AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
Committee on Research in the Social Sciences
Reghiered in Australia for uarimuifcA by post as a penodical
AUSTRALIAN SOCIAL SCIENCE ABSTRACTS
Dr. K. S. Cunningham (Chairman)
Professor R. M. Crawford, Professor O. A. Oeser, Professor G. L. Wood,
Mr. H. L. White
Mr. S. J. Lengyel, Faculty of Economics and Commerce, University, Carlton,
N.3, Melbourne (on leave), Dr. F. Schnierer (Acting).
AccouNTANC-MIr. L. Goldberg and Miss J. Kerr
AGRICULTURE AND RURAL PROBLEMS-Professor S. M. Wadham and
Messrs. A. J. Mclntyre and 1. Molnar
EcoNoMics-Professor G. L. Wood, Dr. O. de R. Foenander and
Dr. F. Schnierer, Messrs. R. I. Downing and D. M. Hocking,
SMisses M. Dedman and NI. Ronaldson
EDUCATION-Dr. K. S. Cunningham
GEOGRAPHY-Professor G. L. Wood, Miss M. Bayne, Messrs. E. J.
Donath and R. K. W'ilon, and Dr. F. Loewe
HisTroR-Professor R. NI. Crawford, Messrs. C. M. H. Clark, F. K.
Crowley, R. F. Ericksen, N. D. Harper, O. WV. Parnaby and
A. G. L. Shaw, Mrs. O. Parnaby, and Misses B. Galley, P.
Ingham, M. Kiddle, A. Stretton and A. Thomson
LAw-Professor G. W. Paton
PHILOSOPHY-MNessrs. D. Taylor and G. Buchdahl
PoLITI.L. ScreNcE--Mr. A. P. Davits and Miss J. Willis
PSYCHOLOcy-Dr. D. \V. McElwan
TERRITORIES AND NATrVE PROBLEUts-Dr. L. Adam
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Economics and Economic Policy
Industry, Trade and Commerce-
(a) General Works
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Transportation and Communication
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ilth .. .. .. .. 998
.. .... 1056
Australian Public Affairs Information Service, or A.P.A.IS., indexes books,
magazine articles and government documents on Australian political, economic
and social affairs. It is published monthly by the Commonwealth National
Library, and will be sent free upon request to the Librarian.
AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
Committee on Research in the Social Sciences
AUSTRALIAN SOCIAL SCIENCE ABSTRACTS
A publication of the Committee on Research in the Social Sciences, Australian
National Research Council, subsidized by the Commonwealth Government.
All communications should be addressed to the Editor, Faculty of Economics
and Commerce, University of Melbourne, Carlton, N.3, Victoria, Australia.
No. 7 March 1949 5s. per annum
Where the size of a Government publication or Parliamentary Paper (P.P.) is not given, it is 81 ins. x 131 ins.
(A) Economics and Economic Policy
886. Walker, E. R. The Australian Economy in
War and Reconstruction. Oxford Uni-
versity Press, New York, 1947, pp. 9, 426.
A comprehensive account and interpretation of the
Australian war economy up to mid-1945, largely based
on the author's experience as Deputy Director of the
Department of War Organisation of Industry. Part I
deals with war economy as a whole, starting with pre-
war Australia. Subsequent chapters discuss economic
implications of total war-mainly various types of
control and planning; the 'story of Australia's war
economy' in three phases : until Japan's entry into the
war, defence against invasion, December 1941 to mid-
1943, and offensive ; the federal system in war and
reconstruction; problems of administration (war
Subjects of Part II are particular war-time changes,
such as industrial development (collaboration of
government and private enterprise, organisation of
government production departments, capital, materials,
labour supply, contracts and costing); reorganisation
of industry; agriculture and food policy; financial
policy and banking control; civilian supply (consumer
rationing and the Civilian Requirements Board) ;
labour and manpower policy including industrial dis-
putes and the coal industry ; international trade.
Part III, 'Towards Reconstruction', is concerned with
Australia's post-war problems (post-war employment,
re-establishment of service personnel, business transi-
tion questions, etc.); post-war planning (Ministry of
Post-War Reconstruction, demobilisation, etc.); full
employment at home and abroad-how Australia
repeatedly pressed for the recognition of the employ-
ment issue at international conferences, agreements with
N.Z. and Canada. The last chapter, 'Australia's
Economic Future', deals mainly with three problems :
the future economic system in Australia (decontrol
movement, mixed economy), economic self-sufficiency
(protectionism and rural difficulties) and the welfare
content of economic policy.
887. Economics. Technical Publication No. 35.
Department of Labour and National
Service, Industrial Training Division,
Melbourne, June 1947, pp. 220.
A text for a refresher course for service- and ex-
service accountants and secretaries. After setting
forth the definition of economics and the concept of
scarcity the book examines war effort and war finance
from the angle of the allocation of short resources, and
the function of the price mechanism in a capitalistic-
unplanned-economy. Subsequent chapters deal with
capitalism and socialism, population, national income,
circular flow, etc. Ch. 13-22 are concerned with
demand and supply, price equilibrium, competition,
monopoly and oligopoly. Ch, 23-26 discuss distribution
of income, wages, interest, profits and rent, trade
unionism; ch. 27, international trade and foreign
exchange ; ch. 28-36, money and banking; ch. 36-38,
saving and investment, the business cycle and employ-
ment; ch. 39, public finance.
888. The Equilibrium of the Firm in Monopolistic
and Imperfect Competition Theories.
C. Renwick. Economic Record, pp. 32-41,
Chamberlin in his Theory of Monopolistic Competition
applies the method of group technique, by taking a
general class of product which is differentiated and trying
'to discover an equilibrium of firms and of the group.'
In the author's view the group collectivityy, such as
industry) cannot be combined with differentiation of
the product, i.e. with preference within the group.
Chamberlin's temporary equilibrium solution for the
firm which uses U-shaped cost-curves is most doubtful.
Like Marshall's representative firm, Chamberlin's
assumption that all firms have the same type of cost
conditions is not compatible with heterogeneity. In
the long run increasing returns are probable. U-cost
curves are particularly inapplicable in the case of
smaller-scale multi-commodity, multi-cost businesses.
