South Wales, 1938-39 and 1947-48. Re-
search Service (Sydney), pp. 4 + 17, 29
July 1949.
A comparison between transport services of pre-war
and post-war years. Goods traffic hauled by railways

has increased only by 23 per cent, while the ton mileages
of private road transport have risen by 580 per cent,
because the railways could not cope with the demand,
mainly owing to the shortage of coal and rolling stock.
70 per cent of the goods carried by railways are coal and
coke, general goods and wheat. Of the rolling stock
locomotives and livestock waggons are most scarce, the
capacities of open waggons, louvred and refrigerated
vans have increased. 1947-49 coal was particularly
short which has led to severe railway restrictions.
Railway charges and costs have increased sharply and
will go up further. Private road transport over more
than 50 miles is permitted only under licence and is
taxed per ton-mile. On account of railway restrictions
140 per cent more permits for that purpose were issued
in 1947-48 than in 1938-39. State revenue from road
transport has increased by almost 6 times. The num-
ber of commercial vehicles has greatly risen, so have the
cost of road transport operations.

1372. Queensland. Report of the Commissioner for
Railways for Year ended 30 June 1949.
P.P. Government Printer, Brisbane, 1949,
pp. 117.
Gross earnings exceeded working expenses by
e,157,000 (793,000 in previous year), the deficit was
316,ooo (671,oo0). Revenue was 3,796,ooo higher
than 1947-48, but expenditure also rose by 3,431,000
owing to higher wages and prices of materials. 13 new
locomotives, 6 carriages and 239 waggons were placed
in commission, 143 locomotives, 164 carriages and
2,231 waggons are on order. Purchases of require-
ments from overseas caused 931,ioo expenditure in
excess of Australian prices. 21 tables present statistical

1373. Report on Civil Aviation in Australia and
New Guinea, 1947-48. Department of
Civil Aviation, pp. 122.
The number of paying passengers has risen from
320,000 in 1944-45 to 1,217,000 in 1947-48. For the
first time Australian airlines are now operating the whole
length of the Sydney-London route, while the trans-
Pacific lines Sydney and Auckland-Vancouver have been
transferred from Australian National Airways to British
Commonwealth Pacific Airlines. In every capital city
two airports will be provided for large aircraft with and
for light aircraft without radio equipment. Among
various subjects dealt with are finance and stores, air
transport and external relations, international civil
aviation, airports, air navigation and safety, aviation
medicine-taken over by the Department from the
R.A.A.F.-accident investigation. Appendices pre-
sent statistics on staff, finances and traffic.

1374. New Zealand. Transport Department.
Annual Report for 1948-49. P.P. Govern-
ment Printer, Wellington, 1949, pp. 64.
Price is. 3d.
A survey of the Department's activities in the year
under review. By 31 March 1949 the number of lic-
ensed motor vehicles was 381,ooo, i.e., 720 per cent
more than a year before, but petrol consumption by
these vehicles had slightly decreased to io2-6 m. gallons.
from 103'3 m. Sections of the report deal with 'roads,
road finance, road safety-N.Z. continues to have a
lower death rate through motor accidents than any
other motorised country-children's and adult educa-
tion in road safety, inspection of vehicles (motor vehicles

in N.Z. have to undergo an inspection for fitness every
six months), regulation of road transport. 49. tables
present statistical material.

1375. New Zealand Air Department. Report for
Year 1948-49. P.P. Government Printer,
Wellington, 1949, pp. 58. Price Is. 3d.
The first part of this report concerns the R.N.Z. Air
Force which had a strength of 3,049 persons by 31
March 1949. Its squadron No. 14 was withdrawn from
Japan, while another squadron still operates in Fiji,
and three N.Z. air crews took part in the Berlin air lift.
In the second part, the Director of Civil Aviation
reports on civil aviation, N.Z. participation in inter-
national conferences and in the International Civil
Aviation Organisation is outlined, the construction of
new and the development of existing aerodromes is set
forth, much aeronautical mapping has been carried out.
The N.Z. National Airways Corporation now operates
13 internal scheduled services and a i4th only for freight.
The most significant change in the external sphere is
that British Commonwealth Pacific Airlines is now
operated by these airlines themselves.
The third part is a report of the Inspector of Acci-
dents, the fourth part a report of the Director of Meteor-
ological Services.

(G) Labour and Industrial Relations
1376. Industrial Conscription. Economic News,
pp. 1-4, April 1949.
Freedom to work at any occupation desired is generally
taken for granted in Australia. Capitalism has brought
economic insecurity. Socialism, i.e., state ownership
of all means of production, will mean complete economic
security, but necessarily also industrial conscription.
The present British 'Control of Engagements Order'
is a beginning of industrial conscription. Figures indi-
cate the percentage of owners in various Australian
industries and areas. There is more ownership in
agriculture (except pastoral industry), less in manufac-
ture (except clothing, jewellery, leatherwork). Govern-
ment labour exchanges an d discussion of manpower con-
trol show the trend towards industrial conscription in

1377. A Preliminary Report on the Effect of the 40-
Hour Week on Australian Industry. S. P.
Stevens (Monograph 116, N.S.W. Branch
of the Economic Society of Australia and
New Zealand, September 1949), pp. 8.
This report describes changes caused by the effect of
the 40-hour week on man-weekly productivity in 71
manufacturing companies in Victoria. The companies
surveyed were a random sample of the stratified indus-
trial population.
Results of the survey indicate that the introduction
of the shorter working week had the result in most cases
to increase managerial efficiency. Two-thirds of the
firms surveyed managed to maintain or increase man-
weekly output in the 40-hour week. One-third of the
firms could or did not increase efficiency. In these
cases output per man-week dropped by about io per
cent. On the average no significant change was found
in man-weekly output, so that it may be assumed that
man-hourly output increased by about 9 per cent.
The main means of increasing man-weekly output was
increased mechanisation, 75 per cent of which would
have been introduced in any case. But a similar effect

may be attributed to increased organisational efficiency
and a slight increase in the use of incentive schemes
which have been mainly due to the introduction of the
shorter working week. On the whole, smaller firms
found it easier to step up output per man-hour than
larger companies.-S.P.S.

1378. The Commonwealth Legislative Power
under the Australian Constitution in rela-
tion to Labour. O. de R. Foenander.
University of Toronto Law Journal, pp.
7-31, Vol. VIII, No. i, Lent Term, 1949.
An examination is made of the various powers granted
under the Constitution to the Parliament of the Com-
monwealth that, in their exercise, can be said to have
had substantial effects upon labour-thus the industrial
power, maritime or trade and commerce power, trade
marks power, immigration and emigration power,
defence power, social services power, external affairs
power. The conjunctive use of the industrial power and
the maritime power is considered, and also co-operation
between the Commonwealth and States in the exercise
of powers that, in the result, have had a special bearing
upon the workers.-O. de R.F.

1379. Secret Ballots in Trade Unions. Fabian
Society of N.S.W., Pamphlet No. 4, Octo-
ber 1949, pp. 8. Price 6d.
This pamphlet discusses, without taking sides, the
pros and cons of secret ballots in trade unions, in the
first place, prior to strike action. It deals with the pre-
vention of intimidation, an. argument which is often
exaggerated. Connected with it is the issue of freedom
or state control of unions. Practical difficulties are
who is to take part in a ballot, and who is to bear the
cost. Possibly secret ballots would result in more, not
in fewer strikes, and might also mean legalizing strikes,
and the necessity that strikes could be ended only after
another secret ballot. Another question is that of com-
pulsory voting, and whether there should also be com-
pulsory secret voting in union elections.
1380. Voluntary Collective Agreements in Aus-
tralia and New Zealand. D. C. Thomson.
University of Western Australia Annual Law
Review, Vol. i, No. i, pp. 8o-89.
A brief statement on collective industrial agreements
in the light of statute and case law in England, Aus-
tralia and N.Z.-O. de R.F.

1381. Unemployment in the General Coal Strike
June-August 1949. Appendix to Quarterly
Coal Review, No. 2, June Quarter 1949,
Research Service, pp. 7.
On 24 June 1949 there were 235,000 unemployed in
N.S.W. owing to coal, power and gas rationing. At the
beginning of the strike N.S.W. consumed about 53,000
tons of coal a week, i.e., 27'9 per cent of normal con-
sumption. By 14 July unemployment had risen to
431,000 in N.S.W., 200oo,ooo in the other states, 35 per
cent of the employees in private employment. Of the
unemployed in N.S.W. on 9 July 135,000 were in the
metal trade, 57,000 in building materials and building
industry, 55,000 in textiles and clothing. From 18 July
re-employment started, in N.S.W. mainly through
increasing use of auxiliary generating plant, elsewhere
through continuing coal production in Yalloum, and
return to work in S.A., W.A. and partly in Queensland.

Tables show the break-up of unemployment and re-em-
ployment on 4 August and 15 August. Estimates are
presented of coal strike losses by 15 August, the entire
wage loss is assumed at 38 m., the output loss at
x56-5 m.

1382. New Zealand Department of Labour and
Employment. Report for Year ended 31
March 1949. Government Printer, Well-
ington, 1949, pp. 120. P.P. Price 2s. 3d.
Part I discusses the industrial position, mainly the level
and trend of employment. The acute labour shortage
is somewhat easing. Part II outlines departmental
actities in sections on : employment; immigration-
1947-48 1,528 assisted immigrants and another 1,843
selected immigrants paying their own fares arrived,
arrangements were made to select and admit 9oo D.P.
migrants and aoo Dutch farm workers ; industrial wel-
fare in factories, shops and offices, farms ; industrial
relations (Court of Arbitration, industrial associations
and unions) ; apprenticeship ; home aid services ;
I.L.O., etc. Part III is concerned with district activi-
ties. Appendices present statistics and returns of indus-
trial associations and unions.

1383. The Personnel Function in Industry. M.
Kangan and P. H. Cook. Bulletin of Indus-
trial Psychology and Personnel Practice,
pp. 3-14, June 1949.
A survey of 181 Australian firms in Vic., N.S.W. and
S.A. with more than 1,0ooo employees. The firms
extended to about 30 groups of industries, the most
frequent size was between 20o and 400 employees.
Personnel work was in 46 per cent of the firms accepted
as a top management function, particularly in larger
firms with more than 600 employees. There were
personnel departments in 47 per cent of the firms, again
more often in larger firms. In other firms personnel
functions were carried out by line and staff officers
(foremen). In about one half of the firms industrial
and personnel matters were handled by separate officers.
Most attention was given to supervision of working
conditions and amenities, to safety and health, and to
social and recreational activities, less to induction,
training of employees and supervisors, and to com-
munications, despite the importance of these practices.

1384. Understanding the Labour Turnover Prob-
lem. W. J. Byrt. Bulletin of Industrial
Psychology and Personnel Practice, pp. 22-
30, June 1949.
A study of 106 Australian firms with nearly 50,000
employees to find out the relationship between labour
turnover and certain factors, such as location, size, wage
level, organisation of personnel work, etc. No specific
relationship between the rate of labour turnover and
these factors could be ascertained, each firm had its own
peculiar problem. This is shown in a survey of six
factories as illustrative cases, where among the factors
responsible for a high turnover were : defective employ-
ment policy and practices: too little attention to the
training of foremen, to methods of employment,
induction and training of new recruits ; lack of modem
personnel procedures when the long tradition of
informal friendly management-labour relations failed;
shiftwork conditions, employment of males to replace
females in textile mills, etc.

1385. Labour Turnover in Australian Industry,
March 1949. Bulletin of Industrial Psy-
chology and Personnel Practice, pp. 21-24,
September 1949.
This article is based on figures published in Quarterly
Business Survey, No. 8, March 1949, Commonwealth
Bureau of Census and Statistics, covering 25 per cent
of employees in private firms excluding rural, shipping
and stevedoring industries. Labour turnover rates are
given separately for manufacturing and other indus-
tries, males and females. Those for females are higher,
particularly in 'other' industries. Another table pre-
sents rates classified by industries, manual and clerical,
male and female workers. The rates are much higher
among manual than clerical males, while the difference
is less marked among females. Highest turnover rates
occur in food, drink, tobacco industries, furniture, saw-
milling, woodworking, 'other' manufacturing, building,
personal services, entertainment, etc. Shift workers
show higher rates than non-shift workers. A com-
parison of Australian industries in March 1949 with U.S.
figures for September 1948 reveals higher rates in most
industries in Australia.

1386. The Financial Effects of Labour Turnover :
Case Study No. III. D. E. Graves and
J. L. Holmes. Bulletin of Industrial Psy-
chology and Personnel Practice, pp. 33-39,
September 1949.
Unlike previous case studies (see Abstracts No. 955
in No. 7 and No in No. 8 of this periodical) not
the factory is treated as a unit, but the division of a large
factory with more than 1,6oo workers, making radio and
electrical equipment. The effects of labour turnover
are set out in detail on production, direct production
costs, factory overhead ad general overhead (employ-
ment, training, termination costs and costs of transfer
between divisions). The avrageerage cost per separation
in case of replacement from other divisions is calcu-
lated at 17 5s., in case of engagements of new em-
ployees at 25 5s.

1387. Absence from Work. D. Wearne. Bulletin
of Industrial Psychology and Personnel Prac-
tice, pp. 25-32, September 1949.
An analysis of absence figures for March 1949, cover-
ing 58 firms in Vic., N.S.W. and S.A. in the textile,
industrial metals and machines, and other heavy indus-
tries, with nearly 2o,ooo workers. Absence (of 3 or
more hours other than holidays) rates were 6 per cent
for males, 9-2 for females, i.e., 14 and 22 days per year.
Comparisons are made with similar figures in U.S. and
U.K. There is no great difference in rates as between
industry groups, except for the higher rates of female
absentees in the textile group, particularly in spinning.
The most frequent reason for absence is sickness, next
come accidents. There are seasonal and for longer
periods yearly fluctuations. Finally the significance
of absenteeism is set out, especially to the cost of the

1388. Wage-Incentive Plans : A Review of Award
Provisions. K. F. Walker. Bulletin of
Industrial Psychology and Personnel Prac-
tice, pp. 31-41, June 1949.
In this paper examples of awards concerned with piece
work are presented. Australian industrial tribunals

require payment of a minimum wage to incentive work-
.ers and minima for all special payments, e.g., shift
premiums, penalty rates for overtime and holiday work,
sick and annual leave. Usually the incentive is laid
down by awards in the form of margins of 6 to 25 per
cent over the minimum time rates. Other points are
award provisions for equitable distribution of work,
supply of adequate equipment and raw materials,
allowance for delays through mechanical breakdowns or
through instruction of new workers. As to rates not
fixed in detail in awards, often consultation between
management and workers' representatives is specified
and the right of appeal against rates is given. Further
aspects are the method of reviewing rates when con-
ditions change, the quality of work done by piece
workers, how to keep employees informed about
awards, and how to make records of the work done
available to them.

