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 Title Page
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 List of unpublished theses in the...
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Title: Australian social sciences abstracts
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Title: Australian social sciences abstracts
Physical Description: 18 no. : ;
Language: English
Creator: Australian National Research Council -- Committee on Research in the Social Sciences
Publisher: Australian National Research Council, Committee on Research in the Social Sciences.
Place of Publication: Melbourne
Publication Date: September 1949
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Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1-18; Mar. 1946-Nov. 1954.
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter 1
        Front Matter 2
        Abstract 3
        Abstract 4
        Page 227
        Page 228
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        Page 254
        Page 255
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        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
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    List of unpublished theses in the social sciences
        Page 261
        Page 262
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text








Committee on Research in the Social Sciences

Registered in Australia for transmission by post as a periodical


j.>:i V
Vl'r u\~




Dr. K. S. Cunningham (Chairman)
Professor R. M. Crawford, Professor O. A. Oeser, Professor G. L. Wood,
Mr. H. L. White
Mr. S. J. Lengyel, Faculty of Economics and Commerce, University, Carlton,
N.3, Melbourne (on leave), Dr. F. Schnierer (Acting).
ACCOUNTANCY-Mr. L. Goldberg and Miss J. Kerr
Messrs. K. P. J. Barley and A. J. McIntyre
EcoNoMIcs-Professor B. H. Higgins, Professor G. L. Wood, Dr. E.
Dunsdorfs, Dr. O. de R. Foenander, Dr. P. H. Karmel, Dr. F.
Schnierer, Dr. S. P. Stevens, Miss R. Ronaldson
EDUCATION-Dr. K. S. Cunningham
GEOGRAPHY-Messrs. E. J. Donath and R. K. Wilson, Dr. F. Loewe
HIsTORY-Professor R. M. Crawford, Assoc. Professor K. E. Fitz-
patrick, Messrs. F. K. Crowley, R. F. Ericksen, and A. G. L.
Shaw, Miss M. Kiddle
LAW-Professor G. W. Paton
PHILOSOPHY-Professor A. Boyce Gibson and Mr. E. G. Jacoby
POLITICAL SCIENCE-Professor W. Macmahon Ball, Messrs. P. Fread-
man and A. W. Stargardt, Miss J. Willis
All communications should be addressed to the Acting Editor.
Subscription : 5s. per annum in Australian currency; 4s. sterling, post free.

Economics and Economic Policy .. ... .O71
Industry, Trade and Commerce-
(a) General Works .. .. .. . .. o88
(b) Individual Industries .. .. 1099
Monetary Policy, Banking, Insurance .. .. 1123
Public Finance .. .. .. 27
Accountancy .. .. .. .. 132
Transportation and Communication .. .. 1141
Labour and Industrial Relations .. .. .
Agriculture, Land and Rural Problems .. .. .. .. 1166
Political Science-
Government and Politics .. .. .. .. .. 1186
International Relations .. .. .. .. .. I 19
Social Conditions-
Housing .. 1202
Social Security and Public Health .. .. 205
Social Surveys . .. 1207
Population and Migration .. .. .. o8
Education .. .. .. 1218
Geography .. .. ... 1.226
History . ... .. .. 1245
Law .. .. .. 1250
Philosophy .. .. .. 1256
Psychology .... 1257
Territories and Native Problems 1262
Appendix-Unpublished Theses .. page 261

Australian Public Affairs Information Service, or A.P.A.I.S., indexes books,
magazine articles and government documents on Australian political, economic
and social affairs. It is published monthly by the Commonwealth National
Library, and will be sent free upon request to the Librarian.


Committee on Research in the Social Sciences

Faculty of Economics and Commerce,
University of Melbourne,

May, 1950.


Dear Sir,

The Australian Social Science Abstracts have been

published by-the Committee on Research in the Social Sciences

since March 1946 at half-yearly intervals. The Abstracts

provide a survey of important material books, pamphlets,

articles in current periodicals, Government publications -

dealing with the various social sciences, published in, or

relating to Australia, New Zealand and their territories.

The.purpose of the Abstracts is to assist the specialist in

any particular field to select publications for individual

or class use; also to indicate to workers in other allied

fields what is being done in sciences more or less nearly

connected with their own special fields.

To the research worker and specialist overseas

where access to Australian and New Zealand publications is

often not easy, the Abstracts are of particular value.

The contents of the issues so far published have

proved that the approach to the problem of helping the

specialist in social sciences was right and the Abstracts have

become a widely appreciated publication.

Your name does not appear in our list of subsaibers

and we take the liberty of sending you the issue of the Abstract

No 8, September1949, as a sample copy. We trust that perusal

of this will convince you of its-usefulness for your special

purposes and induce you to subscribe. The subscription is

5s. per annum post free in Australian currency within the Sterling

area, and 1 (one Dollar) outside the Sterling area.
Yours faithfully,

The General Editor.
Please record my subscription for 1950 for one (........) copy
(copies) of the "Australian Social Science Abstracts."
Enclosed is a remittance for ........................




Dear Sir or Madam,
In 1946 and 1947 the annual subscription to Australian Social Science
Abstracts outside the Sterling area was SI (one dollar). In 1948 and
1949 the annual subscription was 5s. Australian currency for all
countries. The recent devaluation of the Australian currency and
the steadily rising costs of production of the Abstracts have compelled
us to restore the former rate of subscription of $I per annum for
subscribers residing in non-Sterling countries, starting in 1950.
Subscribers in non-Sterling countries who have already paid their
subscription for the current period are not required to pay any
additional amount.
Melbourne, April 1950.


A publication of the Committee on Research in the Social Sciences, Australian
National Research Council, subsidized by the Commonwealth Government.

All communications should be addressed to the Editor, Faculty of Economics
and Commerce, University of Melbourne, Carlton, N.3, Victoria, Australia.

No. 8 September 1949 5s. per annum

Where the size of a Government publication or Parliamentary Paper (P.P.) is not given, it is 8J ins. x 13* ins.

(A) Economics and Economic Policy
1071. New Zealand. Edited by Horace Belshaw.
University of California Press, 1947, pp.
329. Price $5.
This book, another title in the United Nations Series
edited by R. J. Kerner, is a companion volume to
Australia, edited by C. Hartley Grattan, and is similar
to it in general plan. It is divided into four main parts ;
Part One : Background, has five chapters ; Chapter I
by J. C. Beaglehole dealing with discovery and explora-
tion, Chapter 2 by A. H. Clark dealing with Physical
and Cultural Geography, Chapter 3 by I. L. Sutherland
dealing with Maori and Pakeha, Chapters 4 and 5 by
W. T. Airey dealing with History from 1840 to present
day. Part Two: Economic and Social Development
has five chapters ; Chapter 6 on Economic Organisation
by the Editor himself, Chapter 7 on the Farming
Industries by W. M. Hamilton, Chapter 8 by S. Leather
deals with Industry and Industrial Policy, Chapter 9 on
Labour Legislation and Organisation by D. W. Oxnam,
Chapter io on Social Legislation by W. B. Sutch.
Part Three : Cultural Development, has two chapters
on Education and Literature and the Arts, by A. E.
Campbell and A. R. Fairburn respectively. Part Four:
Government and Foreign Policy has two chapters:
Politics and Administration by L. C. Webb, and Inter-
national and Commonwealth Relations by Mr. Beagle-
hole again. A useful and selected bibliography con-
cludes the book.-R.K.W.

1072. Copland, D. B. Back to Earth in Economics
(Australia 1948). Angus and Robertson,
Sydney, 1948, pp. 51.
In this small book Professor Copland gives an
analysis of the Australian economy in 1948. The change
from the wartime economy to the conditions of post-war
reconstruction, the new pattern of demand upon the
economy, and the movements of national income, prices,
wages, trade and production are considered. The
influence of inflation arising from excess spending power
is also examined. Professor Copland finds that the
response of production to the persistent pressure of
demand is inadequate, even in housing, while the
shortage of labour and materials is obvious in almost
every industry. Mounting inflation based upon high

export prices and rising wage levels is the irresistible
force which has collided with apparently immovable
production. In these conditions, full employment is
illusory as an index of productive activity. The main
difficulty is to impose restrictions upon inflationary
pressure unless production and export can be expanded.
The consequent expansion of export income would
induce another accentuation of present difficulties.
The final problems concern sterling and dollar ex-
change rates, and the optimum policy to be adopted
should sterling be devalued. The author advocates
stabilisation plans which would involve the freezing of
some of the export income in order to build up reserves
for rural industry and to apply a brake to the unwanted
increase in the volume of money. To allay the shortage
of dollars, Professor Copland is in favour of the govern-
ment arranging a loan from the United States. In
refusing to do this, Australia is disregarding the asset
of her own economic soundness and failing to share the
risks which are common to all sterling-area countries.

1073. (a) A Note on the Multiplier. B. Tew.
Economic Record, pp. O19-111, June 1948.
(b) Public Finance and the National In-
come. H. W. Arndt. Economic Record, pp.
243-245, December 1948.
(a) 'Independent' components of the national income
are tho'whose 'e magnitude is not affected by the
reactions of income receivers to changes in their income'.
B. Tew discusses the classification of some items as
independent, particularly of expenditure by public
authorities on home-produced goods and services. He
objects to the conventional treatment (since Keynes) of
loan expenditure as independent, because the Govern-
ment would then adhere to a certain rate of budget
deficit or surplus irrespective of changes in the national
income. Better would be Tarshis' procedure to con-
sider total (not only loan) public expenditure as inde-
pendent, but even this is doubtful.
(b) According to Mr. Arndt any hard and fast dis-
tinction between dependent and independent com-
ponents of the naLional income is unrealistic. When
the public budget is balanced annually, any budget
operations might be treated as dependent. However,
this as well as Keynes' treatment of budget policy like
private investment as independent variables, is only a
rough approximation. Tew's suggestion to regard total
public expenditure as independent, is not much better.

Statistical calculations of the multiplier are necessarily
rough. Reference is made to Lord Beveridge's and
N. Kaldor's procedure.

1074. 'Of Course I know no Economics, but-'.
Some Comments on Provision for Eco-
nomic Teaching and Research in Australia.
S. J. Butlin. Australian Quarterly, pp. 37-
52, September 1948.
A presidential address to the Economic Society of
Australia and N.Z., N.S.W. Branch on 16 April 1948.
The lecturer refers to economic teaching at Universities
only, while for economic research there are no special
institutions in Australia as in U.K. or U.S. Some
economic research is done by Australian Government
departments, but mainly in the way of professional
investigation, fact-finding. At Australian universities
there is no separation of teaching and research. The
income of British universities in 1945-46 was stg.I53
per student, that of Australian universities 1946 A59.
Of British university expenditure in 1938-39 only 3 per
cent were for social sciences. At the Faculty of
Economics in Sydney in 1946 there were 44 students
per staff member, at the Faculty of Medicine 91I, of
Arts S215. Very little time for research is left to the
teacher of economics. Economic research requires
expensive libraries and travelling for which there is
very poor provision. Very little money is provided for
research scholarships. Consequently very little research
has so far been undertaken concerning the Australian
economy, such as arbitration, government business
enterprises, federal-state finance.

1075. Economics and History. A. G. L. Shaw.
Historical Studies of Australia and New
Zealand, Vol. 3, No. 12, pp. 277-286,
February 1949.
This is a paper read to the History section of the
Congress of the Australian and N.Z. Association for
the Advancement of Science, discussing the proper
relation between history and economics, and more
especially between economic history and theory. The
argument is put forward that any good history involves
the recognition of some sort of theory concerned with
its subject-matter, whatever it may happen to be-
military, legal, ecclesiastical, political, or economic;
but that this is particularly the case with economic
history. At the same time it is recognized that these
theories, though necessary for interpreting and under-
standing facts, must be used carefully, because if based
on faulty or inadequate assumptions, they may lead to
error. Two rules are suggested to safeguard against
this and the value of both economics and history to the
study of the other is stressed.-A.G.L.S.

1076. International Comparisons of the Purchas-
ing Power of Money. Review of Economic
Progress (Brisbane), pp. 1-5, January 1949.
Purchasing power is expressed in I.U. (international
unit), i.e., the quantity of commodities exchangeable
for $i in U.S.A. over the average of 1925-34. The
comparisons are based on a number of investigations,
among them the I.L.O. 1931 enquiry, called Detroit
Enquiry, the Unilever Enquiry 1930, J. H. Richardson's
research on food prices 1930, a British official publica-
tion on food prices 1945, rent comparisons in the Inter-
national Labour Review, December 1938, etc. 1929 is
taken as the year for international comparisons (for six
countries 1939 is the basis). For U.S., U.K. and ten

other countries the necessary data are completely avail-
able, for 14 others only partially. For 1929 the national
distribution of expenditure on food, rent, clothing and
other items, this national expenditure revalued at U.S.
prices, U.S. distribution revalued at national prices is
presented for 26 countries, to work out the geometric
mean price level and the value in I.U. of one unit of
national currency in 1929.
Furthermore, the purchasing power of the in I.U.
is re-calculated for 1938, and an international com-
parison of the purchasing power of money in 1946-47
is attempted for 15 countries.

1077. Canadian Economic Problems and Policies :
Comparisons with Australia. B. Higgins.
Australian Outlook, pp. 207-218, Decem-
ber 1948 ; pp. 22-31, March 1949.
Common features of the Australian and Canadian
economies are: a small population concentrated into
a tiny fraction of an enormous area and a highly regional-
ised economic structure. In both countries consumer
spending, private investment and government expendi-
ture are about the same proportion of national income.
However, an integrated national income policy is harder
to achieve in Canada and there is no suggestion of any
philosophy of government control in Canada. Canada
has a larger share of its manpower in primary and
secondary industries, Australia in finance, commerce
and administration. Australia is closer to a stationary
population and to the limit of her industrial growth.
Canada has cheaper power, and her nearness to U.K.
and U.S. facilitates large-scale industrial production.
U.K. is more important for Canadian exports, and
for Australian imports. U.S. is more important for
Canadian imports and exports, Western Europe for
Australian exports.
World War II accelerated Canada's industrialisation,
but several vast regions still depend mainly on primary
products. The maintenance of high employment and
income will be increasingly difficult after the present
boom is over. Possible agricultural expansion in the
Canadian West and a declining population rate sets a
limit to private investment. The wartime expansion
of industrial output was less in Australia than in Canada.
More adequate controls have lessened the amplitude
of postwar fluctuations in the present transition period.
To maintain high employment, both governments have
to encourage exports (of greater importance to Aus-
tralia), to stabilise private investment and consumption
at a high level, and to undertake public investment so
as to accelerate national development. To save U.S.
dollars, Canada has restricted U.S. imports, particularly
of goods which might be made in Canada.
Both countries succeeded in financing war without
serious inflation, through an integrated fiscal policy.
Both countries will have to combine a 'regionalised'
structure with regional integration. There is growing
confidence that both countries can be insulated against
world depression, by stabilising rather the volume of
investment than that of exports.-B.H.

1078. Output per Manhour in Relation to Stan-
dard of Living. W. M. Fowler. Manufac-
turing and Management, pp. 343-347,
April 1949.
With full employment and labour shortage in Aus-
tralia greater production can be achieved only by
providing more labour (immigration) or by increased
output per worker. In U.S.A. horsepower per worker
has increased from i"25 in 1879 to 6-4 in 1939 and 7-25

in 1946, in Australia from 1-38 in 1925 to 3-0 in 1939
(probably 3-6 in 1950). This growing mechanisation
requires mainly more electric motors and generating
facilities, more fuel, in the last resort greater output
per manhour. In Australia the percentage of popula-
tion engaged as workers in secondary industry, as shown
by a graph, rose from 7 in 1925 to 10o6 in 1946, i.e.,
more than in U.S.A. (6-7 before the war). Further
graphs show the value of output in secondary industry
per head of population, the value of production per
manhour, real investment per worker in land, buildings,
plant and machinery, hours worked per week, real
wages per manhour (1,185 in 1925, 1,400 in 1944), and
value of output per worker (933 in 1929 and 1,150
in 1946). To maintain the present rate of development
we have to get more population and more workers,
besides the output per manhour must be lifted by
increasing mechanisation and by wage systems pro-
viding incentives to improve the output per manhour.

1079. Plan against Depression. S. P. Stevens.
Australian Observer, p. 6, 30 April 1949.
This article draws attention to the difficulties en-
countered if public works are used as the main props
for the Australian economy during a depression. To
prevent stock accumulation in manufactured articles
during the downswing, the author proposes that those
industries in which over-production develops reduce
working time by one or two days per week until demand
again exceeds supply.
During the period of output restrictions effective
demand would be maintained by full wage payments.
Employers would only pay for work done, and the
government provide the residual amount. Statistical
testing showed that on the basis of the incidence of
unemployment in 1929-30 in Australia, payments by
the government under this scheme would have exceeded
unemployment relief by only a small amount. It is
claimed for this scheme that it would eliminate the
pressure of stocks from future sales, and thus overcome
the undesirable shifting of employees from work for
which they have been trained to public works.-S.P.S.
io80. Food and Agriculture Organisation. J. B.
Mayne. Review of Marketing and Agricul-
tural Economics, pp. 608-625, November
This article starts with a survey of the world food
situation in 1947, 1947-48 and the prospects for 1948-49,
giving figures of the area and production of specified
crops in Europe in comparison with pre-war years,
also of cereal rations in some far eastern countries.
Special attention is paid to Europe, Japan and India.
The following section deals with the development of
F.A.O. in 1947 and 1948. Under the heading 'What
F.A.O. has done' the technical assistance provided to
member governments, the collection of basic facts about
the food and agricultural situation and the promotion
of concerted international action by recommending the
latest scientific methods is indicated concerning subjects
such as: seeds, water conservation, animal health,
livestock programmes, insect control and insecticides,
farm machinery, food preservation, fisheries, forestry,
nutrition, missions, regional assistance. A short para-
graph discusses Australia and F.A.O. Finally a list of
recent F.A.O. publications is presented.
xo81. (a) Australia, Round Table (London), pp.
84-91, December 1948.
(b) New Zealand, ibid., pp. 95-100o.

(a) An Australian correspondent deals with the High
Court judgment against the government in the banking
nationalisation case. The principal legal obstacle to
nationalisation seems to be sec. 92 of the Federal
Constitution. The steadily mounting inflation is dis-
cussed with emphasis on Mr. Chifley's budget speech
on 8 September 1948. After the defeat of the price
control referendum part of the Commonwealth price
subsidies were withdrawn, but some price control was
taken over by the states. The federal budget could
maintain its surplus, but expanding social services and
increasing administration costs prevented reduction of
government expenditure. Immediate causes of the
present inflation are high agricultural export incomes-
they might have been reduced by appreciation of the
Australian currency-and the pressure of the trade
unions for higher wages. Finally the 'political scene' is
discussed in connection with the coming federal election.
(b) A N.Z. correspondent investigates the N.Z.
currency appreciation which was mainly intended to
check the rising cost of living. Criticism was voiced
by the farming community. The budget included
slight income tax reductions, but high government
expenditure, particularly on social services and on
defence. Peace-time conscription is a possibility. In
conclusion N.Z.'s participation in the London confer-
ence of Commonwealth Prime Ministers is referred to.

l082. (a) Australia. Towards a Free Economy,
Round Table (London), pp. 177-181,
March 1949.
(b) New Zealand, ibid., pp. 188-192.
(a) An Australian correspondent discusses the defi-
ciency of output despite full employment. This short-
age of products is increased by Australia's conversion
to an overseas lender, while demand for goods including
private investment and government purchases of goods
and services is very high and creating an inflationary
spiral. The pros and cons of the present high taxation
are dealt with. Indirect taxation is also extremely
heavy. The history of federal price control is briefly
outlined. Now federal control has been replaced by
state price control, and probably a decreasing number
of goods will be price controlled. Price control is
likely to be abandoned altogether fairly soon.
(b) A N.Z. correspondent deals with the parlia-
mentary session of 1948. Some controls were slightly
relaxed, but a permanent stabilisation department has
been set up to perpetuate price control. A survey of
the history of N.Z. liquor laws is presented up to the
recent Licensing Amendment Act. Special provisions
have been made for the King Country to abolish any
inequality for Maoris in the matter of liquor. The
Labour majority depends on the vote of the four Maori
members in the House of Representatives. Further
sections of the article deal with the pressure of labour
organizations on the Government, with Acts for the
administration of the Tokelau and Cook Islands, and
the extension of social service reciprocity between N.Z.,
U.K. and Australia.
Io83. Report from New Zealand. F. L. W. Wood.
Pacific Affairs (Richmond, Virginia), pp.
34-42, March 1949.
Conditions in N.Z. are remarkably stable, as N.Z. in
the second world war neither experienced destruction
nor an 'industrial revolution'. It is still a debtor
country, a specialised supplier of some primary products
mainly to U.K. and imports most manufactured goods
from U.K. The internal price level has been held down

more than elsewhere, but the terms of trade have turned
against N.Z., which sells her exports rather cheaply and
has to pay much higher prices for her imports. The
recent currency appreciation could not do away with
this disparity. Political controversy is largely concerned
with the living standard. N.Z. is less Pacific-minded
than during the war, although there is some interest in
Asiatic affairs. In conclusion the author deals with
the N.Z. attitude to current European events, to inter-
national co-operation and the growing importance of
U.S. in the Pacific.
o184. The Productivity of the United States.
Economic News, pp. 1-4, July-August 1948.
During the war U.S. productive capacity was over-
estimated, while the official index number of retail
prices understated the real price rise. Since decontrol
of prices in 1946 official and private price index numbers
are more reliable. A table compares U.S. national
income data for the last eight quarters to June 1948
with 1939 figures. Gross national product is revalued
and a deduction for real depreciation is made. The
real productivity per manhour during the last two years
has been 20 per cent above pre-war level, in U.K. and
Australia it is at the pre-war level. The relative
exchange values of different currencies must be deter-
mined by the productivity of their labour, what Keynes
calls efficiency wages, i.e., the wages cost of a given
volume of output. On this basis U.K. would have to
reduce the exchange value of the stg. to $3 or reduce
wages by 25 per cent, while the true exchange rate of
the A would be 30s. stg. and over $41. In conclusion
the paper refers to France where the present devaluation
of the Franc against $ is far too low.
I085. Soviet Military Potential. Colin Clark.
Economic News, pp. 1-4, November-
December 1948.
The prospective number of males aged 18-24 in the
years 1950-1965 in U.S.S.R., U.S.A., the British
Empire and other areas is compared, and the number of
births p.a. in U.S.S.R. in 1920-38 is estimated, with
particular reference to the changing Soviet attitude to
abortion. The economic resources which might be
available in 1955 to U.S.S.R. and its satellites including
occupied countries is calculated by comparing the
population (also working population in agriculture and
in all other industries) in 1939 with the estimated popula-
tion in 1955, the real product per manhour in Inter-
national Units (i.e., goods and services exchangeable for
$i in 1925-34) in 1939 in agriculture and in all other
industries, the expected total non-agricultural product
in 1955, and the cost of transport and distribution of
foodstuffs to urban population. In the author's view
by 1955 26-25 billion I.U. p.a. would be available to
the 'Soviet Empire' for either military expenditure or
capital investment. This he compares with the possible
expenditure for military purposes of U.S. and the
British Empire.
io86. Australia's UNRRA Contribution. N. 0. P.
Pyke. Australian Outlook, pp. 7o-81,
March 1949.
This is a survey of Australia's part in UNRRA
activities from the draft agreement in November 1943
to the closing of the UNRRA South West Pacific area
office in Sydney in June 1948. Details are presented
of the parliamentary debates on the Australian UNRRA
bill. Member countries whose territories were not
enemy-occupied, had to contribute i per cent of their

national income in 1942-43. This meant for Australia
Ai2m. In furnishing supplies in goods Australia
had to consider her own requirements, her commitments
regarding Australian and Allied forces and U.K.'s
export demands. Early in 1946 a second grant was
made by Australia in war surpluses and wool. Apart
from gift clothing worth Ai,446,ooo, Australia up to
30 June 1947 contributed goods to the value of
Az22,769,ooo to UNRRA; of these A3,x89,ooo were
food, 12,1oi,ooo clothing (wool, etc.), 514,000 medical
supplies, 3,440,000 for agricultural and 3,525,000 for
industrial rehabilitation. China absorbed over A7m.
of our contributions, Europe over Ai5m., two-thirds
of which by a raw wool transfer. 25o qualified Aus-
tralians were sent overseas to work for UNRRA.