Joan Robinson, when treating the equilibrium
problem, does not use the group technique, but takes
reactions, revenue and cost conditions as given, so
that equilibrium follows automatically from the
monopoly formula. This is equally unrealistic.
889. Post-War Survey of the Australian Economy.
J. S. G. Wilson. International Journal
(Toronto), pp. 249-256, Summer 1948.
In the present Australian economy there are shortages
of many consumption goods, particularly of durable
goods, such as houses, because of deficiencies in raw
materials and manpower. To keep prices down the
Government avoids increased issue of treasury bills
and retains heavy direct taxes. The coal position is
critical. British companies are interested in setting up
factories in Australia. The British Government en-
deavours to assist in expanding the output of primary
products suitable for export. The remaining sections
of the articles deal with the retention of war-time con-
trols, the banking legislation, the problems of wages
and working hours, and the budget policy.
89o. Wartime Changes in the New Zealand
Economy. C. G. F. Simkin. Economic
Record, pp. 18-31, June 1948.
Since 1938 the volume of N.Z. money has trebled.
The volume of production in 1946 had increased only
by Io per cent, which was fully absorbed by exports.
The volume of goods available for consumption had
dropped by Ii per cent. In 1942 the Government
adopted a comprehensive scheme to combat inflation,
so that personal incomes increased only by 75 per
cent, while the income velocity of money was halved.
Earlier avoidance of inflationary borrowing and the
lowering of the N.Z. exchange rate could have retarded
Part II of the paper deals with labour shortage as a
feature of repressed inflation, combined with many
industrial disputes. Part III discusses stagnation of
farming, reflected in export, particularly of dairy
products. In manufacturing industries (Part IV) the
volume of employment from 1939-44 rose by 15 per
cent, the volume of output by 25 per cent. Important
(Part V) is the shortage of power-coal and hydro-
electricity and of housing. Part VI gives a survey of
Part VII discusses the economic pattern. Primary aim
is a directly controlled economy rather than nationaliza-
tion. The author outlines industrial, price, financial,
external aid controls. Economic independence as the
principal objective also determines N.Z.'s international
co-operation (non-participation in the International
Monetary Fund). Labour policy is guided by empiri-
cism. Favoured control is of the usual civil service type
and 'lacking in clear economic and administrative
891. Some Aspects of International Relief.
N. Brodsky. Quarterly Journal of Econ-
omics (Cambridge, Mass.), pp. 596-609,
An investigation of UNRRA's procurement problems
in Australia. Her contribution of $76,800,000 was the
fourth largest received. UNRRA wanted from Australia
mainly food, while the Commonwealth Government
wanted to limit supplies to wool and war surpluses.
However, Australia did contribute $9,876,000 worth of
food : wheat and wheat flour, meat packs, dehydrated
mutton, canned meats and vegetables; $32,297,000
worth of wool, besides goods for rehabilitation, medical
goods and clothing. To cover administrative charges,
warehousing, etc., the government imposed 3 per cent
surcharges on all procurement except wool and wheat
flour, and a levy on wool and tallow for price stabilisa-
tion. Sea freight charges for all but U.S. vessels were
paid in stg. from the U.K. ocean shipping budget, in
order to maximize contributions in terms of goods.
Freight costs from N.Z., which could not supply
sufficient goods, were paid from the N.Z. contribution.
892. The U.S.A. in the Economic World. J. B.
Brigden. Australian Outlook, pp. 131-138,
International economic facts are better taken care
of now than when the League of Nations was founded.
The traditional isolationism of the U.S.A. has changed,
but American thinking and action have been slow to
adapt themselves. U.S. economic leadership has
always been evolved by a few experts on the basis of
19th century 'economic freedom', from which economic
practice largely diverged. International economics has
become complicated by dumping and currency manipu-
lation. To maintain U.S. prosperity big increases in
U.S. imports (including 'invisibles' like shipping,
insurance and U.S. foreign tourist travel) and U.S.
tariff reduction will be needed,just as Australian economic
adjustments have to be made.
893. The Economic Commission for Asia and the
Far East. E. E. Ward. Australian Outlook,
pp. 139-146, September 1948.
In March 1947 the U.N. Economic and Social
Council established the Commission. Members are
Asiatic member states of the U.N. and other countries
interested in the region : Australia, France, Netherlands,
N.Z., U.S.S.R., U.K. and U.S.A.; non self-governing
areas are Associate Members. Its purpose is to promote
the economic reconstruction and development of Asia.
Main features of the area are : it contains about half of
the world's population, has low living standards, exces-
sive dependence on agriculture, little industrial develop-
ment, dependence on the export of one or a few raw
materials, lack of technical and administrative training.
An account is given of the main activities up to now.
The relationship to the manufacturing capacity of Japan
(B) Industry, Trade and Commerce
(a) General Works
894. Australian Tariffs and Imperial Control.
J. A. La Nauze. Economic Record, pp. 1-17,
Since 18oo duties, wharfage charges, etc., were
introduced in N.S.W. without previous reference to the
U.K. Secretary of State. The legality of that taxation
system imposed on the Governor's sole authority was
doubtful. 1819 and 1822 acts were passed by the U.K.
Parliament legalising N.S.W. rates and duties levied
earlier, and authorising the Governor to impose by
proclamation certain duties. British preference was not
to the same extent required as in the Atlantic colonies'
tariffs. 1823, 1828 and 1842 gradually a Legislative
Council and partly representative government was set
up in N.S.W. The Governor's right to impose, alter
or repeal duties by proclamation, became subject to
the approval of the Council. In 1843 a circular despatch
to colonial Governors prohibited duties discriminating
between countries of origin.
This article is to be continued in a later issue.
895. Tariff Board. Annual Report for Year
ended 30 June 1948. Government Printer,
Canberra, pp. 55.