1389. Leeper, G. W. Introduction to Soil Science.
Melbourne University Press, 1948, pp. vi
and 219.
A relatively simple text book on soils, their origins,
classifications, components, chemical and physical
characteristics, relationship to water and plant growth.
Essentially written for the Australian teacher and stu-
dent, it makes reference to the local aspects of most of
the problems which are prominent in the field of modern
soil science.-S.M.W.

1390. Annual Report of the Water Conservation
and Irrigation Commission, N.S.W., for
Year ended 30 June 1948, pp. 53. Govern-
ment Printer, Sydney. Price 3s. 6d.
Progress of the irrigation areas, water conservation
works and stock and domestic supply schemes controlled
by the Commission is described. Statistics are pro-
vided of water supplied, areas irrigated and produce
grown. A financial statement of the Commission's
activities is appended.-K.P.J.B.

1391. Annual Report of the Department of Agri-
culture and Stock, Queensland for Year
1948-49, PP. 99. Government Printer,
A complete survey of the current and proposed work
of the Department. Use of improved cane varieties
and new methods of insect control contributed to the
production of a record sugar crop in 1948. Increased
production of certified hybrid seed and further mech-
anisation are the chief advances in the maize industry.
Soldier settlement for tobacco growing is proceeding on
the Burdekin and increased prices have followed the
establishment of a marketing board by growers. Mech-
anical cotton harvesters are being tested. Government
has subsidized the purchase of long wool rams in an
attempt to encourage fat lamb production. Plans exist
for joint research with C.S.I.R.O. on cattle husbandry,
pastures and breeding. A new extension service in
cattle husbandry has commenced. Regular market
and crop reports are used increasingly.-K.P.J.B.

1392. Fifth Annual Report of the Bureau of
Investigation for Year 1948. Government
Printer, Brisbane, pp. 2o.

Areas where further development and settlement may
take place in Queensland are mapped and described.
Of utmost importance are the possibilities of cropping
for stock fattening in the country between the 2o" and
25" isohyets, the means of raising carrying capacity of
coastal areas, and the potentialities of irrigation farming
in the river valleys. Results of irrigation trials on the
Bureau's Research Stations at Gatton and Theodore and
valuable aerial photos of the 1949 floods in the Channel
Country are appended.-K.P.J.B.

1393. Forty-ninth Annual Report of the Bureau
of Sugar Experiment Stations. Government
Printer, Brisbane, 1949, pp. 53-
The successful application of selective insecticides
has perhaps been. the most important contribution of
the Bureau towards improved cane growing in the last
decade. Cane improvement and studies of soil fertility
are also returning steady dividends to the industry.
Over half the total harvest was in 1949 derived from
Queensland bred canes for the first time. A review of
the industry shows that harvesting machines are now in
commercial production and use and that immigrant
labour has eased the formerly acute shortage.-K.P.J.B.

1394. New Zealand Department of Agriculture.
Annual Report for Year 1948-49, pp. 111.
Government Printer, Wellington. Price
Increasingly intensive use of the land has been char-
acteristic of N.Z. Agriculture since 1920. The eco-
nomic family unit has become the dominant farm hold-
ing, and carrying capacity has been raised substantially.
Investigation and extension carried out by the 5 divisions
of the Dept. of Agriculture have accelerated these
trends. A comprehensive account of current activities
is given.-K.P.J.B.

1395. Annual Report of the Australian Dairy Pro-
duce Board for Year 1947-48, pp. 32.
After the disbandment of the wartime Dairy Produce
Control Committee in 1948, export control of dairy
produce reverted to the A.D.P.B. The report sets out
the salient features of the long term Australian-U.K.
purchase agreement and records the Board's approval of
the creation of a Dairy Industry Stabilisation Fund,
contingent upon the fund ultimately being held by the
Board itself. Finance has been granted by the Board
to C.S.I.R. and State organizations for research. Home
production of primary produce in the U.K., and the
overall economic position of the U.K. is reviewed by
the Board's London Office. Trade statistics show an
increase of 52 per cent in exports of butter to the U.K.
during the year under review.-K.P.J.B.

1396. Dairyfarming Annual 1948. Massey Agri-
cultural College (University of N.Z.),
September 1949, pp. 185. Price ios.
Lectures delivered at the first annual school for dairy-
farmers held at the College. Subjects include N.Z. herd
improvement schemes, land valuation and the work of
the Veterinary Council established in 1946. The
Council encourages the formation of Government sub-
sidised Veterinary Clubs under farmer control, which
employ one or more qualified veterinarians as salaried
officers. Private veterinarians working outside a club
area receive part payment from the Council.-K.P.J.B.

1397. Victorian Dairy-farms. A Sociological
Study. Precis of thesis by M. Rothberg.
Australian Journal of Dairy Technology,
pp. 48-59, April-June 1949.
This study is based mainly on a sample survey of 256
dairy-farms throughout Vic. The chapter headings
ate : scope of work and sampling method; tenure and
the farming ladder ; agricultural equipment; livestock ;
routine of work ; people on dairy-farms ; labour force ;
finance ; housing; education; food, health and com-
munity services ; recreation and leisure ; dairyfarmers'
organizations; some wartime influences; the overall
picture. 'The survey revealed the dairyfarmer as
living the life of a pioneer, in part, with many physical
and mental hardships. Nevertheless, some dairy-
farmers prefer the life believing that their's is a more
satisfying existence than that of their city cousins.'

1398. The Australian Potato Industry. Bureau of
Agricultural Economics. Department of
Commerce and Agriculture Bulletin No. 5,
1949, pp. 67.
A factual survey of production-consumption trends,
transport, marketing and mechanisation. Despite an
increase in yield/acre since 1939 production costs/ton
have increased by more than 50 per cent. Much higher
market prices than pre-war will therefore be necessary
to induce growers to plant an acreage sufficient for Aus-
tralian requirements. The present volume of exports
to Eastern Markets is unlikely to be maintained. Ade-
quate statistics of the industry are presented, including
demonstrative charts of interstate potato trade.

1399. The Tullaroop Reservoir Catchment. Ian G.
Forbes and C. S. Gloe. State Rivers and
Water Supply Commission of Victoria,
1949, pp. 25 and plates.
A general survey of the catchment area supplying a
proposed reservoir. Erosion is reported as being of
slight significance except in one or two minor localities.

1400. The First Fifty Years of Agriculture in
N.S.W. C. J. King. (Continued.) Review.
of Marketing and Agricultural Economics
(Department of Agriculture, N.S.W.), pp.
269-349, September 1949.
Development of the Colony between 182o and 1840
was dominated by the intense development of the
pastoral industry. Considerable areas of the best lands
were alienated to immigrants possessing some capital
assets whether fictitious or real. Crop farming re-
mained in depression throughout the period. (See
abstract No. 1182 in No. 8 of this journal.)-K.P.J.B.

1401. The World Food Shortage and the Future
of Australian Livestock Industries. I.
Clunies Ross. Australian Outlook, pp.
163-174, September 1949.
Although world food production would have to
increase at a rate exceeding one per cent per annum to
maintain 1938 standards of nutrition, a surplus of wheat,
sugar and cotton over effective demand is likely to arise
in 1950. On the other hand foodstuffs of animal origin

are assured of a ready sale in the U.K. for at least ten
years. Increasing home population coupled with the
shift to fine wool production and unsolved problems of
development retard Australia from increasing her
exports of meat and dairy produce to meet this demand.

1402. The Problems and Possibilities of Wheat
Growing in Australia. R. D. Watt.
Empire Journal of Experimental Agriculture
(Oxford), pp. 187-194, October 1948.
A concise account of the soil and climatic limitations
upon wheat growing and of the practices employed by
the Australian grower. The area which could be
devoted to wheat in the near future is estimated.
1403. Irrigated Pastures in Victoria. A. Morgan.
Journal of the Department of Agriculture,
Victoria, March, May, June, August,
September 1949.
The results of Victorian investigations into the man-
agement of irrigated pastures with a description of all
the principal pasture species used.-K.P.J.B.

1404. Some Notes on the Financial Position of 15
Central-Western Wheat-Sheep Farms in
1946-47. P. C. Druce. Review of Marketing
and Agricultural Economics, pp. 185-196,
June 1949.
The analysis of record books for farm transactions
kept by a group of growers selected by the Dept. of
Agriculture. The 15 farms are amongst the more
efficient in the district, and, despite low rainfall in 1946-
47, only four failed to give a satisfactory return on
capital. Due to crop failure or low yields of wheat,
wool, sheep and lambs were the main sources of in-

1405. Sheep Farming in New Zealand. Meat
Producer and Exporter (Journal of the
Australian Meat Board), pp. 1-3, Septem-
ber 1949.
A precis of the report dated March 1949 of the Royal
Commission on the sheep industry in N.Z. Fat lamb
production is of increasing importance, Romney,
Southdown and their crosses being the main breeds
kept. Nearly 70 per cent of the Dominion's sheep are
in flocks of less than i,ooo. Exports can be nearly
doubled within 50 years, by increasing the area of low
fertility country top dressed; and by combating the
rabbit pest.-K.P.J.B.

1406. Australian Citrus Industry. L. White.
Quarterly Review of Agricultural Economics,
p. 101, July 1949.
A surplus of production over home consumption and
exports is likely to arise after 1956, due to post-war
private plantings, which were not allowed for in com-
puting the desirable area to be planted under the War
Service Land Settlement Scheme.-K.P.J.B.

1407. Report on Coastal-Grown Orange Prices.
An Interpretation of Market Trends and
the Conditions of Retail Distribution.

C. J. King and T. M. P. McKeon. Review
of Marketing and Agricultural Economics,
pp. 226-288, September 1949.
An analysis of marketing procedure and costs, with
appended price data for the Sydney Metropolitan Mar-

1408. The Genus Eucalyptus-Its Past and Its
Future in Pacific Forests. N. W. Jolly.
Australian Timber Journal, pp. 390-405,
July 1949.
An extremely wide range of environments supports
the genus Eucalyptus; its 500 odd species showing
correspondingly wide variation in growth rates and
timber quality. The open canopy and oil content of
the leaves result in a forest of unusually high inflamma-
bility; but reproductive powers of the genus are, under
natural conditions, great enough for fire-survival.
Dense sapling growth, which follows complete cutting
of an area, may be completely destroyed by fire. Aus-
tralian foresters work selectively on Eucalypt forest of
mixed size and species; but .clean cut certain pure
stands. Plantations have been made on small areas for
filling in or to encourage valuable species.-K.P.J.B.

1409. The Navy Bean Industry in N.S.W. E. B.
Furby and L. C. Yorke. Review of Market-
ing and Agricultural Economics, pp. 197-
216, June 1949.
Annual income of between 5,000 and 26,ooo is at
present derived in the New England district from the
sale of Navy Beans. The attempts made since 1918
by the Dept. of Agriculture to establish the crop
entailed the importation of new varieties and of special
harvesting machinery. Great expansion of the indus-
try took place during the war, and with the lapse of
Government purchase growers voted for a Marketing
Board. Unfavourable seasons and continued harvest-
ing difficulties have caused a post-war decline in

(A) Government and Politics
1410. Crisp, L. F. The Parliamentary Govern-
ment of the Commonwealth of Australia.
Longmans, 1949, pp. 344.
Professor Crisp traces the historical growth and ana-
lyses the present working of the main parts of the
Commonwealth political machinery. He is concerned
throughout to explain and discuss political dynamics,
as well as to describe political institutions. The chapter
on the birth of the Federal Constitution contains new
material; the chapter on the electorate contains a
general discussion of electoral methods, as well as an
analysis of the sources of public opinion. The work is
recent enough to include a treatment of the enlargement
of the Commonwealth Parliament.-W.M.B..

1411. Australian Citizenship and British Nation-
ality. T. N. M. Buesst. Australian Out-
look, pp. o19-I16, June 1949.
The author surveys British and Dominion legislation
on nationality with special emphasis upon the Aus-
tralian Nationality and Citizenship Act of 1948. The
Dominions (with the exception of N.Z.) re-enacted the

British Act of 1914 and thus accepted the 'imperially
valid status of British Subject' as 'imperial fundamental
law'. But the Statute of Westminster made the
Dominions legally competent in this matter so that the
notion of 'imperial fundamental law' is no longer
accepted. This change is best illustrated by the new
Australian Act of 1948, Section 7 of which makes
Australian Citizenship basic to the status of British
1412. History of the Department of External
Affairs. A Study Group. Australian Out-
look, pp. 209-214, September 1949.
Created in g19o, the Department was the first of its
kind in a British Dominion. From 19go1-196, the year
it was dissolved, its province included Australian-U.K.
relations, Pacific Mail Services, as well as the Adminis-
tration of Papua. Re-created in 1921 and re-organised
in 1924, it became independent of the Prime Minister's
Department in 1935. 1940 saw the beginning of inde-
pendent Australian representation abroad, accompanied
by increasing participation in international conferences.
1946 the overseas staff numbered o12 officers. In the
same year, the Department's activities were grouped
into four divisions: (A) Administrative and General;
(B) Pacific; (C) European, American and Middle East;
(D) U.N. and International Organisation. A Diplo-
matic Staff Cadet Scheme was instituted in 1943.-H.W.

1413. The Labour Movements in Australia and
New Zealand. David L. Glickman.
Social Research, New York, pp. 199-221,
June 1949.
A concise survey of the important features of the
Australian and N.Z. Labour Movements, including
organisation, relation of trade unions to state and party,
the philosophy of Australasian labour and how and why
it differs from that of continental socialist and Marxist
movements, the legislative records of both the Australian
and N.Z. Labour Governments, etc. Throughout his
article, the author has stressed the influence of the social,
political and constitutional set-up of both Dominions
upon the organisation and political activities of the two
Labour Movements.-H.W.