1o87. ECAFE at Lapstone and After. L. F.
Crisp. Australian Outlook, pp. 82-87,
March 1949.
Most relevant in the fourth session (Lapstone confer-
ence) of the ECAFE was the intimation from the U.S.A.
government and the International Bank that Asian
countries in search of capital must look primarily to
private investors, for whom political and social instability
is naturally a deterrent. The ECAFE organisation is,
therefore, mainly of the research and liaison type. The
economic functions of ECAFE were largely hampered
by political interference (Indonesia, French Indochina),
although Russian obstruction was comparatively absent
at Lapstone. Communist leadership in China will mean
a new balance in the commission and more of politics.

(B) Industry, Trade and Commerce
(a) General Works
1o88. Three Decades. The Story of the State
Electricity Commission of Victoria from its
Inception to December 1948. Hutchinson
& Co. (Publishers) Ltd., Melbourne 1949,
pp. 192.
This book has been published after thirty years'
existence of the S.E.C. as an historical account and a
description of present conditions and plans for future
development. On a small scale brown coal from open
cuts in the Latrobe Valley was won by a private company
since 1887 and briquettes were made in Morwell since
189i. 1917 the Victorian Governmet aont appointed an
Advisory Committee on brown coal mining, particularly
for generating electricity. This committee's report
brought the S.E.C. into being. 1918 an Electricity
Commissioners Bill was passed by the State Parliament.
Three Commissioners were appointed who in a report of
November 1919 submitted a scheme for brown coal
production and electricity generation near Morwell,
while they considered the time for the development of
water power as being not yet ripe. 192o a new act
created the S.E.C. Subsequent chapters deal with
electricity from Yallourn-first transmission to Mel-
bourne took place in 1924; water power, its growth to
1939-the Goulburn River-Sugarloaf-Rubicon project;
the large-scale manufacture of briquettes in Yallourn
since 1925 ; the gradual extension of the generating
capacity of the Yallourn and Newport power stations;
the war years and the Kiewa River hydro-electric
Chapter VI is concerned with post-war problems-
shortages of N.S.W. black coal, of labour and materials
and electricity rationing. Among other subjects the
book discusses the township of Yallourn, organisation

and finance, briquettes from Yallourn coal, transport,
workshops and stores, welfare work on behalf of S.E.C.
personnel, transmission lines and substations, research.
The book is richly illustrated with coloured plates and
1089. Australian Tariffs and Imperial Control.
J. A. La Nauze. Economic Record, pp. 218-
234, December 1948.
A continuation of an article published in Economic
Record, June 1948 and abstracted as No. 894 in No. 7
of the Abstracts. Part IV discusses the first tariffs in
W.A. and S.A., duties on spirits and wine in the 1830's.
Part V deals with imperial control since 185o when the
Australian Colonies Government Act authorised the
Governor and Legislative Council of every colony to
impose duties provided they did not concern imports
for the forces, did not conflict with imperial inter-
national treaties and did not differentiate between
countries of origin. 1873 the latter provision was
relaxed by permitting inter-colonial preferential tariffs
including N.Z. 1895 differential tariffs were generally
admitted. Part VI examines the application of imperial
control, with reference to general imperial purposes,
such as navigation; to local customs regulations; to
differential duties ; to protection and to the reservation
of Customs Acts.

og90. State Electricity Commission of Victoria.
Twenty-ninth Annual Report for year
ended 30 June 1948. P.P. Government
Printer, Melbourne, pp. 57. Price 3s.
The year's operations resulted in a loss of 213,ooo
which was met by transfer from reserves. However,
from I July 1948 the electricity supply tariffs were
increased, briquette prices from I January 1948, and
fares for the tramway systems of Ballarat, Bendigo and
Geelong are to be raised. Sections of the report deal
with further brown coal development (open cuts and
briquettes production in Morwell), the augmented
Kiewa hydro-electric project, major plant replacements
(turbo-generators and boilers), the Yallourn generating
station, the Snowy River hydro-electric plan, the use of
the Hume water for power generation, the planned
gasification of brown coal. Subsequent chapters discuss
coal production in Yallourn and Yallourn North, power
production, extension programmes (Newport generating
station, Kiewa, etc.), the development of electricity
supply, the tramway systems run by the commission, etc.
Eleven appendices present financial and supply

o191. Trends in Australian Trade with South-
East Asia. Current Notes on International
Affairs, pp. 383-399, March 1949.
A survey of Australian pre-war and post-war imports
from and exports to India, Ceylon, Malaya, China and
Netherlands East Indies. The post-war position of the
latter three countries is much affected by political
unrest. Before the war S.E. Asia was an important
export market for Australian foodstuffs (dairy products,
flour, wheat, meat) and tropical foodstuffs and raw
materials, such as tea, petroleum, rubber, hessian and
kapok, were imported to Australia mainly from S.E.
Asia. Various chapters dealt with Australian exports to
and imports from India (great post-war increase of our
wheat and flour, metal and machinery exports, tea,
bags and sacks, hessian, cotton and linen piece goods
imports); Ceylon (increase of flour exports, tea imports);

Malaya (increase of flour exports, rubber imports);
China (increase of flour exports, bristles and feathers,
oils imports); N.E.I. (decrease of both imports and
exports) ; total trade with S.E. Asia (increase of flour
and wheat, dairy products, wool, metal, metal manu-
factures exports ; tea, bags and sacks imports).
Statistical figures are presented in twelve tables.
1092. The Foreign Trade of Japan since the Sur-
render. Current Notes on International
Affairs, pp. 485-491, August 1948.
Before the war Japan imported mainly raw cotton,
other textile raw materials, ores and metals, foodstuffs,
and exported mainly raw silk and textile manufactures.
More than half of the exports and imports went to
(came from) Asiatic countries, about one-quarter to
(from) U.S.A. Australian imports from Japan 1930-34
were between A2,7oo,ooo and 4,200oo,ooo p.a., exports
to Japan between A9,5oo,ooo and 13,900oo,ooo. Japanese
post-war trade is completely dislocated, total exports
after the war were only 12 per cent in value of the
1930-34 level. Imports were mainly foodstuffs and
petroleum, exports 1945-46 predominantly raw silk,
1947 cotton fabrics. Post-war imports came almost
exclusively from U.S.A., exports in 1945-46 also went
primarily to U.S., 1947 more to East Asia. Australia
imported from Japan 548,ooo's worth of raw silk and
85,00ooo of rayon yar (1947); her exports to Japan
were A5,940,ooo's worth, mainly foodstuffs, wool and
machinery. Further sections discuss the overall Ster-
ling payment agreement with Japan, effective from
31 May 1948 and various bilateral trade agreements.

1093. A Brief Review of Australia's Manufacturing
Industry in the Post-War Period. Division
of Industrial Development, Department of
Post-War Reconstruction, Melbourne, pp.
51 roneoedd).
A survey of the post-war expansion of the Australian
manufacturing industry and its reconversion to peace-
time purposes. Among the economic trends discussed
are : the tendency to decentralisation ; capital invest-
ment-between September 1945 and June 1948 expan-
sion programmes and new projects of existing industries
will involve 103m. capital expenditure, of which U.K.
interests will contribute I6m., U.S. interests 13m.
New companies will expend over 41m. (of which
I5m. from U.K., 5m. from U.S. and 5m. from
other overseas countries); new and expanding indus-
tries are referred to, such as shipbuilding, aircraft,
chemicals, iron and steel production. Related to indus-
trial development is the increase in electric power
generation, water supply (irrigation) and conservation,
mineral development (aluminium, coal), the unification
of railway gauges. A section on industrial efficiency
discusses technical and financial assistance to industry,
materials handling, interstate distribution of certain
materials, research. A chapter on markets shows
export figures. In conclusion reference is made to
labour shortage and to greater attention to be paid to
increasing productivity and to stable export markets.
Four tables present industrial statistics. A final
section (pp. 17-5 ) gives details of our industrial develop-
ments in groups of industries, such as industrial metal
machines, etc., textiles.

1094. Preparing for the Buyers' Market. An Edi-
torial Staff Report. Manufacturing and
Management, pp. 217-221, January 1949.

This is a summary of addresses to the Top Manage-
ment Conference at. Melbourne University on
30 November 1948, organised by the Institute of Indus-
trial Management.
Professor B. H. Higgins speaks on the 'inevitability
of the buyers' market'. He refers to the main factors
tending to end expansion, particularly the decreasing
rate of investment. He mentions some action business
can take against depression in co-operation with the
E. N. Avery discusses 'spring cleaning the selling
organisation', that is principally a recommendation to
train sales personnel.
L. C. Coleman deals with 'selling on the home
market'. The Australian is 'import-minded about the
domestic market'. To prepare for the buyers' market
full information about the product has to be gathered
and continuous market surveys should be conducted.
R. F. Anderson is concerned with 'possibilities of the
export market', especially among the r,ooo million people
of the Orient. A new orientation of the Australian
mind is needed, on the part of the government, of
labour and of the manufacturers.

1095. Control of Stores and Supplies. E. T.
Hedges, Manufacturing and Management,
pp. 189-195, December 1948.
A description of the system of stores handling used
by the B.H.P. The receipt of goods is recorded in an
'Inwards Goods Manifest', a 'Goods Received Note'
and in case of faulty deliveries in a 'Goods Returned
Advice' and a 'Discrepancy Advice Note'. Stocks are
kept by unit piling in metal trays, vertical or horizontal
racks. The issue of stores from stock, credit receipts
into stores, fixtures and fittings, the keeping of a per-
petual inventory, progressive or sectional stocktaking,
are among other topics discussed.

1o96. Production Planning and Control. A. S.
Barber. Manufacturing and Management,
pp. 251-256, February 1949.
A description of production planning and control in
a large Australian manufacturing company. The pro-
cedure for control of large contracts, for machine shop
planning control, outside purchases of materials, and
assembly is set out. For a growing establishment
adaptation of such a system to individual circumstances
is needed.

1097. Air Conditioning for Efficient Plant Opera-
tion. Editorial Staff Contribution. Manu-
facturing and Management, pp. 287-292,
March 1949.
Ideal conditions concerning temperature and relative
humidity differ in most industries and it is on these
two factors the type of air conditioning required
depends, with the aim to provide the best possible
conditions for the process (improving quality) and to
make working conditions for the employees as comfort-
able as possible (improving efficiency). There are two
main kinds of air conditioning: the central system and
the unit system. Practical examples of air condition-
ing are given for a linen thread factory and a match
factory, both in Victoria, and finally for a car repair
firm in N.S.W., where noxious fumes have to be
removed from a lacquer spraying shop.
1o98. Rural Electrification in N.S.W. Farm Front,
pp. 167-173, November-December 1948.

An expansion of electrical power in N.S.W. rural
areas in the most economical way needs state-wide
co-ordination and state control. This is provided by
the Electricity Authority set up by the N.S.W. Elec-
tricity Development Act 1945. Transmission lines and
generating equipment have to meet peak hour demands.
The distribution for rural areas is more uneven than for
towns, therefore large generating stations supplying
electricity to metropolitan and to country consumers
are preferable. The present arrangements for dis-
tributing electricity are surveyed for the metropolitan
area, the southern regions, the western and northern
sector. 'Up to 40 per cent of the estimated cost to
local supply authorities of extending electricity lines
into rural areas will now be paid by way of subsidy
over ten years.' Of 74,000 rural holdings in N.S.W.
52,000 are within range of possible electricity exten-
sions, but now only 12,ooo are supplied with power.
Within ten years 24,000 farms and 1o,ooo other rural
consumers may be connected at 6m. cost. The
estimated costs and subsidies of present projects are
presented, and some figures of the power cost per unit
are given.

(b) Individual Industries
o199. Sixtieth Annual Wool Review. Winch-
combe, Carson Ltd. Sydney, May 1949,
pp. 20.
A summary of the Sydney, Newcastle and Brisbane
wool markets in 1948-49. Among other subjects it
deals with the record prices for merino and fine crossbred
wool, the greatly increased average prices of Australian
wool, the rapid liquidation of the Joint Marketing
Organisation, the decline of wool clips owing to closer
settlement, the development of Australian woollen
mills and their production of tops, local fellmongering,
scouring and carbonising, sheepskin exports. Further-
more it discusses the conditions of mills in U.K., U.S.
and various continental countries, likely future prices,
merino and crossbred production; seasonal conditions,
weight of fleece, monetary returns, lambing in N.S.W.
and Queensland. Statistics are presented concerning
Australian stock returns, wool production, sales and
appraisements, and prices. A short appendix com-
ments on meat trade, fat lamb, mutton and beef pro-
duction, prices and exports, particularly to U.K.
11oo. Stevens, S. P. The Economic Basis of Wool-
wax Recovery in Australia. Faculty of Eco-
nomics and Commerce, University of Mel-
bourne, 1949, pp. 95.
Woolwax is a by-product of the wool-scouring process
and in its raw or refined form is used in the manufacture
of a large number of articles. Wool Scouring is under-
taken by a large number of different sized firms, washing
different types of wools containing different quantities
of wax.
This diversity of factors influencing the recovery of
woolwax made an enquiry into the economics of the
process necessary before the quantity of wax which can
economically be recovered could be stated. It was
found that of the maximum possible recovery of 15,ooo
tons per annum not more than about 1,500 tons should
be recovered in Australia.
Besides the economics of the recovery process itself
this estimate is based on the following facts :
(a) Australian demand for woolwax is about 350 tons
p.a. at present and is unlikely to exceed 500 tons
in the near future,

(b) demand for woolwax is practically price inelastic,
(c) export sales of woolwax have become more
difficult as boom conditions in U.S. have dis-
appeared and German competition is re-asserting
This book does not deal with a possible increase in
the demand for woolwax if new uses for it are discovered,
as it would entail pure speculation not amenable to
scientific treatment. The book's purpose is to advise
the trade on the difficulties encountered if recovery is
undertaken in too small plants or from scouring effluents
of unsuitable wools. As woolwax recovery is a relatively
young industry in Australia, a scientific treatment of
the conditions governing the production of this by-
product is important.-S.P.S.
inoi. Wool Marketing, Economic Background to
Organisation Problem. R. B. McMillan.
Quarterly Review of Agricultural Economics,
pp. 3-6, January 1949.
Among the supply characteristics of wool is a slow
response to economic or other influences because its
dependence on the life cycle of the sheep and because
of the joint supply of wool with lamb, mutton and
often with other farm products (wheat). The year-to-
year changes in wool production in-and outside-
Australia are mostly below 5 per cent. Wool supply
is highly inelastic to price. As to demand, Australian
wool is apparel, not carpet wool. It competes with the
demand for other fibres. The greater part of Aus-
tralian wool (78-94 per cent) is exported. The demand
also depends very much on national income and real
income per head. Wool demand is very unstable, so
are Australian wool prices. They are largely outside
local control. There is 'scope for ironing out the
short-term fluctuations about the general trend of wool's
free market price' 'through an analysis of the demand
factors causing these short-term fluctuations'.
1102. Australian Wool Consumption. Growth of
Local Textile Industry. W. D. N. Johnson.
Quarterly Review of Agricultural Economics,
pp. 16-19, January 1949.
Figures are given from 1907 to 1947 of the Australian
production of woollen cloth, flannel, blankets and rugs
and of the imports of woollen worsted yarns, piece-goods
containing wool, carpets, rugs and felts, blankets and
blanketing, with an indication of various tariff changes.
Another picture of woollen industry development is
presented by graphs showing the indexes of employ-
ment in the wool textile industry and all manufacturing
industries. The annual consumption of clean wool
was, according to a F.A.O. survey, 4-63 lb. per head
in 1934-38, i.e., the third largest in the world. The
author considers this figure too low and estimates con-
sumption per head in Australia at 5-94 lb. in 1938-39
and 6-31 lb. in 1946-47.

1103. The Production of Cacao, Coffee and Tea
in the Territory of Papua-New Guinea.
Department of Post-War Reconstruction,
Regional Planning Division, Canberra.
T. H. Halsey, March 1948, pp. 53 (rone-
This report is divided into three parts on cacao,
coffee and tea, arranged on similar lines. The dis-
cussion is concerned with history, varieties, suitable
localities, cultivation, preparation and marketing, Aus-

tralian market, prices, future development. In addition
part I (cacao) deals with the industrial use of cacao
(chocolate, confectionery, etc.) and with the bounty
paid to New Guinea exporters, parts II (coffee) and III
(tea) have chapters on non-beverage utilisation, part III
has a section on subsidiary industries and tea price
stabilisation in Australia.
Cacao plantations in N.G. started in 1905, but suffered
badly under the Japanese occupation, they have now to
re-start from scratch. So far the industry is very small
and has provided less than 0-4 per cent of N.G.'s export
income and only a fraction of Australia's cacao require-
ments. N.G. growers would have to shift from 'choice'
to 'ordinary' varieties to secure a greater share of the
Australian market. Coffee has been grown in the
territory for 40 years, but mainly for home consumption,
exports never exceeded 15o tons p.a. The elevated
area of the Upper Ramu and around Mt. Hagen seems
most suitable for coffee growing, but transport diffi-
culties have to be overcome. Tea growing in the
territory is in its infant stage, trouble is experienced in
obtaining viable seeds. Various tea experts from India
and Ceylon have visited the territory and given favour-
able opinions about tea growing opportunities. An
appendix presents statistical material.

11o4. New Zealand Dairy Products Marketing
Commission. First Annual Report for year
ended 31 July 1948, pp. 69.
A short history is given of the establishment of the
commission under the Dairy Products Marketing Com-
mission Act passed on 31 July 1947. The principal
functions of the commission are set forth, i.e., acquisition
and marketing of N.Z. butter and cheese intended for
export including price fixation for these export goods,
some duties in relation to local marketing of butter
and cheese, and occasional reports on trends and pros-
pects overseas. Prices 1946-47 and 1947-48 are re-
viewed and long-term contracts with U.K. Ministry
of Food up to 1954-55, the terms and conditions of sale
and purchase are outlined. Trends and prospects of
overseas markets are surveyed. Further sections deal
with publicity in U.K., dairy produce, processed milk
and processed cheese, purchased for export in 1947-48,
and with the local market (subsidies paid to dairy fac-
tories, wholesale distributors licences, etc.). Accounts
for 1947-48 and a record of guaranteed prices for butter
and cheese constitute the conclusion of the report.
A statistical appendix presents figures about quanti-
ties, prices, costs, exports from N.Z. and other countries,
imports into U.K. and other countries, etc.

1105. Commonwealth Dried Fruits Control Board,
Twenty-fourth Annual Report for year
1947-48, pp. 19.
The 1948 crop of 8o,ooo tons of currants, sultanas
and lexias is the largest since 1944. The pack could
have been substantially increased if weather conditions
had been more favourable for drying and if fresh fruits
equivalent to io,ooo tons of dried fruits had not been
diverted to the wine industry. Growers are being urged
to supply the dried fruits industry rather than wineries,
for the high demand of the latter is probably temporary
and the markets for dried fruits must be held. Demand
is at present greater than supply, but this is unlikely to
continue. The expansion of wine-growing areas under
the soldier settlement schemes, the intensified produc-
tion of the U.S.A., Greece, Turkey and Spain, and the
reduction of preferences in the U.K., N.Z. and Canada,
threaten over-supplied markets and a fall in prices below

costs of production. However, with the termination in
1948 of the existing contract between the Australian
and U.K. Governments, a new five years' agreement was
concluded. Sterling prices in the years 1949 and 1950
are increased by 8 f.o.b. per ton for currants and 4
per ton for sultanas ; thereafter prices will be negotiated
by the two governments. At present, U.K. desires
Australia to divert part of the U.K. quota to the
Canadian dollar-area.-M.R.

i o6. Australian Canned Fruits Board, Twenty-
second Annual Report for year 1947-48,
pp. 20.
1947-48 was a heavy fruit processing season. Except
for 1938, the pack of 3,038,928 cases of apricots,
peaches and pears has not been exceeded. The pro-
duction of mixed fruit was low, owing to restrictions
on the use of tinplate and reduced U.K. demand, but
mixed fruits form a small proportion of the total pack.
1,570,072 cases were sent to U.K., ioo,ooo to N.Z.,
77,800 to Canada and 20,132 to the services, leaving
1,184,146 for general exports and the domestic market.
Canadian purchases fell short of the original allotment
of ioo,ooo cases. The winter season for canned pine-
apples (136,486 cases) was about pre-war level and the
summer season of 277,932 cases is the highest on record.
Export was resumed for the first time since the war,
16,666 of the total export of 144,090 cases going to the
U.K. and 93,126 to Canada. Costs are rising, the Fruit
Industry Sugar Concession Committee having appre-
ciably raised the minimum prices paid to growers.
Other countries are increasing their output. U.K.,
N.Z. and Canada constitute go per cent of the export
market and substantial reductions of Empire Preference
were negotiated at Geneva in 1947.-M.R.

1107. Australian Wine Board. Twentieth Annual
Report for year 1947-48. Scrymgour &
Sons, Printers, Adelaide, 1948, pp. 15.
The 1948 vintage was very good and probably reached
a total wine production of 325,000,000 gallons, slightly
less than the year before. The export in 1947-48 was
2,645,000 gallons, of which 2,160,000 went to U.K.,
266,ooo to N.Z., 138,000oo to Canada. Exports of brandy
were 122,000 gallons (46,000 to Canada). The U.K.
wine import duties were raised in December 1947 and
again in April 1948. There was a great shortage of
hogshead material (oak). An appendix presents the
annual general statement of the overseas office in

Sio8. The Coal Industry in Australia. C. G. W.
Davidson. Australian Quarterly, pp. 53-65,
September 1948.
This is a review of The Australian Coal Industry by
A. G. L. Shaw and G. R. Bruns (see abstract No. 696
in No. 6 of the Abstracts). According to the reviewer
who was chairman of three Royal Commissions to
enquire into the coal industry, the late Premier of
N.S.W., Sir Thomas Bavin, was right when he based
his proposals to settle the coal mining dispute of 1929
on a profit of 2s. per ton in 1927-28. Further in-
accuracies of the authors concern statements of Mr.
Justice Higgins in 1917 and of Mr. Menzies in relation
to coal strikes during the recent war. Loss of coal
trade was mainly due to the irregularity of deliveries,
not to exaggerated profits from coal mines. Coal
mining accidents are relatively more frequent in Aus-
tralia than in U.K. and U.S., largely because of the lack

of discipline on the miners' part. Finally the reviewer
turns against the authors' advocacy of the nationalisation
of coal mines, and refers to the Joint Coal Board, which
has developed the open cut method of mining and has
done much to combat dust in the mines.