A summary of the Board's activities, of changes in legis-
lation and administration, and of the reports released
to the public in the year under review. Most important
is chapter IV, discussing production costs. As stated
in the report for 1946-47 Australian manufacturing
production costs are compared with those in U.K.,
U.S.A. and Canada. The general relation between
Australia and U.K. is 40 to 44 hours of labour; in
U.S. and Canada there is no wide-spread tendency to
reduce hours. Wages are now compared on the basis of
hourly rates. Australia has lower domestic prices of
metals, but higher costs of most chemicals. Australian
manufacturers are now protected by restrictions on
imports from hard currency countries, only competition
from U.K. is being felt. From October 1946 to
October 1947 Australia's competitive position compared
with U.K. somewhat deteriorated in labour costs,
but this was more than offset by the greater rise in raw
materials costs in U.K.
896. New Perspectives in Management. Walter
Scott. Address to Institute of Industrial
Management, Melbourne, on 2 March
1948, pp. 36. Institute of Industrial
Management. Price is. 6d.
This address is based on the impressions of the
lecturer as leader of the Australian delegation to the
8th International Management Congress at Stockholm
in July 1947 and on his subsequent visits to several
overseas countries. In the field of business organisation
he stresses the problem of 'bottom-up' management
and the theory of the optimum size of capital invest-
ment. Problems of increasing importance to Australia
concern materials handling, time study, motion study,
incentives and methods of engineering. In a section
on personnel and public relationships the dissemination
of knowledge among employees and the factor of more
adequate supervision is emphasised. In a section on
health the large proportion of sickness due to emotional
ills, i.e. to bad personnel relations, is pointed out.
897. An Outline of the Mechanics of Management.
Brigadier A. S. Wilson. Address given at
the Institute of Industrial Management,
Melbourne, on 6 July 1948. Institute of
Industrial Management, pp. 28. Price
General management is a continuous cycle in three
phases: planning, organising and supervising. The
latter two phases constitute control, all three phases
together co-ordination of primary functions, such as
supply, production, sales, finance, accounting and
personnel. Planning as an activity remote from execu-
tion is a wrong idea. Organising is done through
policies, methods, organisation and systems. Organising
structure is explained by pointing to the example of
the U.S. Government executive and of the staff, service
and line concepts of a British division. Particularly
important is the delegation of authority. Supervising
depends on the existence of standards of performance.
898. Some Economic Problems Facing Agriculture
in the United States. F. H. Gruen.
Review of Marketing and Agricultural
Economics, pp. 228-237, June 1948.
The proportion of the U.S. agricultural population
tends to decline while farm output increases greatly,
owing to the mechanisation of production, the rising use
of fertilizer and lime, and the improvement of the
variety of crops and livestock. When food production
in Europe and the Far East rises, the home market
will become more important. The diet of the lower
income classes will have to be raised. Consumption
will have to be stabilised, farm prices and incomes
might have to be protected by price support or by a
system of home prices different from export prices.
An urgent problem is the low productivity per worker
and the lack of mechanisation in the South and other
regions, also the increasing importance of larger-than-
one family farms.
899. Employee Training Practices in Great
Britain. London Correspondent. Manu-
facturing and Management, pp. 18-21,
During the war industrial training became more
important because of the introduction of new operations,
the increased employment of women and the pressure of
work requiring shorter training time. In the con-
troversy between the 'whole method', i.e., teaching of a
job in its entirety, and the 'part method', i.e., breaking
it into suitable parts, the latter broadly prevailed.
Many firms in the post-war period arrange for induction
courses for new employees, often with gramophone and
visual aids. The author sets forth methods with a
part-training approach in the hosiery industry and in
cotton textiles. For the latter an official training
centre has been established in Oldham (Lancashire).
900. Oil Firing in Factories. Editorial Staff
Contribution. Manufacturing and Manage-
ment, pp. 50-54, August 1948.
Consumption of fuel oil in Australian factories since
1936-37 has increased by 22 per cent, since 1943-44 by
8 per cent, while the quantity of coal consumed since
that year has decreased by 4 per cent. Among the
advantages of oil firing are its higher calorific value
compared with coal, simple control of transport and
storage, high boiler efficiency, the absence of ash and
dust, which means less labour for cleaning and less
wear and tear of machinery. A great disadvantage is
that oil firing is two and a half times as expensive as
coal. The article outlines the conversion from coal
to oil firing, the operation of an oil-burner, and refers
to some recent installations in Melbourne factories.
o90. Colour in Industry. Michael Cannon.
Manufacturing and Management, pp. 80-82,
Research has discovered a number of principles for
the use of colour in factories. The correct use of
particular colours has advantages, such as greater
accuracy, reduced fatigue, lower accident rates, etc.
Unsuitable colours may cause fatigue. The moving
parts are to be painted with a colour different from the
body of the machine. The author discusses the advan-
tages and drawbacks of light and dark colours. Various
overseas tests are mentioned about the effects of colours
regarding depression, energy, safety (including a safety
colour code), production, absenteeism, etc. In Aus-
tralia little has so far been done in this field.
902. Stores for the Army. Functions of Ordnance
Service. Capt. G. M. Plunkett. Manu-
facturing and Management, pp. 55-60,
After outlining the factors on which estimates and
schedules of equipment required are based, the author
refers to the specification and inspection of stores.
From the delivery until the despatch to units army
stores are in charge of the Australian Army Ordnance
Corps. The functions and organisation of that corps
are briefly pointed out. Next the planning of storage
space, the layout of stores depot, the receipt of stores
at depot, inspection and maintenance, special stores,
economical use of space, flow line packing and store-
house control are set out.
903. Australia's External Trade Policy in the
Inter-War Period. K. J. Wallace. Twentieth
Century, pp. 90-102, September 1948.
From 1918-19 to 1928-29 Australia had no definite
foreign trade policy, there was little difficulty in selling
her exports at profitable prices. U.K. was predominant
as importer, though at a declining rate in the second
half of that period. Australia's exports to the main
European countries-chiefly wool, wheat, beef, zinc
and lead-showed an upward trend.
The period 1929-30 to 1938-39 is marked by the
Great Depression and the Ottawa preferences. From
the latter the Australian meat and dairying industries
benefited most, to a lesser extent fruit, fruit products
and wine. The shares of U.K. and the Asiatic countries
in our exports greatly increased in this period; that of
the European countries and America fell.