1414. The Progressive Party-1948. L. G.
Churchward. Australian Quarterly, pp.
37-46, March 1949.
An analysis of the origins of the Wallace movement,
its organisation, policies and chances of surviving in the
American political scene. The author concludes that
the prospects of its rapid growth in the immediate
future are not good, but that it will probably continue
for some time as an active political party in some key
states and as a lobbying organisation at the national

(B) International Relations
1415. One World is Still Possible. H. V. Evatt.
United Nations World, New York, pp. 12-
14, May 1949.
In this 'pre-view' of his forthcoming book, Task of
the Nations, Dr. Evatt urges a positive policy based on
the principles and purposes of the U.N. Charter. The
pursuit of individual freedom must be matched by the
raising of living standards and the reduction of political
and economic inequalities. Different political and

economic systems can exist side by side, and war is not
inevitable. But the defeat of the four great enemies-
tyranny, poverty, injustice, and war-demands an
effort from every citizen to understand the U.N. and
make its machinery effective.-N.M.R.

1416. Struggle for Power in South Eastern Asia.
Werner Levi. American Perspective, Wash-
ington, pp. 451-464, February 1949.
The Soviet Union is not directly involved in this
struggle but there is 'abundant circumstantial evidence'
to connect local Communist movements in S.E. Asia
with Moscow. The U.S. has generally kept aloof from
the struggle, intervening only if Communist movements
have threatened her strategic interests in the area.
Australia's policy has been to steer a middle road between
welcoming the national movements as allies and relying
on Anglo-British defence. In the long run the area will
probably be dominated by India and China.-L.G.C.

1417. An Australian View of Empire. Round
Table, London, pp. 111-117, March 1949.
'Round Table' groups in Melbourne and Sydney have
carefully discussed the issues raised in a series of
articles in the Round Table (March and June 1948) on
the future of the British Commonwealth. This article
gives the views of the Melbourne group, which is
inclined to reject any proposal for federal union among
members of the Commonwealth. It favours rather a
'Commonwealth Council of Ministers', as advocated in
1942 by Mr. Curtin and again recently by Lord Bruce;
and the tightening of Commonwealth co-ordination
both through functional committees (like those of
United Nations) and through an improved machinery of
day-to-day interchange of views and information.

1418. Australia--India or the Pacific ? J. Gentilli.
Australian Quarterly, pp. 72-76, March
The experience of the recent war would seem to indi-
cate that Australia is a Pacific power and that her closest
ties are with the U.S. But the geographical situation
of Australia in relation to the geopolitical struggle
between the U.S. and the Soviet Union will reduce the
strategic importance of Australia to the U.S. On the
other hand the Indian Ocean has ceased to be a British
lake, and Australia's future rests largely upon our
ability to retain friendly relations with the great coun-
tries of the Indian Ocean.-L.G.C.

1419. Our Pacific Neighbours. Hedley C.
Brideson. Australian Quarterly, pp. 27-
37, June 1949.
The future of Australia and the Pacific will depend
on the resolving of a number of fundamental issues, the
most important being the shifting of power from the
Atlantic to the Pacific, the rising tide of nationalism in
the East, the downward march of Communism, and the
role of Japan. Australia's best policy for future
security will lie in a combination of continued alliance
with Britain and the U.S. and a strengthening of
friendly cultural and trade relations with Asia.-L.G.C.

1420. The Indonesian Dispute. R. A. D. Egerton.
Australian Outlook, pp. 117-127, June 1949.
The main stages and factors in the conflict between
the Dutch Government and Indonesia are discussed,

with special reference to action taken by the U.N.
Security Council-through the work of its Committee
of Good Offices from December 1947 to November 1948,
and the Security Council resolutions of January 1949.
The development of the nationalist movement before,
during and after the Japanese occupation is traced and
problems arising from the Linggadjati Agreement of
March 1947 are discussed at some length. Finally the
question of how far the Security Council resolutions
can be implemented is raised, without much opti-

1421. Post-War Western Europe: An Impres-
sion. A. H. McDonald. Australian Out-
look, pp. 99-Io8, June 1949.
The most urgent problem in Western Europe is the
reconstruction of Germany from the ground up, which
involves the close co-ordination of other nations for
economic and social survival against Communism.
Hence the development of Western Union and the North
Atlantic Pact, by supporting the recovery of Western
Europe as a balance to the solidarity of Eastern Europe,
may ultimately strengthen rather than weaken the U.N.
Looking at Western Europe in this perspective, two of
the most crucial areas are seen to be France and Italy,
whose present economic and political problems are
briefly discussed.-N.M.R.

1422. The Outlook for ECAFE (Economic Com-
mission for Asia and the Far East). E. E.
Ward. Far Eastern Survey (New York),
PP. 73-77, 6 April 1949.
An Australian economist summaries the results of the
Commission's fourth session (held in Australia, Decem-
ber 1948) and the problems before its Committee of the
Whole (meeting at Bangkok, March 1949). Among the
biggest problems are the need for capital goods and
basic materials for industrial development; the need to
encourage international trade and finance ; trade
between ECAFE countries and Japan; the need to
increase food production for recovery and development;
and the problem of developing scientific, technical, and
administrative skills. The extent to which ECAFE can
now advance from investigation to concrete action may
depend much on the attitude of Western countries-
particularly the U.S.A.-N.M.R.

1423. Australia and the Post-War Settlement in
South-East Asia. J. Leyser. Australian
Outlook, pp. 183-189, September 1949.
An analysis of Australia's political tasks in view of the
rise of new national states in S.E. Asia. As the only
Dominion in this area, Australia forms a bridge between
East and West. Australia's 'dual position' requires a
sympathetic approach to the new states, whose 'legiti-
mate aspirations' must be acknowledged. The author
stresses the need for close co-operation between mem-
bers of the Commonwealth, among whom the new
Dominions of India, Pakiston and Ceylon are of particu-
lar importance. Political developments in the new
national states are briefly surveyed.-H.W.

1424. Relations of the British Commonwealth and
the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R. K. A. Aickin.
Australian Outlook, pp. 175-182, Septem-
ber 1949.
The world to-day is dominated by the two remaining
great powers, the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R. Alterna-

tives, such as whether U.K. could become a 'third
force' between the giants, or whether the Common-
wealth in alliance with smaller nations could form a
third 'super-power', are dismissed as unreal. Strategic,
political and economic considerations force us to co-
operate with the U.S.A. An understanding with the
Soviet Union seems difficult, but 'the path to it lies in
resolute and concerted defence and in the avoidance of
methods calculated to provoke only prolonged and
bitter disputation'.-H.W.

(A) Housing
1425. Sunshine and Shade in Australasia. R. O.
Phillips. Commonwealth Experimental
Building Station, Sydney, Duplicated Doc-
ument No. 23, May 1948, pp. 33, 22 plates.
The plates are meant to enable the designer to find
the angles at which the sun's rays will fall on buildings
at different times, seasons and places. For this purpose
the latitude of the place, the day of the year, the time
of the day, and the orientation of the building is to be
known. On maps and solar charts the altitudes of
42J, 371, 35, 32J, 271, zo, 12, and 5 degrees south are
selected as representing the main centres in Australia,
N.Z. and New Guinea from Hobart* and Wellington to
Rabaul. Detailed explanations are presented as to
selected dates, time of the day and orientation in rela-
tion to the declination of the sun and the azimuth.
In the second part of the document the use of solar
charts and of a shadow angle protractor is set out to
determine the time of sunlight penetration of northern,
eastern and western walls in connection with projecting

(B) Social Security and Public Health
1426. Social Services and their Future. Research
Service, Sydney, June 1949, pp. vi, 36
The Commonwealth Government now controls about
) of Australia's gross national expenditure, largely
through social service payments. Section I deals with
National Welfare Fund expenditure and social ten-
dencies. After setting forth the age groups concerned,
the paper considers population tendencies. In future
there will be a higher proportion of old people, a lower
proportion of people of the effective earning age, and the
proportion of children will not be greatly changed.
This will hardly be balanced by immigration of younger
people. Possible changes are the abolition or relaxing
of the means test on pensions, increases in the rates of
pensions, lowering of the minimum ages for pensions
and endowment of the first child in each family. Cost
increases in the case of these alterations are examined.
Section II discusses social services and the national
income. Social service payments as percentage of the
national income and per head of population are calcu-
lated and figures are presented regarding direct taxation
for social services and the annual expenditure and
balance of the National Welfare Fund. Section III
is an attempt to estimate future demands on the fund
for unemployment benefits on the assumption that
unemployment will rise to the level of 1932 and 1938.

1427. Seventh Report of the Director-General of
Social Services. Year ended 30 June 1948.

P.P. Government Printer, Canberra, pp.
26. Price is. 6d.
Comments and statistical tables are presented con-
cerning 13 different types of social benefits administered
by the Department. The maximum age pension was
raised by 5s. a week and the means test was further
relaxed. By 30 June 1948 there were 1,381,ooo age and
invalid pensioners and 1,05o,ooo endowed children.
To decentralise the administration 17 regional offices
were set up outside the capital cities. Special chapters
deal with the Social Work and Research Section and
with rehabilitation and vocational training. Cabinet
approved the introduction of a rehabilitation scheme
for the general community (medical treatment and
vocational training).

1428. New Zealand. Social Security Department.
Report for Year ended 31 March 1949.
P.P. Government Printer, Wellington,
1949, pp. 17. Price 9d.
A survey of the Department's activities. Section I
deals with social security benefits. Of new legislation
the Acts concerning reciprocity with U.K. in family
benefits and with Australia in age, widows', invalids',
family, unemployment and sickness benefits are import-
ant. Details are given about various types of benefits.
Part II outlines war pensions, particularly medical
treatment of ex-servicemen. Section III (General) and
the appendix present statistical material.

(C) Social Surveys
1429. Report on the Legal Profession in Victoria.
Survey of Incomes and Future Prospects
in the Legal Profession. Law Institute
Journal, pp. 75-85, June 1949.
A questionnaire was sent to I,o6I Victorian solicitors
holding practising certificates and replies were received
from 514 solicitors by 15 February 1949, of whom 450
were solicitor-principals. Tables, pictograms and
graphs show incomes and years of practice as principals.
Only a small proportion can hope to achieve an income
of 1,5oo a year before Io years of practice. An income
of i,ooo and over is reached by a larger proportion of
solicitors with five and more years of practice. Further
graphs and tables compare incomes of solicitor-principals
for 1938-39 and 1947-48 gross and net after tax. Some
increase of income since 1939 was largely offset by
higher taxes. Other figures show the time devoted to
practice-solicitors now work longer hours than prior
to the war-their numbers per i,ooo of population,
their incomes according to location of practice, the sal-
aries of 67 solicitor-employees in 1947-48 and the years
of their admission to practice as solicitors. Finally the
likelihood of future overcrowding of the profession is

(D) Population and Migration

1430. Casey, R. G. Double or Quit. Some Views
on Australian Development and Relations.
F. W. Cheshire, Melbourne, 1949, pp. 113.
Price 7s. 6d.
A collection of papers mainly concerned with the need
to populate and develop Australia and with problems of
her employer-employee relations. The first essay
'Double or Quit' stresses the maldistribution of the

British race, and the adverse balance of payments of
U.K.-Australia should double her population within
30 years, but because of the lack of manpower and capi-
tal her resources are largely undeveloped. Our
resources have to be surveyed and U.K. and U.S.
capital is to be attracted to develop them which is
necessary to employ immigrants. Subsequent papers
deal with the development of food production required
to maintain our food exports, particularly in North
Queensland and the Northern Territory. Especially
the Burdekin River irrigation scheme, sorghum pro-
duction, the Blair Athol open cut coal deposit, and
cattle raising in the N.T. are mentioned. Further
papers discuss among other subjects the problems of
the N.S.W. coalfields, of housing, scientific research in
industry, organisation and methods, the 'worker-boss'
problem, human relations in industry, the workers'
partnership in industry, vocational guidance, Australia's
international relations within and beyond the British

1431. Aspects Historiques et Contemporains de
l'Immigration Australienne (Historical and
Contemporary Aspects of Australian Immi-
gration). W. D. Borrie. Population (Paris),
pp. 441-458, July-September 1948.
Since 1941 Australia has realized that with her present
population she cannot defend herself, nor can she rely
for her defence on British or European power. The
author outlines the history of Australian immigration.
The next section deals with demographic trends and
immigration : declining rate of reproduction and rising
proportion of aged compared with young people. This
is followed by a survey of the economic aspect with
regard to immigration, how the preponderance of
agriculture is giving way to urbanisation and secondary
industry. Post-war immigration is discussed, Aus-
tralian agreements with U.K. and the I.R.O. are referred
to. Among 'problems of the future' the contrast
between the 1920's-immigrants for agriculture-and
the present time-for a diversified economy-is stressed.
The author suggests to amend the White Australia
policy so as to remove racial discrimination. Australia
can help overpopulated Asiatic countries not by
illimited immigration, but by raising her output of food-
stuffs and manufactured goods to be exported to Asia.

1432. The International Refugee Organisation
and Australia's Contribution. Current
Notes on International Affairs, pp. 214-223,
February 1949.
A brief outline of the history of the I.R.O. and of its
constitution (printed as appendix III (a), pp. 289-304).
Australia's financial contribution has been two annual
payments of A8zo,ooo. In the earlier period the
larger part of expenses was allotted to health care and
maintenance of persons remaining in camps, in the later
period to re-establishment. Special sections deal with
repatriation and resettlement, and with Australia's con-
tribution to resettlement which will be the eventual
admission of 200,000 D.P.'s. Australian immigration
and reception centres, the conditions of D.P.'s employ-
ment in Australia and of their naturalisation are de-
Appendix III (b) (pp. 304-305) presents the agree-
ment between the Australian Commonwealth Govern-
ment and the Preparatory Committee of I.R.O., signed
on 21 July 1947.

1433. Australian Rural Population Changes. J.
Gentilli. Part of paper read before Sections
G and P at Hobart Meeting of Australian
and N.Z. Association for the Advancement
of Science, January 1949. Economic
Record, pp. 37-47, June 1949.
This paper is based on a comparison of the censuses
of 1933 and 1947. Population increases in rural areas
outside the metropolitan areas are an exception,
increases over 50 per cent occur only in 29 districts.
Increases exceed decreases in dairy, irrigation and mining
districts. Worst off are wheat and pastoral districts
where a declining population is the predominant
phenomenon, while in mixed and sugar districts the
number of districts with increasing population is still
substantial, although a minority. Important are
climatic factors, the precipitation effectiveness which is
discussed at some detail. Wheat growing districts have
on the whole reached the limit of close settlement. In
addition human factors, occupational, national and
religious, play an essential part in the reproductivity
1434. Changes of Population of Victorian Regions.
R. W. Meadows. Planning Bulletin, Mel-
bourne, pp. 3-5, 7, June 1949; 8-io,
August 1949, 7-7, October 1949.
In a previous article in the same periodical, abstracted
as No. 1217 in No. 8 of this journal, the author has dis-
cussed population trends in Vie. in general terms. In
the present paper he presents a detailed analysis of
population changes in individual regions, such as
Barwon, Central Highlands, etc. Of special interest
is the Mallee with 51 per cent increase 1921-33 and
16-8 per cent fall 1933-47, and the Wimmera with rapid
growth 1921-33 and marked fall 1933-47.