S0o9. First Report of the Joint Coal Board. i
March 1947 to 30 June 1947 and 1947-48.
Government Printer, Sydney, 1948, pp.
The Board was constituted under the Coal Industry
Acts of the Commonwealth and the N.S.W. State to
deal with N.S.W. coal problems. It has operated since
I March 1947. The report outlines the functions and
main objectives of the Board : Production of sufficient
coal, conservation and development of coal resources,
coal distribution at the lowest possible cost, welfare of
the miners. The most important problems are inade-
quate productive capacity of the industry, its inefficiency,
unfavourable industrial relations, lack of training.
Subject of the following section is production and
distribution, the Board's production programme (mech-
anisation, open cut mining, opening and closing of
mines), the control of certain mines, the Operations
Division. A chapter on the welfare programme dis-
cusses pit and community amenities. Subsequent
sections are concerned with medical and health ques-
tions, education and training, the 'industrial picture'
including losses through stoppages, workers' compensa-
tion, coal prices and subsidies. In conclusion financial
and accounting arrangements are set forth.
Appendices present statistics of the Board's finances
and of the production and consumption of coal.

r11o. The Economic Position of the Australian
Tin Industry. J. A. Dunn. The Australian
Mineral Industry. Economic Notes and
Statistics, Vol. i, No. 3. Quarter ending 30
September 1948, pp. 3-7. Department of
Supply and Development, Bureau of Min-
eral Resources, Geology and Geophysics.
Australian tin production, after having reached its
peak in 1941, has gradually fallen since, until in 1948
it was only slightly above the low depression level of
1931. World supply, however, is rising after rehabilita-
tion of S.E. Asia mines, and might be in excess of demand
by 1950. The author objects to a suggestion that
Australia should hold its known tin reserves for the
future. 1948 Australia consumed 2,391 tons of ingot
tin, requiring 450 tons of imports. By 1953 when the
Port Kembla tin-plate works will operate, Australia
might need 5,500 tons. Production costs in Malaya
and Bolivia have risen sharply, so they have in Australia,
but Australian costs now compare favourably with
foreign costs. The paper outlines Australian resources
in Queensland, Tasmania and N.S.W. In the next five
years increasing output will depend on small producers,
but in the long run it will require opening of new
reserves, mainly on the Atherton Tableland in Queens-
land and in Tasmania.
IIII. How Seaweed can Help to Feed, Clothe and
House Us. E. J. Ferguson Wood. Fish-
eries Newsletter (Sydney), pp. 16, 17, April
This article deals with the efforts made in U.K. and
Australia during the war to find seaweeds for agar
production to replace agar imports from Japan. In

U.K. mainly Gigartina was found plentifully, the best
area in the Hebrides. Since the war the use of alginates
in U.K. has been extended. The seaweeds used are
various Luminaria, coming from the Hebrides, Orkneys
and N.W. Scotland. The process of manufacture of
alginates is outlined. They are used in the textile
industry (certain fabrics, lace), also for making heat-
insulating board. Seaweeds provide a fertilizer, sheep
and pigs feed on certain seaweeds. In Australia agar,
potash and iodine can be made from seaweed. Another
possibility is stock food in drought. The Japanese even
eat seaweed.

1112. Building Industry Statistics. J. M. Hamil-
ton and J. M. Wark. Economic Record, pp.
204-217, December 1948.
Building statistics has been more neglected than the
statistics of any other Australian industry because of the
difficulties of measuring output and efficiency of the
building industry, the products of which are not homo-
geneous so that value figures are required. Only since
September 1945 there are quarterly returns of new
building operations published by the Commonwealth
Statistician. Other sources are statistics of local
building permits which up to recently have been
restricted to some areas and show various defects.
Rather inadequate building and housing surveys are
supplied by the Commonwealth censuses. The Pro-
duction Bulletin does not include the building industry.
A special section of the article discusses housing cost
indexes, as it has been developed by the Commonwealth
Department of Works and Housing (see 'The Australian
Housing Cost Index' by R. Mendelsohn and J. M.
Hamilton in Economic Record, June 1948, abstracted
as No. 995 in No. 7 of the Abstracts). A number of
U.S.A. housing indexes are examined. In conclusion
the authors deal with statistics of employment in the
building and building materials industry, of productivity
of on-site building labour, production of building
materials and fittings and the real estate market.

113. Brief Review of the Australian Rubber
Industry. Division of Industrial Develop-
ment, Department of Post-War Recon-
struction, Melbourne, November 1948,
pp. 19.
After a short survey of the technology of the industry
the demand situation is discussed. Tyres and tubes
are mainly demanded for motor vehicles, about 1,350,000
a year for replacement and 490,000 for new vehicles.
In the second place there is demand for other rubber
goods, such as industrial hose, industrial belting and
miscellaneous goods (garden hose, floor coverings, hot
water bags and gloves). The present milling capacity
is about 60,000 tons of compounded rubber, but the
output is below capacity because of labour shortage.
Local production of tyres and tubes is below demand,
except for bicycles, local supply of all other rubber
goods except garden hose and household gloves is
insufficient. There is substantial import of tyres and
tubes and other rubber goods.
Labour has increased from 7,502 in 1938-39 to
10,689 in June 1948, of whom z,o88 are females; 30
per cent of the males, 15 per cent of the females are
skilled. Natural rubber is available from British
countries, non-rubber material has largely to be im-
ported from U.S. Further sections deal with equip-
ment, the structure of the industry-only four com-
panies manufacture tyres and tubes other than bicycle-
and Government policy-prices, tariff, decentralisation.

1114. Brief Review of the Australian Furniture
Industry. Division of Industrial Develop-
ment, Department of Post-War Recon-
struction, Melbourne, October 1948, pp.
This review deals with the Australian manufacture
of wooden, including upholstered furniture. The
supply is generally sufficient to meet current demand.
The current value of annual output is estimated at
15m., imports and exports are negligible. A rough
estimate of the type of household furniture such as
bedroom suites, easy chairs, etc., is given, and the
factors affecting demand are referred to. The labour
force of the furniture factories in June 1948 was 13,346,
i.e., 15'7 per cent more than in 1938-39. The majority
of the workers are males and skilled. The most
important raw materials are timber products, articles
for upholstery and general hardware. Some timber,
upholstery cloth, plate glass, etc., is imported. Machinery
is mostly of simple types, Australia-made, more complex
types are imported. There were 874 factories in
1945-46 (880 in 1938-39), mostly small-sized, but the
greater part of the output is produced by relatively few
large and medium-sized firms. Small firms largely
work on special orders to customers' own design; there
is much specialisation. 1947 standard specifications
for furniture were drawn up. In conclusion Govern-
ment policy (tariff, prices) is discussed.

I 115. Brief Review of Australian Footwear Indus-
try. Division of Industrial Development,
Department of Post-War Reconstruction,
May 1948, pp. 8 roneoedd).
This review deals only with leather footwear. The
Australian consumption of boots, shoes and sandals
before the war was 13-7m. pairs p.a., 1947 I7-5m. The
future annual demand is estimated at 15m. pairs of
boots and shoes and zm. pairs of sandals. There is a
small export to N.Z., but for exports generally Australia
is hardly competitive for various reasons, among them
the high local unit labour costs. Output figures from
1938-39 to 1947 are given. In some cheaper lines
there is a tendency to overproduction. Imports are
negligible. In December 1947 the industry employed
nearly 23,000 persons. There is a shortage, particularly
of skilled and female labour. Most leather and raw
materials used are produced locally. Equipment is
mostly leased from one machinery firm. At present
there are 604 footwear factories, of which only 5o-60
employ over too workers. Under the heading 'Govern-
ment policy' tariffs, prices, decentralisation, export and
quality control are discussed. Expansion of the indus-
try might lead to trouble, unless export trade can be

I 116. Brief Review of Australian Tractor Industry.
Division of Industrial Development, De-
partment of Post-War Reconstruction, May
1948, pp. 14 roneoedd).
This review deals with 'wheeled' type tractors, either
made in Australia or assembled here from predominantly
locally made components. Prospective Australian pro-
duction is mainly in the 24-35 H.P. class of 'wheat'
tractors. The likely Australian production level will
not favour continuous process production, but manu-
facturing of large batches from time to time. Out-
standing orders at 31 October 1947 were estimated at
17,000, 7,500 of which of 25-25 H.P., i.e., of prospective

Australian production. The future annual demand for
agricultural tractors is estimated at 1o,ooo, 4,500 of
which plus another I,ooo non-agricultural units would
be of the heavy (25-35 H.P.) type. U.K., India, N.Z.
and South America would be potential export markets
for Australian tractors. The present Australian tractor
production is negligible, but current plans contemplate
an annual output of 7,000 Australian heavy tractors and
several hundreds of about 18 H.P. (medium for dairy-
ing). For the next few years annual imports of 5,ooo
tractors (3,500 heavy ones) are to be expected. The
production programme would require raising of the
present labour force of 2,ooo to 5,ooo. A special
section discusses Government policy : tariffs, prices,
decentralisation, defence, bounty, distribution. Aus-
tralian planned production concentrates on heavy,
wheat types, while the supply of light and medium
tractors depends on imports. Australian manufacturers
should diversify their production.

1117. Brief Review of the Australian Rayon
Weaving Industry. Division of Industrial
Development, Department of Post-War
Reconstruction, January 1949, pp. 20.
This review comprises rayon textiles (not knitted
goods) with fibres wholly or chiefly of rayon. Rayon
yarn is not yet produced in Australia. Before the war
there was only some production of furnishing fabrics
here, while the weaving of lightweight rayon dress
started four years ago and is now done by four major
manufacturers, while another three firms make rayon
textiles incidentally to other activities. Australia's
annual pre-war demand for rayon textiles was about
7om. square yards, now it is no more than 5om. because
of the higher overseas prices of rayon compared with
other textiles. Estimates are given how this demand
is divided between outerwear, underwear, linings, fur-
nishing fabrics, plain dyed, printed and woven pattern.
Import duties on rayon fabrics which resemble wool,
are equal to those on wool fabrics. The annual rate
of local production (September 1948 output) is about
7m. square yard, made on 700 looms. An increase to
2,164 looms and production of about 35m. square yards
is planned, also the establishment of a roller-printing
industry. Imports of rayon textiles are now mainly
from U.K., former imports from U.S.A. have ceased
because of the Dollar shortage. Imports in 1947-48
have been so large that considerable stocks have been
built up.
Further sections deal with labour, raw materials,
equipment and Government policy (tariff, prices,
S118. Brief Review of the Australian Heavy Elec-
trical Engineering Industry. Department of
Post-War Reconstruction, Division of In-
dustrial Development, Melbourne, March
1949, pp. 20.
In Australia mainly distribution and power trans-
formers, and switchgear of low and medium capacity
are produced. In a survey of the demand for electrical
equipment the total installed capacity of Australian
generating plant in June 1947 is given as 2,174,oo00 k.w.,
over the period 1948-57 additional generating plant of
4,600,000 k.w. is planned, 3,253,ooo k.w. operated by
steam, 518,ooo by water, besides 850,000 k.w. as yet
unspecified as to sizes (mainly Snowy River scheme).
In this period about I,2oo,ooo k.v.a. of new transformer
capacity, and within five years 1,869 units of switchgear
will be required. There are potential export markets

for Australia in N.Z. and the Far East, but Australia
cannot produce enough for her own needs. As to
supply Australian production is limited to generator
capacities below too k.w., transformer units below
15,ooo k.v.a. and switchgear below 15,000 volts. Imports
come mainly from U.K., to a smaller extent from
U.S.A., Sweden and Switzerland, but most of these
countries do not produce enough for their own demand.
Other sections deal with labour, materials, the struc-
ture of the industry, research, government policy
(tariffs, prices, sales tax, etc.). Local output is at
present little over 50 per cent of capacity owing to
shortages of labour and materials.
1119. Motor Vehicle Bodies and Pressed Metal
Panels for the Manufacture of Motor
Vehicle Bodies. Tariff Board's Report.
Government Printer, Canberra, pp. 18.
Early in 1948 the Tariff Board made enquiries as to
the advisibility of granting temporary admission of
motor vehicles chassis and pressed metal panels for use
in chassis, under an appropriate Customs by-law
requiring lower tariff rates. It found that the case was
one between government revenue and benefits to users.
The question of present protection to the Australian
industry did not arise, for even under by-law admission,
the cost of importing would be so high that Australian
producers would still have a price advantage.- In any
case they are producing to full capacity. The existing
shortage of bodies and panels is being made good by
imports, despite existing duties, thus the supply to
Australian users would not be increased by by-law
admission. The concession was therefore not recom-
mended by the Tariff Board. However, an exception
was advised for motor truck cabs and the panels for
such cabs. These vehicles are for 'essential' commercial
purposes, and for this reason should not be subject to
revenue taxation.-M.R.

1120. Axes, Adzes, Hatchets and Sledge Hammers.
Tariff Board's Report, pp. 18. Govern-
ment Printer, Canberra, i June 1948.
The above-mentioned tools are at present imported
into Australia under Tariff By-law Item 219(C), i.e.,
free of primage and under the British preferential tariff
free of duty, under the intermediate and general tariffs
with z12 per cent duty. When removed from the
By-law provisions, they would have to pay 271, 35 and
471 per cent duty and io per cent primage under the
three different tariffs. A request made by an Australian
manufacturer for removal of the tools from the By-law
and application of Tariff-Item 219(B) was referred to
the Tariff Board. Witnesses representing Australian
manufacturing interests were in favour of the request,
witnesses representing British and Canadian export
interests against it. Local production of all other tools
except sledge hammers was started during the recent
war by the usual forging method and by a new casting
method in a satisfactory quality, but not the whole
range of types in demand is being made here. The
landed cost of most varieties of tools imported from
U.K. and Canada is lower than that of the Australian-
made forged tools, while some of the cast products are
The Tariff Board recommended that no variation be
made in the present rate of duties. Two members of
the Board, however, submitted a separate opinion.
They recommended cancellation of By-law 2z9(C) in
regard to axes, these should be made dutiable under
Tariff-Item 219(B).

II2. Long Handled Pruning Shears. Tariff
Board's Report. Government Printer, Can-
berra, pp. 6.
The production of long-handled pruning shears was
commenced in Australia in 1945. Although the manu-
facturer applied for tariff protection, he does not need
it at present as the products of his only existing com-
petitor are not permitted to be imported because of the
dollar shortage. The applicant satisfied the Tariff
Board that the shears made by him are of superior
quality to that of the American article, that he will be
capable of satisfying the entire local demand and that
the extension of output will lead to a price approximating
the imported price. If and when competition becomes
severe, pruning shears could be removed to a 'dragnet'
by-law, thus altering the rates from free to 271 per cent
British Preferential, from 12i per cent to 35 per cent
Intermediate (applying to the U.S.A.) and from z12
per cent to 47J per cent plus io per cent primage,
General. The industry would, however, become un-
economic if it took advantage of the over-protection so
1122. Thioglycollic Acid and Ammonium Thio-
glycollate. Tariff Board's Report. Govern-
ment Printer, Canberra, 17 September
1948, pp. 6.
Thioglycollic acid and ammonium thioglycollate had
no commercial use until the 'cold wave' process of hair-
dressing was introduced in the U.S.A., in 1941. In
1944 an Australian firm began production in response
to the request of the Australian distributors of hairdress-
ing supplies, who were unable to obtain supplies abroad.
Present demand was estimated at 5 tons p.a., rising
eventually to 54 tons p.a. Initial costs were high,
because manufacture had to be developed and the costs
of preparing the chief immediate chemical, mono-
chloracetic acid, were high for such a small scale of
output. Recently it was planned to increase production
of this chemical, which has agricultural and defence
uses, but now Australian demand has been diverted to
the lower-priced U.K. article entering duty-free under
the British Preferential Tariff. U.K. manufacturers,
who have just begun production, have developed a
superior technique which is more economical of materials
and gives a product of greater purity. In addition,
they obtain their supplies of monochloracetic acid at
less than half the Australian costs of production, for
that acid has large-scale uses in the U.K. dye-industry.
The Australian application for tariff protection was
rejected, as the Australian industry has little oppor-
tunity of ever meeting the English industry on a com-
petitive basis.-M.R.

(C) Monetary Policy, Banking, Insurance.
1123. The N.Z. Exchange Alteration of August
1948. E. P. Neale. Economic Record, pp.
245-249, December 1948.
The author compares conditions in N.Z. before the
recent restoration of the N.Z.-London exchange to
parity with those in the early 193o's when N.Z. went
off parity: national income rising now, falling then;
export prices rising more than import prices since 1943,
the opposite before 1933; differences in the London
bank balances on N.Z. account, in N.Z. home prices,
employment; inflation versus deflation. In both
periods internal price stability stood versus exchange
rate stability. 1948 the Government hoped to check

the rising cost of living and demands for higher wages
by the currency appreciation. The likely effect will be
reduced N.Z. export prices and reduced landed costs
for N.Z. importers. The position of the farmer might
deteriorate so as to deplete N.Z.'s London funds.
Unless Australia also appreciates her currency, diffi-
culties in N.Z.-Australian trading may arise, also diffi-
culties in trips of overseas tourists to N.Z.

I124. Exchange Parity in New Zealand and Aus-
tralia. A. J. Tyrer. Bankers' Magazine of
Australasia, pp. 74-78, November 1948.
In N.Z. the productive capacity of the pastoral and
dairying industries is particularly high. One-quarter
of the occupied population is engaged in rural industries
or in the processing of rural products and produces
more than two-thirds of the total volume of N.Z.-made
goods. More than two-fifths of the goods available for
local use in N.Z. are normally imported and many of
these imports are unlikely to be economically produced
in N.Z. The costs of goods imported to N.Z. were
sharply rising in the post-war years which has raised
the cost of living very much, particularly in 1948. The
appreciation will counter this upward trend, while
export prices for N.Z. rural products are so high that
they can cushion the impact of the appreciation on
farmers' incomes. Dollar earnings through N.Z. ex-
ports are small and can be neglected.
In Australia the export prices of wool, wheat and the
base metals are very high, but not those of dairy products
and dried fruits. Imported goods constitute only
one-sixth of the Australian national income. The great
recent development of Australian manufacturing indus-
tries could probably not be sustained with the reduced
margin of protection implied in appreciation, together
with the likely trend to rising costs. All this suggests
that no alteration of the Australian exchange rate is
likely within the next one or two years.

1125. The Australian Inflation. Institute of Public
Affairs Review, pp. 33-45, March-April
The growing rate of inflation in Australia since 1947
can be measured by the rising retail and wholesale
prices, wages, export prices, cash and bank deposits.
There is little reason to assume a reverse in Australia
in the next twelve months. Unless the boom is pre-
vented from getting out of hand, a large drop in our
export prices could have catastrophic effects on our
economy. Price control and subsidies cannot success-
fully combat inflation. To meet the greatly increased
monetary demand for goods, production has to be
increased, but this cannot be done rapidly enough.
The Commonwealth Government has to budget for a
surplus by keeping public revenue up-not necessarily
by high rates of taxation-and public expenditure down.
The main inflationary factor in Australia is the very
high level of export prices. Ruling out currency
appreciation, export income should be stabilised not
only for wheat, but also for wool. So should incomes
of importers and producers for the home market, and
wages. The present claim for a basic wage of 1o can
only accelerate inflation.
In case of a sharp fall in export prices we might not
have to counter inflation, but to prevent depression.

1126. The Socialist Dollar Crisis. C. V. Jones.
Australian Quarterly, pp. 7-20, September

'Socialism, not war, is the chief cause of the dollar
crisis.' Since 1919 U.S. with her free enterprise policy
has greatly increased her relative efficiency and lowered
her relative production costs. In most years from
1919-39 the U.S. balance of payments with the rest of
the world was highly active. This was accentuated
during the war, while Britain lost the largest part of
her dollar and gold reserves. Now U.K. has to increase
her exports and to cut her imports, and raises loans in
U.S. and elsewhere. She added to her difficulties by
the policy of socialisation and extravagant social security
schemes. Australia's balance of payments with U.S.
between 1932 and 1948 was negative in most years,
even more so in the invisible items. Of the possible
remedies the first is drawing on dollars from the 'sterling
pool'-now impracticable because of U.K.'s dollar
shortage. Secondly we could raise our exports of wool,
rabbit pelts, iron, steel and cement to U.S., but our
labour conditions and increased social services will
destroy any competitive advantages. The third way
out might be a cut in our imports, which is inadvisable
when our production depends on imported raw material
or machinery. The fourth possible course is borrowing
in U.S. The author discusses the pros and cons of
such a loan which he recommends only for importing
agricultural machinery to export more food to U.K.

(D) Public Finance
1127. Some Inequalities of Income Tax Legisla-
tion with Suggested Recommendations.
A. W. Munro. Chartered Accountant in
Australia, pp. 409-440, December 1948.
Address before the 1948 Congress of the
Queensland Division of the Australian
Chartered Accountants Research Society.
After a summary of the general principles of taxation
the lecturer refers to six main features of Commonwealth
income taxation which should be improved. (I) The
system of private company taxation is unsound and
requires extensive revision. A private company should
pay a provisional tax of i5s. in the on taxable income
undistributed after six months after the close of the
financial year. For later distributions from that income
refunds should be made at the rate of 9s. in the on
io/7th of the amount distributed. (2) The system of
public company taxation is sound, but the rates should
be revised so as to make the tax on undistributed income
higher, on taxable income lower. (3) Pay-as-you-earn
provisional taxes are inequitable in the case of fluctuating
income. There should be some method of averaging.
(4) Social services contributions should not be separately
assessed. (5) Objections are raised to the graduation
and differentiation of tax rates. (6) Wartime and
emergency provisions are to be eliminated.
In conclusion outlines of the discussion after delivery
of this paper are presented.
1128. War Damage Commission. Report for Period
I January 1948 to 30 September 1948.
Government Printer, Canberra, Septem-
ber 1948, pp. 21.
The disbandment of the commission was arranged for
30 September 1948. Statements of accounts are set
out up to 15 August 1948. In the period under review
only 103 new claims were lodged. Since the plan's
inception in February 1942 until 15 August 1948 10,071
claims were lodged, 9,309 finally settled, the total com-
pensation assessed was 8,550,000oo, 7,688,000 com-

pensation and interest was paid, in addition some
supplementary plans were carried out by the commission,
mostly only on behalf of the Australian and Allied forces
(1,222,000) 1,548,000 claims were still to be
assessed, the estimated liability under these claims was
476,ooo for war damage, about 400,000 for supple-
mentary plans. Statistical material is presented in 14

II29. Commonwealth Disposals Commission. Fourth
Annual Report. Government Printer, Mel-
bourne, pp. 28.
Sales per month averaged 2-6m. in the first four
months of the period under review, i 6m. in the
following six months and i 2m. in the last two months.
Realisations during the year were 22'5m., since the
Commission's inception in 1944 i25'5m. The share
of textiles and textile products in the total realized has
been maintained, that of motor vehicles and machine
tools reduced, while the share of non-ferrous metals
(mainly copper ingots), real property and from auction
sales increased. The Commission's Darwin office was
closed on 20 July 1948, as all surpluses in the N.T.
except a few buildings of bush timber construction had
been liquidated. The rehabilitation of the N.T. has
greatly profited from military disposals. Part IV. of
the report gives details of the realisations according to
various materials and industries. The disbandment of
the Commission until 31 December 1948 has been
decided with a view to taking over of its remaining work
by the Department of Supply and Development.
Appendices present statistical material.

1130. The New Zealand Government Finances,
1947-1948. H. W. King. Economic Record,
pp. 254-256, December 1948.
The expenditure budgeted for the year ended 31
March 1949 is i86m. as against 179m. in the year
before. War expenses have fallen by 7'3m., mainly
owing to the withdrawal of N.Z. troops from Japan.
The social security expenditure has risen by 2z3m.,
due to increased monetary benefits. The estimate for
national development has risen from 23"8m. to 33.om.
principally for housing and electric supply. Revenue
is buoyant, the estimate for taxation in the current year
is higher, for customs duty lower. The presentation
of N.Z. public accounts shows an unsatisfactory financial
standard, on a satisfactory basis the current budget
would disclose a deficit of Iom. 'Too little attention
is being paid to the use of fiscal policy as a counter-cycle

1131. Melbourne and Metropolitan Board of Works.
Report for year ended 30 June 1948, pp. 38.
The quantity of water in the board's reservoirs was
sufficient, between 13'3 and I9-6m. gallons. Water
consumption in 1947-48 was 33,651m. gallons. To
provide additional storage capacity the Upper Yarra
dam is being prepared and a conduit from the Upper
Yarra catchment to the Silvan reservoir is being con-
structed. The Upper Yarra area is more suited to
earth dams, the building of which requires scientific
soil research to be done by the board. Further sections
of the report deal with afforestation policy in watersheds,
the amplification of the sewerage system (see abstract
No. 996 in No. 7 of this periodical), sewerage research,
admission of trade wastes into sewers with associated
rate problems, the Metropolitan Farm near Werribee.
In a chapter on finance the year's deficit of 39,000 is

attributed mainly to rising costs of labour and materials.
Higher rates are recommended. To meet the cost of
capital works two cash loans were floated. Water
supply was provided to 9,324 new buildings, the highest
figure since 1923-24.
In an appendix financial statements are presented.