904. Council for the Development of Industries,
W.A. Report to the 3oth August, 1948,
pp. o1 roneoedd).
This report gives details concerning a number of
new or extended industries in W.A., including potash
works, charcoal, iron and wood distillation. There are
plans to establish a steel industry. An industrial centre
is developed in Welshpool, where tractor and rubber
goods production is planned. The gasification of
Collie coal is investigated. New manufactures of wool
tops and cask staves have been started.
905. New Zealand Standards Council (Depart-
ments of Industry and Commerce). Annual
Report for the Year 1947.48. Government
Printer, Wellington, pp. 32. Price 9d.
In the year under review 82 regular, 2 Government
purchasing and 17 emergency standard specifications
(listed in the appendix) were adopted, increasing the
total to 726 (580, 2 and 144 of the three types). Special
chapters deal with technological standardisation (civil
engineering, cement and concrete, roadmaking ma-
terials and methods, etc.) ; building standards (building
code, building materials, paints and coatings, timber,
plumbing, etc.) ; commercial standardisation (packag-
ing, government purchasing, etc.); domestic com-
modity standardisation (furniture, footwear, textiles,
foodstuffs, etc.); primary industry standards (farm
implements, dairying). Finally international standardisa-
tion and the exchange of standard specifications with
foreign countries are referred to.
(b) Individual Industries
906. Fluctuations in the Sheep Population of
New South Wales, 1860-1940. A Pre-
liminary Study. R. S. G. Rutherford.
Economic Record, pp. 56-71, June 1948.
Planning to avoid cyclical fluctuations, has to be
adapted to Australian indigenous oscillations. The
author differentiates between short-term factors in
relation to a five-year moving average, long-term factors
in relation to the same average, which are short in
relation to a 15-year moving average, and very long-
term factors in the trend of the 15-year moving average.
Absolute numbers of sheep and deviations from a
15-year and a 5-year moving average are presented.
The serial correlations of the deviations are shown
in correlograms, which suggest an i8-year period. To
measure the relative advantage of maintaining sheep
for wool production rather than slaughtering them for
meat, the ratio of the export prices of wool to those of
mutton and lamb is shown and related to sheep num-
bers. The 18-year cycle does not seem to be auto-
regressive, while deviations from the short-term moving
average appear to indicate a 'natural' period of four
years. This cycle, which is initiated by shock due to
drought and disease, determines slaughter and export
and is auto-regressive.
907. Integration in the Australian Wool Textile
Industry. M. Dedman. Economic Record,
pp. 111-116, June 1948.
A consideration of the extent to which Australian
woollen mills are firstly laterally integrated, producing
both worsted and woollen goods, and secondly vertically
integrated, carrying out a number of consecutive
processes. The processes concerned are wool-scouring,
worsted combing, worsted spinning, woollen spinning
and weaving. This tendency towards lateral and
vertical integration is contrasted with the specialised
structure of the British industry and the explanation
sought in the conditions under which the Australian
industry became established.-M.D.
(a) Wool. A Commodity Review. J. B.
Mayne. Review of Marketing and
Agricultural Economics, pp. 238-260,
(b) Wool 1947-48. Prepared and published
by Birt and Company (Pty.) Ltd.,
Sydney, August 1948, pp. 48.
Both publications are summaries of events in 1947-
48 with some comparisons with previous years and
(a) The article surveys general world trends, includ-
ing war-time organisation, production, stocks,
consumption, trade wool activities in the main
surplus countries and in the main consuming
countries. Finally Australian domestic wool con-
sumption and textile production is outlined.
(b) The booklet under review deals in addition with
the 1948-49 clip, the question of synthetics in
competition with wool, the Australian ban on the
export of merino sheep, the re-entry of U.S.S.R.
as bidder in Australian wool auctions. In con-
clusion there are reports relating to the various
909. The Marketing of Dairy Produce. M. J.
Moriarty. Journal of Public Administration
(Wellington), pp. 7-27, March 1948.
After a sharp price fall in 1921-22 a Dairy Produce
Export Control Board was set up in 1923, exercising
limited export control, while individual factories still
disposed of their products. Absolute control and price
fixing was established in 1926, but lasted only one
season. From 1927-34 there was again limited control
and free marketing. The Agriculture (Emergency
Powers) Act of 1934 replaced the Export Control Board
by the N.Z. Dairy Board, with power to control dairy
produce also for local consumption. In 1936-37 a
guaranteed price system operated, the whole exportable
surplus of butter and cheese was purchased by the
Crown at prices fixed by the Governor-General, since
1938-39 after consultation of an advisory body. An Act
of 1947 set up a Dairy Products Marketing Commission
with the authority to fix the prices at which it will
acquire butter and cheese for export.
910. Report of the N.S.W. Dried Fruits Board for
1947. P.P. Government Printer, Sydney,
Dried fruits production for 1947 was very disap-
pointing. Dried vine fruits and prunes were adversely
affected by weather conditions and apricots were
diverted to canning rather than drying. The home
demand could not be met, for the industry must hold
its export markets in the U.K., Canada and N.Z. As
tariff protection afforded by these markets was scaled
down at Geneva in the interests of world trade, growers
must strongly resist additional concessions and refrain
from any large extension of production.-M.R.
911. Dried Fruits Board of South Australia.
19th Report for Year ended 29th February,
1948. Government Printer, Adelaide, pp.
The total S.A. pack for 1947 was only 9,o66 tons of
dried vine fruits and 1,987 tons of dried tree fruits.
It was the third successive lean year and the lowest
pack for S.A. and the Commonwealth since 1927.
The reason was torrential rains, particularly in the
irrigated areas. Rain-damaged and even such currants
and sultanas that could have been dried, were diverted
to the wine and spirit trade. Only limited quantities of
dried fruit could be allocated to Australia, to be able
to supply more to U.K. The Ottawa preferences for
dried fruits were partly reduced under the Geneva
agreement. Appendices present financial and pro-
912. New Zealand's Export Timber Trade.
W. C. Ward. Australian Timber Journal.
pp. 309-315, 340, June 1948. Paper read
before the N.Z. Timber and Forestry
Conference, April 1948.