1435. Mortality in New Zealand and England and
Wales. Elizabeth Lessof. Population
Studies, Cambridge, pp. 76-99, June 1949.
'This paper compares age-specific mortality rates in
England and Wales with those of N.Z. Differences in
rates are greatest at the younger age groups, and are par-
ticularly high for infants under i year and children
between I and 5 years. The age-specific mortality
rates for females under 25 years and for males under 35
years are analysed by causes of death in order to dis-
cover main differences, and for infant mortality in
England and Wales a further analysis has been made by
social class. The greatest room for improvement in
England and Wales mortality rates, as compared with
N.Z. rates, is at ages under 5 years, and in infant mor-
tality in particular the greatest differences between
England and Wales and N.Z. rates by causes of death
are for those causes usually associated with environ-
mental influences'-P.H.K.

1436. Sanders, C. Student Selection and Academic
Success in Australian Universities. Com-
monwealth Office of Education. Education
Series No. i. Government Printer, Sydney,
1948, pp. 158.
This report discusses the wastage of students doing
university courses in Australia. Probably about 50 per
cent of students entering universities obtain a pass

degree or higher. Many factors influence it including
university and faculty policy. Entrance requirements
vary, and appear to restrict school courses, but faculty
prerequisites are not the only reasons for choice of
subjects in schools.
Academic success is not readily predicted from exam-
ination results; intelligence tests reveal the highly
selected character of university population and their
correlations with university success are comparatively
low. The performances of students entering at differ-
ent ages varies between and within universities. Many
younger students find the courses difficult. The per-
formance of older students depends on their school and
post school experiences. Through wartime selection
the quality of the university population was higher.
Educational opportunity has been enlarged, although
there are still many capable students not enrolled in
university courses.

1437. Parker, H. T. The Mental Defective in
School and After. Australian Council for
Educational Research, Melbourne, 1949,
pp. 32. Price is. 6d.
The most practical classification of the mental
defective is by degree of defect, though qualitative fac-
tors are also present. Different treatments are needed
for the feebleminded, the imbecile and the idiot. We
cannot yet cure the defect, but we can mitigate it. We
can both reduce society's requirements and increase the
defective's contributions. The latter can be done
either by well conceived education for social betterment,
or by careful attention to the lower grade detectives who
are better off in an institution. Early ascertainment is
essential. It must begin in the schools at about the age
of ten, and provision made for the individuals dis-
covered, by special classes, special schools and insti-
1438. Reform in Secondary Education. G. W.
Bassett. Forum of Education, pp. 109-123,
April 1949.
Secondary education needs reform. Its purpose has
altered but not its character. Development and not
preparation is the aim. It is still too subject centered.
Early choice of courses should not be made; there
should be a common course; special provision should
be made for those going on to professional work or
tertiary study. Various subjects-literature, language,
social studies, science, and mathematics, etc., are dis-
cussed and their values for development pointed out.

1439. Army Education-A Point of View. John
Shellard. Forum of Education, pp. 25-30,
July 1949.
Army education from 1942-45 is appraised. Its best
features are seen in its correspondence course, its
attempt to introduce the unaware to good music and
books, and its discussion pamphlets; its great dis-
advantage is some lack of co-operation at the field
(unit) level.

1440. Latin as a School Subject. O. N. Kelly.
Australian Quarterly, pp. 98-104, June
Latin is retained as a school subject for various rea-
sons; tradition, its attention to form which made its
teaching easy, its help to the study of other languages.
Most of these are poor reasons. The study of Latin is
declining. It would be best to limit it to the few stu-

dents who wish to study it for its own sake, not its
therapeutic value.

1441. The Plight of Rural Education. A. J.
Greenhalgh. Australian Quarterly, pp. 72-
81, September 1949:
The rural child is underprivileged in education. The
education offered is remote from needs. In N.S.W.
there is little effective provision for education adapted
to the needs of the future farmer and his wife. An
effective answer is seen in residential schools, with low
costs and fees, and courses designed for needs of rural
1442. Australian Educational Assistance to South-
East Asia. Current Notes on International
Affairs, pp. 714-717, June 1949.
In 1948 6o,ooo was set aside by the Australian
Government to provide fellowships for Asian students,
and 3o,ooo to provide educational materials. The
scheme was part of UNESCO's scheme to promote
understanding. About 30 students will come to Aus-
tralia under it in 1949. Tuition fees and living ex-
penses, and certain other expenses, are met by the
fellowships, which are spread over ten Asian countries.
The chief educational materials supplied have been
visual aid equipment and textbooks.

1443. Australian National Film Board. Educa-
tion News, pp. 3-6, August 1949.
The Board, first constituted in 1945, represents edu-
cation, commerce, immigration and travel interests, and
is presided over by the Commonwealth Director-Gen-
eral of Information. It has a producer, and production
is carried out through the Film Division of the Depart-
ment of Information. It produces films for educa-
tional use as well as for publicity purposes. Distribu-
tion of its films to users in Australia is effected through
the National Library, except for theatrical distribution
which is effected by direct negotiation. State advisory
committees operate in each state, in direct touch with
the Film Board.

1444. Victorian Report of the Minister of Public
Instruction for the Year 1947-48. Govern-
ment Printer, Melbourne, 1949, pp. 42.
Contains reports by the Minister ; the Chief Inspec-
tors of primary, secondary and technical schools, and
the Inspector of Art, covering work done in the 12
months June 1947 to June 1948. Statistical tables
cover the number of schools in operation, attendances
and enrolments, age grade distribution of pupils in post-
primary courses, destination of ex-pupils, numbers,
classification, and qualifications of teachers, and the
amount spent on education.

1445. Final Report. Education Enquiry Commit-
tee. Government Printer, Adelaide, August
1949, PP. 56.
Forty major recommendations are made to improve
the quality of S.A. state education. Among the more
important are : that the method of individual progres-
sion be adopted in schools ; that the basis of promotion
be all-round maturity; that the maximum size of class
be 35 ; that the commencement age of schooling should
not be lowered until sufficient trained teachers are
available; that there should be extended support to
kindergartens, with some state supervision but not

control; that consolidation should be increased, and
schools with average attendance below 12 closed, their
pupils receiving education by correspondence or other
means ; that there should be a common core of subjects
in the secondary schools; that adult education be
extended; a code of standards for school buildings and
equipment; that medical and psychological services be
expanded; legislation to register private school

1446. Report of the Commonwealth Council for
National Fitness. Eleventh Session. Gov-
ernment Printer, Canberra, 1949, pp. 76.
Follows the lines of earlier reports and contains
resolutions passed at the meeting, together with reports
by the National Fitness Officers for 1948, and reports
from the State National Fitness Councils, the physical
education departments of the various Education
Departments, and the annual meeting of state National
Fitness organizers.

1447. Australian Council for Educational Research.
Eighteenth Annual Report, 1947-48, pp.
Contains lists of members of the Council and its staff,
report of the Director and the officer-in-charge of Test
Division, financial statements, and reports by the State
Institutes for Educational Research. Details are given
of current projects.

1448. Adult Education in Victoria. Second Annual
Report of the Council of Adult Education,
1948-49, pp. 41.
Reviews the policy of the Council and its offerings
in the field of adult education. Its charter gives it
flexibility, which is needed in a field where precise
regulation would hamper growth. Great use has been
made of local and voluntary bodies. The activities of
the Council-travelling theatre, art, lectures, film
showings, classes, etc., are dealt with, and a financial
statement presented.

1449. Correspondence in the Service of Education.
Perth Technical College. Perth 1949,
pp. x + 23.
W.A. has, outside the metropolitan area, a density of
24 persons per square mile. Adequate facilities cannot
be provided for full time post-primary education for all
who require it. 'The technical correspondence school
was established in 1944 to assist in work with the armed
forces and their rehabilitation after the war. It has
since met a real need by providing technical correspond-
ence courses for many subjects to students all over the
state. Its progress each year from 1944 to 1949 is set
out in detail, courses and numbers being listed.

1450. Andrews, J. Australia's Resources and their
Utilisation, Part 2. Commonwealth Office
of Education (Sydney), 1949, pp. 74. Price
is. 6d.
Part 2 deals with Australia's secondary industries,
their growth and the course of their future development.
The reasons for the present shortage of labour are dis-
cussed, population trends examined and future man-
power prospects in the light of the present immigration

policy summed up. The mining, manufacturing and
tertiary industries are separately surveyed. A number
of Australia's unused resources are pointed out and the
schemes proposed for their development examined.
A concluding chapter gives findings from both parts,
considering some of the factors likely to determine
Australia's industrial structure in the years to come.
1451. Regional Planning Bibliography. Depart-
ment of Post-War Reconstruction, Regional
Planning Division, Canberra roneoedd).
(a) Part III. Victoria. Compiled by Kath-
leen M. Hedberg. 19 April 1948, pp. 60.
(b) Part VII. South Australia. Compiled
by Kathleen M. Hedberg, 30 August 1949,
PP- 75-
(c) Supplementary Volume. Australia's
Vegetation, Forestry and Timber Resources,
1948, pp. 43.
(a) This part lists references to the physical, economic
and social resources, general development, administra-
tion and general information, and to the 13 regions of
(b) Deals with the physical, economic and social
resources, general development and administration, the
19 regions and the Reserve for Aborigines of S.A.
(c) Relevant literature is arranged by states under the
above headings.-E.J.D.

1452. Summary Reports on the Mineral Resources
of Australia. Bureau of Mineral Resources,
Geology and Geophysics, Canberra, 1948.
28 of these reports were abstracted as No. 841 of
September 1948 and No. 1238 of September 1949 ; the
two latest reports on mica (reprinted with partial
revision 1948) and chromium and chrome ore (revised
July 1948) are written in the same way as the previous

1453. Queensland, Bureau of Investigation. The
Channel Country of South-West Queensland
with Special Reference to Cooper's Creek.
Brisbane, February 1949, pp. 19.
Following a previous publication which collected the
data concerning the geology, soils, hydrology, vegeta-
tion, soil erosion, pastoral aspects, social conditions and
development of the channel country, this report sets out
recommendations as to further investigations which
would be necessary before the lines of future develop-
ment of the channel country could be determined.
Various railway routes are discussed in detail. There
is one map showing tentative land classification, 5 maps
present and suggested communications, and 2 tables
listing movement of cattle and classifying the seasons
from 1900oo-1947.-E.J.D.

1454. Queensland Bureau of Investigation. An
Investigation of the Land and Water
Resources of Lockyer Valley, July 1949,
PP- 37-
The Lockyer Valley, less than ioo miles east of Bris-
bane, is one of the main agricultural areas of Queens-
land. Owing to the increase in the number of irri-
gators, a detailed investigation of underground water

resources combined with an inventory of all land suitable
for irrigation was undertaken, in order to make recom-
mendations for the economic stability of the area.
Details are given of this investigation which disclosed
the nature, extent, and source of the underground water
supply and the extent and nature of the major soils of
the valley; in addition the physiography, geology,
climate and the development of irrigation farming in
the valley are discussed.-E.J.D.

1455. Salt Production in Victoria. A. D. N. Bain.
Mining and Geological Journal, pp. 4-7,
September 1949.
A brief description of salt production from the shallow
salt lakes of the western and north-western districts and
from sea water. The pink colour of some of the Mallee
lakes and the use of salt for agricultural, industrial and
food processing purposes is discussed.-,E.J.D.

1456. Geology of the Brown Coals of Victoria.
D. E. Thomas and W. Baragwanath.
Mining and Geological Journal, pp. 20-60,
September 1949.
After a short discussion of the term 'brown' coal the
history of brown coal mining in Victoria is outlined ;
a detailed description of the geological features of all the
known brown coal fields is given. There is a selected
bibliography from 1889 till 1949.-E.J.D.

1457. Climatic and Soil Factors affecting Future
Land Use in South Australia. H. C.
Trumble. Proceedings of the Royal Geo-
graphical Society of Australasia, South
Australian Branch, pp. 18-33, December
'By establishment of suitable herbage plants and the
application of compound mineral fertilisers' naturally
poor 'soils can be built to a' higher 'level of fertility than
much of our present wheat growing country', because
more moisture is available. The measurement of
climatic and the importance of both atmospheric and
soil temperatures is discussed. Climatic expressions
are to be developed capable of taking into account not
only annual temperature and precipitation, but also a
number of climatic factors. The moisture factor is
examined in connection with the herbage plants
adapted to the S.A. environment. From older coun-
tries with a similar or more arid climate 'additional
species and strains could be secured to provide . a
more versatile and productive supply of useful plants'.
Five maps show air temperature, rainfall and evapora-

1458. The Investigation of Soils Resources and
Agricultural Potential in North Australia.
J. K. Taylor. Proceedings of the Royal
Geographical Society of Australasia, South
Australian Branch, pp. 43-48, December
A brief review of recent scientific investigations. A
map shows the location of the areas on which investiga-
tion in some degree has proceeded to yield scientific
data on agricultural potential and the nature of soils.

1459. Cattle Industry Development in North-
Western Australia. C. R. Lambert.

Regional Development Journal (Canberra),
pp. 2-8, August 1949.
This article deals with the East Kimberleys (W.A.)
and the adjoining portions of the Northern Territory
under the following headings-geographical environ-
ment, climatic conditions, Wyndham meatworks, pre-
vailing conditions in the industry, markets, provision of
adequate transport, railways as opposed to roads, road
proposals to serve the Wyndham outlet, bridge over the
Ord River, stock route improvements, station develop-
ment, encouragement of development in the past,
problem of future development, Ord River Irrigation
proposals; conditions for pastoral leases in N.T. arid
W.A. are outlined.-E.J.D.

1460. The Northern Territory. Commonwealth
Bank of Australia, Sydney. October 1949,
pp. 24.
A symposium in which J Andrews deals with the
geographical peculiarities, F. G. Rose with the develop
ment (administration, pastoral and other industries),
C. S. Christian with a number of scientific aspects con-
nected with the development, and A. L. Rose with beef
production in the N.T. G. Farwell gives some
impressions on human aspects.-E.J.D.