(E) Accountancy
1132. Depreciation. V. L. Gole. Australasian
Institute of Cost Accountants. Cost Bulletin
No. 22, pp. 36, I December 1948.
This bulletin is a codification of the view of leading
authorities on depreciation. It covers the definition
and methods of measurement of depreciation, the
possibility of profit distortion through errors of judg-
ment when measuring depreciation, and the increasing
potential for profit distortion because of the increasing
investment in fixed assets. The economist's concept
of depreciation, and the current controversy as to
whether depreciation should be based on historic cost
or replacement cost are discussed.

1133. Management Accounting-Its Importance
and Necessity for Installation. L. H.
Duncan. Chartered Accountant in Aus-
tralia, pp. 273-294, October 1948.
The growing importance of management accounting
is receiving attention all over the world, and it is evident
that a sound system places as much emphasis on cost
control as cost ascertainment.
This article discusses the principal factors which
should be considered before any system of management
accounting is introduced.

1134. Current Developments in Corporate Ac-
counting. R. A. Irish. Australian Account-
ant, November 1948, pp. 396-413;
December 1948, pp. 427-436.
This is a summary of legislative requirements and
professional recommendations relating to the reporting
of company financial result and position both as to form
and content, with an examination of the nature of
periodic profit and a review, from this point of view,
of the latest annual accounts of a sample of 26 well-
known Australian public companies.

1135. Government Accounts for Social Account-
ing. R. L. Mathews. Australian Account-
ant, December 1948, pp. 437-449.
An important requirement in social accounting is
more reliable data, and the accounts of the public
sector, that is, government accounting, are critically
examined. The possibility of classification of accounts
on the accrual basis, the accounting period basis, and
according to financial appropriations or funds is exam-
ined, consideration is given to the problems of deprecia-
tion and standard ration of items, and the necessity for
uniformity, in accounting method, form and financial
practices, between Commonwealth, State and local
government authorities is pointed out.

1136. Accounting Profits and Taxable Income.
L. A. Braddock, Australian Accountant,
January 1949, pp. 6-24.
An examination is made into the discrepancies
between 'profit' as determined according to accepted

current accounting standards and procedures, and
'taxable income' as determined in accordance with the
provisions of the Income Tax Assessment Act. Main
sources of variation lie in the respective attitudes
towards the distinction between capital and revenue,
provision accounting, expenses necessarily incurred in
producing income and valuation of trading stock.

1137. Inherent Limitations of Accounting. A. A.
Fitzgerald. Australian Accountant, April
1949, pp. 114-122.
The object of accounting statements is to provide
information, but the needs of all interested parties,
including owners, managers, government agencies, the
general public, investors, employees, creditors, econo-
mists and statisticians, each group with its own point of
view, cannot be adequately met by one set of statements.
The assumptions and nature of the accounting process
are indicated and some instances are given of divergences
between economists and accountants on the assessment
of profit.

1138. Loss of Profits on Consequential Loss
Insurance. W. R. G. Mitchell. Chartered
Accountant in Australia, February 1949,
PP- 537-552.
The object of a loss of profits policy is to indemnify
the insured in respect of lost net profit and fixed charges
after a fire pending return to normal activities. The
proposer has the option of insuring some or all of the
fixed charges of his business, and several specific
examples of these are discussed. Then follows an
explanation of the terms of the policy, an example of
the calculation of a settlement under these terms; and
a brief consideration of the policy conditions.

1139. The Machine Hour Rate in a Manufacturing
Engineering Business. R. D. Speer.
Accountants' Journal (N.Z.), pp. 82-86,
October 1948.
This article is not concerned with the various factors
which must be taken into account when setting the
machine hour rates, but discusses the use of such rates
as a means of overhead recovery, and outlines and
illustrates a method whereby their use may be controlled.

1140. Auditing Standards and Procedures. H. G.
Bramwell. Chartered Accountant in Aus-
tralia, pp. 481-496, January 1949.
Standard American auditing practice is compared
with current practice in Australia. An American audit
is not a detailed check of all transactions-a distinction
is made between auditing standards and auditing pro-
cedures and only the former are characterized in the
audit certificate as generally accepted. The American
Institute of Accountants has issued for the guidance of
its members a number of pronouncements on auditing
procedures (issued between 1939 and 1945) and a
general statement of auditing standards issued in October
1947. Another direction on which improvement is
considered necessary is in the form of audit report.

(F) Transportation and Communication
1141. Report of the Victorian Railways Commis-
sioners for year ended 30 June 1948. P.P.
Government Printer, Melbourne 1948, pp.

The Vic. Railways showed an excess of gross revenue
over working expenses of 1,o86,ooo in 1947-48 and
after payment of interest, etc., a deficit of I,074,ooo,
compared with I,482,000 in 1946-47, i.e., an improve-
ment by 4o8,ooo. Gross revenue increased by
2,758,ooo, partly because of higher freights and fares
(since I October 1947), partly on account of larger
traffic. Fares rose from 71 to 20 per cent in the metro-
politan area, from 71 to Iz2 per cent in the country,
freights in various classes from o to 20 per cent. Further
increases are necessary to meet rising costs. The
increase in working expenses (2,327,00oo0) was mainly
due to higher wages, the 40-hour week, additional cost
of coal and fuel oil. Competition with road and air
transport aggravates the position.
Further sections of the report deal with train and
goods services, passenger traffic, wheat harvest, rolling
stock, way and works, stores and materials (coal and
fuel oil supply), etc. Appendices present financial and
traffic statistics.

1142. First Report on Transport Co-ordination in
the State of Victoria. Parliamentary Liberal
Party Transport Committee, pp. 13 and 5
appendices roneoedd).
After an historical survey the report investigates the
present situation and considers as the most important
financial problems rectification of the railway deficits
and provision for the construction and maintenance of
roads. The committee makes a number of recom-
mendations. The Ministry of Transport should have
unified control of all forms of transport, to be exercised
through the Transport Commissioner, under whom
railways, road transport, road, tramway and possibly air
authorities should work. The functions of rail and road
transport have to be specifically allotted. Certain
railway lines are to be eliminated, steam train operations
should cease to stations within a radius of 50 miles of
Melbourne-except three lines which should be electri-
fied. Railway capital should be adjusted by writing
off certain amounts. The rail rates structure should
be reviewed on the basis of the cost of the traffic carried.
Railway finances should be divorced from direct
Treasury control. The most relevant among further
recommendations are concerned with road costs.
Appendices present graphs, charts and data, par-
ticularly on non-paying railway lines, motor vehicles
registration and on the application of revised freight

1143. Transport Regulation Board, Victoria.
Annual Report for year ended 30 June 1948.
P.P. Government Printer, Melbourne
1948, pp. 20. Price is. 6d.
The report deals among other matters with rate
fixation for goods cartage, fare increases, temporary
road passenger services (week-day and week-end) to
supplement depleted railway services, school services
(now 340), metropolitan PH (private hire) licences and
other suburban passenger services, log and timber
haulage, interstate goods operations which fluctuate
with railway capacity and provide the greatest propor-
tion of permit revenue, road haulage of pulpwood
supplied to the Maryvale paper factory, transport in
connection with decentralised industries, extended
radius beyond the statutory radius of 2o miles, decen-
tralisation of administration which is proceeding gradu-
ally, finance.

1144. Country Roads Board (Victoria). Thirty-
fifth Annual Report for year ended 30 June
1948. P.P. No. 2, Government Printer,
Melbourne, pp. 56. Price 2s. 6d.
The amount allocated for reconditioning and main-
tenance work on roads and bridges was 3,726,ooo in
1947-48 as against 2,39o,ooo in the previous year.
1,338,ooo were expended on federal aid roads account.
Among other subjects the report discusses work on main
roads, state highways-925 miles were declared state
highways in the year under review-developmental,
tourists' and forest roads, bridges (including the Swan
Street bridge), brown coal projects, how to finance future
road works, missions abroad of technical officers.
A special section is constituted by the Chief Engineer's
report. Financial statements are presented in an

1145. Department of Railways, New South Wales,
Report for year ended 30 June 1948. Gov-
ernment Printer, Sydney 1948, pp. 84.
An outline of the department's activities, beginning
with a financial review. The excess of earnings over
working expenses was 5,891,ooo, i.e., 1,124,000 more
than in the previous year. After payment of statutory
charges there remained a surplus of 112,ooo (1946-47
a deficit of i,158,ooo). The traffic suffered from short-
ages of coal and rolling stock, nevertheless goods and
passenger traffic increased. To offset rising costs of
labour and materials freight rates and passenger fares
were raised. Special chapters discuss mechanical,
ways and works, signalling and telegraph, electrical,
stocks and materials, general (staff, public relations)
Appendices present financial, traffic and other statisti-
cal material.

1146. Report of the Commissioner for Road Trans-
port and Tramways (N.S.W.) for year
ended 30 June 1948. P.P. Government
Printer, Sydney 1949, pp. 24.
The department operates tramway, trolley bus and
omnibus services in the Sydney and Newcastle areas
which showed a deficit of 676,ooo in the year under
review. There was additional revenue of about
1,450,00ooo from fare increases and of about 300,ooo
from extended and new bus services, but expenditure
rose by 1,824,000oo, mainly due to higher wage rates
and the introduction of the 40-hour week. As means
of improving the financial position further increases of
fares, an adjustment of the excessive capital liability
and Government subsidies are proposed. Among other
subjects dealt with are the financial results of the metro-
politan and the Newcastle transport services, rolling
stock, motor registration and taxation revenue, accidents,
etc. Appendices present statistical material on finances,
Registrations and traffic offences.

1147. Annual Report of the South Australian Rail-
ways Commissioner for the year 1947-48.
Government Printer, Adelaide 1948, pp. 50.
There was a deficit on current operations in 1947-48
of 746,ooo, and a total deficit of 2,o26,ooo, that is a
rise of 415,ooo, due to continuous rises in costs of
labour and materials. Freight and fares have gone up
much less than expenditure. It takes less man hours
per ton of haulage than in 1938. The Commissioner
recommends increases in freights and fares. Further

sections deal with the unsatisfactory quality of coal, the
programme for the construction of rolling stock, the
widening of the south-east gauge and the standardisation
of gauges, etc. Twenty tables present statistical data
on finances and traffic.

1148. Report on the Working of the W.A. Gov-
ernment Railways, Tramways and Ferries
for the year ended 30 June 1948. Govern-
ment Printer, Perth 1948, pp. 89.
In the year under review the financial position of the
W.A. railways has further deteriorated. Working
expenses were higher than earnings by 971,000, the
total deficit rose to 2,017,ooo, mainly because of the
upward trends in costs of labour and materials. From
I September 1948 fares and freights were increased by
about 20 per cent. Many agricultural and pastoral
products are subsidized by being transported at less
than costs. The train mileage was the highest on
record. The locomotives are largely obsolete, almost
half of the available stock is over 40 years old. Three
reports of the Royal Commission on W.A. railways,
issued in 1947 : on workshops, coal supply and on the
working and management of the railways generally, are
discussed in detail.
The Government Tramways and Ferries also showed
increasing deficits. Tables and appendices present
statistical data on railways, tramways and ferries
finances and traffic.

1149. British Commonwealth Communications.
P. C. Greenland. Australian Quarterly,
pp. 53-60, March 1949.
According to the British Commonwealth Communica-
tions Plan of 1945, external telecommunication services
of all British countries should be taken into public
ownership and placed under the control of a group of
interlocked national bodies. The national bodies are
to control the wireless stations and cable terminals
within their territories, the U.K. national body has in
addition to control the Empire network of undersea
cables. Costs are to be shared between members.
The admission of other than the original signatories,
e.g., Pakistan, is provided for. The broad outlines of
the plan are included in an 'Overall Agreement'. There
are three stages of the programme. (I) To take into
public ownership the commercially owned parts of the
telecommunications system. The arrangements con-
cerned in the member states are summarised. (2) The
establishment of the national bodies (in Australia in
1946). (3) The setting up of co-ordinating machinery
which so far is incomplete.

1150. International Understanding of Radio Fre-
quencies. P. C. Greenland. Australian
Outlook, pp. 244-246, December 1948.
An outline of the establishment of the International
Frequency Regulation Board, set up by the International
Telecommunications Convention at Atlantic City in
1947. Seventy-two countries agreed on a supra-
national control of radio-frequencies for which there is
an enormous demand. The Board is a recording body
without mandatory power. Principal directive to the
Board is the Table of Frequency Allocations, incor-
porated in the Radio Regulations. The assignment of
frequencies to particular stations and services is still a
matter for the member countries. Groups of countries
can conclude agreements for the sub-allocation of

(G) Labour and Industrial Relations
1151. The Forty Hours Case and the Change in
Standard Hours in Australian Industry.
Orwell de R. Foenander. International
Labour Review, pp. 717-734, December
An analytical study of the Forty Hours Case of
1946-1947 before the Commonwealth Court of Con-
ciliation and Arbitration. Consideration is given,
inter alia, to the background of the case and the general
political and industrial situation in relation to industry
at the time, to the arguments submitted by management,
organised labour and the Commonwealth and State
Governments, and to the terms of the order made by
the Court and the implications of the judgment.-
O. de R.F.

1152. A Report on the Forty Hour Week. Institute
of Public Affairs Victoria Review, pp. 166-
173, November-December 1948.
The I.P.A. has made a survey of a number of indus-
tries in Victoria and N.S.W. to investigate the economic
consequences of the 40-hour week which had then
operated in Victoria for about 12 months, in some
N.S.W. industries for 18 months. About 70 per cent
of the enterprises questioned reported a lower volume
of production up to xo per cent. In most of the
remaining industries output had been maintained
mainly through overtime worked. Only in a few cases
production per man-hour has risen. Greater produc-
tivity might be obtained if waste time could be eliminated.
In many industries overtime is being worked to an
increasing extent. The upward trend in production
cost has been accentuated. There is greater interest
in incentive schemes and a spur to finding improved
manufacturing methods. Labour relations, absenteeism
and labour turnover have not improved in most cases.
Repercussions have arisen in retail trade and transport.
In primary production where the 4o-hour week is
impracticable, labour shortage has been intensified.
The Arbitration Court's hope that the 4o-hour week
would better industrial discipline and responsibility has
so far not come true.

1153. Commonwealth Industrial Awards. Orwell
de R. Foenander. Australasian Institute of
Cost Accountants, Cost Bulletin No. 23,
Melbourne 1947, pp. 32. Price 3s. 6d.
This is a general study of the making of industrial
awards by the Commonwealth Court of Conciliation
and Arbitration and the Commonwealth Conciliation
Commissioners. The relative powers of the Court and
of the Commissioners in this regard are considered
(along with the general limitations on those powers),
and the procedure by which these awards are made and
promulgated. The contents of awards are discussed,
and also the persons and organizations legally bound to
observe them. The provision for the variation and
setting-aside of these awards is indicated. Considera-
tion is also given to the nature of the provision available
for the enforcement of awards, and a description of the
Court and of the Commissioners (including the assign-
ment of the duties for which they are individually
responsible) is added.-O. de R.F.

1154. The Industrial Council System and the
Community. Dr. Sheila T. Van Der

Horst. South African Journal of Economics
(Johannesburg), pp. 274-285, September
Some account is given of the Industrial Councils
constituted under the South African Industrial Con-
ciliation legislation, and of the regulation of wages in
that country in terms of the Wage legislation. Refer-
ence is also made to the Australian method of industrial
control with a view to suggestions for improvement in
the South African system.-O. de R.F.

1155. Increased Production through Incentive
Payments. F. I. H. Newman. Manufac-
turing and Management, I, pp. 334-336,
April 1949 ; II, pp. 375-376, May 1949.
I. A description of the Bedeaux system, as used in
England in the engineering industry. The time study
department compiles records of all times on every job
on layouts. The time recording office is issued with
such layouts giving the time allowed per piece and the
grading of every job. The operator receives with a job
a 'routing ticket' and a layout. He earns a bonus, e.g.,
per soo minutes saved on the time allowed for Ioo
parts. Lost time is deducted from any time saved.
Slight alterations of the system apply to toolmakers,
store employees and other departments. Allowance is
made for breakdowns such as tool breakage, etc., by
recording lost time. The system is suitable only where
there is constant flow of work.
II. The author discusses how the output is likely to
be increased and what will be the saving to the business
by apply inan incentive system. He gives a practical
example how the time allowed for a certain batch of
work is Io hours, what saving in wages and expenses
results when that work is done in 6 hours, and how the
saving in wages is shared between operator and manage-
ment. Factors of success are the avoidance of hold-ups,
efficient inspection and a capable timing department.

1156. The Financial Effects of Labour Turnover.
Industrial Welfare Division, Department
of Labour and National Service, 1948, pp.
The measure of the financial effect is the number of
separations, including the unavoidable ones (death,
retirement), but excluding internal transfers. Unit of
measurement is the average financial loss per separation.
Six months is the usual period of measurement, because
conditions do not alter substantially during such a time.
The method of calculation is a comparison of the net
profit which could have been made without any labour
turnover with the net profit actually made, either for all
employees disregarding their different skill or for
different groups. The effects on production can be
fourfold; output lost by intending leavers until their
actual departure, through delays in filling vacancies,
by new employees, and by experienced employees
through co-operation with inexperienced workers.
There are effects on direct production costs : wages and
other costs (raw materials, fuel, etc.) ; on factory over-
head; on general overhead; termination and employ-
ment costs, training costs, costs of medical and first-aid
A case-study is presented covering a textile mill with
an average of 66 workers during six months. Thirty-
four employees left the mill, i.e., 103 per cent p.a. The
loss calculated was 12-4 per cent of the gross profit.

1157. The Financial Effects of Labour Turnover.
Case Study No. II. B. K. Phelan. Bulletin
of Industrial Psychology and Personnel Prac-
tice, pp. 3-9, March 1948.
The first study of that kind by M. Kangan, abstracted
as No. 955 in No. 7 of this periodical, was concerned
with a highly mechanised engineering firm with many
skilled workers. In that firm the cost per separation
was 88. The firm investigated in the present study
employs mainly unskilled workers, it is working in a
continuous process and its output is largely independent
of individual employees. The study covers six months
from July to December 1947, when the firm on the
average employed 547 males and 30 females, the labour
turnover rate p.a. was 66 per cent, the cost per separation
only 8. Nine hundred man-days were lost in filling
vacancies caused by people leaving the plant, but the
volume of production remained unaltered and the only
effect on direct production costs was payment of 260
for overtime to maintain the output. Factory overhead
was not affected, general overhead was, mainly through
advertising for labour, salaries of personnel department
and medical examinations. Total loss of net profit
through labour turnover was about 1,500.

1158. Some Facts on Labour Turnover. W. J.
Byrt. Bulletin of Industrial Psychology and
Personnel Practice, pp. 16-27, December
Data were obtained from 45 N.S.W. firms of the
textile, industrial metals and machines, and radio and
electrical industries and tri5 Victorian firms of the textile,
industrial metals and machines, and heavy industries
with more than 40,000 employees. The figures given
cover the nine months from November 1947 to July
1948. Graphs show the average monthly separation
rates for this period in each of the industrial groups in
N.S.W. and Victoria (from 4'9 to 8-0 per cent per
month). Seasonal trends are worked out using three
months moving averages. The separation rates of
individual firms vary considerably. Further figures are
concerned with the turnover incidence according to the
sex of leavers, to various classes of labour (tradesmen,
skilled and unskilled, day and shift workers), and to the
length of service. The final sections deal with replace-
ment and the cost of labour turnover.

1159. How Effective is On-the-Job Training?
O. P. Wickham, Bulletin of Industrial
Psychology and Personnel Practice, pp.
28-34, December 1948.
A study of the training method used in two cotton
textile spinning mills carried out over I1 months in
1947. In mill A 146, in mill B 237 learners were
engaged for carding, spinning and winding departments.
In both mills the learner was placed alongside an ex-
perienced operative, in mill A the instructor was also
engaged in production, but not in mill B. After some
time the learner was placed on a frame of his own,
directed by a supervisor. In assessing the training
mainly the number of learners who reached the pre-
scribed learning standard and the time taken to reach
it, the average rate of production of the total group of
learners day by day and the variations from the group
average were considered. About one-third of the
learners in mill A, and two-thirds in mill B learned the
job. Both the average and the group learning periods
were shorter in mill B than in A. A discussion about

this study showed that the results achieved by this
traditional on-the-job training method were not satis-
1160. Training on the Job. Procedure at Jantzen
Factory. A. G. Ortega. Manufacturing and
Management, pp. 331-333, April 1949.
A brief outline of a 'job instructor training' scheme
used by Jantzen (Aust.) Ltd. in Sydney, revised from a
method first used in U.S.A. during the first world war.
Essential is the careful selection of instructors who are
trained in a series of five lectures, each of two hours'
duration, conducted as discussion groups. Four steps
are set out how to instruct the worker and four points
are discussed how to get ready to instruct. Section
supervisors decide which instructor to use in training a
particular new employee. The most important element
of the method is the 'breakdown sheet'. The method
has proved most successful and has reduced the cost of
training by two-thirds.
1161. Apprenticeship in New Zealand. H. C.
McQueen. Journal of Public Administra-
tion (Wellington), pp. 3-13, September
After a short historical survey the author mentions
the reports of a conference on apprenticeship in 1923
which led to the Apprentices Act 1923, and of the
Commission of Enquiry into Apprenticeship in 1944.
Amendments to the act were made in 1930 and 1948.
Administrative entities are : local committees consti-
tuted by three employers, three workers and a technical
education man, District Commissioners who are execu-
tive officers of the local committees, and the Court of
Arbitration which is guided by the recommendations of
a N.Z. Apprenticeship Committee for the industry
concerned, are constituted like the local committees.
Contracts of apprenticeship must be registered with the
District Commissioner. Discussion at apprenticeship
committee meetings is largely conducted about trade
education of apprentices in technical classes during
working hours and the possibly reduced scope for
apprenticeship in modern mass production factories.
1162. The Implications of a National Employ-
ment Service. N. S. Woods. Journal of
Public Administration (Wellington), pp. 14-
26, September 1948.
This article broadly surveys the problems involved:
those of under-employment, be it mass unemployment
or seasonal; of over-employment, resulting in diffi-
culties in staffing arduous or less attractive occupations,
and in increasing labour-turnover; of structural
changes in the economy and of frictional unemployment.
All these are social problems and government responsi-
bilities. Full employment policy implies early diag-
nosis and early treatment of unemployment. The
administration needs adequate information and intelli-
gence to use the information, a central agency and local
offices. All processes between collecting information
and taking action have to be integrated and co-ordinated.
1163. Understanding the Taft-Hartley Act. K. F.
Walker. Australian Quarterly, pp. 19-26,
March 1949.
The author first sets out the institutional setting
which was less favourable to the development of trade
unionism in U.S. than in Australia, and the Wagner
Act of 1935 which encouraged trade unions. A sum-

mary of the Taft-Hartley Act outlines the provisions
on unfair labour practices, those regulating the contents
of agreements, finally those which imply restrictions on
the activities and internal affairs of unions. In a dis-
cussion of these provisions stress is laid on the 60 to 8o
days' delay to which workers to go on strike may be
subjected, and on the liability of unions to damage
suits in federal courts, finally on the restrictions on the
unions' political expenditure and the requirement of
non-communist affidavits.
1164. University of Melbourne. University
Appointments Board, Fifteenth Annual
Report. Melbourne University Press, 1948,
pp. 38.
Part I discusses the board's activities. The total
enrolment at Australian Universities including Mel-
bourne has greatly increased compared with 1938. In
future there might be some employment problem for
graduates. Prospects for engineers, agricultural scien-
tists, architects, medical and dental graduates are
bright, those for law, commerce, some arts and science
graduates much less so. Many commerce and arts
graduates must look to industry and commerce for
employment. The board has started an employment
survey to ascertain the numbers of graduates likely to find
employment in the next few years and the employers'
requirements in that period. The board, furthermore,
has a statistical function, and gives guidance and advice
on careers.
Part II presents statistical tables the most important
of which are concerned with recorded gross demand for
various categories of graduates.
1165. Australian House Magazines. A. C. Clarke.
Bulletin of Industrial Psychology and Per-
sonnel Practice, pp. Io-zo, March 1949.
An examination of 83 magazines published by firms
for their employees in three Australian states between
June and November 1948. Principal attention is given
to the contents of- the magazines which are classified
under: management communications (on the average
27 per cent of the topics), employees' interests, adver-
tising and general material. The distribution of sub-
jects is analysed for men's industries, textile mills,
department stores, women's industries and interstate
firms. A comparison is made with U.S. publications
about house magazines.