N.Z. timber exports reached their peak in 1912
with 95m. board feet (bd. ft.) and then declined until
they were only s3m. bd. ft. in 1939. Mainly exported
in the peak period were white pine, kauri and rimu.
In the present production, rimu and insignis pine
prevail; the supply of rimu will fall in future. Export
markets in N.Z. indigenous timbers are unlikely to
develop ; greater development of exotic forests depends
on a large export market. The output of white pine
has fallen very much, that of insignis pine is rising.
Large-scale development of exotic forests is likely
only in the North Island.
913. Queensland. Annual Report of the Under
Secretary for Mines for the Year 1947.
P.P. Government Printer, Brisbane, pp. 114.
Gold production in Queensland increased from
62,700 fine oz. in 1946 to 72,300 in 1947. Copper
output fell to less than one-half because Mt. Isa ceased
copper production. Tin production rose from 977 to
1,395 tons ; silver, lead and zinc production also rose
considerably; that of zircon-rutile-ilmenite to a lesser
extent. Coal mining reached a record output with
1,883,000 tons. A number of tables present statistical
914. Elford, H. S., and McKeown, M. R. Coal
Mining in Australia. Tait Publishing Co.
Pty. Ltd., Melbourne and Sydney, 1947.
Part I of the book is a survey of the 'broad technical
aspects of coal mining'. Chapter I (introduction)
discusses among other questions the economic import-
ance of black coal, black coal production by states,
black coal reserves, and the use of mechanical equip-
ment. Chapter II gives a historical survey, Chapter III
deals with coal deposits in Australia according to their
formation (brown coal, bituminous coal, etc.), including
an analysis of various typical formations. The follow-
ing three chapters outline coal mining methods and
underground mining practice. Of particular economic
importance is the discussion of mechanisation in
Chapter VII, setting forth the benefits of mechanised
mining, its growth in Australia, output under mechanisa-
tion, costs of mechanisation and of the conversion from
hand to full mechanical mining, partial mechanisation.
pillar removal and mechanisation, etc. Coal prepa a-
tion (Chapter VIII) mainly means removal of waste
and its methods. Chapter IX (Safety and Health) is
of social significance. Its various sections are concerned
with qualifications of mine staff, ventilation of under-
ground workings, suppression of dust and mine rescue
Part II gives a description of the operation of coal
mines in all Australian states. Appendices contain a
glossary of mining terms and a survey of the working
conditions in N.S.W. coal mines.
915. Doyle, Brian. The Truth about Coal. Com-
press Printing Ltd., Sydney, 1948, pp. 63.
A short survey of the problems of the coal industry,
giving particular emphasis to the findings of the Davidson
Commission and to the work of the Joint Coal Board.-
916. An Approach to Our Coal Problems. R. S.
Andrews. National Gas Bulletin, pp. 4-9,
'The urgent need to increase coal output-and the
reluctance of workers to enter the industry-is an
international phenomenon.' An estimate of the coal
reserves in various Australian states is given. The
largest quantity of coal is mined on the South Maitland
coalfield whose reserves are only i/ioth of the N.S.W.
coal reserves. In discussing brown coal the article
deals particularly with liquid fuel production in Ger-
many by means of hydrogenation of brown coal tar
and with the gasification of brown coal in Germany
with oxygen and steam to produce town gas. For
Australia the latter problem is of more immediate
In conclusion it is estimated that a future Australian
population of 20 million will need at least 70 million
tons of coal per annum. Victoria, S.A. and W.A. can
develop their own sub-bituminous coal resources, while
extensive bituminous coal development would be
possible in N.S.W. and Queensland.
917. A Review of the Gas Industry. A. J.
Dobson. National Gas Bulletin, pp. 7-17,
July-August 1948. Presidential Address
to the 1947 Conference of the Australian
Gas Institute held in Adelaide.
Gas is still an expanding industry. The lecturer
gives figures of output and costs for four major com-
panies in boom, depression, pre-war and war years.
Compared with the cost of living the average price
charged for gas has relatively or even absolutely
declined. Gas tariffs show infinite variety; they
would require unification, and a higher minimum
charge to ensure effective service is desirable. Gas
appliances, apart from cookers, could be used much
more extensively. The industrial and commercial use
of gas is extending. The most urgent immediate
problems concern the shortage of coal and labour
918. State Electricity Commission of Queensland.
I Ith Report. P.P. Government Printer,
Brisbane, 1948, pp. 58.
A survey of the commission's activities in 1947-48.
The generating facilities work with reduced output and
efficiency because of the age of much of the plant and
the poor coal supplied. Maintenance is a problem
and the urgent erection of new power stations is
delayed because of the shortage of materials. Details
of the more important projects are given. In trans-
mission and distribution development insulators and
transformers are the most troublesome items, orders for
them placed in Australia take from two to five years
to be delivered, so that equipment has to be imported
at higher costs. In western Queensland, with its
sparse population, electricity supply is particularly
difficult and expensive.
919. Brief Review of Australian Cosmetics Industry.
Division of Industrial Development, De-
partment of Post-War Reconstruction.
May 1948, pp. I roneoedd).
This review deals with cosmetics and toilet prepara-
tions, including dentifrices, but not shaving and toilet
soap. From 1938-39 to 1946-47 the Australian demand
has increased threefold in value, to nearly 2m. After
the war there was a considerable export to S.E. Asia
and South Africa, in the nine months ending May
1946 of the value of 750,000, i.e., more than ten
times the 1938-39 values, but in 1946-47 exports were
falling. Local production now exceeds local demand
and imports are small. Labour is predominantly un-
skilled and female, the awards are low and labour
turnover is high.
920. Brief Review of Australian Carpet Industry.
Division of Industrial Development, De-
partment of Post-War Reconstruction.
June 1948, pp. 9 roneoedd).