1461. New Zealand's Pacific Island Neighbour-
hood. The Post-War Agricultural Prospect.
K. B. Cumberland. New Zealand Geo-
grapher, pp. 1-18, April 1949.
To the Pacific Islands of Fiji, Tonga, Cook Islands
and Samoa, the war brought agricultural prosperity and
accelerated urbanisation. Both the plantation economy
and the indigenous susbsistence economy are giving way
to a new economic orientation whose outlines are not, as
yet, clear. The general problem is somewhat the same
but the response, native and administrative, differs.
The wastage of forest resources and the increasing
seriousness of soil erosion are common problems.
Research into crops and conservational practices, and
education of the native so that he can adopt them are
urgent needs.-R.K.W.
1462. The Coromandel Peninsula and the Thames
Valley. M. McCaskill. New Zealand Geo-
grapher, pp. 47-71, April 1949.
A survey of the geography and natural resources of
two adjacent contrasted geographic regions in the North
Island of N.Z., and the economic development of these
resources in the last hundred years.-R.K.W.

1463. The Changing Agricultural Economy of
Fiji. C. Harvey. New Zealand Geographer,
pp. 103-114, October 1949.
The Director of Agriculture in Fiji writes authorita-
tively of agriculture in the island group, providing
specific illustrations of the more general matters dis-
cussed by Professor Cumberland in an earlier issue.
1464. Subsistence Farming on Ponape. W
Bascom. New Zealand Geographer, pp.
115-136, October 1949.
Ponape is one of the Caroline Islands in the newly
constituted U.S. Trust Territories of the Pacific.
Professor Bascom, an anthropologist, isolates the sub-
sistence economy of the Ponapean, distinguishing its

essential features from commercial cropping based on
copra, and livestock farming based on introduced ani-
mals and birds.--R.K.W.

1465. State Rivers and Water Supply Commis-
sion, Melbourne. Climatology in Relation
to Utilisation of Water Resources. A Sym-
posium. 1949, pp. 38, 6, 8 roneoedd).
The volume contains abstracts of addresses by mem-
bers of the Vie. State Rivers and Water Supply Commis-
sion to climatologists at the Commonwealth Meteoro-
logical Bureau. A. F. Ronalds surveys the history of
the water supply in Vic. and the major climatic factors
affecting water supply and related works. R. A.
Horsfall treats the climatic factors of water utilisation,
particularly the connection between rainfall and stream
flow and the relation between the annual climatic cycle
and the consumption of water. K. D. Green discusses
the ways in which, with the aid of meteorological data,
the water resources can be estimated, and the depen-
dence of water supply works upon meteorological con-
ditions. Some suggestions regarding the direction in
which climatologicatooal observations might be extended
are made. Climate, particularly rainfall and storms, in
connection with river control, catchments and erosion,
is the subject of a lecture by H. G. Strom. J. A. Aird
treats the application of climatology to irrigation develop-
ment, especially the water requirement of crops in
different Australian irrigation areas.
All authors stress the need for more detailed climato-
logical data and the great importance of forecasts of
precipitation some days ahead for the best management
and utilisation of water resources.-F.L.

1466. Australian Drought Cycles. V. R. Alldis.
Australian Quarterly, pp. 57-67, Septem-
ber 1949.
After general remarks about the nature of cycles the
author studies the rainfall conditions in Australia. He
claims that in the southern zone of winter rain a cycle
of approximately 15 years exists which is reflected in
changes in the sheep population. Apart from South
Africa other parts of the world do not show the same
cycle. No clear connection with the sun spot cycle
appears. The present prospects in Australia are for a
decade of relatively plentiful rains.-F.L.

For Abstracts of the history of 'The First Fifty Years
of Agriculture in New South Wales' by C. J. King, see
section on Agriculture, No. 182 in No. 8, and No. 1400
in the present issue of this journal.

1467. Farwell, George, and Johnston, Frank H.,
Editors. This Land of Ours. Australia.
Angus & Robertson Ltd., Sydney, 1949,
pp. 216.
This is a lavishly illustrated volume containing
articles, short stories and verse from twenty-nine con-
tributors, designed to present a picture of the land and
people of Australia. The following articles are in vary-
ing degrees historical in treatment. The opening
article, This Land of Ours, by Eleanor Dark, discusses
the adjustment of earlier generations of settlers to dis-
tance, and the present necessity of readjusting to the
disappearance of distance. The Painter's Art by Clive
Turnbull discusses painting in Australia to-day, with
some historical reference. The Valley of Achievement

by Hume Dow concerns the Derwent River Valley in
Tasmania and its development, particularly of hydro-
electric power. On Making Films by James Chanter
discusses the growth and present position of film-
making in Australia. Mosaic of the Dark by Ernestine
Hill deals with the goldfields of W.A. The Music Scene
by Sir Bernard Heinze discusses the recent development
of music in Australia. The Price of Pearl-Shell by
Colin Simpson is concerned with the pearl-shell indus-
try to-day, but has some historical references. Pattern
of a Nation by R. M. Crawford is a discussion of the
growth of the Australian community from its foundation
in 1788 to the present day.-R.M.C.

1468. Uren, M. Glint of Gold. Robertson and
Mullens, Melbourne, 1949, pp. 279.
The author relates the experiences of the prospectors,
who located the Eastern Goldfields of W.A. in the 189o's.
and of others who ranged far and wide over the state
during the same period. The book 'is intended to tell
you of the men who found the gold and of their worth
as individuals'. The author is concerned with the
prospectors themselves and only incidentally with the
companies and settlements which followed the richer

1469. Fitzpatrick, Kathleen. Sir John Franklin in
Tasmania, 1837-1843. Melbourne Uni-
versity Press, 1949, pp. 408. Price 25s.
This book is concerned with the seven years Sir John
Franklin spent as Lieutenant-Governor of Van Diemen's
Land. Franklin was censured and recalled by Lord
Stanley, then Secretary of State for the Colonies, for his
dismissal of John Montagu, Colonial Secretary of Van
Diemen's Land. The author has re-examined the
Franklin-Montagu dispute in the light of previously
unused evidence and reached the conclusion that Lord
Stanley's verdict was not in accordance with the facts.
The hypothesis is put forward that Franklin sought the
command of the expedition which discovered the
North-West Passage in an effort to vindicate his repu-
tation from Stanley's censure.
A considerable portion of the book is occupied by a
social and political survey of Tasmania in Franklin's
day, and emphasis is placed on Franklin's efforts for
the welfare of the colony; particularly in the sphere of
education. During Franklin's regime the assignment
system of penal discipline was replaced by the probation
system, transportation to N.S.W. was abolished and to
Van Diemen's Land greatly accelerated. This book is,
to some extent, a study in penal colonisation and it
includes a re-valuation of Maconochie, a penal reformer
of the period.-K.F.

1470. Ellis, M. H. Francis Greenway. His Life
and Times. The Shepherd Press, Sydney,
1949, pp- 292.
F. Greenway was an expert stonemason, architect and
artist in Bristol. Because of a childish attempt at
forgery he was transported to N.S.W. in 1814. He was
the first architect in the colony. It was according to
Greenway's ideas deathat he and Governor Macquarie
planned to rebuild most of Sydney, though they had to
contend with opposition from the Home Government
and the colony's Exclusives. Endless difficulties were
caused by Greenway's artistic temperament. Never-
theless he was made Colonial Architect and emanci-
pated. After Macquarie had left N.S.W., his unreason-
able demands caused his downfall and he died in pov-
erty. His few surviving buildings 'still set a standard in

beauty of line, in proportion and in grandeur of per-
spective for the architects of Sydney'. Pictures of
Greenway's buildings and comprehensive views of his
city are presented.-M.K.

1471. P. C. Mowle. A Genealogical History of
Pioneer Families of Australia. Fourth
Edition. John Sands Pty. Ltd., Sydney,
1949, pp. 193.
This is the fourth edition of a work which was first
published to commemorate the i5oth anniversary of the
foundation of Australia. It gives a short memoir of the
founder of each pioneer family, as much as is known of
the family genealogy and the dates of births, deaths and
marriages of all descendants. It includes only 'families
which had established themselves during the first half-
century of settlement' and those of a later period 'if the
progenitor had married the daughter of a pioneer'.
The families included represent but a small number of
those eligible.-M.K.

1472. James, G. F. A Homestead History. Mel-
bourne University Press, 1949, pp. 220.
This is a new edition of a work first published in 1942.
It consists of Reminiscences, 1843-5 I, written in 1896 by
Alfred Joyce, and of a series of letters written by Joyce
which continue the story from 1851-1864. As the
Reminiscences were based on a similar series of letters,
the result is a continuous picture of pastoral life in Vie.
from 1843 to 1864 in the Upper Loddon and Mary-
borough Districts. The Reminiscences and Letters
cover a variety of matters-the journey out from
England in 1843, the purchase of a run, the life of a
pastoralist, the aborigines, bush-ranging, the gold dis-
coveries and their impact on the squatters, footrot and
scab, agricultural ventures, house-building and land-

1473. Barnard, Marjorie. Australian Outline. Ure
Smith, Sydney, 1949, pp. 40.
This is a revised edition of an essay interpreting the
history of the Australian community which first appeared
in 1943. It is divided into three main sections, 'Drop
Scene', 'Procession' and 'Tableau'. The bulk of the
historical account is in the second of these, and the titles
of its chapters indicate their content: Procession, The
Rum Bottle, The Whale, The Golden Fleece, The
Nugget, The Mace, The Sword. Section III, 'Tab-
leau', is an essay on the Australian people and the forma-
tive influences moulding their character.-R.M.C.

1474. Lynch, John. The Story of the Eureka
Stockade. Epic days of the early fifties at
Ballarat. Pp. 40. Published by Australian
Catholic Truth Society and C.U.S.A.
House, Sydney.
This is an account of the circumstances and events of
the Eureka rising, written by a combatant who was one
of Lalor's captains. It contains an analysis of causes
of the outbreak, and supplies pen-portraits of some of
the leaders.-A.S.

1475. The West Darling Country: its Explora-
tion and Development. James Jervis.
Royal Australian Historical Society, Journal
and Proceedings, Vol. XXXIV, Part II, pp.

65-88; Part III, pp. 146-183 ; Part IV,
pp. 218-253, 1948.
The author gives details of some of the early settlers
and their runs. Early explorers and settlers over-
estimated the carrying capacity of much of the country.
The development of river transport and water conserva-
tion led to overstocking, which, with recurrent drought,
destroyed the ground cover, reduced water absorption,
and resulted in serious wind erosion and stream and
well siltation over much of the country. Rabbits con-
tributed to the depreciation of property values and the
decline of towns. The author traces the rise and fall
of the prosperity of the region and its effects on the lives
of the settlers. He gives an account of the history and
conditions of mining in the area.-A.S.

1476. Brisbane Water District-A Century of
History. James Jervis. Royal Australian
Historical Society Journal and Proceedings.
Vol. XXXIV, Part IV, pp. 325-358, 1948.
Although it had been visited by parties under Phillip
and Hunter the Brisbane Water Country was not
settled until 1823 because of its inaccessibility and its
heavy timber. During the later 1820's the district was
surveyed and land grants were made ; by 1830 a ship-
building industry was flourishing there. This industry
continued until 1913. Timber-getting soon grew into
an important industry and still employs many men
to-day. A brief survey is given of the growth of towns
in the district, particularly their religious and educa-
tional facilities. This survey concludes with the year
1888, when the railway was completed between Sydney
and Newcastle, thus bringing about great changes in the
life of the district.-J.P.

1477. Transportation and Colonial Income. K.
Dallas. Historical Studies of Australia and
New Zealand, pp. 297-312, February 1949.
An investigation of early Australian national income
springing from 'a conviction that before 1851 the
Australian income from export industries was insufficient
warrant for the living standards and diversified social
life of those days'. Three sources of income are traced
-local produce (grain, wool, whale oil, etc.), immi-
grants' capital, and 'the funds voted by the British
Government for the convict establishments'. This last
is examined in detail; it is estimated that it amounts to
'one-third of the national income', and it is suggested
that the fluctuations in this factor contribute largely to
the recurrent phases of inflation, usurious interest rates
and brief periods of full employment.-A.G.L.S.

1478. Australian Federation: Th nfne Influence of
Economic Interests and Political Pressures.
R. S. Parker. Historical Studies of Aus-
tralia and New Zealand, pp. 1-24, Novem-
ber, 1949.
This article reviews the many factors which had an
important bearing on Australian Federation, and ana-
lyses the powerful political influence which economic
pressure groups within the various states exerted on the
movement towards federal union. These groups were
opposed by rival pressure groups who considered that
they had nothing to gain from federation. The con-
flict cut across arbitrary state boundaries. The Aus-
tralian public, on the other hand, displayed compara-
tively little interest in the agitation for union, and even
less in the Federal Draft Constitution.-S.I.

1479. The Collection of Customs in Australia;
a Note on Administration. J. A. La Nauze.
Historical Studies of Australia and New
Zealand, pp. 25-33, November, 1949.
An account of the early customs service in N.S.W. and
Van Diemen's Land, its personal duties, remuneration,
and the opportunities provided for patronage, describing
its expansion and final transfer to local control as the
colonies developed and self-government was granted.
1480. Australia and New Guinea to the Establish-
ment of the British Protectorate. J. D.
Legge. Historical Studies of Australia and
New Zealand, pp. 34-48, November, 1949.
An attempt to re-examine the forces leading to the
annexation of New Guinea with a view to understanding
the policies implemented there after 1885. Despite
official discouragement, Bismarck privately encouraged
German colonising plans in New Guinea and there were
real grounds for Australian fears of German intentions
in the South Pacific. There was unanimity in Aus-
tralian circles as to the need for the assumption of
control over part of New Guinea: yet the flag did not
follow trade. Strategic and potential markets argu-
ments appear to have been decisive. With no clear
government plans for future development and con-
flicting pressure groups working spasmodically, the man
on the spot was able to formulate policy but was frus-
trated by lack of funds.-N.D.H.

1481. Notes on American Whaling Activities in
Australian Waters, 18oo-185o. L. G.
Churchward. Historical Studies, Australia
and New Zealand, pp. 59-63, November
This is an exercise in precise historical criticism. On
the basis of Australian and U.S. material the author
revises earlier estimates of Australian and U.S. writers
about the influence of American shipping on Australian
development during the first half of the Nineteenth
Century. He emphasises the need of drawing a careful
distinction between the various types of American
vessels, the adventurers and sealers, the traders and the
whalers. Contrary to earlier opinions American
whalers contributed but little to the development of
Australian trade.-L.G.C.