1166. Russell, Archer. William James Farrer-A
Biography. F. W. Cheshire, Melbourne
and London, 1947, pp. 223.
The ideas and work of Farrer, the wheat breeder,
are the main concern of the author. The main events
in Farrer's life are also given. The source of material
was from journals, newspaper files, reports, letters,
reminiscences and appraisals by others. Much of this
original material is quoted and the author's interpreta-
tion is given. Farrer's early interest in rust and other
disease resistance, drought resistance, milling and baking
qualities, macaroni wheats and the effect of environment
on the wheat plant are amply illustrated. Farrer's
success stimulated greater interest in wheat breeding,
made possible the extension of the wheat belt into drier
areas and raised wheat quality as well as yield.-


1167. Forbes, Ian G. Erosion on the Melton
Reservoir Catchment. Victorian State
Rivers and Water Supply Commission,
Melbourne, 1948, pp. 41 + maps and
A detailed examination of this region, its geology,
soils, climate and land use ; also estimate of the erosion
potential of each part. So far 19 per cent of the 19,600
acre feet of the Melton storage have been lost by
siltation. This will continue, probably at accelerated
rate, if a comprehensive erosion control scheme is not
adopted.-S.M. W.
1168. Peren, G. S., Agriculture of Samoa, Cook
Islands and Fiji. Massey Agricultural Col-
lege, N.Z., 1948, pp. 35.
Lack of technical assistance, inadequate shipping,
poor liaison between administrations, and the laissez-
faire attitude of the Polynesianw towards work together
retard development. The suitability of the different
islands to the main crops is discussed, and the need for
more attention to animal husbandry is stressed.-
1169. Forests Commission of Victoria. Twenty-
ninth Annual Report 1947-48, Govern-
ment Printer, Melbourne, pp. 40.
Lack of manpower is severely restricting the planting
of softwoods and silviculture in indigenous forests;
however a record production of sawn timber was
recorded for the state in the year under review. The
Commission is encouraging the concentration of primary
sawmilling industries in selected country centres ; and
seeks the power to control erection of new mills in
order to prevent uneconomic spread of labour. 70,000
acres of reserved and protected forest were burnt during
the year in fires, most of which occurred after 15 March
when the Commission's powers to restrict fire lighting

1170 C.S.I.R., Division of Forest Products.
Annual Report for the year 1947-48, pp. 59.
A concise account of the numerous technical investiga-
tions being conducted by the Division ; and of its
liaison with industry.-K.P.J.B.

1171. Australian Agriculturalian ricu Production in Rela-
tion to World Requirements. S. M.
Wadham. Australian Outlook, pp. 9-21,
March 1949.
World shortages of foodstuffs have not induced any
significant increase in Australian production. World
War II greatly dislocated the rotational routines of
wheat farming, just as they interfered with the manage-
ment of dairy farms, the raising of beef, mutton, and
lamb, and the production of fresh fruits. Government
intervention to secure an expanded output in most
kinds of rural production, mainly through subsidies,
ultimately showed the penalties of interference by in-
experienced administration in the forms of soil exhaus-
tion, unnecessary deterioration of products through
inefficient storage and handling, and unwise increases
of crop acreage. Shortage of labour robbed the farms
of necessary services, shortages of materials prevented
proper maintenance ; failure to prevent or overcome a
decline in industrial relations, and rising wages, all
discouraged farmers from extension of their enterprises.

Overstocking of cattle-runs and sheep-stations resulted
in severe losses of stock in bad seasons, and in erosion
and other soil troubles. While costs of production
were rising, volume of production-except in very
favourable seasons-was stationary. By the year 1948,
problematic markets and the prospect of failing demand
and falling prices made producers cautious, while labour
and material situations became worse rather than better.
Further expansion is possible, however, when the supply
position improves, when transport is extended and
improved especially to the North, as land tenure systems
are remodelled, with the extension of irrigation and the
spread of extension services, and by opening up large
areas of poor soils in reliable rainfall areas.

1172. Soil Erosion and its Control. Rural Bank of
N.S.W. Revised Edition 1948, pp. 96.
Each year of delay in controlling erosion means an
increasing and permanent loss of National Capital.
This well illustrated publication discusses the incidence
of accelerated erosion; and outlines remedial and
preventative methods of land management. In N.S.W.
the Government is financially assisting land holders to
carry out conservation works, under the guidance of a
developing Soil Conservation Service.-K.P.J.B.

1173. Soil Drift Control in the Mallee. Report on
Eighth Annual Competition 1947-48. Jour-
nal of Department of Agriculture, Victoria,
pp. ii, January 1949.
Methods devised by 14 progressive Mallee farmers
to counter wind erosion are described by the judge.
Most competitors cover cropped their fallows with oats
or rye.-K.P.J.B.

1174. Soil Conservation in Goulburn Catchment.
Report on 1948 Competition. Journal of
Department of Agriculture, Victoria, pp. 8,
August, 1948.
Contour furrowing, pasture improvement, and better
subdivision were the principal methods used by the 31
competitors to control water erosion in this pastoral
catchment area.-K.P.J.B.

1175. Report of the Hunter District Water Board
for the year ended 30 June, 1948. P.P.,
Government Printer, Sydney, pp. 19.
Statistics and balance sheets for the water supply,
sewerage and drainage projects of the Board.-K.P.J.B.

1176. Annual Report of the Commissioner of
Irrigation and Water Supply (Queensland)
1947-48, pp. 120.
Development of the irrigable river basins may
ultimately make the total irrigated area in Queensland
greater than in any other State. The Commissioner
describes the progress of irrigation and water supply
projects, ranging from joint New South Wales-Queens-
land works on the border rivers to weir construction
on the Barron. A financial statement of the Commis-
sion's activities is presented, and a summary of legisla-
tion controlling the use of water is appended.-K.P.J.B.
1177. Tasmania, War Service Land Settlement.
Progress Report as at October 1948, Gov-
ernment Printer, Hobart, pp. 12.

The sixth of a series of half-yearly reports on the
operation of the joint Commonwealth-Tasmanian
settlement scheme. The development of six subdivided
estates is described.-K.P.J.B.

1178. Annual Report of the Bureau of Investiga-
tion (Queensland) for the year 1947, pp. 15.
A record of recent advances in the development of
Queensland's land and water resources. Soil maps of
the Rockhampton district, Comet River Basin and
Peak Downs Holding are included. Appendices show
work in progress at the new Gatton Research Station
and rainfall-run off statistics for the chief catchments.-

1179. Forty-eighth Annual Report of the Bureau
of Sugar Experiment Stations, Govern-
ment Printer, Brisbane, 1948, pp. 48.
A brief review of the sugar industry in Queensland
with production statistics for the 1947 season.-K.P.J.B.
II80. Price Stabilisation in the Australian Wheat
Industry. F. O. Grogan. Australian
Quarterly, pp. 25-38, December 1948.
Price stabilisation requires either growers' contribu-
tion to a reserve fund when prices are high, or Govern-
ment guarantee of a minimum price backed by public
funds. The history of attempts to stabilize wheat prices
in Australia is recorded; and the pros and cons of a
Government Guarantee scheme are discussed.-
I181. Tree Census-1944. Review of Marketing
and Agricultural Economics, pp. 458-485,
September 1948.
The first complete census of pome, stone and citrus
fruit trees in New South Wales. The figures are
grouped according to bearing, non-bearing and re-
worked trees of each variety, located in the separate
Shires and Municipalities of the State.-K.P.J.B.
1182. The First Fifty Years of Agriculture in New
South Wales. C. J. King. Review of Mar-
keting and Agricultural Economics, pp. 362-
417, August 1948; pp. 432-457, Septem-
ber 1948; pp. 505-551, October 1948;
pp. 567-608 and 625-650, November 1948 ;
pp. 664-719, December 1948; pp. 66-1Ii,
March 1949.
A series of somewhat lengthy articles containing an
abundance of references to the agricultural, social,
economic and political conditions of the period under
review. The difficulties which surrounded the indivi-
dual who tried to farm in those times are thrown into
high relief, as are the corruption of officials and the
struggle between the choicerr' members of the N.S.W.
Corps and the various governors.-S.M.W.
1183. Farm Size and Factors Influencing Farm
Size with Particular Reference to N.S.W.
(1900-1948). F. H. Gruen. Review of
Marketing and Agricultural Economics, pp.
6-65, March 1949.
The 'clash of ideals on farm size' is not discussed,
but the effects of land legislation and economic factors
are traced and interpreted. Farm acreage and stock

numbers are the chief measures of size employed ; and
data showing trends in these measures since 19oo are
presented for the wheat, dairying, and pastoral indus-
tries; and for the main land divisions of N.S.W. A
trend towards larger farms is seen in many cases; and
is also apparent in data given for U.S.A., Canada and
Great Britain.-K.P.J.B.
1184. The Rabbit in Australia. L. J. Dunn.
Quarterly Review of Marketing and Ag.
Economics, pp. 57-60, April 1949.
An assessment of the revenue earned by the rabbit
industry. The U.K. is the chief import market for
carcasses, and U.S.A., as the chief skin buyer, purchased
$ 117m. worth of skins in 1947-48. Supply varies widely
in amount with rainfall conditions, and skin quality
undergoes a marked seasonal cycle in each year. War-
time demand for Australian skins caused prices to rise
to a maximum in 1946 ; but lack of refrigerated shipping
depressed wartime carcass exports. Carcass sales have
recovered sharply since 1946. No accurate estimate of
the financial losses due to rabbit attack of pastures and
crops can be made from existing data.-K.P.J.B.
1185. Australian Vine Fruits. L. White. Quar-
terly Review of Agricultural Economics, pp.
50-53, April 1949.
A forecast of Australian production, home con-
sumption and export markets shows that a large surplus
of dried vine fruits and wine grapes is likely to arise
within ten years.-K.P.J.B.

(A) Government and Politics
1186. Simpson, F. A. Parliament in New Zealand.
A. H. and A. W. Reed, Wellington, 1947,
pp. 12o.
The author begins with an introduction tracing the
origins of Parliament, the growth of the Commons and
the evolution of Parliament in N.Z. He then describes
the various institutions and their functions: the
Governor-General, the House of Representatives, the
Legislative Council, both Houses of Parliament and the
two party system. The book is illustrated and has a
preface by the Prime Minister and the Leader of the
Opposition in N.Z. It is intended for the growing
public taking an interest in the working of parliamentary
institutions.-A. W.S.
1187. Public Administration (Sydney), pp. 127-
182, September 1948.
This is a memorial issue, devoted to Professor F. A.
Bland, first Professor of Public Administration in the
University of Sydney, produced by a temporary editorial
board consisting of Professor R. S. Parker and Mr.
T. H. Kewley. The foreword is by G. C. Remington
and there are the following articles :
(a) Bland and the University, by R. C. Mills, pp.
(b) From Lecturer to Statesman, by D. H. Drum-
mond, pp. 141-143.
(c) Professor Bland and the New South Wales Public
Service, by F. E. Barraclough, pp. 145-153.
(d) A Note on F. A. Bland's Contacts with the
Commonwealth Public Service, p. 154.
(e) F. A. Bland and Politics, by E. Hearnshaw,
pp. 155-161.

(f) Professor Bland and Local Government, by C. M.
Reeves, pp. 162-164.
(g) F. A. Bland's Contribution to Public Administra-
tion in Australia, by R. S. Parker, pp. 165-182.
Another article, Bland and Adult Education, is
separately abstracted as abstract No. 1224 in this issue.-

1188. New Problems of Management in the Public
Service. W. E. Dunk. Journal of Public
Administration (Wellington, N.Z.), pp.
27-35, September 1948.
This article is the substance of an address by the
Chairman of the Commonwealth Public Service Board.
It traces the relatively slow growth and change of the
Public Service until the last war and the real change that
came with that war. It refers to the difficulty of
obtaining people with sound executive ability, the
importance of a new outlook required by new problems,
e.g. the growth of international organizations, stating
that the success of U.N. depends largely on a competent
administration. It insists that the expert, although
necessary, cannot take the place of a competent public
servant with long years of experience, and suggests that
training, which it considers most important, should be
broad so as to avoid rigid divisions between Branch and
Head Office personnel.-A.W.S.

1189. Temporary Employment in the Public Ser-
vice. T. R. Smith. Journal of Public
Administration (Wellington, N.Z.), pp. 36-
43, September 1948.
The article shows how temporary employment was
originally a remainder of the patronage system which
N.Z. legislation aimed to abolish by introducing the
examination system in 1887. It then deals with the
problems of a government coming to power, with a
programme of increased and expanded activities after
a slump, and considers the various reasons for and
difficulties of appointing temporary officers, which are
emphasised in N.Z. by legislative prohibition.-A.W.S.

1190. Ministerial-Departmental Relations in New
Zealand. D. F. Campbell. Journal of Pub-
lic Administration (Wellington, N.Z.), pp.
44-52, September 1948.
The article firstly refers to the general nature of this
problem in a democratically-elected government, and
proceeds to deal with those peculiar to New Zealand.
Among the latter, the size of the electorate is mentioned.
This gives a feeling of closeness of the M.P. to the
elector, who finds it hard to see that ministerial duties
are a full-time job. Another problem is the habit of
some people to approach a Department through some
Minister. Further, N.Z. Ministers tend to be in charge
of several Departments at a time and these not closely
related. Reference is also made to the problem of
delegation and division of power (or function) between
a Minister and Departmental Head-and the general
relations between a Minister and his permanent Head.
It finally deals with the problem of political neutrality,
to which great importance is attached. However,
neutrality does not justify stupidity or ignorance, and
the problem should be discussed in Staff training

(B) International Relations
1191. Hasluck, P. M. C. Workshop of Security.
Cheshire, Melbourne, 1948, pp. 181.
'There has always been more hope than faith about
the Security Council . .' In order to answer the
question 'Can any nation have faith . ?' one must
start by examining the machine itself. This may pro-
duce faith in the institution, 'the mechanic's faith'.
Beyond this, however, there may need to be a larger
faith as between the nations, in order to provide the
conditions essential to the successful functioning of the
international machinery. The author analyses in detail
the structure and powers of the Security Council, and
the manner in which it operates in practice. He finally
passes to 'The Conditions of Success', and expresses
the view that the Security Council belongs to a system
based on principle, not power: to make it work,
national policies must be subordinated to the inter-
national obligations of the nations under the U.N.

1192. T. Buesst, W. Macmahon Ball and G.
Packer. Security Problems in the Pacific
Region. Robertson & Mullens, Melbourne,
1948, pp. 78.
In June 1945 the Institute of Pacific Relations asked
each of its national councils to report its view of how
post-war security could best be achieved in the Pacific.
The National Councils in U.S.A., U.K., Canada, Aus-
tralia, India, New Zealand, China and France sent
replies. Taking these replies as their starting point, the
authors of this booklet attempt a 'speculative estimate'
of the main ways in which the events of the last three
years have changed the conditions of security in the

"I93. McDonald, A. H. (ed.). Trusteeship in the
Pacific. Angus & Robertson, Sydney, 1949,
pp. 171.
This book was written by a study group of the Aus-
tralian Institute of International Affairs. The steps in
the development from mandates to trusteeship and the
politics which determined the form of trusteeship are
analysed. The working of the mandate and trusteeship
systems, and future prospects, in New Guinea, Nauru
and Western Samoa are described, and also the idea of
'strategic areas', as expressed in U.S. trusteeship in
Pacific islands. A discussion of the problems in
colonial territories of South-East and East Asia begins
with a close study of the Philippines, and considers the
main political, social and economic factors involved,
including nationalism and the effects of Japanese occupa-
tion. The study concludes with a discussion on
trusteeship and regionalism, with particular reference
to the South Pacific Commission. Some relevant
documents are included in appendices.--. W.

1194. The Women's International Movement in
Relation to General Internationalism. Helen
Archdale. Australian Quarterly, pp. 16-24,
December 1948.
This account of the organisation and work of the
Liaison Committee of Women's International Organisa-
tions shows the growing influence of women in official
international organisation, from 1921, when the appoint-
ment of one woman to the League Traffic in Women

and Protection of Children Committee was secured, to
1948, when the Liaison Committee obtained Consulta-
tive Status with the U.N. Economic and Social Council.
The writer also discusses a few of the activities of official
international organizations which affect women, such as
I.L.O. conventions and the Economic and Social Council
resolutions of August 1948.--J.W.

1195. British Commonwealth Relations. 'John
Boyd.' Australian Quarterly, pp. 7-15,
December 1948.
The writer, who conceals his identity behind the
nom de plume, argues that the 1926 'Balfour' Dominion
status does not reflect the true position in relations of
the Commonwealth countries, and favours the adoption
of 'external association' and the establishment by each
of the Dominions of a new symbol for the head of state
instead of the Royal Family. His proposals are not
only intended to clarify the position in international
affairs, but also to avoid any misunderstandings about
the actual independence of the present Dominions, and
to permit the possession by each Dominion of its own
forms and symbols of sovereignty to encourage 'its
development as a fully articulated society'.-J.W.

1196. The Commonwealth Problem: Union or
Alliance ? R. G. Menzies. Foreign Affairs
(New York), pp. 263-273, January 1949.
'Alliance is not enough. Organic union under the
Crown is vital if we are to play our full part in the
world and its vexed affairs.' Mr. Menzies argues that
there has been a tendency to over-emphasise 'autonomy'
and neglect the aspect of a common Commonwealth
allegiance to the Crown. He advocates greater con-
sultation within the Commonwealth through Empire
Secretariats in each Dominion's capital, and considers
that membership of the Commonwealth does not
exclude participation in other associations, such as
Western Union, so long as these are only practical
working agreements and not strict legal federations.-
1197. Australia and the 'Near North'. C. H.
Grattan. Far Eastern Survey (New York),
pp. 245-247, 3 November, 1948.
The author surveys the principles behind, and con-
flicts in, Australian foreign policy, with particular
reference to such problems as the nationalist movements
in South-East Asia, the 'White Australia' policy and
American policy in Japan.--. W.

1198. Outlook for Peace. N. L. Cowper. Aus-
tralian Outlook, pp. 199-206, December
The author considers the outlook gloomy, arguing
that the Soviet leaders 'ridicule the possibility of
capitalistic and communistic states co-existing in peace',
and at the same time the U.S. is 'convinced of the
futility of appeasement'. He believes that a preventive
war would be both immoral and inexpedient, and that
the best hope for peace lies in the building of a strong,
united Western Europe. He is not optimistic about
the likelihood of a strong United States of Europe.-
1199. Further Notes on Middle Eastern Oil. D.
MacCallum. Australian Outlook, pp. 231-
243, December 1948.

The author surveys the extent and area of the activities
of the various national oil interests in the Middle East,
and considers the effect of these on Middle East politics,
as well as the effect of Middle East politics on oil
interests. He also discusses the motives and develop-
ment of the policies recently pursued by the Great
Powers in the Middle East region.-J.W.

1200. Some Factors in the Development of
Labor's Foreign Policies. Lloyd Ross.
Australian Outlook, pp. 32-45, March 1949.
Dr. Ross discusses the historical development of the
theoretical influences of internationalism and nationalism
in the Australian Labor Movement, illustrates these
influences at work in early republicanism, the 'White
Australia' policy, the conscription issue, and Labor's
attitude to fascism and collective security in the 'thirties.
He points out that there exist actually a collection of
different views held by groups in the Labor Movement,
and concludes by stressing that many influences apart
from the theoretical play a major part in determining
Labor's foreign policies.--J.W.

1201. Some Thoughts on Japan. R. S. Ryan.
Australian Outlook, pp. 62-69, March 1949.
Some aspects of the Japanese economic position are
discussed, such as survivals of feudalism, the size of the
population, poverty of natural resources and of capital
goods, and the efficiency of the workers. The article
continues with an outline of the progress of the occupa-
tion in the demilitarisation and democratisation of
Japan, and concludes with an expression of hope for the
peaceful and democratic future of Japan.-J. W.

(A) Housing
1202. General Grouping of Population, Industry
and Communications for a Great City. Sir
Patrick Abercrombie. Building and Engin-
eering, pp. 29-37, November 1948. Paper
read to the Town and Country Planning
Institute of N.S.W., Sydney, on 29 Octo-
ber 1948.
The lecturer presents some features of to-day's
re-planning in several war-damaged English towns.
Under the Town and Country Planning Act plans are
prepared by technicians and published in a report. After
comments made by local authorities and Government
departments the Minister of Planning decides finally,
but the plan is revised from time to time. Plans are
determined principally by zoning, structure of units and
precincts, communications, and open spaces. Some
examples of satellite towns are given. Of great interest
is the re-development of damaged central areas, particu-
larly of the City of London. Other sections of the
paper discuss mixed zoning (business premises, banks,
shops), civic architecture and the planning of new towns.

1203. South Australian Housing Trust. Twelfth
Annual Report for year ended 30 June 1948.
Government Printer, Adelaide, 1948, pp.
During the year under review accommodation was
provided for 1,014 families. On 30 June 1948 897
houses were under construction, another 2,558 had been

contracted for. 38 contractors worked for the Trust.
758 houses were completed in the metropolitan area (444
for rental, 314 for sale), o16 in the country. 132 tem-
porary dwellings were completed in two former military
camps. Shortages of practically all materials greatly
hampered the Trust's work, and rising building costs
caused higher rents. Special sections deal with building
of shops, factory-built timber-framed houses and farm-
houses for soldier settlement. Appendices present
details about the location of groups of houses and finan-
cial statistics.

1204. Town and Country Planning in New Zea-
land. The Administrative Experience. J. C.
Redward. Journal of Public Administration
(Wellington), pp. 53-68, September 1948.
This paper outlines the provisions of the N.Z. Town
Planning Act of 1926 and some later amendments. The
councils of larger boroughs and of counties have to sub-
mit town planning and extra-urban planning schemes to
the Town Planning Board which may approve the
scheme and decides on objections of property owners and
other persons. Compensation is determined by local
authorities. A special section deals with the constitu-
tion, the functions and procedure of the Town Planning
Board. So far only eight local bodies brought their
schemes to the final stage, mainly because of the lack of
qualified planning officers. In conclusion the author
discusses general administrative problems. Since 1946
the Ministry of Works is responsible for planning func-
tions. Reference is made to the problems of compensa-
tion and betterment, regional planning and the difficul-
ties of training planning officers.

(B) Social Security and Public Health
1205. Social Medicine and the Medical Student.
E. Ford. Social Service, pp. 1-5, October
Social medicine has only recently been suggested as a
comprehensive subject for medical students at Universi-
ties in U.K. Various reports and opinions on this
matter are referred to. The author recommends the
extension of such arrangements to Australia; they
should affect both clinical and preventive medicine.