Carpet manufacture has been undertaken in Australia
since 1936. Two types are produced-Axminster and
Wilton. The normal demand at present prices, which
are twice as high as in 1939, will be about 5m. square
yards p.a. Of these the local industry now produces
about 700,000 sq. yards p.a., which may rise to 21 m.p.a.
by the end of 1949. In 1946-47 2,207,000 sq. y.
were imported, ,262,00ooo from U.K. Felted wool
coverings have been made in Australia since 1921.
The labour position is better than in other textile
industries because earnings (piece work and bonuses)
are higher. Raw materials of the carpet industry are
mostly imported (N.Z. wool, Indian jute), but felted
floor coverings are made chiefly of Australian wool.
Looms are largely imported from U.K.
921. Brief Review of Australian Cotton Textile
Industries. Division of Industrial Develop-
ment, Department of Post-War Recon-
struction, June 1948, pp. 15 roneoedd).
Cotton yarns made in Australia are all of counts
less than No. 50, mostly less than No. 30. Cotton
weaving, too, concentrates on coarser types. Local
demand for cotton piece goods is, disregarding backlogs,
about 240 m. square yards p.a., local capacity is about
one-sixth of this. The demand is estimated for various
kinds of cotton goods. Local capacity could meet all
requirements for towels and towelling, cotton tweeds,
denims, drills, etc., cotton canvas and duck, but present
production is much lower. The manufacture of finer
sheeting and pillow cloth started in 1946. Calico,
printed and dyed cloths are mainly imported.
Imports now come chiefly from U.K., India and
U.S. The potential Australian cotton yarn demand
for local production of woven and knitted piece goods
may be 5om.lb.p.a. Local and imported cotton yarn
is now short in supply. Employment in the industry
has greatly increased with a rising proportion of males
and people engaged in weaving. Earnings are relatively
high (piece work and bonuses). Expansion of the in-
dustry depends on overseas competition.
922. Brief Review of Australian Leather Industry.
Division of Industrial Development. De-
partment of Post-War Reconstruction,
August 1948, pp. 18 roneoedd).
The demand for leather is discussed for manufacture
of footwear; leather goods (travel goods, handbags,
etc.) ; belting and mechanical leather; upholstery;
saddlery and harness; gloves. Export markets for
Australian upper leather (1947-48, 5,237,000 sq. ft.
exported) and sole leather (1,941,ooo) are briefly
mentioned. The cessation of orders for defence foot-
wear has caused the production of boots and shoes to
overtake civilian demand and to bring about a surplus
for export of iom.lbs. or about one-quarter of the
domestic production of sole leather made from local
hides, and of about 4-7m. sq. ft. of upper leathers made
from imported calf and yearling skins and Australian
hides. Failure to develop the export trade may result
in decline of the industry.
923. Selection and Operation of Industrial Wheels
and Casters. W. B. Ballard. Manufacturing
and Management, pp. 3-7, July 1948.
Over 80 per cent of Australian factories must operate
with manual-not motorised or electrical equipment
of which industrial casters, i.e., self-contained wheeled
units, and wheels are an important part. There are
two types of casters, the rigid or fixed casters and the
swivel caster. The author describes the selection,
installation and operation of casters, types of mountings
and the main types of wheels in use in Australia and
considerations in choice of wheels. He further deals
with wheel and caster bearings and various kinds of
924. Truck Cabs. Tariff Board's Report. P.P.,
pp. 6, Government Printer, Canberra,
7 October 1947. Price 6d.
The International Harvester Co. in Australia, which
had been granted a licence for the import of i,ooo truck
cabs from U.S.A., requested their admission under
Tariff Item 404 or 415 A (2), i.e. 15 per cent duty
and exempt from primage (general tariff) instead of
under Tariff Item 395 (95 or 60 per cent ad val.
and io per cent primage, general tariff). Witnesses
representing the applicant company based the request
on the shortage of and the urgent demand for motor
trucks in Australia. If the application was granted the
imported truck would still be by 11 dearer than the
Australian-made cab. If not, the duty would be
46 los. higher. Only one witness was opposed to
the application. The Board recommended that the
request should be granted.
925. Spectacle Frames and Mountings, Optical
Lenses and Blanks.-Question of Necessity
for Importation from Dollar-Currency
Sources. Tariff Board's Report, pp. 20.
Government Printer, Canberra, 22 April
Reference is made to a previous Tariff Board's
Report of 1947 (cf. No. 533 in No. 5 of the Abstracts).
The present enquiry was caused by protests lodged by
the ophthalmic trade against the refusal to issue licences
for non-sterling frames and lenses. According to wit-
nesses representing Australian manufacturing interests,
there is no need for frames and lenses from dollar
countries, apart from specific varieties ; the quantity
and quality of Australian-made frames and lenses is
adequate, particularly when supplemented by U.K.
imports. The latter aspect was stressed by witnesses
representing U.K. interests. Witnesses from the
ophthalmic trade favoured continued imports, possibly
on a reduced scale, of ophthalmic products from dollar
countries and doubted the adequacy of quantities and
qualities-here opinions were divided-of Australian
The Board held that with few exceptions imports
from U.S. and Canada were unnecessary; that local
production plus imports from countries were sufficient
for our demand, and that the quality of locally made
goods was reasonable.
(a) Tariff Board's Interim Report, 15 April
1948. Government Printer, Canberra,
(b) Tariff Board's Report on Gloves, N.E.I.,
including Mittens. Tariff Item I13
(B), 25 June 1948. Government
Printer, Canberra, pp. 27.
The Tariff Board recommended against further
protection on gloves, believing that the industry needs
to be reorganised and that only prohibitive rates would
substantially reduce overseas competition. However,
costs of production should be cheapened by removing
primage duties on imported skins.-M.R.
927. Circuit Breakers or Switch Units, Metal Clad
or otherwise. Tariff Board Report. Govern-
ment Printer, Canberra, May 1948, pp. 8.
Small sizes of high voltage switchgear received tariff
protection, but as the demand for larger sizes is in-
creasing relatively to that of small sizes, the Australian
manufacturers applied for an extension of the range
of protection. As current orders cannot be filled for
some years to come, the Board refused the application
and recommended that the matter be reconsidered at
a later date. Two members dissented, pointing out
that it is customary for orders to be placed for long
periods ahead and the industry should know the
Governmerit's future policy on protection. They
favoured imposition of duties.-M.R.