1482. The Great Western Highway. Main Roads,
Sydney, pp. 6-15, September 1949.
This article tells of the construction of the Great
Western Highway from Sydney across the Blue Moun-
tains to Bathurst. Some account is given of the prac-
tical difficulties of road construction in the early period
and of the policies and personalities of Governor
Macquarie and Major Mitchell.-R.F.E.

1483. Historical Roads of New South Wales:
Roads from Sydney to the Hunter River
Valley and Newcastle. Main Roads, Syd-
ney, pp. 77-86, March 1949.
The bulk of the article traces the development of a
road system in this area during the first half of the Nine-
teenth Century. Topics discussed include : The
deliberate isolation of the early penal establishment at

Newcastle; the early reliance on sea transport; the
growth of free settlement; the ever-increasing pressure
for new roads and especially for direct road links with
Sydney; the work of Surveyor-General Mitchell.
(A) Legal Ethics
1484. Law and Conduct of the Legal Profession in
Queensland. W. N. Harrison. Committee
of the Supreme Court Library, Brisbane,
1948, pp. i-viii, i-8o and Index.
Law and Conduct of the Legal Profession in
New South Wales. R. C. Teece and W. N.
Harrison. Law Book Co. of Australasia,
1949, pp. i-viii, 1-99 and Index.
These are companion volumes which deal with the
practice of the legal profession. There is little litera-
ture dealing with the problem of professional ethics in
Australia and these two works are specially valuable.

(B) Constitutional Law
1485. The Banking Act and the Privy Council,
H. S. Nicholas. Australian Law Journal,
pp. 387-389, November 1949.
A useful and concise discussion of the recent decision
of the Judicial Committee.

1486. The Pharmaceutical Benefits Case. R.E.M.
Australian Law Journal, pp. 389-91, Nov-
ember 1949.
'The effect of the decision is that the pharmaceutical
benefits scheme can operate in a voluntary manner only.
The reasons given by the various Justices are analysed.

1487. Federal Constitutions and Social Planning.
W. G. Friedmann. Political Quarterly,
London, pp. 54-63, January-March 1949.
A study of the federal constitutions of U.S., Canada
and Australia and of the strains to which social planning
gives rise. Democratic federation has not lost its great
value, as a vital step from diversity to union. But
within the highly organised modern state, with its
established minimum of planning powers and social
duties, it is out of date. The ultimate solution lies in
the abandonment of the federal structure in its present
form and in the substitution of increased and extensive
functions of regional and local government.

(C) Industrial Law
1488. Workers' Compensation. Injury by Acci-
dent. H. A. J. Ford. Res Judicatae, pp.
160-173, October 1949.
An interesting discussion of the problems that arise
in determining the meaning of injury by accident in the
Victorian Workers' Compensation Act 1928 as amended
in 1946. Recent decisions have left the law rather
obscure. This is one branch of the law where cer-
tainty is desirable because claimants are usually persons
without the means to risk comparatively large sums for
the determination of doubtful cases. A further amend-
ment of the law is desirable.

(D) Criminal Law
1489. The Defence of Provocation. J. V. Barry.
Res Judicatae, pp. 129-143, October 1949.
This is a study of what is sufficient provocation to
reduce murder to manslaughter. Three Australian
States have criminal codes, and three are under the
common law. The article is a comparative survey
which is the most exhaustive that has yet appeared on the
subject-even the N.Z. authorities are considered.
The writer favours the adoption of a criminal code for

(E) Tort
1490. Radio, Television and the Law of Defama-
tion. J. V. Barry. Australian Law Journal,
pp. 203-215, August 1949.
A study of the present confusion in the law relating to
broadcasting and television and a plea for the treatment
of broadcasting under the law of libel instead of slander.
To achieve this end, legislation seems desirable. Dis-
cussion by Sir Herbert Mayo, Sir Charles Lowe and
Professor Shatwell follows the paper.

1491. Negligence. G. W. Paton. Australian Law
Journal, pp. 158-170, August 1949.
A functional study of the operation of the theory of
negligence in the law of tort.

(F) General
1492. Law and the Citizen. Sir John Latham.
Australian Law Journal, pp. 152-7, August
This is the Opening Address to the Sixth Legal Con-
vention of the Law Council of Australia and discusses
in non-technical language the function of law in the com-

1493. A Breathing Space for the Press. D. R.
Home. Australian Quarterly, pp. 14-2o,
September 1949.
A spirited attack on the new Section 151 C of the
N.S.W. Parliamentary Electorates and Elections Act
which makes it an offence, punishable by a fine of ioo
or six months' imprisonment, to print, publish or dis-
tribute electoral matters during the seventy hours pre-
ceding the closing of the poll on an election day. 'Elec-
toral matter' is defined very broadly as any matter which
is intended or likely to affect the result of any election.

1494. The Need for Co-operation in Common-
wealth and State Laws. F. R. Beasley and
R. W. Baker. Australian Law Journal, pp.
188-197, August 1949.
This is a plea for greater co-operation by the Common-
wealth with the states in cases where Commonwealth
laws ignore, overrule or impinge on state laws and for
greater care, so far as the states are concerned, to
secure uniformity when new state amendments to the law
are being drafted. The mania for diversity is, at
present, given full reign.



i495. Social Factors in Delinquency. D. E. Rose.
Australian Journal of Psychology, pp. i-io,
June 1949.
Discusses briefly those factors commonly found to
have significant relationships with the occurrence of
delinquency, using juveniles and army personnel as
examples, and examines the general background of
social customs against which these factors operate.
Delinquency can occur only within the framework of a
social group, and consists of the breaking of those rules
which are enforced by legal or primitive sanctions.
There can be no born criminals, and acceptable behavi-
our depends on proper training and conditioning. The
author suggests that this training could be made more
efficient if the code is clearly defined and consistent, if
all new members of the group are given an adequate
course in training, and if it pays the individual to con-
form. Theoretically this solution may be sound, but
these measures are unlikely to be taken, and therefore
our society will continue to produce criminals.

1496. Talent Erosion. A. J. Greenhalgh. Aus-
tralian Journal of Psychology, pp. 11-25,
June 1949.
An attempt to show that IQ figures obtained from
group tests reflect the effect of socio-economic pressures
on a people. The sample studied comprised 2,I50
children in the Armidale (N.S.W.) Inspectorate. The
results for the various schools were treated separately,
those for four years added and a map made of the IQ
distribution. Areas which themselves have little oppor-
tunity, but easier access to regions of opportunity, tend
to be drained of ability more than less accessible regions
('talent erosion'). Such regions of relatively small
opportunity become emigration areas. Those left have
a greater proportion of less able children than the more
favourable centres. Regions of opportunity will be
regions of immigration, where a greater proportion of
more able children will be found.
What is important in determining what the average
IQ will be is not that an area is rural or urban, but
whether it is an area of good or poor prospects. Some
previous investigators found no significant difference
in IQ between children of their various regions. How-
ever, areas showing contrary social stresses were
included in their results which neutralised each other,
giving an overall average of 99-5 IQ. This 'normality'
is in fact the product of quite dissimilar trends.

1497. Vocational Interests and Personality Char-
acteristics of Women Teachers. Elwyn A.
Morey. Australian Journal of Psychology,
pp. 26-37, June 1949.
The aim of the study is to supply more information
about the personality characteristics which make for
success in teaching ; there are measurable differences in
interests between women who prefer to teach children
of different ages.
A group of 680 teachers in California who enjoyed
teaching were given self administering tests. This
article deals only with results from the Strang Vocational
Interest Blank for Women. The group was divided
into :-Those interested in working with (i) children of
elementary school age; (2) junior high school age;
(3) senior high school age. New scoring scales were
devised to differentiate these groups. An analysis of
responses revealed a basic core of similar interests for

all teachers, but marked specific differences between the

1498. The Prediction of Academic Success. H. H.
Hohne. Australian Journal of Psychology,
pp. 38-42, June 1949.
Interim results are reported of an investigation into
the prediction of academic success from psychological
tests, conducted by the Australian Council of Educa-
tional Research at the University of Melbourne. All
freshmen in 1943 were given a battery of tests-this
article deals only with the intelligence test (A.C.E.R.
Adult Test B4o) and the Group Rorschach Test. The
tests appeared to be useful as aids to prediction but not
sufficient alone. Factors such as interest, study habits,
personality, some economic factors, etc., were found to
determine degree of success rather than intelligence
alone. Minimum intelligence levels for various facul-
ties are suggested, below which success is unlikely.

1499. The Application of Component Analysis to
the Analysis of Psychological Data. John
A. Keats. Australian Journal of Psychology,
pp. 48-52, June 1949.
A general solution to the problem of lack of homo-
geneity in sampling groups is given with an example to
illustrate its use. A method is outlined for splitting
total variance into components. Unbiassed estimates
of the population variance and the variance of the
sample mean are calculated from these components.
Suggests that some information can be obtained regard-
ing the possible effect of varying one of the factors
contributing a given component to the total variance.


1500. Annual Report of the Aborigines Welfare
Board, New South Wales, for Year ended
30 June 1948. Government Printer, Syd-
ney, 1949, pp. II.
In connection with the general census of 1947,
information was collected on the number of aborigines
residing in the various states. The following prelimi-
nary figures have been supplied for N.S.W. : Full-
blood, 878; mixed blood, o1,607. On behalf of these
11,485 aborigines, 68,952 as recurring expenditure was
expended during the year under review, i.e., 5,461
more than in the previous year. In addition, an amount
of 60,874 was expended on building construction works
from the General Loan Account. Other sections deal
with the Board's policy, staff organisation, district wel-
fare amongst aborigines, assistance to aborigines to
acquire their own homes, boarding-out of aboriginal
children (and allocation to approved foster-parents);
labour conditions and employment, health and hygiene,
housing, agricultural activity, education, social activity
of stations, relief and benefits to aborigines from the
Board, social benefits from the Commonwealth Govern-
ment, and children's homes.

1501. Report on the Administration of the Northern
Territory for 1946-47. Government Printer,
Canberra, 1949, pp. 19.
The report contains chapters on Police, Animal
Industry (including various cattle diseases), Mining,
Education, Patrol Service, Pearling, Native Affairs,

Lands and Surveys, Population, Municipal and Hous-
ing. The settlements established by the Army during
the war were situated in localities quite unsuited for
further development, so early demolition and abandon-
ment was decided upon, and new settlements to accom-
modate natives are to be set up. Four new settlements.
had been created by the end of the year. The missions
have now been informed that they are to work in close
collaboration with the Native Affairs Branch. The
native (i.e., aboriginal) population of the N.T. as per
30 June 1947, totalled 10,976 (compared with 10,877

1502. South Pacific Commission, Proceedings of
the Fourth Session, Noumea, New Cale-
donia, 22 to 31 October 1949, pp. 22,
Appendices pp. 16.
The Proceedings, including twenty-three sections, are
accompanied by four appendices, the principal one being
a report on work programme. It consists of summaries
of the action taken during the months of May to October
to carry out the projects approved by the Commission
at its Third Session. These summaries are arranged
in three groups, Economic Development, Social
Development, Health. Each section has a more or less
detailed list of 'projects', 13 economic, Io social, and
5 hygienic projects. The most complex group is the
first, which includes vocational training and visual
education. Project S5 is 'Reviews of Research in Social
Anthropology'. It was decided at the Third Sesson that
there should be two sections covering the Melanesian
and Papuan and the Polynesian and Micronesian areas.
Meanwhile, the Melanesian Papuan survey has been
taken over by Prof. A. P. Elkin. The Health Projects
are the following: Epidemiological Information and
Quarantine; Maternal and Infant Welfare; Diets and
Nutrition ; Tuberculosis ; Filariasis and Elephantiasis.

1503. Annual Report of the Board of Maori
Affairs and of the Under-Secretary, Depart-
ment of Maori Affairs, for Year ended 31
March 1949. Government Printer, Wel-
lington, 1949, pp. 31.
The report contains chapters on land development,
housing, training of Maori youths, Maori welfare and
Maori Trustee, the Maori Land Boards, rehabilitation
of Maori Ex-servicemen, the East Coast Trust, Finances,
Legislation, the Lake Taupo Waters Compensation,
staff, the Maori Interpreters' Board of Examiners ; on
unemployment, employment promotion and develop-
ment subsidies ; and, finally, statistical tables. In his
foreword, the chairman of the Board of Maori Affairs
observes that upwards of three hundred Maori men and
youths are engaged in building homes for their own
people, and that some of these men are the supervisors
and overseers of the works. All available labour has
been used to provide suitable housing for the Maori

1504. Western Samoa. Annual Report for Year
ended 31 March 1949. Government
Printer, Wellington, 1949, pp. 67.
The report is divided into sections on Status of the
Territory and its Inhabitants, International and Regional
Relations, International Peace and Security and Main-
tenance of Law and Order, Political Advancement,
Economic Advancement, Social Advancement, Educa-
tional Advancement, Publications, i.e., a list of legis-
lative measures enacted during the year under report,

Research (including also the Apia Observatory and the
Medical Research Survey). Statistical material is
presented in ten appendices. Appendix XI is a brief
glossary of Samoan administrative and a few other terms.
The population of the Territory is increasing, as shown
by figures for 1944-49 ; there were 75,381 per 31 March
1949 as compared with 72,936 in 1948.
1505. Cook Islands. Report of the Department of
Island Territories for the Year ended 31
March 1949. Government Printer, Wel-
lington, pp. 50.
The first section deals with the fifteen islands of the
Cook Group, except Niue, the second section with Niue.
Both sections have chapters on 'General Information',
'Social Conditions', 'Education', and 'Economic Con-
ditions'. Part II (Social Conditions) of the Cook Group
section includes a paragraph on criminal statistics.
'There is little crime of a serious nature committed in
the Cook Islands'. The death rate per i,ooo births was
only iori85 compared with 269-29 for the previous year.
The birth rate was 648 as compared with 635 in 1947-48.
In Rarotonga and Mangaia, European District Nurses
are responsible for the child-welfare scheme. At Niue,
the Health Department is now being administered by a
qualified European medical officer.