1206. Report of the Secretary for Public Health,
Tasmania, for year ended 31 December
1947. P.P. Government Printer, Hobart,
1948, pp. 31.
The report of the Director of Public Health (section I)
starts with vital statistics. The birthrate in 1947 was
27-69 per I,ooo persons living, compared with 22 14 on
the average of the previous io years, the death rate was
9-17 (Io04 average of previous decade). This section
includes school medical services, school dental services.
which, like maternal welfare and child health services
were particularly impeded by staff shortages. Section
II-Report of Director of Hospital and Medical Ser-
vices-discusses public hospitals (great increase of
patients), private hospitals, bush nursing, government
medical service. According to the Report of the
Director of Tuberculosis (section III) a new sana-
torium for male patients was opened at Perth. Section
IV is the Report of Director of Mental Hygiene who
stresses the need for hospitalisation of elderly patients.
Statistical material is presented in a number of tables.

(C) Social Surveys

1207. Holidays. Economic News, pp. 1-4, Febru-
ary 1949.
A survey of holiday habits, based on 333 replies
received to questionnaires sent to a sample of 1,309
Queensland residents. These replies were analysed
under three groups : families taking their holidays with
children; younger people under 35 including families
holidaying without children ; older people over 35 with
the same qualification. Of these three groups 85, 93
and 72 per cent have their annual holiday away from
home. There was an enquiry about the type of place
where people want to spend their holidays : surf beaches
(78 per cent), Barrier Reef, other water resorts and
mountains, other islands. Another question was asked
about means preferred to make holiday journeys : in
the person's own car (43 per cent), by railway, cruise on
ship, conducted tour. Further information sought was
concerned with: the period preferred for holidays (41 per
cent December-January) ; whether a restful spot or a
good rate of entertainments was desired; the main
recreation facilities demanded ; the type of accommoda-
tion ; the price for board and lodging considered reason-
able ; the assistance for planning holidays (information
In conclusion the relative expenditure on holidays is
discussed according to income groups (figures from a
family expenditure enquiry of 1939-40).

(D) Population and Migration

12o8. Borrie, W. D. Population Trends and Poli-
cies-A Study in Australian and World
Demography. Australian Publishing Com-
pany, pp. xx + 263. Price 21s.
The object of this book is 'to study the implications
for Australia of the revolutionary changes that have
occurred, and are occurring, in the world population ;
and to consider what alterations, if any, may be necessary
to our economic and social organisation if we are to
establish a community capable of biological survival'.
It consists of an analysis first of world and Australian
demographic trends and of their economic and social
consequences, secondly of contemporary population
policies and of an appropriate pro-natalist policy for
Australia and finally of the international implications of
current demographic trends and policies.
The author stresses the need for selecting as a goal
for Australia's population a figure which has a reasonable
chance of being attained. White immigration cannot
be relied on as the chief source of population increase
and the prevention of ultimate population decline rather
than the encouragement of rapid growth should be the
aim of a realistic policy. Furthermore it is hopeless to
attempt to match by white immigration and pro-natalist
policies, the rapid increases in Asiatic population
expected in the future. Consequently Australia will
always appear to be relatively underpopulated to Asiatic
eyes and should take the lead in international councils
to secure relief of population pressure in Asiatic coun-
tries. This means policies which will raise the level of
welfare in those countries by increasing their capital and
technical resources.
This work is not a technical treatise on demography
but the conclusions which the author derives are of such
importance in regard to Australia's future, that his book
should be of interest to a very wide public.-P.H.K.

1209. Lewis, R., assisted by Frazer, A. Shall I
Emigrate? A Practical Guide. Phoenix
House, London, 1948, pp. 288; Chapter
II: Shall I emigrate to Australia ?, pp.
38-o18 ; Chapter III: Shall I emigrate to
New Zealand ?, pp. 109-150.
This book attempts to provide the British would-be
emigrant with practical information on various problems
likely to be of interest to him. The first and last
chapter discuss the questions 'shall I emigrate ?' and
'shall I stay ?' in general, while chapters 2-5 deal with
emigration to the Dominions of Australia, N.Z., Canada
and South Africa. In the chapter on Australia the
author first sets out that Australia wants immigration
to build up her population for defence and development,
and that there is some opposition to immigration based
on the fear of depression. Further sections are con-
cerned with the free and assisted systems of migration,
child migration schemes, unassisted migration, fares and
costs; Australia's present economic conditions in
general and in particular the prospects in agriculture,
secondary industries (details about various industries,
such as engineering, textiles, mining, etc.) ; wages, how
to get a job, trade unions ; social services ; cost of
living, taxation; housing; prospects of the small
businessman and of professional people.
The chapter on N.Z. is divided into sections of a
similar kind. According to the economic position of
N.Z. more stress is laid on agriculture and on social
service benefits. There is also a special section on
education in N.Z. The author comes to the conclusion
that there is no wide variation of wealth in N.Z., 'the
average is 99 per cent of the nation'.
Both chapters 2 and 3 end with 'general information'
comprising details on banking, the press, a selected
bibliography, etc.
121o. Barker, D. People for the Commonwealth.
The Case for Mass Migration. T. Werner
Laurie Ltd., London, 1948, pp. 140.
The only chance of survival of the British Common-
wealth as a great world power lies in mass migration
from U.K. to the Dominions. There is a maldistribu-
tion of population and industry within the British
Empire. Of the 74m. white people in the Empire
nearly 50m. live in the small and overcrowded U.K.,
24m.-apart from Iro7m. coloured people-in the vast
spaces of the four Dominions with temperate climates:
Australia, N.Z., Canada, South Africa, in addition to
Southern Rhodesia. The optimum population of U.K.
would be 30m., who could in an emergency be fed from
the produce of British soil. As a solution the author
advocates planned mass migration of 2om. people from
Britain to the Dominions within the next 20 years, in
whole industrial communities, i.e., not only of skilled
workers, but of a cross section of the population includ-
ing old retired people, together with their factories and
machinery. The book describes such a hypothetical
shifting of a Yorkshire town of 20,000 inhabitants to
Australia including the moving of factories processing
raw wool and including artisans, shops and professional
people. He argues that such a planned mass migration
would benefit both Britain and the Dominions in peace
and war, how it would affect those who go and those
who stay, and the mechanism of 'the start, the move
(shipping) and the receiving end'. In this way a new
Commonwealth would arise.
1211. Calwell, A. A. Immigration Policy and Pro-
gress, pp. 70, Melbourne, 1949.

An outline of Australian immigration policy, mainly
based on statements made by the author as Minister
for Immigration to the Commonwealth Parliament
since 1945. After a discussion of Australia's population
problems, her falling birthrate and increasing number
of aged people, and her limited capacity to absorb
70,000 migrants per year, the agreements with U.K. in
1946 and 1947 on free and assisted passage of migrants
and reciprocity of social benefits are set out. Next the
arrangements for U.S. and allied ex-servicemen are
dealt with. Immigration surveys were made, immigra-
tion advisory bodies were set up. 1946 the Common-
wealth and State Governments came to an agreement
on various subjects of immigration. The shortage of
shipping and the Government's efforts to obtain migrant
vessels, endeavours to promote children's immigration,
the need to further the assimilation of alien migrants
are referred to.
Part II is concerned with the progress of immigration.
British migrants are preferred, the housing position is
safeguarded by the system of priorities. The shipping
supply has improved, by the end of 1948 23 ships were
available for carrying British migrants. Immigration
from U.S. is still small because of the lack of shipping.
About displaced persons from the Continent the
Government concluded an agreement with the Inter-
national Refugee Organisation in 1947. 4,000 D.P.'s
arrived in the first seven months of 1948. Other
European, Dutch and ex-enemy migrants are men-
tioned. Finally reference is made to improved Aus-
tralian nationality laws and the Aliens Act 1947.

1212. Australia's Immigration Policy. F. W.
Eggleston. Pacific Affairs (Richmond, Vir-
ginia), pp. 372-383, December 1948.
The author claims that Australia is little affected by
racial intolerance, but must insist on maintaining a
certain economic and cultural standard and on un-
divided allegiance. Her standard of living is very high,
primary production has very large productivity per
worker. She would not be more populated, if the
living standard were lower. Australia is entitled to
require that immigrants be assimilated-which means
restrictions on the rate of admission-and that the
formation of enclaves shall be discouraged. Of the
3m. square miles of her territory no more than zoo,ooo
are suitable for agriculture. The possible rate of
immigration is 70,000 annually.
The vast population of S.E. Asia is very poor, ex-
tremely fertile, possibly there is overpopulation.
Development, not emigration, is the potential remedy.
All S.E. Asiatic countries practise an immigration policy
of discrimination. Chinese immigrants in S.E. Asia
continue their allegiance to China. The author advo-
cates the permanent admission of a small number of
Asiatics-similar to a quota system-and their ultimate

1213. The Dynamics of Over-Population. Sir
Frederic W. Eggleston. Australian Out-
look, pp. 3-8, March 1949.
There are two great concentrations of population, in
Western Europe on an industrial, and in S.E. Asia on
an agricultural basis. The supply of food and raw
materials tends to be precarious in both areas. The
concentration in Western Europe is mainly due to the
early use of machinery, but the principal difficulties are
the maintenance of communications and of markets for
industrial products. The concentration in S.E. Asia is
due to high rainfall and the existence of many large

rivers. Here the standard of living is very low. There
are unstable political conditions, obstacles to indus-
trialisation and the high fecundity of primitive peoples.

1214. An Outline History of Italian Immigration
into Australia. N. 0. P. Pyke. Australian
Quarterly, pp. 99-1o9, September 1948.
An article by the author on the same subject, pub-
lished in the Australian Quarterly, December 1946, has
been abstracted as No. 431 in No. 4 of the Abstracts.
There were some Italian immigrants during the gold-
rushes of the 1850's. In the following two decades
there was a small influx, the largest to Victoria, where
1881 947 Italian-born people lived; 1883 a British-
Italian treaty provided freedom of entry and residence
for Italians. In the period 189g1-918 some animosity
to Italian immigration arose, first 1891 in Queensland
when Italians came to replace Kanakas on the canefields,
then 9goi in W.A. when a number of Italians were
attracted to the goldfields. 1901 over 5,000, 1911
6,719 Italian-born people lived in Australia (2,361 in
W.A., 2,683 naturalised).
In the 1920's there was a net gain of 23,928 Italians.
In Queensland a Royal Commission investigated Italian
immigration in 1924. The rise of Fascism created
trouble among Italians in Australia. During the
depression there were demonstrations against the Italian
Consulate in Innisfail and anti-Italian riots in Kalgoorlie
1934. 1933 26,757 persons were Italian-born, the
greatest number in Queensland (8,355). After the war
some Italian immigrants were admitted in 1948.

1215. Platz, Ernest. New Australians. Jewish
Council to Combat Fascism and Anti-
Semitism, Melbourne, 1948, pp. 28. Price
An occupational survey of Jewish migrants in Vic-
toria, based on information provided by 1,322 immi-
grants who arrived in Australia between 1936 and 1948,
and have filled in questionnaires. Of these 1,322
persons 57.4 per cent came from Central Europe, 24-5
from Poland. 27-9 per cent were employers-giving
employment to 2,317 men and women, 13-5 per cent
conducted a one-man business and 58-6 were employees.
Of the latter 53-2 per cent were occupied in industry,
17-0 in the professions. 352 of the interviewed were
post-war (1945-48) immigrants. Of these 19-o per cent
were employers (including one-man businesses) and
81 o employees. In chapter IV (close-up of the people)
some of the more remarkable careers of individual
migrants are set forth.

1216. Displaced Persons in Industry. Social Ser-
vice, pp. 1-6, January 1949.
Based on a survey made by the Commonwealth
Employment Service data are presented about some
4,000 displaced persons placed in employment by the
C.E.S. Female D.P.'s were preferably employed in
hospitals in which now about 600 D.P.'s are working.
Seasonal labour is provided by D.P.'s for fruitpicking
in the southern states and 800 D.P.'s are engaged in
sugarcane cutting in Queensland and northern N.S.W.
The forestry and timber industry has been allocated
500 D.P.'s, 143 D.P.'s have done water supply and
sewerage work, 15o were allotted to the brick industry,
several hundred to railway work. Among various other
industries employing D.P.'s are salt works, flax mills,
zinc mining, limestone quarrying, land clearing.

1217. Population Trends in Victorian Regions.
R. W. Meadows. Planning Bulletin, pp.
8-11, April 1949.
The 1947 census shows that the proportion of the
Victorian population living in Greater Melbourne has
risen to nearly 60 per cent in 1947 from 51-1 (1921) and
54-5 (1933). Of the 30 cities, towns and boroughs
outside the metropolitan area only 5 have decreased
since 1933, 4 have increased by over 30 per cent (Mildura
by 44 per cent). The entire country population has
remained fairly stable, but of the 12 regions of Victoria
only two (Barwon and Gippsland West) have main-
tained a marked population growth since 1921, the
Central Highlands region has consistently declined since
1933, the Loddon and Mallee regions have heavily
declined since 1933.


1218. Education News (Sydney). Special Number
on International Education. December
(a) International Attitudes in Childhood and Youth.
G. Watson, pp. 4-6.
To educate peoples in order to prevent war and to
foster international understanding, it is necessary to
ensure the psychological adjustment of every child.
Use can be made of the gang-spirit to educate natural
groups in attitudes. Four specific proposals are made
for the education of youth in healthy international
(b) The Education and Training of Teachers for a
World Society. L. J. Pryor, pp. 7-10.
An account of a seminar held at Ashridge. Con-
clusions reached were that teachers in training should
learn as much as possible by direct observation and
personal contact with children, that all kinds of teachers
should be trained together by seminar or tutorial
methods and encouraged to take an active part in com-
munity life, and that the education of teachers for
international understanding should begin in the schools
and be carried on during training and after graduation.
(c) Education for International Understanding, pp.
A report presented at the Ashridge seminar. It
stresses the need for teachers (i) to play their part as
intelligent and educated t adults in supporting organisa-
tions whose aims are to inform the minds and to stir
the social conscience of the adult community, (2) to
perform their tasks in improving the teaching of social
studies, straight thinking and to develop in pupils the
social skills to deal with misunderstandings within their
different cultures.
(d) Building World-Citizens. H. A. Lane, pp. 13-
Man must learn to be free. Race prejudice is the
result of crooked thinking and arises from the desire
to excel which is fostered by the giving of rewards and
prizes. Various human needs are listed as the 'vitamins
of personality'.
(e) Unesco Seminar on Childhood Education. S. W.
Cohen, pp. 16-18.
Three problems were studied (i) how to develop skill
in critical thinking and the feeling of belonging to a
world community, (2) how the existing common ele-

ments of an international culture may be used as the
first basis of world-mindedness, and (3) how to neutralise
and modify the forces which militate against the
development of world-mindedness. Each question is
attacked from the psychological, philosophical and
environmental side, and from the point of view of the
abnormal child.
(f) International Conference on Public Education.
A. J. A. Nelson, pp. 19-21.
Progress in adult education, the problem of illiteracy,
the effect of recent political events on education are
reported from various countries. Changed attitudes in
U.S.A. towards the native culture of migrants and in
India, Pakistan and Burma towards the teaching of
English are dealt with.
Information is given on the education of nomads and
children in remote areas. The decision to exchange
publications giving educational information is reported.
(g) The Universities and International Under-
standing. W. H. C. Laves, pp. 22-24.
While the contribution of universities to the knowledge
of various cultures has fostered understanding among the
peoples of the world, this has not succeeded in assuring
peace. Universities must give a lead in spreading ideas
of world interdependence and the means whereby the
nations can live at peace.
(h) Goodwill Among Nations. Faslur Rahman,
P- 25.
Cultural associations between nations will prevent
international strife. Culture is international in char-
acter and is a force making for unity.
(i) Waging the Peace. W. G. Carr, pp. 26-28.
The writer sets out the purposes of Unesco, but points
out that this organisation will succeed in its tasks only
if teachers throughout the world are fitted to carry out
its work. The achievement of world peace demands
action, sacrifice, and responsibility.
1219. A Test of the Success of Vocational Guid-
ance. Joan M. Porter. Economic News
(Brisbane), pp. 1-4, January 1949.
At the Juvenile Employment Bureau, Brisbane, two
samples, each representative of boys employed in office
work and skilled and semi-skilled trades were used.
The guided group of 81 boys and the control group of
61 boys are compared by the degree of satisfaction by
the employer, the liking for the job expressed by the
boy and the length of time spent in each job and the
number of jobs held. The method used was a personal
interview of employer and employee. The results of
the interviews were graded by means of a rating scale.
The extent of agreement between the work attained
and the guidance officer's recommendation was assessed
into four sections. The percentage of satisfied em-
ployers and employees was highest where the guidance
officer's recommendations had been followed. The
total guided group showed a higher degree of satisfaction
than the control group. Boys of the guided group
tended to change their jobs less and this tendency
increased in the group who had followed the recom-
mendations of the guidance officer. The work and
methods of the Bureau's Vocational Guidance and
Employment Placement Sections are summarised.
I220. The First Tasmanian Area School-Shef-
field. Amy Rowntree. Tasmanian Educa-
tion, pp. 53-62, April 1949.

An account of the early history of the district, the
beginnings of the idea of an area school in 1935, the
problems of its establishment, and the method of parent
representation is given with the history of the first year,
after establishment. It is accompanied by illustrations
and a map showing bus-routes. To be continued in
June issue.

1221. On the Educational Value of Learning a
Foreign Language. Hans Pollak. Aus-
tralian Quarterly, pp. 73-84, September
A language is the product of many centuries and
generations, reflecting the way the mass of the people
think and feel. It mirrors every aspect of the culture
and civilisation of a people. The variation in methods
of expressing thought in the different languages is put
forward as part of the basis for the arguments which
follow. The intensive study of at least one foreign
language is of great benefit for our understanding of the
world around us. Attitudes of tolerance and objectivity
are fostered and the mind and personality enriched.
The value of reading in a foreign literature and of good
translations is stressed. The direct method is the most
suitable way to introduce a language but it is only an
introduction. Real study cannot be eliminated. The
question of whether or not classical or modern languages
should be studied is not allowed to arouse controversial
issues since each is given its own field of importance.
The study of Chinese or Japanese is necessary only for
some few gifted Australians.

1222. A Religious Philosophy of Education. K.
Henderson. Australian Quarterly, pp. 85-
98, September 1948.
It is necessary to modify methods and ends of religious
education to conform with modern needs. Boys and
girls must learn that their lives must be devoted to
changing the world for the better according to their
capacities and opportunities. Religion alone makes it
possible for people to live for the Christian values which
are greater than ordinary ideals. Education must give
a belief in human ideals as the expression of a creative
urge, in the work of God being carried out through
human sufferings, and in the power of the Holy Spirit.
Religious education must overcome the aversion pro-
duced by the practical spirit of secular education, and
by the conflict between scientific knowledge and the
literal interpretation of the Bible. The teaching of an
agreed syllabus as part of the curriculum, the training
of teachers for this, and the integration of the ordinary
school curriculum with religious education are the
methods of achieving this.
1223. Decentralisation of University Education.
J. P. Belshaw. Australian Quarterly, pp.
67-76, December 1948.
In putting the case for further decentralisation of
universities in Australia the writer reviews the pre-war
and post-war figures of university student-populations.
Increased enrolments are likely to be permanent.
Decentralisation is the only remedy for universities
which have become too large to function efficiently.
Universities in rural areas have certain advantages over
those in capital cities. They should exert an influence
in the regions they serve by stimulating adult education,
by carrying out research needed in the region they serve
and by becoming a general meeting-place for the com-
munity. The difficulties which university colleges

often have to face are due to unsatisfactory financial
status, their ties with a parent-university and inadequate
staffing. Hence, an independent university suitably
financed, controlled and staffed would be better able to
fulfil its purpose.
1224. Bland and Adult Education. G. V. Portus.
Public Administration, pp. 135-40, Septem-
ber 1948.
This memoir is an appreciation of the work of
Professor Bland in W.E.A. activities in New South
Wales from 1914 onwards. In 1917, the writer and
he worked together in the administration of the Depart-
ment of Tutorial Classes. An account of the successful
struggles to preserve the status of this body in 1918
and again in 1946 shows Bland's ability in the handling
of difficult situations. Not only did he engage in
administration, teaching and organising for the W.E.A.,
but his activities included summer schools and jour-
nalistic work.

1225. Tasmania-Report of the Minister for Edu-
cation for the year 1947. Government
Printer, Hobart, 1949, pp. 42.
This report consists of a report on the major problems
and changes of the year 1947 by the Director of Educa-
tion, separate reports on Technical Education and
Teacher Training, a report by the Psychologist and a
very complete set of tables containing the statistics for
the year.
The Director reports on the progress made towards
the effective education of children from 14 to 16 who
are now compelled to remain at school. There are
difficulties of teacher shortages, lack of accommodation
and the inexperience of teachers in handling the activity
methods which are most suitable for this group.
Teachers' salaries have been raised, teacher training has
been handed over to the University and, despite teacher
shortages a relieving force of six teachers has been
Statistical tables provide all the necessary data for
research within this department.

1226. Grattan, C. H. Introducing Australia, sec-
ond revised Australian edition, Angus and
Robertson, Sydney, 1949, pp. 327.
This new edition shows a great number of emenda-
tions throughout the book ranging 'from mere adjust-
ments of tense to significant factual additions'. Two
chapters (The Second World War and International
Position) are entirely new and also the end of the
chapter on Australian Democracy. As in the first
edition the author gives a survey of Australia's geo-
graphy, history, industrial activities, standard of living,
politics, cultural life, ties to U.K., and future prospects.
1227. Fraenkel, P. H., Australien, verden af i dag
(Australia, the World of To-day), Hirsch-
sprung, Copenhagen, 1947, pp. 128. Price
DKr. 7.75.
The author, for more than forty years the Danish
consul of W.A., has written this book from his personal
experiences and it is intended as a guide for prospective
Danish migrants and for Danish tourists visiting this
country. Among the topics discussed are: Position

and Climate of Australia, Water Supply, Gold, The
First Impressions of the Migrant, The States and the
Northern Territory, Government and Political Parties,
Public Finance, Law and Courts, Army and Navy,
Education, Religion, Agriculture, Commerce, Secondary
Industry, Navigation and Fisheries, Academic Pro-
fessions, Communication, Social Problems, Health,
Building, Emigration, Literature (bibliography). Owing
to this diversity only a few pages are devoted to each
The book has 21 illustrations and a map of Australia.
Two other geographical sketches are attached. Some
statistical data and tables are included, the most recent
data are for 1946.-E.D.
1228. Hedberg, K. M. A Classified and Selective
Bibliography on Australia for Regional Pur-
poses. Part 3-Victoria. Commonwealth
Department of Post-War Reconstruction,
1948, p. 60.
Books, pamphlets, reports of government depart-
ments, and articles from daily papers and scientific
journals are listed in 26 sections, dealing with the
physical, economic and social resources, and general
development and administration of Victoria. In addi-
tion, references are given relating to each of the 13
regions into which Victoria was divided by the State
Regional Boundaries Committee.-E.J.D.
1229. River Murray Commission. Report for the
year 1947-48. Commonwealth of Aus-
tralia, pp. 42.
Expenditure, maintenance, operation and control of
completed works and gauging stations are reported and
the regulation of the flow of the Murray and Murrum-
bidgee is dealt with; likewise pH tests, salinity, algae,
navigation, evaporation losses and additional works. A
great number of tables give figures for gaugings and
diversions for irrigation, and other purposes.-E.J.D.