928. Aviation Sparking Plugs. Tariff Board's
Report, May 1948. Government Printer,
Canberra, pp. 1o.
Until 1940, aviation sparking plugs were not pro-
duced in Australia and. imported types were admitted
under Tariff Item 358 (b) Customs By-law. At the
request of the Commonwealth Government, the
Aviation Manufacturing Co. Pty. Ltd. was formed to
produce American B.G. plugs. In 1948 the Company
applied for new tariff protection, because the local
market is now so small that one large import would
make the Company's production unprofitable. The
application was refused, as the Company's range of
plugs is too narrow and the small output renders present
929. Hand and Breast Drills and Carpenters'
Braces. Tariff Board's Report, pp. 12.
Government Printer, Canberra, 7 June
The commodities concerned are at present imported
under Tariff By-law Item 219 (c), i.e., free of duty and
primage under the British Preferential Tariff, or
120 per cent duty (no primage) under the intermediate
and general tariffs. The Board held an enquiry
whether these commodities should be removed from
entry under the by-law item, and if they are, what rates
of duty should be imposed on them. Witnesses repre-
senting Australian manufacturing interests were in
favour of increased duties, while witnesses representing
the Joint Committee for Tariff Revision and British
manufacturing interests were opposed to it. The
Board recommend that a duty of 17) per cent should
be provided under the British Preferential Tariff.
The industry is not yet fully established in Australia
and should be entitled to special consideration.
930. Whaling. J. Weeks. Farm Front, pp. 125-
128, August 1948.
Statistical data show how the unrestricted killing of
whales in the Arctic and Pacific caused the Antarctic
to become the main centre of whaling since the 92zo's.
The author briefly surveys the attempts made to regulate
whaling internationally, particularly with the aim of
preventing the slaughter of immature whales. During
the war little whaling was done and the whale popula-
tion recovered. Conferences held in 1944 and 1946
set an upper limit to the number of whales to be killed,
but did not allot quotas to nations. Australia did not
participate in whaling since the end of the 19th century,
but took part in international conferences. At present
Australia tries to obtain a portion of the Japanese whaling
resources for herself.
(C) Monetary Policy, Banking, Insurance
931. Sterling as an International Currency. B. Tew.
Economic Record, pp. 42-55, June 1948.
The position of sterling as an international currency
under the gold standard and under the Sterling Bloc
and sterling standard of the 1930's is discussed. In the
early stages of world war II the Sterling Bloc was
reduced to a sterling area and the Special Accounts
system developed. After the liberation of Europe the
U.K. Government concluded bilateral agreements with
many European countries. Part V deals with the
situation under the Anglo-U.S. loan agreement; Part VI
with the suspension of the convertibility of transferable
accounts sterling into dollars and its effect on the
transferable accounts area. Subject of Part VII is
the present position of sterling with respect to the four
major currency areas : Dollars, sterling, transferable
accounts and bilateral areas. Dollars are too scarce,
sterling too plentiful as a means of international pay-
ment and as international store of value. There is no
reasonably satisfactory successor to sterling as an
932. Inflation. Institute of Public Affairs Victoria
Review, pp. 98-108, August 1948.
A survey of post-war inflationary trends in general
and particularly in Australia. A great quantity of
money and an insufficient quantity of goods as conse-
quences of total war make inflation inevitable. It
necessitates controls, but suppressed inflation is just
as harmful. Inflation can be measured by prices, the
volume of money and labour shortage. 1946-47 brought
some recovery, but 1947-48 much deterioration,
largely because of the great increase in Australian
export income and the substantial increase in the
internal cost level. Automatic correcting factors, such
as interest rates and rates of exchange do not work
now. Some remedies are suggested. Tables and
graphs are presented showing the inflationary trends
in various fields.
933. Some Remarks on Voluntary Group Assurance.
A. H. Pollard. Actuarial Society of Austra-
lasia, 52nd Session, 1948, pp. 135-146.
The Australian form of voluntary unsubsidised
group assurance consists 'of weekly premium voluntary
life assurance, the premiums being deducted from
salary and remitted to the life office by the employers'.
As shown by data of one N.S.W. company, one-half
of these assurances are effected with persons under
25. Holders of these policies prefer endowment assur-
ance contracts. The proportion of non-medical business
is much higher in the voluntary group, in the sample
96 per cent. In comparison with medical mortality
the non-medical cases give unsatisfactory results. The
lapse rate in the voluntary group far exceeds that in the
934. Industrial Assurance-a Comparison and a
Contrast. G. B. Palmer. Actuarial Society
of Australasia, 52nd Session, 1948, pp. 147-
The lecturer outlines the history of industrial assur-
ance in U.K. and Australia. The bulk of this assurance
in U.K. up to recent years was whole life business, in
Australia it is mainly endowment assurance. There
are three agency systems, the 'block' system, the 'Times
Down' system (payment for X times the premium for
all new business written), and the 'Increase' system
(net increase after deduction of decrement). The follow-
ing sections compare premiums and benefits, bonuses,
legislation, paid-up policy and cash surrender values,
the basis of valuation of policies and reserves, finally
expenses in Australia and U.K.
935. The Net Premium Valuation of Children's
Deferred Assurances. J. G. Rutherford.
Actuarial Society of Australasia, 52nd
Session,'1948, pp. 123-134.
A well-established feature of actuarial work in
British life assurance offices is to use the net premium
valuation method for children's deferred assurance
policies carrying simple reversionary bonuses. Theo-
retically, the method at each successive valuation will
be exactly that necessary to maintain a level bonus
rate throughout the currency of the policy. In actual
practice, however, an uneven expense incidence, a
varying interest rate and the existence of special
reserves means that the attainment of satisfactory and
trustworthy results becomes almost impossible.-M.R.
(D) Public Finance
936. Binns, K. J., Federal Financial Relations in
Canada and Australia: Report prepared
for the Government of Tasmania, 1948,
pp. 75. Government Printer, Hobart.