1506. Tokelau Islands. Annual Report for Year
ended 31 March 1949. Government
Printer, Wellington, 1949, pp. 14.
The constitutional law as it had been since 1925 under-
went a complete change with the passing in N.Z. of the
Tokelau Islands Act, 29 October 1948, by which the
islands were incorporated as part of N.Z. An Imperial

Order in Council of 13 September 1948, which came
into force at the same time as the Tokelau Islands Act
1948 (January 1949), ceded the Group to N.Z. The
High Commissioner of Western Samoa has been
reappointed Administrator of the Tokelau Islands. All
existing laws in the islands remain in force. It is
intended to review and codify the law, but only a
simple code of law is required in view of the small
population (1,373) and its simple life. The executive
administration is entirely in the hands of Samoan per-
sonnel, there is no European staff.

1507. The Industrial Arts in Tanga. F. L. S.
Bell. Oceania, Vol. XIX, pp. 206-233,
March 1949; 320-348, June 1949; 13
text figs. and 3 plates.
In the economic life of the natives of Tanga, there
are three forms of property to which great value is
attached, viz., water-craft, dwellings and shell currency.
The first section deals with the manufacture of water-
craft, viz., the bamboo-raft, the dug-out canoe, and the
plank canoe. The building of outrigger canoes in these
islands probably ceased some three generations ago.
The built-up plank canoe plays an important part in the
lives of these people. It takes almost three months to
build such a canoe whereby up to fifty people co-operate.
All the technical details and stages are described in a
chronological chart (pp. 225-8). Section II is devoted
to the building of houses. There are two principal
kinds of habitation, three varieties of ritual structures,
and at least three different types of buildings which are
used for purposes other than human habitation. These
eight types represent the normal architectural scheme
and are regarded as standard forms which are applicable
by tradition to certain standard social situations.


Abercrombie, Sir P., 1202.
Aborigines, 1264, 1500.
Absenteeism, 1387.
Academic Success, Prediction, 1498.
Accountancy, 1132-1140, 1369.
Accounting and Shifting Prices, 1369.
Adult Education, 1224, 1448.
Agriculture, 1168, 1171, 1182, 1314, 1391, 1394, 1400.
Aickin, K. A., 1424.
Air Conditioning, 1097.
Aird, J. A., 1465.
Alldis, V. R., 1466.
Aluminium, 1331.
American Economy, 1295.
American Private Investment, 1296.
Ammonium Thyoglycollate, 1122.
Anderson, R. F., 1094.
Andrews, J., 1450, 1460.
Apprenticeship, 1161.
Archdale, H., 1194.
Archive Department, W.A., 1249.
Area School, Sheffield, 1220.
Army Education, 1434.
Arndt, H. W., 1073.
Auditing, 1140, 1365.
Australia, o181, 1082, 1171, 1197, 1226, 1227, 1272,
1373, 1418, 1467, 1473.
Australian Economy, 1072, 1077, 1082.
Australian Federation, 1478.
Australian Manufacturing Industry, 1093.
Australian Resources, 1450.
Australian Tariffs, 1087.
Avery, E. N., 1094.
Aviation, 1373, 1375.
Axes, Adzes, Hatchets, Sledgehammers, 1120.

Bacon, G. H., 1307.
Badu, 1268.
Bain, A. D. N., 1455.
Baker, R. W., 1474.
Ball, W. M., 1192.
Bank Nationalisation, 1354, 1355, 1485.
Banker in Boom and Depression, 1350.
Baragwanath, W., 1456.
Barber, A. S., o096.
Barker, D., 1210.
Barnard, M., 1475.
Barry, J. V., 1253, 1489, 1490.
Bascom, W., 1464.
Bassett, G. W., 1438.
Beaglehole, E., 1269.
Beasley, F. R., 1494.
Beecroft, R. M., 1301.
Bell, F. L. S., 1266, 1507.
Belshaw, H., 1071.
Belshaw, J. P., 1223.
Bennett, General, Departure from Singapore, 1254.
Berndt, R. M., 1268.
Bicarbonate of Soda, 1341.
Bioclimatic Controls, 1243.
Birt & Comp., 1318.
Black War, 1245.
Bland, F. A., 1187, 1224.
Boom and Slump, 1273.
Borrie, W. D., 1208, 1431.

Bowman, R. G., 1265.
Boyd, J., 1195.
Braddock, L. A., 1136.
Bramwell, H. G., 1140.
Bread, 1334.
Brideson, H. C., 1419.
Brisbane Water District, 1476.
British Commonwealth, 1195, 1196, 121o, 1417, 1424.
Brown, A. S., 1293.
Brown, H. P., 1278, 1357.
Brown Coal, 1456.
Buchanan, R. 0., 1234.
Bucklow, M., 1258.
Buesst, T., 1192.
Building Industry, 1112.
Butlin, S. J., 1074.
Buyers' Market, 1094.
Byrt, W. J., 1158, 1384.

Cacao, 1103.
Callide Coalfield, 1328.
Calwell, A. A., 1211.
Campbell, D. F., 1190.
Canada, 1077.
Canned Fruits, 11o6, 1320.
Caples, W. J., 1313.
Carr, W. G., 1218.
Casey, R. G., 1430.
Cattle in N.W. Australia, 1459.
Chambers, R. J., 1369.
Channel Country, 1453.
Cheek, B. M., 1281.
Christian, C. G., 1460.
Churchward, L. G., 1414, 1481.
Cinematographs, 1351.
Citizenship, Australian, 1411.
Citrus Industry, 1406.
Clark, Colin, o185.
Clarke, A. C., 1165, 1261.
Climatic Systems, 1242.
Climatological Surveys, 1244.
Climatology and Water Resources, 1465.
Clunies Ross, I., 14o1.
Coal, 1io8, 1109, 1327, 1328, 1456.
Coffee, 1103.
Cohen, S. W., 1218.
Coleman, L. C., 1094.
Collective Agreements, 1380.
Communications, British Commonwealth, 1199.
Component Analysis in Psychology, 1499.
Consequential Loss Insurance, 1138.
Consumer in Australian Economy, 1274, 1276.
Consumption Function, 1275.
Cook, P. H., 1261, 1383.
Cook Islands, 1168, 1269.
Co-operation in Laws, 1494.
Copland, D. B:, 1072, 1273, 1286, 1288.
Coromandel Peninsula, 1462.
Corporate Accounting, 1134.
Correspondence in Education, 1449.
Corsets, 1350.
Cost Accounting, 1366, 1367.
Cost of Production Surveys, 1282.
Costs and Prices, 1283.
Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, 1170,

Country Roads, 1144.
Country Town Industries, 1304.
Cowper, N. L., 1198.
Crawford, J. S., 1282.
Crisp, L. F., 1087, 1410.
Croll, I. C. H., 1332.
Cumberland, K. B., 1461.
Customs Collection, 1479.

Dairy Products, 1104, 1395-1397.
Dallas, L. C., 1477.
Danby, L. C., 1306.
Davidson, C. G. W., 11o8.
Decentralisation of Industry, 1305, 1306.
Declaratory Judgments, 1252.
Defence of Provocation, 1489.
Delinquency, Social Factors, 1495.
Demand Equation for Raw Material, 1286.
Depreciation, 1132.
Depression, 1079.
Depression, Prevention, 1300.
Displaced Persons, 1216.
Disposals Commission, 1129.
Distribution Costs, Consumer Goods, 1301, 1407.
Dollar Crisis, Socialist, 1126.
Double or Quit, 1430.
Dried Fruits, 1105, 1321.
Drought Cycles, 1466.
Druce, P. C., 1404.
Duncan, L. H., 1133.
Dunk, W. E., 1288.
Dunn, J. A., I1io.
Dunn, L. J., 1184.
Dyne, R. E., 1241.

ECAFE, 1087, 1422.
Economics, 1074, o175.
Economic Teaching, 1075.
Education, 1218, 1221-1225, 1438-1442, 1444, 1445,
Egerton, R. A. D., 1420.
Eggleston, F. W., 1212, 1213.
Electrical Engineering, 1118.
Electric Power, 1310.
Elkin, A. P., 1267.
Elliott, J., 1340.
Ellis, M. H., 1470.
Employee Attitudes, 1258.
Erosion, 1167, 1172, 1173.
Eucalyptus, 1408.
Eureka Stockade, 1474.
Evatt, H. V., 1415.
Ewers, J. K., 1246.
Exchange Appreciation, 1123, 1124.
External Affairs, Department of, 1412.

Fairbridge, R. W., 1247.
Falla, R. A., 1235.
Farm Size, 1183.
Farrer, William James, 166.
Farwell, G., 1460, 1467.
Fatigue, 1216.
Federal Constitution and Social Planning, 1487.
Felt for Tennis Balls, 1340.
Ferguson Wood, E. J., I111.
Ferries, 1148.
Fiji, 1168, 1463.
Film Board, 1443.

Fish Canning, 1323.
Fisheries, 1322.
Fitness, National, 1446.
Fitzgerald, A. A., 1137, 1313.
Fitzpatrick, K., 1469.
Flint for Lighters, 1348.
Foenander, O. de R., 1151, 1153, 1378.
Food and Agricultural Organisation, .Io8o.
Food and People, 1297.
Food Shortage, 1401.
Foodstuff Production, Australian, 1171.
Footwear Industry, 1115.
Forbes, J. G., 1167, 1399.
Ford, E., 1203.
Ford, H. A. G., 1488.
Foreign Language Learning, 1221.
Forestry, 1169, 1170, 1240.
Forsyth, W. D., 1270.
Forty-Hour Week, 1151, 1152, 1377.
Foundation Garments, 1350.
Fowler, W. M., 1078.
Fraenkel, P. H., 1227.
Frankel, J., 1250.
Franklin, Sir John in Tasmania, 1469.
Frazer, A., 1209.
Fremantle, 1246.
Friedmann, W. G., 1252, 1255, 1487.
Fry, T. P., 1252.
Fuel Injection Equipment, 1343.
Furby, E. B., 1409.
Furniture Industry, 1114.

Gentilli, J., 1242, 1243, 1418, 1433.
Geography, 1234, 1238.
Ghandi's India, 1248.
Gitlow, A. L., 1263.
Glickman, D. L., 1413.
Gloe, C. S., 1399.
Gold, 1468.
Gold and World Restoration, 1359.
Gole, V. L., 1132.
Goode, J. R., 1239.
Goulburn Region, 1174, 1233.
Government Finances, N.Z., 1130.
Grattan, C. H., 1197, 1226.
Graves, D. E., 1386.
Gray, J. C., 1361.
Great Western Highway, 1482.
Green, K. D., 1465.
Greenhalgh, A. J., 1442, 1496.
Greenland, P. C., 1149, 1150.
Greenway, Francis, 1470.
Grimwade, G. H., 1273.
Grobtuch, M. J., 1296, 1300.
Grogan, F. O., 118o.
Gruen, F. H., 1183.

Halsey, T. H., 1103.
Hamilton, J. M., 1112.
Hammer, A. G., 1257.
Hancock, J. H. E., 1360.
Harrison, W. N., 1484.
Harvey, C., 1463.
Hasluck, P. M. C., 1191.
Hedberg, K. M., 1228, 1451.
Hedges, E. T., 1095.
Henderson, K., 1222.
Henry, R., 1368.
Higgins, B. H., 1077, 1094, 1273, 1294, 1358.
History, 1075.

Hogben, S. M., 1305.
Hohne, H. H., 1498.
Holidays, 1207.
Holmes, J. L., 1386.
Holt, H. E., 1273.
Homestead History, 1475.
Home, D. R., 1493.
Homer, F. B., 128o.
Horsfqll, R. A., 1465.
House Magazines, 1165.
Housing, 1203.
Hunter, F. M., 1313.
Hunter District Water Board, 1175.
Hutton, G., 1272.
Huxley, A., 1297.
Hydro-Electric Commission, Tasmania, 1312.

Immigration, 1209-1212, 1214-1216, 1431.
Incentive Payments, 1155.
Income Tax, 1127.
India, 1248, 1299, 1418.
Indirect Taxes on Income, 1363.
Indonesia, 1420.
Industrial Awards, 1153.
Industrial Conscription, 1376.
Industrial Council System, 1154.
Industrial Regulation, 1253.
Inflation, 1125, 1356.
Insull, H. A. H., 1236.
Interest and Banks, 1357.
International Attitudes, Understanding, 1218.
International Conference on Education, 1218.
International Refugee Organisation, 1432.
Inventories, 1291.
Investigation, Bureau of, 1178, 1392.
Irish, R. A., 1134, 1365.
Iron and Steel Industry, 1326.
Irrigation, 1176, 1239, 1390, 1403.
Italian Immigration, 1214.

Jacoby, E. G., 1256.
James, G. F., 1472.
Japan, 1092, 1201.
Jervis, J., 1475, 1476.
Jewish Immigrants, 1215.
Johnson, W. D. N., 1102.
Johnston, E., 1467.
Jolly, N. W., 1408.
Jones, C. V., 1126.

Kangan, M., 1383.
Keats, J. A., 1499.
Kelly, O. N., 144o.
Kemp, C. D., 1307.
Kewley, T. H., 1187.
Keynes, J. M., 1275, 1279.
King, C. J., 1182, 1400, 1407.
King, H. W., 1130.
Knox, P., 1272.

Labour, 1382.
Labour, Commonwealth Legislative Power, 1378.
Labour, Foreign Policy, 1200oo.
Labour Movement in Australia and N.Z., 1413.
Labour Turnover, X156-1158, 1384-1386.
Lake Grasmere, 1236.
Lambert, R. C., 1459.

Land Use in S.A., 1457.
Lane, H. A., 1218.
La Nauze J. A. o189, 1479.
Latham Sir J., 1492.
Latin as School Subject, 144o.
Laves, W. H. C., 1218.
Law and Citizen, 1492.
Lawler, P. J., 1275.
Leeper, G. W., 1389.
Legal Education, 1255.
Legal Profession, Conduct of, in N.S.W. and Queens-
land, 1484.
Legge, J. D., 148o.
Leigh Creek Coalfield, 1327.
Lengyel, S. J., 1301.
Lessoff, E., 1435.
Levi, W., 1416.
Lewis, R., 1209.
Leyser, J., 1423.
Livestock Industry, 1481.
Lockyer Valley, 1454.
Logic of Social Science, 1256.
Lukis, M. F. F., 1249.
Lynch, J., 1474.