1230. Thompson, G. T., and Morrow, J. A. Soil
Conservation in the Upper Murray Region.
Soil Conservation Board of Victoria, 1948,
pp. 12.
A map gives some details of this region which is
separated into two sections by the Hume Highway.
The climatic, topographic, soil and agricultural features
of the two sections are discussed, and special attention
is drawn to the problem of land usage and soil erosion.
Five photos illustrate this problem.-E.J.D.
1231. Proposals to Divert the Snowy River. Report
by Commonwealth and State Officers, 1948,
pp. 32 roneoedd).
'Additional information obtained from aerial and field
surveys, test bores, and additional gaugings has enabled
the two original proposals for the diversion of the Snowy
to be refined and extended, and a further attractive
proposal including the use of the Tumut River to be
evolved.' Altogether there are now five proposals, and
their relative merits, as to maximum output of power,
capital cost, cost per kW of power, annual charges
including interest and amortisation, annual value of
power, annual saving by hydro-electric stations, amount
of power transmitted, cost of transmission, amount of
water diverted annually to the Murray and Murrum-
bidgee valleys for irrigation, future power requirements,
defence problems and decentralisation, are discussed in

detail by means of a number of tables. The Snowy-
Murrumbidgee-Murray-Tumut Scheme is recom-
mended. Two large maps (4 miles to one inch) give
details as to canals, tunnels, pipelines, power stations
and storage for the new proposals.-E.J.D.

1232. Wealth from the Snowy. Commonwealth
Department of Information, 1949, pp. 24.
'The Snowy Mountains waters are capable of pro-
viding power equal to one-third of our total black coal
output, or an equivalent amount of power as would be
provided by I million gallons of crude oil a day.' The
history of the proposals to use the water of the Snowy
since 1884 is outlined, and it is shown how the proposals
changed slowly from using the waters for irrigation
or generating electricity to a combination of both. The
Tumut Scheme (the outcome of the investigations
carried out by the 1946 Committee) is explained in
detail and the Snowy-Murray and Snowy-Murray-
Murrumbidgee proposals are compared as to total
power in kW., capital cost excluding transmission,
annual profit, and total extra water for irrigation in the
Murray and Murrumbidgee valley. A great number
of photos, tables, diagrams showing anticipated power
demands till 1985 and share to be taken by proposed
hydro-electric stations, discharge of Snowy River at
Jindabyne, and storage behaviour for Snowy River
regulated to even discharge, a relief map and a dia-
grammatic plan of waterways and power proposals
illustrate the important parts of the scheme which is
intended to produce 1,720,000 kW.-E.J.D.
1233. The Goulburn Region. Resources Survey.
Preliminary Report prepared by the Cen-
tral Planning Authority in collaboration
with the Goulburn Regional Committee.
Government Printer, Victoria, 1948, pp. 87.
This report deals with a region which comprises
only 4-5 per cent of the area of Victoria but contains
some of the most productive land in the State. A map
(16 miles to I inch) shows its municipal districts
(Echuca and Shepparton) and 7 shires. In its three
parts (Physical Resources, Economic Resources, Services
and Utilities) a wealth of material has been collated.
52 tables contain up-to-date material on numerous
aspects of this region. 7 maps (mainly 4 miles to I inch)
deal with geology and economic minerals, water
resources and utilisation, average annual rainfall,
influential rainfall factor, average quarterly rainfall,
present land-use, transport and communications, elec-
tricity supplies and other town services, and education.
There are chapters on forest resources and utilisation,
population, employment, wholesale and retail trade,
housing, tourist features, and soil types with a map
(16 miles to i inch) showing the four main soil types
and the areas surveyed in detail.-E.J.D.

1234. Geography and the Community. R. Ogilvie
Buchanan. New Zealand Geographer, Vol.
4, No. 2, pp. 115-126, October 1948.
Although geography is of perennial interest, academi-
cally it has suffered periodic eclipses, and has only
recently become well established in England, and more
recently in New Zealand. In these days it is vital
that public understanding everywhere of the bases of
national life and power should be widespread and as
well informed as possible and should become part of
the working mental equipment of our general public.
The rest deals with the pre-war, wartime, and post-war

demands on the services of British geographers.-

1235. The Outlying Islands of New Zealand. R.
A. Falla. New Zealand Geographer, Vol. 4,
No. 2, pp. 127-154, October 1948.
The author describes most of the outlying islands of
N.Z., dealing with their geological, biological and
climatic features, and human history.
The islands and groups described are the Kermadec
Group, the Snares, Auckland Islands, Campbell Island,
the Antipodes and Bounty Islands.-R.K.W.

1236. The Solar Salt Undertaking at Lake Gras-
mere. H. A. H. Insull. New Zealand
Geographer, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 155-162,
October 1948.
In 1943 an industry producing salt by solar evapora-
tion of sea water was begun at Grasmere on the North
East coast of the South Island of New Zealand. It
appears that climatic conditions are likely to be as
favourable as those experienced at Geelong, where there
is a similar industry. Annual production will be from
48,000 to 50,000 tons which compares with a 1939
import of 49,000 tons.-R.K.W.

1237. School Geography. N. V. Scarfe. New
Zealand Geographer, Vol. 4, No. ,. pp. 183-
188, October 1948.
School geography has proved its worth as part of a
training in citizenship. For school purposes geography
is conceived as describing two sets of phenomena,
human life and work on the one hand and physical
conditions on the other, and working toward the con-
clusion of the correlations between these two. Below
the sixth form the subject should not be divided up
topically, but will be best treated by examining a few
small-scale typical samples of larger regions. This
avoids the danger of generalisation too soon and from
insufficient data. Other dangers are that the subject
will become unreal to children who do not see past the
symbolism of maps, and that teaching may be un-
scientific and not harmonised with the child's own
development. There is a useful concluding summary.-
1238. Summary Reports on the Mineral Resources
of Australia. Bureau of Mineral Resources,
Geology, and Geophysics, Canberra, 1947.
The reports deal with zinc, cobalt, lead, cadmium,
manganese, and phosphates, and are written in the
same way as the previous reports abstracted in No. 841
of September 1948 (No. 6 of this journal).-E.J.D.

1239. Irrigation in the Salt Bush. J. R. Goode.
B.H.P. Review, pp. 8-io, March 1949.
The story of the first four years' experience in irri-
gating the 2oo-acre Whyalla (S.A.) dairy farm is told,
illustrated with 7 pictures.* With an annual rainfall
of about 1o inches and solar evaporation of about
85 inches annually, the farm needs about four acre-feet
of water and carries over a beast to the acre.-E.J.D.
*Showing progressive stages of cultivation.

1240. Branches of the Future. Trends (Sydney),
pp. 8-13, May 1949.

A survey of the timber industry and forestry in
N.S.W. 'The chief forest area is on the north coast,
from Taree to the Queensland border, and from this
district comes the bulk of the hardwood timbers required
to meet the demands of an expanding housing pro-
gramme, for railway sleepers, for the coal mines of
Newcastle, the lead mines of Broken Hill, and the
increasing demand for wooden packing cases . the
north coast forests contain relatively few softwoods, the
most important being sassafras, coachwood, and hoop
pine.' The war years are discussed with their shortage
of foreign and increasing demand for local timber, and
figures show the expansion of the industry. Attention
is drawn to some important parts of the N.S.W. Forestry

1241. The Availability of Moisture. R. E. Dyne.
Economic News (Brisbane), pp. 1-4, March
The author used Thornthwaite's latest (1948) formula
for estimating moisture loss through evaporation and
transpiration in 90 Queensland localities. A map shows
Queensland with lines of potential evapo-transpiration,
another map shows the number of 'wet' months, i.e.,
months in which precipitation + ground storage =evapo-
transpiration. 'For want of better local knowledge it
is assumed that a maximum of 4 ins. of rain can be
stored in the ground.' From the map we see that only
a narrow coastal strip experiences long growing seasons,
which 'makes it imperative that crops should be care-
fully selected and water rigidly conserved. The country
west of the Dividing Range is definitely unsuitable for
agriculture except the Downs which have lower tem-
peratures and the Gulf country with monsoonal rains.'
Diagrammatic representations of the moisture cycle
(showing months of water surplus, water deficiency, soil
moisture utilisation, soil moisture recharge, etc.) are
given for 8 localities. A third map shows the applica-
tion of Thornthwaite's moisture index to Queensland.
Queensland has 9 climatic types (ranging from perhumid
to arid). This map shows how limited the moist areas
and how large the semi-arid areas are, 'extending from
the Western Downs northwards where the extension
of dry farming with suitable selected quick-growing
crops merits investigation.'-E.J.D.
1242. Two Climatic Systems Applied to Aus-
tralia. J. Gentilli. Australian Journal of
Science (Sydney), Vol. II, No. i, pp. 13-16,
August 1948.
Two maps show Australian climates according to
Koppen's (1932) and Thornthwaite's system (1931).
No map of Australia on Thornthwaite's system was
published before. 'The main result of the investiga-
tion using Koppen's system is the recognition of an Am
climate (hot climate, dry season very short) in N.E.
Queensland, on a small area, sufficient to make a
climatic region. There are small patches with an Af
climate (hot climate with uniform rainfall), but it is
doubtful whether they could be classified as anything
but micro-climates.' One of the shortcomings of
Koppen's system applied to Australia is that 'it does
not provide for any difference in classification between
the coastal areas with a high precipitation and humidity,
and the inland areas where precipitation and humidity
are very moderate' in the three eastern States. 'Vegeta-
tion studies show the importance of such a distinction.'
Comparing the two maps Gentilli found among many
differences that the hot desert on Thornthwaite's map
(which allows the recognition of 22 climatic types) is a

'relatively thin strip north of 22 degrees,' whilst Koppen's
hot desert is 'a huge area extending as far south as
30 degrees. Plants and soils apparently fail to bear out
either boundary.'-E.J.D.

1243. Bioclimatic Controls in Western Australia.
J. Gentilli, Western Australian Naturalist,
Vol. I, No. 6, September, 1948, pp. 12.
There are four maps of W.A. dealing with temperature
(number of months below 71, 6F, below 64, 4F, first
month below 64, 4F and last month below 64, 4F) and
they are briefly discussed. 'It may be said that low
temperatures never act as limits in W.A. High tem-
peratures may set the equatorial limit to life of temperate
regions; they may be of great importance as limiting
factors in the southern part of W.A.' Eight maps deal
with evapo-transpiration, according to Thornthwaite
(1948). They show potential evapo-transpiration iso-
pleths for January, May, July, September and Novem-
ber, and three maps show isopleths for the number of
months with PE more than 15 cm., so cm., and more
than 5 cm. These maps and two maps dealing with
water balance (hygrostasis) and a map showing the
hygrostatic regions of W.A. are discussed and relation-
ships to vegetation maps are pointed out. The prob-
lem of climatic changes is raised. 'A final word of
caution is necessary in closing this note on bioclimatic
controls ; even the best agreement between a climatic
line and a biological boundary does not imply a causal
relationship between the two-it may be entirely due to
a coincidence.' Ten climatic data for calculating the
hygrostatic index are given for 62 stations.-E.J.D.
1244. Climatological Surveys in Regional Plan-
ning. Department of Post-War Recon-
struction. Planning Bulletin (Melbourne),
pp. 5-8, February 1949.
Within the Commonwealth Meteorological organisa-
tion recently a Regional Climatological Service has been
set up staffed in each state by a trained climatologist and
assistant staff. State Regional Advisory committees
are planned to coordinate the work with the needs and
wishes of the users of climatological information. A
central organisation at the central weather bureau will
handle problems of continent-wide importance and
coordinate the work in the different states. The new
organisation has come into operation early in 1949. A
list of work already finished or in hand along the lines
of the climatological service, particularly in connection
with regional planning, war service land settlement and
primary production is attached.-F.L.

I245. Turnbull, Clive. Black War. F. W.
Cheshire, Melbourne, 1948, pp. 274.
This book is a history of the extermination, within
seventy-five years, of a unique people, the aborigines of
Tasmania. From 1804-1827 the protection of the
aborigines was a policy of the government, and numerous
proclamations and orders advised the colonists that the
aborigines were not a hostile people, unless provoked.
The settlers, however, treated the aborigines as wild
beasts, and frequently shot them at sight. Escaped con-
victs, turned bushrangers, added torture and rape to
frequent murders of the aborigines. The natives retali-
ated with spears and stones and by 1814 were occasion-
ally murdering whites and had become objects of fear to
the colonists. Many aborigines were executed for mur-

der, but no white man was executed for murder of
Yielding to colonial pressure, Lieutenant-Governor
Arthur in 1827 revised previous government policy by
lending troops to the colonists to use against the abori-
gines. The previous policy of protection was not wholly
abandoned, and in 1829 George Robinson and John
Batman were appointed as native conciliatorss'. In
1830 Arthur decided that all the aborigines should be
taken prisoner and placed on Tasman's Peninsula.
Settlers and soldiers attempted to capture the natives,
3,000 persons at one time being engaged in the 'Black
War', which was estimated to cost 35,ooo and proved
a complete failure.
From 1831 the government adopted a native policy of
expatriation. In all, 203 aborigines were rounded up
and placed on Flinders Island between 1831-42; by
1836 there were only 123 of them surviving, the deaths
being chiefly caused by chest complaints. By'1843 only
54 aborigines were alive. In 1850 the aborigines were
removed from Flinders Island to a settlement on the
west shore of D'Entrecasteaux Channel. In 1876
Truganini, the last of the Tasmanian aborigines, died.

1246. Ewers, J. K. The Western Gateway : 1oo
Years of Local Government in Fremantle,
Western Australia. Fremantle City Coun-
cil, 1948, pp. 112 (illustrated).
This book describes the history of municipal activity
in Fremantle from 1848 to 1948. The narrative begins
with a broad outline of Western Australian history from
1829 until 1848. Thereafter the author has increasingly
concentrated on the domestic affairs of Fremantle, with
a general background of state affairs. Considerable
attention has been given to the development and activi-
ties of local government under the Town Trust (1848-
1871), the Town Council (1871-1883), the Mayor and
Corporation (1883-1929) and the City Council. The
book also contains a survey of shipping during the war
years with a list of war vessels victualled at Fremantle-
British, Australian, American, Dutch, Free French,
Indian, Canadian and N.Z.-F.K.C.

1247. Discoveries in the Timor Sea, North-West
Australia. Rhodes W. Fairbridge. Royal
Australian Historical Society. Journal and
Proceedings, Vol. XXXIV, Part IV, pp.
193-218, 1948.
The author of this article has recently completed,
jointly with Dr. C. Teichert, a geographical and geo-
logical study of the reefs and islands of the Sahul Shelf,
the broad area of shallow sea bordering Northern Aus-
tralia. The article summarises what is known of the
exploration of this area from the earliest times to the
present day, and suggests a number of identifications of
reefs, shoals and islets seen by various expeditions in the
past. It concludes with a note on 'the peculiar guano
trade which sprang up, flourished, and died here during
the middle and latter half of the nineteenth century'.-
1248. Gandhi's India. A. G. L. Shaw. Australian
Outlook, pp. 219-228, December 1948.
A brief survey of Gandhi's political and social opin-
ions, and his success in achieving his aims largely through
his non-violent methods. The effects of his pacificism
in different stages of his career is examined and its part
in moderating extremism in Indian politics. 'I worship

God which is truth and non-violence. The God-fearing
man knows that it is better to die in the way of God than
to live in the way of Satan.'-A.G.L.S.
1249. The Work of the Western Australian
Archive Department. Maroula F. F. Lukis.
Historical Studies of Australia and New
Zealand, Vol. 3, No. 12, pp. 313-319,
February 1949.
In March 1945, chiefly because of the efforts of the
State Archives Board and the W.A. Historical Society,
an Archives Branch of the Public Library of W.A. was
opened. The regulations direct that all manuscripts,
records, printed matter, relics and objects of an his-
torical character connected with W.A. shall be eligible
to be placed in the Archives.
The chief work of the department has been (i) the
collection of new material such as records from the Chief
Secretary's Office, the Lands and Surveys Department,
the Mines Department, etc. (2) The preservation,
classification and indexing of documents. (3) The ser-
vice given to the community. Because the material has
been collected there are many more students engaged in
research into some aspect of local history than ever
before. Government departments make a number of
enquiries, and material is provided for historical writers,
radio talks, newspaper articles and lectures.
In spite of the work done there is much still to be
achieved and historians in particular should insist that
the department be expanded.-M.K.

(A) International Law
1250. The Administration of New Guinea and
International Obligations. J. Frankel.
Annual Law Review (University of Western
Australia), pp. 51-59, December 1948.
A study of the present position of the Territory of
Papua and the Trust Territory of New Guinea.
1251. The Tokio War Crimes Trial. Hon. Mr.
Justice Mansfield. University of Queensland
Law Journal, pp. 7-12, December 1948.
A short discussion of the principles on which the trial
of the war crimes at Tokio was based.

(B) Constitutional Law
1252. Declaratory Judgments and Injunctions as
Public Law Remedies. W. G. Friedmann.
Australian Law Journal, pp. 446-453,
February 1949.
Present-day administrative law suffers from a funda-
mental weakness : a system of public law which is grow-
ing to ever-increasing significance still has mainly to use
the categories and remedies of a private law system. In
the absence of administrative tribunals and a general
system of actions for breaches of public law the protec-
tion of public law depends on the more or less hap-
hazard extension of remedies designed for different

(C) General
1253. Industrial Regulation in Australia. Hon.
Mr. Justice Barry. University of Queens-

land Law Journal, pp. 13-16, December
A discussion of some of the issues raised by O. de R.
Foenander's work on Industrial Regulation in Aus-
1254. Legal Aspects of the Departure of General
Bennett from Singapore. Dr. T. P. Fry.
University of Queensland Law Journal, pp.
34-57, December 1948.
A sympathetic discussion of the issues raised by
General Bennett's escape. It is submitted that Aus-
tralian military law placed no obligation on General
Bennett to remain on Singapore Island. Whatever may
be thought of the validity of the Royal Commissioner's
findings and views in General Bennett's case, the dram-
atic nature of the General's escape and public interest
excited by the inquiry have made it essential for the
future guidance of Australian soldiers to remove their
present doubts. It is suggested that this can only now
be done by the issue of clear, unequivocal instructions as
to the precise time at which, in each possible set of gov-
erning circumstances, they are as soldiers obliged by the
law of their country to attempt to escape.

1255. Some Observations of Legal Education in
Australia, England and Germany. W. G.
Friedmann. Annual Law Review, pp. 93-
96, December 1948.
An account of the benefits of combining both theoreti-
cal and practical education. Full legal training in Ger-
many takes seven to eight years and is pursued partly at
the University and partly in service in the law courts.

1256. A Logic of Social Science Thought. E. G.
Jacoby. Transactions of the Royal Society
of New Zealand, Vol. 77, pp. 187-207,
February 1949.
The meaning and implications of the statement that
the true method in social science research is the experi-
mental method are examined. The pragmatist theory
of enquiry by John Dewey is taken as the text for the
study. The paper tries to show why in sociology the
distribution of functions between the research worker
and the practical worker differs fundamentally from the
concept of division of labour between pure and applied
natural sciences. This difference, and the fact that the
logic of experimental method suffers in application to the
material of the social sciences, are mutually conditioned.
To pattern the methodology of the social sciences after
the model of the natural sciences cannot succeed.-
1257. The Interpretation of Test Results in the
Clinical Situation. A. G. Hammer. Aus-
tralasian Journal of Philosophy, Part I, Vol.
XXVI, No. 2, pp. 114-129, September
1948; Part II, Vol. XXVI, No. 3, pp.
166-189, December 1948.
Identical scores on a psychological test for a number
of individuals do not necessarily have the same signifi-
cance. Such factors as function fluctuation and practice

may affect the result. Multiple testing is indicated but
this raised new problems. The necessity for a clinical
approach in assessing a set of test results, whether con-
current or discrepant, for a given individual, is stressed.
Selected case records are presented to show how such
considerations may apply. Case I indicates a specific
defect in imaging with related personality maladjust-
ment. Case 2 shows depressed "time" test scores
associated with mild obsession and depression. Case 3
concerns a specific reading defect possibly related to
contralateral cerebral dominance. Case 4 deals with a
schizoid personality. The loss of qualitative informa-
tion in the use of selective answers instead of creative
answers is indicated. Case 5 raises the problem of
estimating ability from discrepant test results and sug-
gests factors to be considered in making a judgment.
Case 6 is unusual in showing group test results consis-
tently above individual test scores. Case 7 has a per-
sonality trait of 'carelessness' which results in poorer
results on selective than on creative answer test types.
Case 8 is of a 'freak' aptitude in 'spatial' tests, in a trained
draughtsman and argues whether this is to be considered
as the result of aptitude or training. Case 9 is a case of
early intellectual deterioration. Case io is of a subject
who is 'just not interested' on normal grounds. Case 11
has restricted educational opportunity. The articles
conclude with a classified review of the features of the
test, the subject, and the test performance which should
be observed in the clinical situation.

1258. A Study of Employee Attitudes. Maxine
Bucklow. Bulletin of Industrial Psychology
and Personnel Practice, Vol. IV, No. 4, pp.
3-15, December 1948.
A survey of employee problems was made in 61 firms
covering 45,000 employees. In these firms 65 persons
(47 men and 18 women) were handling employee prob-
lems. Of the employees, I-8 per cent presented prob-
lems in the six-weeks' period of the investigation. About
two-thirds of the problem group voluntarily sought
interviews. Female adults and male juniors had rela-
tively high proportions of problems. Approximately
half of the problems were concerned with factors within
the work situation and a half outside. Juniors had rela-
tively more problems within the work situation. Similar
kinds of problems were most frequent for the male and
the female groups, for the married and the single per-
sons, and for the ex-Service personnel. These were
concerned with health, physical and mental demands of
the job, job security, promotion and dismissal, pay,
financial domestic problems, housing and problems
arising from relations to supervisors. The average time
spent on each problem was 30 minutes. Of all action
taken, 87 per cent involved participation by the officer
to whom the problem was presented, in half the cases
simply in giving advice or information. No case was
'employee counselling' used as a special technique.

1259. The Work Attitudes of Saleswomen. M. N.
Oxlade. Bulletin of Industrial Psychology
and Personnel Practice, Vol. IV, No. 4,
pp. 35-40, December 1948.
Wyatt and Langdon's Paired Comparison Test on
work factors appealing to operatives was applied to 150
saleswomen selling corsets in N.S.W. Results were
analysed by marital status, rural or urban, intelligence
and age. Results were much the same for all sub-
groups. Most preferred factors were opportunity for
promotion, security of employment, and pleasant com-

panions. High wages, comfortable working conditions
and short hours were least preferred. These results are
compared with other studies made in Australia and over-

1260. Recent Research on Fatigue. K. F. Walker.
Bulletin of Industrial Psychology and Per-
sonnel Practice, Vol. V, No. i, pp. 21-28,
March 1949.
The term 'fatigue' has been applied to (a) reduced per-
formance in quantity or quality, (b) impairment of
physiological functioning, (c) feelings of weariness.
Research, however, shows that no simple relation holds
between these phenomena. Recent research has been
directed towards the study of the reduction of efficiency
(relation of in-put to out-put) rather than towards the
reduction of out-put as such. Efficiency can be main-
tained over long periods with (a) good physical condi-
tions, (b) tasks designed so as to reduce conflict of move-
ment, (c) worker-accepted standards of performance,
(d) the worker continuously aware of the extent to which
these standards are being met.
Evidence for point (d) above is adduced from a study
in prolonged reading by Carmichael and Dearborn and
from the studies on various human skills of the Cam-
bridge Psychological Laboratory.
It is suggested that a general theory of fatigue might
be based on the principle of physical and psychological

1261. A Group Study of Women Workers. A. C.
Clarke and P. H. Cook. Bulletin of Indus-
trial Psychology and Personnel Practice,
Vol. V, No. I, pp. 29-38, March 1949.
A study was made of 1,870 women war workers in a
N.S.W. explosives factory in 1942-5. The group mean
age was 18 months younger than that of N.S.W. women
employees generally, and allowing for age, more were
married. The mean intelligence test score was lower
than for the 'Australian general adult'. Intelligence was
correlated with school leaving age and fell with increasing
age. Broken marriages for urban workers was higher
than for rural workers. Mean absenteeism was 17 per
cent. Young women showed more absenteeism than
older. Absenteeism was correlated with distance trav-
elled to work. Mean length of employment was 14
months, single women tending to remain longer.
Labour turnover was only 2-3 per cent owing to war-
time controls.