McAuley, J., 1314.
McCallum, D., 1199.
McCaskill, M., 1462.
McDonald, A. H., 1193, 1421.
Macdonnell, G. L., 1367.
McKeown, T. M. P., 1407.
McLennan, I. M., 1330.
McMillan, R. B., 1101, 1316.
McQueen, H. C., 1161.
Machine Hour Rate, 1139.
Mair, L. P., 1282.
Mallee, 1173.
Management Accounting, 1133.
Managerial Control, 1313.
Mansfield, Justice, 1251.
Maoris, 1503.
Marketing, 1307.
Mathews, R. L., 1135.
Mauldon, F. R. E., 1274.
May, C. M., 1291.
Mayne, J. B., o180.
Meadows, R. W., 1217, 1434.
Meat, 1319.
Melbourne and Metropolitan Board of Works, 1131.
Melton Reservoir, 1168.
Mental Defective, 1437.
Menzies, R. G., 1196.
Mercury Contact Tubes, 1352.
Metal Working Chucks, 1342.
Mineral Resources, 1238, 1452.
Mining, 1324.
Ministerial-Departmental Relations in N.Z., 1190.
Moisture, 1241.
Money, 1076.
Mooney, C. C., 1307.
Morey, E. A., 1497.
Morgan, A., 1403.
Morgan, R., 1307.
Morrow, J. A., 1230.
Mortality in England and N.Z., 1435.
Motor Vehicle Bodies, 1119, 1346.
Mountain, G. R., 1276.
Mount Hagen Tribes, 1263.
Mowle, P. C., 1471.
Multiplier, 1073.
Murray River, 1229, 1230.

National Employment Service, 1162.
National Income, 1073, 1284, 1285, 1298, 1299.
Navy Beans, 1409.
Neale, E. P., 1123.
Near North, 1197.
Negligence, 1491.
Nelson, A. J. A., 1218.
Neumann, J. von, 1277.
New Guinea, 1103, I250, 1z62, 1263, 1265, 1314, 1373,
Newman, F. I. H., 1155.
New South Wales, og98, 1145, 1146, 1182, 1183, 1240,
1371, 1390, 1400, 1409, 1500.
New Zealand, 1071, 1081-1083, 1104, 1123, 1130, 1161,
1186, 1189, 1190, 1204, 1235, 1271, 1305, 1363, 1364,
1375, 1382, 1394, 1396, 1405, 1413, 1462, 1503.
New Zealand, Outlying Islands, 1235, 1461.
Nicholas, H. S., 1485.
North Australia, Agricultural. Potential, 1458.
Northern Territory, 1460, 1501.
North Kimberley Cave Paintings, 1267.

'Oil, Middle Eastern, 1199.
Oil in Australia, 1333.
One World, 1415.
Opal Industry, 1332.
Orange Prices, 1407.
Ortega, A. G., 1160.
Output per Man-Hour, 1078.
Oxlade, M. W., 1259.

Pacific Region, 1192, 1193, 1418, 1419.
Packer, G., 1192.
Papua, 1103.
Parker, H. T., 1437.
Parker, R. S., 1187, 1478.
Parliament, 1186.
Parliamentary Government, 1410.
Paton, G. W., 1491.
Peace, 1198, 1218.
Pension Fund Valuation, Salary Scales, 1362.
Peren, G. S., 1168.
Personal Income, 1278.
Personnel Function, 1383.
Petroleum Industry, 1339.
Pharmaceutical Benefits, 1486.
Phelan, B. K., 1157.
Phillips, R. 0., 1425.
Pioneer Families, 1471.
Platz, E., 1215.
Pollak, H., 1221.
Ponape, 1464.
Population, 1208, 1213, 1433.
Population Trends, Regional, 1217, 1434.
Porter, G. H., 1219.
Portus, G. V., 1224.
Potatoes, 1398.
Pressed Metal Panels, 1119, 1346.
Press Law, 1493.
Price Fixing of Primary Products, 1282.
Pricing, Industrial, 1281.
Production, Balance of, in Australia, 1288.
Production Planning, o096.
Production, Regional, 1290.
Productivity of Primary Industry, 1303.
Productivity of U.S.A., 1084.
Productivity per Man-Hour, 1287.
Profits, 1136, 1138, 1292.

Progressive Party, 1414.
Pruning Shears, Long-Handled, 1121.
Pryor, L. J., 1218.
Public Administration, 1187.
Public Health, 1206.
Public Service, 1188, 1189.
Public Works, N.Z., 1364.
Purchasing Power of Money, 1176.
Pyke, N. O. P., o186, 1214.
Pyrethrum Extract, 1344.

Queensland, 1176, 1178, 1179, 1241, 1290, 1311, 1324,
1372, 1391, 1392, 1452.

Rabbits, 1184.
Radio Frequencies, 115o.
Radio Receivers, 1338.
Radio, Television and Defamation, 1490.
Rahman, F., 1218.
Railways, 1144, 1145, 1147, 1148, 1371, 1372.
Randerson, H. R., 1273.
Rayon Weaving, 1117.
Redward, J. C., 1204.
Refrigerators, Domestic, 1336.
Regional Planning, Bibliography, 1458.
Religious Philosophy of Education, 1222.
Reversions, Valuation, 1361.
Roads, Historical, N.S.W., 1483.
Robot Economics, 1277.
Ronalds, A. F., 1465.
Rose, A. L., 1460.
Rose, D. E., 1495.
Rose, F. G., 146o.
Rosenberg, W., 1285.
Ross, Lloyd, 1200oo.
Rothberg, M., 1347.
Rowntree, A., 1220.
Rubber Industry, 1113.
Rural Education, 1441.
Rural Electrification, 1098.
Rural Population Changes, Australian, 1433.
Russell, A., 1166.
Russell, Sir J., 1297.
Ryan, R. S., 1201.

Saleswomen, Work Attitudes, 1259.
Salt, 1455.
Samoa, 1168, 1504.
Sanders, C., 1436.
Scarfe, N. V., 1237.
Scott, W. D., 1313.
Seaweed, I i .
Secondary Education, Reform, 1438.
Secret Ballots in Trade Unions, 1379.
Security Problems, 1171, 1192.
Shaw, A. G. L., 1075, 1248.
Sheep, 1405.
Shellard, J., 1439.
Simmins, C. B., 1328.
Simpson, F. A., 1186.
Singer, K., 1277, 1279.
Small Business, 1308.
Smith, T. R., 1189.
Snowy River, 1231, 1232.
Social Accounting, 1135, 1357.
Social Control Limits, 1286.
Socialist Australia, 1289.
Social Medicine, 1205.


Social Services, 1426-1428.
Soil Conservation, 1174, 1230.
Soil Science, 1389.
Solar Salt, 1236.
South Australia, 1147, 1203, 1262, 1321, 1451.
South East Asia, og91, 1416, 1423, 1442.
South Pacific Commission, 1270, 1502.
Soviet Military Potential, io85.
Spectacle Frames, Lenses, 1353.
Speer, R. O., 1139.
Standard of Living, 1078.
State Electricity Commission, Queensland, 1311.
State Electricity Commission, Victoria, o188, lo9o.
Stevens, S. P., 1074, 10oo, 1377.
Stores and Supplies, 1095.
Stoves, Ovens and Ranges, 1335.
Stretton, Justice L. E. B., 1334.
Strom, H. G., 1465.
Student Selection and Academic Success, 1436.
Sugar, 118o, 1393.
Sunshine and Shade, 1425.
Superannuation Schemes, Public Service, 1360.
Surgical Instruments, 1345.

Taft-Hartley Act, 1163.
Talent Erosion, 1496.
Tanga, 1266, 1507.
Tariff Bureau, 1302.
Tasmania, 1177, 12o6, 1220, 1225, 1245, 1317, 1469.
Taxable Income, 1136.
Taylor, J. K., 1458.
Tea, 1103.
Teachers for World Society, 1218.
Teece, R. C., 1484.
Templeton, E. H., 1362.
Test Results, 1257.
Tew, B., 1073.
Textile Dying, Printing, Finishing, 1337.
Thames Valley, 1462.
Thyoglyollic Acid, 1122.
Thomas, D. E., 1456.
Thompson, G. T., 1230.
Thomson, D. C., 1380.
Timor Sea, 1247.
Tin, IlIo.
Tinplate, Port Kembla, 1330.
Tokelau Islands, 1506.
Tokio War Crimes Trial, 1251.
Town Planning, 1202, 1204.'
Tractor Industry, 1116.
Training Methods, 1159, 116o.
Tramways, 1146, 1148.
Transport, 1142, 1143, 1146, 1370, 1371, 1374.
Transportation and Colonial Income, 1477.
Tree Census, 1181.
Trumble, H. C., 1457.
Trusteeship in Pacific, 1173.
Tullaroop Reservoir, 1399.
Turle, C. J., 1359.
Turnbull, C., 1245.
Turnbull, R. F., 1325.
Tyrer, A. J., 1224.

U.K. Recovery, 1293, 1294.
Unemployment in Coal Strike, 1949, 1381.
Unesco Seminar, 1218.
Universities, 1218, 1223.
University Decentralisation, 1223.
University of Melbourne Appointments Board, 1164.
U.N.N.R.A., lo86.
Uren, M., 1468.
U.S.A., 1424.
U.S.S.R., 1298, 1424.
Van der Horst, S. T., 1154.
Victoria, 1088, 1ogo, 1141-1144, 1169, 1217, 1228, I334,
1370, 1397, 1448, 1451, 1455, 1456.
Vine Fruits, 185.
Vocational Guidance, 1219.
Wadham, S. M., 1171.
Wage Incentives, 1388.
Walker, K. F., 1163, 126o, 1388.
Ward, E. E., 1422.
Ward, L. K., 1327.
War Damage Commission, 1128.
Wark, J. M., II112.
War Service Land Settlement, 1177.
Water Conservation, 1390.
Water Supply, 1176.
Watson, G., 1218.
Watt, R. D., 1402.
Wearne, D., 1387.
West Darling Country, 1475.
Western Australia, 1148, 1243, 1249.
Western Europe, Post-War, 1421.
Whaling, American, in Australian Waters, 1481.
Wheat, 1402.
Wheat, International Negotiations, 1315.
Wheat, Price Stabilisation, 1189.
Wheat-Sheep Farms, 1404.
White, L., 1185, 1406.
Wickham, 0. P., 1159.
Williams, J. W., 1271.
Wills, E. P., 1363.
Wills, N. R., 1326.
Wilson, J. S. G., 1354.
Wine, 1107, 1349.
Women's International Organisations, 1194.
Women Teachers, 1497.
Women Workers, 1261.
Wood, F. L. W., 1083.
Wood, G. L., 1273.
Wood at Pulpmills, 1325.
Woods, N. S., 1162.
Wool, 1099, 1102, 1316-1318.
Woolwax Recovery, 1Ioo.
Workers' Compensation, 1488.
World Citizens, 1218.
Wright, G., 1367.

Yorke, L. C., 1409.

Zinc Corporation, 1329.


THIS publication of abstracts in the social sciences is intended to provide a survey
Sof important material, published in, or related to Australia, New Zealand and their
territories, dealing with the various social sciences. The field of the survey dealt with
in these Abstracts is indicated by the classification of the subjects on the inside cover.
The aim is to help the specialist in any particular field to decide what works he
should read, and what he may omit; and to indicate to other workers in allied fields
what is being done. For these purposes it has been decided that the abstracts shall be
genuine pr6cis of the works covered.
At present it is intended to publish the Abstracts half yearly ; but if, in the future,
a larger volume of original work is produced, it is intended to publish the Abstracts
more frequently so that all deserving work may be covered as soon after publication
as possible.
Copies of this and subsequent issues of the Abstracts will be sent on application
(enclosing subscription of 5s. in Australian currency, 4s. sterling, per annum) to the
Editor, Department of Commerce, University of Melbourne, Carlton, N.3.



The Committee on Research in the Social Sciences is a special
committee of the A.N.R.C. charged with the duty of reporting upon
the main investigations which appear to be required in the social
field, of considering the best machinery for conducting these enquiries,
and of arranging for finance.
The Committee is also making a detailed examination of the
position in Australia with regard to training in the social sciences at
the various universities, with special attention to the provision of
research workers. The scope of the committee's work includes the
sociological aspects of such studies as anthropology, economics,
education, history, human geography, jurisprudence, medicine,
philosophy, political science, psychology, public administration and
An outline of the history and functions of the committee by the
chairman, Dr. K. S. Cunningham, was recently published; and
may be obtained free of charge on application to the Australian
Council for Educational Research, T. & G. Building, Russell St.,
Melbourne, C.I.

Members of the Committee :
ALEXANDER, Prof. F., University of Western Australia.
BAILEY, Prof. K. H., Solicitor-General, Canberra.
BALL, Prof. W. Macmahon, University of Melbourne.
BLAND, Prof. F. A., University of Sydney.
BORRIE, Dr. W. D., University of Sydney.
BURTON, Prof. H., Canberra University College.
BUTLIN, Prof. S. J., University of Sydney.
CONLON, Mr. A. A., Sydney.
COPLAND, Prof. D. B., National University, Canberra.
CRAWFORD, Mr. J. G., Bureau of Agricultural Economics, Canberra.
CRAWFORD, Prof. R. M., University of Melbourne.
CUNNINGHAM, Dr. K. S., Director, Australian Council for Educational
Research, Melbourne (Chairman).
CURTIN, Dr. P. W. E., Public Service Board, Canberra.
ELKIN, Prof. A. P., University of Sydney.
FIRTH, Prof. G., University of Tasmania.
FRIEDMANN, Prof. W. G., University of Melbourne.
GIBLIN, Prof. L. F., Hobart.
GIBSON, Prof. A. Boyce, University of Melbourne.
GIFFORD, Prof. J. K., University of Queensland.
GREENWOOD, Prof. G., University of Adelaide.
HASLUCK, Mr. P., House of Representatives, Canberra.
HITTON, Prof. T., University of Tasmania.
LA NAUZE, Prof. J. A., University of Melbourne.
McRAE, Prof. C. R., University of Sydney.
MAULDON, Prof. F. R. E., University of Western Australia.
MAZE, Mr. W. H., University of Sydney.
OESER, Prof. O. A., University of Melbourne (Secretary).
O'NEIL, Prof. W. M., University of Sydney.
PARTRIDGE, Prof. P. H., University of Sydney.
PREST, Prof. W., University of Melbourne.
SHATWELL, Prof. K. O., University of Sydney.
STONE, Prof. Julius, University of Sydney.
STOUT, Prof. A. K., University of Sydney.
WHITE, Mr. H. L., Commonwealth National Library, Canberra.
WOOD, Prof. G. L., University of Melbourne.
WRIGHT, Prof. R. D., University of Melbourne.

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