1262. Mair, L. P. Australia in New Guinea.
Christophers, London, 1948, pp. 232.
Dr. Lucy Mair is a Reader in the theory of British
Colonial administration at the University of London.
In this role of teacher she was invited to deliver a series
of lecture courses on Colonial administration in Can-
berra for their newly organised Army School of Civil
The book opens with a useful account of Australian
Pacific Territories and its people and of the two adminis-
trations of Papua and the Mandated Territories. It is
possible that the author felt some misgivings as to the
future of the policies discussed, for she refers to the fre-
quence of the use of the word 'trusteeship' in this
connection and adds significantly, and perhaps with a

little irony, 'that word has been uttered frequently, and
with some flamboyance, by Australian politicians in the
last year or two'.
There is a concise historical account of the evolution
of the present control of native affairs both in Papua and
New Guinea and an account of the Commonwealth
Service concerning patrol and district officers-with a
comparison-not altogether favourable to Australia or
her attitude towards those in whose hands she has placed
the care of her 'trusteeship'-with conditions in the
British Colonial Service. There are chapters on Native
Administration, including native regulations and the use
of native agents for the policing of regulations and the
account treats with Native Courts, Taxation and especi-
ally with native reaction to the White Rule. Chapters
are devoted to Economic Development in Papua and to
Land Policy with a careful survey of conditions of work
and of labour in New Guinea of which a section deals
with the history of the labour market.
But it is a theoretic approach and should be read in
conjunction with other monographs on the area. Lord
Hailey, in the introduction, sounds a warning on factors
which should be considered and expresses some regret
at the short-sightedness of earlier Australian policy
towards these territories.-D.T.

1263. Gitlow, Abraham L. Economics of the Mount
Hagen Tribes, New Guinea. Monographs of
the American Ethnological Society, No. 12,
edited by Marian W. Smith, J. J. Augustin,
New York, 1947, pp. XII, 112. Price
An attempt by an American soldier trained as an
economist who found himself for a brief period in the
Mount Hagen Territory of Papua, to study the economic
life and organisation of a primitive people and 'to culti-
vate the hiatus between anthropology and economics'.
The book opens with an historical account of the dis-
covery by Michael Leahy, of the Wangi Valley area of
New Guinea, with its terraced gardens and dense native
population, and the subsequent exploration and opening
up of this region in the mountain valleys of the interior
of New Guinea by Leahy, accompanied by District
Officer Taylor. In a chapter on the 'Land and People'
the author describes the essential background for the
economic study which is the chief purpose of the volume.
This section includes a survey of the territory, its people
and their environment, based on information obtained
from the veteran missionary Father Ross, and the litera-
ture available, including the accounts of the Leahy who
pioneered the exploration of the area, supplemented by
the author's own observations. It is followed by chap-
ters on Social Organisation, Religion and finally on
Agriculture, Trade and Property, with an account of the
place of feasting as an economic and social activity.
The last chapter summarises the conclusions to be drawn
by a white observer who happens to be an economist,
from a brief survey of an unusual native people who in
extreme isolation had developed a specialised gardening
culture.-D. T.

1264. South Australia, Aborigines Protection Board.
Annual Report, year ended 30 June 1948.
Government Printer, Adelaide, pp. iI.
This report records the routine activities of the offici-
ally constituted body entrusted with the protection of the
S.A. Aborigines for the year under review. In addition
a report on the work of each of the mission stations under
its control is included.


Reference is made to some of the difficulties experi-
enced in the accommodation of natives to society and the
difficulties affecting their full participation in normal
life and activities of the white community, into which
it is hoped that they may eventually be assimilated.
'In view of the general tendency to regard the aborigines
as a separate race of people, and also the reluctance dis-
played by members of the general community to receive
exempted persons on a basis of social equality, the con-
tinued association of exempted persons with aborigines
is not surprising. . The result is that the develop-
ment and progress of the exemptee towards citizenship
is definitely hindered, if not entirely precluded ....
Unfortunately a number of persons who at the time of
exemption were regarded as of exemplary character and
conduct, have deteriorated seriously when granted com-
plete freedom from control and supervision chiefly
because of excessive drinking.' The report shows
clearly that a complete change of heart on the part of the
white man is the only hope for the aborigine who has
already been deprived of his culture and his way of life.
It is not entirely his fault that he fails to prise his unwel-
come way into the social and economic life of the com-

1265. Land Settlement in New Guinea. Robert G.
Bowman. New Zealand Geographer, pp.
29-54, April 1948.
There is a great variety of opinion among different
writers about the productivity of New Guinea and
whether it is habitable for white people. The author
discusses the failures of earlier efforts to colonise New
Guinea with white settlers and their reasons including
inadequate knowledge of the country. In Dutch New
Guinea there is hardly any land suitable for small farms
to be operated by whites. In Australian New Guinea
there are four areas of relative desirability of which the
Markham and Upper Ramu valleys appear to be the best
suited for white settlement. There is good soil and
drainage and with modern machinery and technique
land at present not available to the few natives for
primitive cultivation with hand tools, could be brought
under intensive cultivation. About I,ooo square miles
seem to be cultivable in that way which means about
6,400 farms or 30,000 farm inhabitants, with many more
in addition in other occupations. The climate is warm,
rather humid and equable, not very different from that
of Manila, Cairns or the Lower Mississippi valley in
summer. The nearby highlands should be used by the
white settlers for rest and recreation. Tropical dis-
eases (malaria, etc.) would have to be combated. Roads
and airstrips could be provided.
Further sections deal with limitations and handicaps,
the need for sufficient information, the necessary pre-
liminaries to colonisation, particularly a detailed survey
of the area's resources, finally with the concern of Aus-
tralia and N.Z. with New Guinea.

1266. The Place of Food in the Social Life of the
Tanga. F. L. S. Bell. Oceania, Vol. XVII,
pp. 139-172, December 1946; 310-326,
June 1947; Vol. XVIII, pp. 36-59, Sep-
tember 1947, pp. 233-247, March 1948;
Vol. XIX, pp. 51-74, September 1948.
The Tanga are Melanesians inhabiting a small group
of islands off the east coast of Tombara (New-Ireland).
In 1933 the author carried out fieldwork there. The
above five articles are part of his results, representing a
monograph on the islanders' nutrition from the eco-

nomic, technological, magico-religious, social and
culinary angles. The eating of food in common and its
presentation to others is a fundamental feature of Tangan
social life, and there are hardly any social activities, not
associated with the consumption or presentation of food.
These conditions in Tanga may be compared with those
in the Trobriands and in the Pacific sphere generally.
The first article deals with garden culture, and details are
given about season, site, the plan of the garden, the plant-
ing of the seed, tilling, weeding and harvesting. A com-
prehensive chart of garden work includes a column on
magic and magic formulae. Gardening is most import-
ant in Tanga life. Its periodicity is the foundation of
the calendar, corresponding to a 'year' is 'a single period
of garden activity'.
The second chapter deals with fishing. Among fish-
ing methods poisoning of the water is practised by
crushed seeds or leaves which have a stupefacient effect
on the fish. A second section is concerned with 'the
shark and its magic'. In the past sharks 'were the chief
means of disposing of the dead. The dead bodies of
men of little social importance were given a water
burial' which meant 'the quick snatching away of the
corpse by a shark'. 'Now this is done only with corpses
of infants up to three.' In Tanga, the shark is believed
to be the vehicle of a most powerful type of sorcerer.
There is an organised fishing group which is a most
successful economic unit materially affecting the total
food supply. Yet compared with gardens and pig pens,
fishing is less important.
The third chapter discusses pig-raising. Women tend
and care for the pigs. There is a special magic of pig
raising. Pigs are individually owned, but with his pigs,
a man inherits certain obligations bound up with his
social status. He becomes involved 'in a series of
exchanges, the ebb and flow of which are determined by
the leaders of his clan'. 'Transactions involving the
disposals of pigs are almost exclusively associated with a
system of ritual exchange.' There is 'a system of price
control by recourse to a magical sanction'.
The fourth chapter is an account of 'hunting and col-
lecting'. Dogs and traps are used as aids in the hunt,
but only wild pig hunting is making a material contri-
bution to the total food supply. More important is the
collecting of fruit and vegetables.
The last chapter deals with the 'diet', including food
taboos, a tobacco and betel taboo; the 'meal' with
recipes, and with the 'feast'. 'The feast is a social
mechanism which pervades the whole of the ritual life
of the native.'-L.A.

1267. Grey's Northern Kimberley Cave-Paintings
Re-Found. A. P. Elkin. Oceania, Vol. XIX,
pp. 1-15, September 1948.
In 1838 Sir George Grey discovered two caves con-
taining aboriginal paintings which he described and
illustrated in his Journals of Two Expeditions of Dis-
covery in 1841. Similar rock paintings were seen and
photographed in the twentieth century, but the two
caves discovered by Grey were not found again in spite
of repeated efforts. This was important because cer-
tain features described, or illustrated, by Grey caused
extraordinary theories about the origin and significance
of those paintings. Large round forms painted round
the heads of the figures were interpreted by some as
haloes, and this led to the suggestion that the figures
might be Buddhist. Certain marks, or designs, visible
on the headgear, as Grey observed, were possibly
intended to represent written characters or just orna-
ments. In the meantime, the true significance of most
of the rock paintings had been cleared up by the author

(1928), yet it was still desirable that Grey's caves should
be identified because Grey's illustrations showed much
better workmanship than any rock paintings seen else-
where. Mr. H. Coate found both caves in 1947, and
took full descriptions and pictures. In the paper, Prof.
Elkin gives a survey of the results. Grey's descriptions
and sketches were checked through exact observation,
and it was found that Grey's free-hand sketches gives an
impression of skill, of curves, and symmetry of lines
which are not present in the real pictures (p. 3) ; also
Grey's measurements are not always correct. Other
differences may be due to weathering, fading, or re-
touching by natives. Particularly interesting is the
result of the research into the "deep, bright blue colour"
reported by Grey. There is a blue colour pigment, but
it is now a pale blue. Mr. Coate looked out for the
source of this blue and brought home some blue stones.
A sample in powdered form was analysed and found to
be glauconite (green) ; mixed with water and applied to
a stone surface, the colour dries a pale blue to bluish-

1268. Badu, Islands of the Spirits. Ronald M.
Berndt, Oceania, Vol. XIX, pp. 93-103,
December 1948.
Badu (derived from Badu Island, adjacent to Banks
Island) is a collective name applied by the aborigines of
N.E. Arhem Land to the Torres Straits Islands and the
southern coast of New Guinea. These aborigines
believe that the Torres Straits are the ultimate home of
the 'jiritsa moiety' dead, occurring in 'the great jiritsa
moiety trilogy' which contains the story of foreign con-
tacts and ideas, viz. those incorporated in the unwritten
literature of the aborigines through their acquaintance
with the people of the Badu area, but also the Malays and
their precursors, the 'pre-Macassan or Baijni'. 'The
aborigines of N.E. Arnhem Land have, for several cen-
turies, been in almost constant contact with Indonesian
voyagers to the mainland of Australia.' A picture of
both pre-Macassan and Macassan life on the north
coast of Australia is presented in the song-cycles of the
natives around Yirrkalla. Field-work there was carried
out by R. M. and Catherine H. Berndt in 1946-47.
Through those old culture contacts, the aborigines came
to know something of the islands and people to the north
of their own country and that they even travelled with
the Indonesian traders and observed the different
peoples living in the East Indies. Records of what they
had seen were incorporated in the Badu Song Cycle,
comprising some hundreds of songs. More information
was obtained from Torres Straits islanders employed as
crews on European and Japanese boats engaged in
trepang fishery later.
The present article contains, among other features,
the first song of the Badu Cycle, mainly a story of 'the
spirits paddling along'. A plate shows two different
wooden and painted statuettes of the Badu spirit,
'Duriduri', carved by two different native artists. The
author thinks that these sculptures are probably of
Indonesian origin.-L.A.

1269. Social and Political Changes in the Cook
Islands. Ernest Beaglehole. Pacific Affairs.
(New York), pp. 384-398, Vol. XXI, No. 4,
December 1948.
A survey of the social changes among the Polynesian
people of the Cook Islands with an analysis of the under-
lying causes, made by a trained observer. Culture con-
tact and change has reached a climax throughout the
Pacific during and since the recent war, and an appre-
ciation of the factors at work, the trends and underlying
tendencies is vital as a guide to the administrator and
The account presents a well-balanced picture of the
Cook Group and the history of the social and political
changes which have taken place in this area, with a
present day population of about 14,ooo natives, over the
last ioo years. Domination by the missions, the break-
ing down of native culture and traditions, the militant,
narrow and uncomprising nature of the teachings, pre-
sents a grim and tragic picture. The initial rule of the
missions broke down 'because it carried within itself too
many infringements, tabus and limitations. . Look-
ing back over the mission period, the period roughly
from 1825 to 19oo the dominant impression is one of
arrested social change'. In many cases the inevitable
result was a serious decline in population. Changes
brought about by two wars are traced-including those
which resulted from the presence for a long period of
U.S. troops. To-day, dissatisfaction with his lot is
manifest in the attitude of the Cook Islander. 'The
Cook Islander, in pressing for political and social
development, is bringing himself ever closer within the
orbit of a modem state and thus incurring the political
responsibilities of a modern world citizen.'-D.T.
1270. The South Pacific Commission. W. D.
Forsyth. Far Eastern Survey (New York),
pp. 56-58, 9 March 1949.
The Commission represents six governments which
have territories in the south-west and south Pacific
islands: Australia, N.Z., U.K., U.S., France and the
Netherlands. These governments sent delegates to a
conference in Canberra in January 1947 and later ratified
an agreement to establish the Commission. The first
meeting of the Commission (May 1948) outlined a work-
ing programme. The Commission has four main
bodies: The Commission itself, meeting twice a year,
with the task to advise the governments as to methods
of co-operation; the Research Council; the South
Pacific Conference-first meeting 195o-with repre-
sentatives of the administrations, the island peoples,
missionary and scientific organizations ; the Secretariat.
The present work programme provides for subjects in
three classes : (a) those calling for early action with a
possibility of early results, e.g. research into health
problems ; (b) those calling for early action which are
not expected to reach early fruition, e.g. improvement
of tropical pasture lands ; (c) subjects in a lower cate-
gory of urgency, e.g. problems of nutrition and labour


List of Unpublished Theses in the Social Sciences
written by graduates of Australian Universities

It has been decided to publish from time to time a list of unpublished theses
which have been submitted to Australian Universities by candidates for various
degrees, as far as they are concerned with any of the social sciences which are sub-
jects of papers summarised in these Abstracts. Similar lists are regularly pub-
lished overseas, and this is the first list of Australian theses, written in 1947, 1948
and -1949.

(i) University of Melbourne
(a) Department of Economics, 1948 and 1949.
(1) for Master's degrees.
G. R. Bruns. Some Neglected Aspects of
Melbourne Demography.
M. C. Kemp. The Assumptions of the Mod-
ern Theory of Employment.
P. C. Purcell. The Economics of Patents for
G. T. Webb. Depreciation and the Main-
tenance of Capital.
(2) for Bachelor's degrees.
D. A. Craven. The Motion Picture Indus-
G. D. Grant. The Australian Stevedoring
F. Kathie Hindson. The Commodity, Com-
position and Direction of Australian Export
Trade 185P-1948.
H. M. Knight. Wheat in the Australian Bal-
ance of Payments.
Anne Mitchell. The Wholesale Fruit and
Vegetable Markets in Melbourne.
F. R. Morgan. The Theory Relating to
L. D. Thomson. The Critic as Economist-
A Discussion on Three Works of John
M. P. de Verteuil. Some Aspects of the
Petroleum Industry-With Special Refer-
ence to Australia.
F. G. Weller. The Regulation of Road
Transport in Victoria.

(b) Department of History, 1947 and 1948 (for M.A.
F. K. Crowley. Constitutional Conflicts between
the Two Houses of the Victorian Legislature,
Margaret Kiddle. Caroline Chisholm.
C. S. Martin. Irrigation and Closer Settlement in
the Shepparton District, 1836-19oo (unfinished
because of writer's death).
K. K. Merz. Karl Marx's Doctoral Dissertation on
the Philosophy of Nature in Democritus and
Epicurus (History and Philosophy).
G. J. Odgers. The History of the First Tactical
Air Force, R.A.A.F.
D. R. G. Packer. Italian Immigration into Aus-
Joy Parnaby. Sir Charles Gavan Duffy in Vic-

W. Stargardt. Commonwealth Enterprise (History
and Political Science).
G. Yule. The Development of Puritanism.
(c) Department of Philosophy, 1948 (for M.A. degree).
M. J. Charlesworth. Theory of Democracy in the
Thomistic Tradition of Political Philosophy.

(2) University of Sydney
(a) Department of Economics, 1947 (for Master's degree).
C. C. Renwick. An Essay on Supply, being an
Account of some Post-Marshallian Developments
in English Value Theory, with Special Reference
to the Cost Controversy, 1922-30.
R. M. Hartwell. The Van Diemen's Land Eco-
nomy, 1820-1850.
T. H. Kewley. Social Services: New South Wales
and the Commonwealth of Australia.
S. T. A. McMartin. Government Policy in the
Trade Cycle, 1928-33.
(b) Department of Education, 1947 and 1948 (for
Master's degree).
N. Langford-Smith. Education for Life in African
Rural Communities.
O. R. Jones. An Educational Survey of the Lis-
more District.
(c) Department of Anthropology, 1947 and 1948 (for M.A.
Miss W. V. Hole. Contiguity as a Force of Social
Marie 0. Reay. Kinship amongst Mixed-Blood
Aborigines of N.S.W.
Florence Harding. A Sociological Study of Sydney
Cultural Life.
Pamela Nixon. Integration of a Half-Caste Com-
munity (La Perouse, N.S.W.).
Fieldwork Reports.
Jean C. Craig. Report of a Study of Rural Emi-
grants in Casino and Sydney. M.A., 1947.
A. M. and C. Berndt. Kinship and Sexual
Behaviour in Arnhem Land. 1948.
A. M. and C. Berndt. Native Labour in the
Northern Territory, 1947.

(3) University of Queensland
Department of Economics.
E. W. Easton. Studies in Retail Distribution.

(4) University of Western Australia
(a) Department of Economics, 1947 and 1948.
Arnold Cook. A Survey of Trade Union Organisa-
tion in W.A. (B.A. Hons.).

G. L. Cramer. Economic Aspects of the W.A. Gold
Mining Industry. (B.A. Hons.)
D. K. Giles. The Methods Used in the Study of
Farm Management. (B.Sc.Ag. Hons.)
V. E. Pickering. Some Aspects of Price Control.
(B.A. Hons.)
Sheila Rowley and E. A. Cornish. Report Survey
of the Cost of Production of Wheat in W.A.
L. W. Frearson. A Study of Costs of Production of
Butterfat in the Margaret River-Nannup District,
W.A., during 1944-46. (B.A. Hons.)
C. Gamba. The Italian Fishermen in Fremantle,
W.A. (B.A. Hons.)
J. R. H. Johns. Metropolitan Government in W.A.
A. McB. Kerr. Working Conditions in Foundries
in W.A. (B.A. Hons.)
Sheila Rowley. Survey of the Cost of Production
of Wheat in W.A. in the Seasons 1944 and 1945.
A. H. Simpson. Aspects of Price Control of Some
Primary Products. (M.A.)

Miss C. Vanzetti. The Problems of Administration
of Public and Private Agencies concerned with
Social Welfare in W.A. (B.A. Hons.)
J. S. G. Wilson. The Wartime History of the Com-
monwealth Bank with Special Reference to the
Development of its Central Banking Functions.
(b) Department of Psychology.
Maureen Brown. A Study of Rubella Children.
Enid D. Cook. An Investigation into some Factors
influencing the Success of Vocational Guidance
of Ex-Servicemen.

(5) University of Tasmania
Department of Economics, 1947.
C. P. Haddon-Cave. The Economics of Shipping
Costs, with Particular Reference to Tasmanian
Exporting Industries. (M.A.)
A. R. Parsons. The Marketing of Tasmanian Apples
and Pears and Potatoes. (B.Com.)

THIS publication of abstracts in the social sciences is intended to provide a survey
Sof important material, published in, or related to Australia, New Zealand and their
territories, dealing with the various social sciences. The field of the survey dealt with
in these Abstracts is indicated by the classification of the subjects on the inside cover.
The aim is to help the specialist in any particular field to decide what works he
should read, and what he may omit; and to indicate to other workers in allied fields
what is being done. For these purposes it- has been decided that the abstracts shall be
genuine precis of the works covered.
At present it is intended to publish the Abstracts half yearly ; but if, in the future,
a larger volume of original work is produced, it is intended to publish the Abstracts
more frequently so that all deserving work may be covered as soon after publication
as possible.
Copies of this and subsequent issues of the Abstracts will be sent on application
(enclosing subscription of 5s. in Australian currency, 4s. sterling, per annum) to the
Editor, Department of Commerce, University of Melbourne, Carlton, N.3.



The Committee on Research in the Social Sciences is a special
committee of the A.N.R.C. charged with the duty of reporting upon
the main investigations which appear to be required in the social
field, of considering the best machinery for conducting these enquiries,
and of arranging for finance.
The Committee is also making a detailed examination of the
position in Australia with regard to training in the social sciences at
the various universities, with special attention to the provision of
research workers. The scope of the committee's work includes the
sociological aspects of such studies as anthropology, economics,
education, history, human geography, jurisprudence, medicine,
philosophy, political science, psychology, public administration and
An outline of the history and functions of the committee by the
chairman, Dr. K. S. Cunningham, was recent tly published; and
may be obtained free of charge on application to the Australian
Council for Educational Research, T. & G. Building, Russell St.,
Melbourne, C.I.

Members of the Committee:
ALEXANDER, Prof. F., University of Western Australia.
BAILEY, Prof. K. H., Solicitor-General, Canberra.
BLAND, Prof. F. A., University of Sydney.
BURTON, Prof. H., Canberra University College.
BUTLIN, Prof. S. J., University of Sydney.
CONLON, Mr. A. A., Sydney.
CRAWFORD, Mr. J. G., Department of Post-War Reconstruction, Canberra.
CRAWFORD, Prof. R. M., University of Melbourne.
CUNNINGHAM, Dr. K. S., Director, Australian Council for Educational
Research, Melbourne (Chairman).
CURTIN, Dr. P. W. E., Public Service Board, Canberra.
ELKIN, Prof. A. P., University of Sydney.
FIRTH, Prof. G., University of Tasmania.
FRIEDMANN, Prof. W. G., University of Melbourne.
GIBLIN, Prof. L. F., Hobart.
GIBSON, Prof. A. Boyce, University of Melbourne.
GIFFORD, Prof. J. K., University of Queensland.
HASLUCK, Mr. P., University of Western Australia.
HIGGINS, Prof. B. H., University of Melbourne.
LA NAUZE, Mr. J. A., University of Sydney.
McRAE, Prof. C. R.,'University of Sydney.
MAULDON, Prof. F. R. E., University of Western Australia.
MAZE, Mr. W. H., University of Sydney.
OESER, Prof. O. A., University of Melbourne (Secretary).
O'NEIL, Prof. W. MV., University of Sydney.
PARTRIDGE, Prof. P. H., University of Sydney.
PASSMORE, Mr. John, University of Sydney.
PREST, Prof. W., University of Melbourne.
SHATTWELL, Prof. K. O., University of Sydney.
STONE, Prof. Julius, University of Sydney.
STOUT, Prof. A. K., University of Sydney.
WADHAM, Prof. S. M., University of Melbourne.
WHITE, Mr. H. L., Commonwealth National Library, Canberra.
WOOD, Prof. G. L., University of Melbourne.
WRIGHT, Prof. R. D., University of Melbourne.

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