This is a report of an investigation into the problems
of Dominion-Provincial relations in Canada arising
out of war-time and post-war changes in financial and
budgetary conditions. The necessity for Federal
monopoly of income taxes, the inflationary policies
associated with war activities, the battle for provincial
autonomy in finance, reconstruction policies, and the
associated social security and anti-inflationary and
public-investment measures are carefully discussed.
Canadian fiscal conditions and budgetary policy are
then compared with Australian policies over the same
period, and certain conclusions relative to stabilisation
of State budgets by Federal grants are discussed. The
fields of taxation open to States in relation to their
inescapable social service and administrative needs are
937. New Zealand Ministry of Works Statement.
Report for Year ended 31 March 1948,
pp. 18. Government Printer, Wellington,
1948. Price 2s. 3d.
In the year under review the demands for construc-
tion work totalled 37.3 m., of which 26 m. were
approved. Housing is given priority over other classes
of building. In 1947-48 12,734 houses were completed,
3,122 more than 1946-47. Further sections of the
report deal with public buildings, hydro-electric
development, highways, railways, aerodromes, soil
conservation and rivers control, irrigation and water
In appendix B the annual report of the Commissioner
of Works is presented. The building and construction
industry has increased its labour force by 5.8 per cent
in 1947-48, state and state-subsidised works by 8.7 per
cent. The supply of various materials, building con-
trol, permanent housing, public building, town planning,
etc., are discussed. Appendix C contains the annual
report on Public Works by the Engineer-in-Chief.
938. Australia's State Aid to Authors. J. M.
Dobbie. Australian Quarterly, pp. 36-44,
This article discusses the Commonwealth Literary
Fund (C.L.F.), which was founded in 90o8 for the
purpose of providing pensions to authors and their
families. In 1947 31 pensions of 2 or 3 a week
were paid. In 1938 the scope of the Fund was ex-
tended in three ways: (i) To educate the public to
better appreciation of Australian literature, partly by
arranging lectures on that literature in Australian
Universities. (2) To give individual writers the leisure
to write certain books, by granting fellowships of one
year's duration to the maximum amount of 400 p.a.
(3) To provide financial help for the publication or
reprint of works.
The author on the whole approves of the activities
of the C.L.F. and defends them against objections. The
C.L.F. has produced the 'Australian Pocket Library' of
24 titles.. The Fund could do much more without an
939. Conservatism or Precision in Accounting.
R. A. Irish. Chartered Accountant in
Australia, pp. 19-30, July 1948.
One major conflict at the present time is between
the doctrine of conservatism, based on the view that
it is better to understate than overstate profits, and the
desire for precision in the accounts. Undisclosed
conservatism has no place in modern accountancy
because of the accountant's responsibility to people
other than proprietors. Conservatism in financial
policy is admirable, but if the financial policy dictates
conservatism its extent must be portrayed distinctly
and apart from the assessment of operating profit.
940. Accounting Doctrine and the 1947 English
Companies Act. A. A. Fitzgerald. Aus-
tralian Accountant, pp. 277-313, Septem-
A change in the underlying philosophy of accounting
can be gauged from the reports of the 1925 Wilfred
Green Committee and the 1943 Cohen Committee.
The former ratified the practice of the doctrine of
conservatism even though it recognized that oppor-
tunities for abuse existed, whereas the 1943 report,
based on the doctrine of disclosure, was given legis-
lative sanction by the 1947 English Companies Act
in three ways, viz., by the specification of certain items
to be shown separately in published accounts, the
classification of balance sheet and profit and loss items
into logical groups, and the standardisation of the
meaning of accounting terms.
941. Cost Accounting Concepts and Terminology.
A. A. Fitzgerald. Australian Accountant,
PP- 337-345, October 1948.
There are different meanings of the word 'cost', e.g.
direct, prime, 'actual', and also different interpretations
of cost for different purposes, e.g. marginal costs.
For financial accounting purposes cost may become a
mixture of recorded cost and prospective loss, while in
cost accounting an attempt is usually made to distinguish
costs from losses. 'Current', as distinct from 'basic',
standard cost systems have advantages over historical
cost systems for purposes of cost control, budgeting
and price fixing, require less clerical effort and enable
a more frequent presentation of reports which are
based on the principle of exceptions.
(F) Transportation and Communications
942. Queensland. Report of the Commissioner for
Railways for Year ended 30 June 1948.
P.P. Government Printer, Brisbane, pp. 112.
The most important event in the year under review
was the nine weeks' railway strike from February to
April 1948. The year's deficit was 671,000, i.e.
41,ooo less than in 1946-47, while the net earnings
still exceeded working expenses by 793,ooo. In-
creased wages and prices for all materials and coal
necessitated an increase of rates and fares by an average
of Izi per cent from 10 May 1948. Passenger journeys
decreased and revenue from this traffic fell by 95,000ooo,
mainly because of the strike, but goods and livestock
traffic and the revenue concerned rose.
943. New Zealand. Railways Statement for Year
ended 31 March 1948, pp. 40. Price Is.
Mainly owing to the increase in fares and freight
rates the revenue in the year under review exceeded
that of the previous year by 8.87 per cent, but the gross
expenditure rose by i .o8 per cent, so that there was a
net loss on working of 640,ooo. To maintain services
91,000 tons of American coal had to be imported,
plus 24,ooo tons of fuel oil. The expenditure for coal
and oil increased by 55.7 per cent, for wages by 8 per
944. New Zealand. Transport Department. Annual
Report. Government Printer, Wellington,
1948, pp. 39. Price is.
Of 350 m. -capital invested in transport 240 m.
have been invested in roads and road transport;
48 per cent of the total freight is transported in railways,
while 52 per cent of passengers are transported in
private cars. N.Z. has a lower traffic death rate than
any other motorised country. Figures about road
accidents are given, adult and school education in
road safety is discussed, traffic offences and the inspec-
tion of motor vehicles are dealt with. Another section
is concerned with the regulation of commercial road
945. Port of Melbourne. 7Ist Annual Report 1947.
Melbourne Harbour Trust Commissioners,
This report presents a survey of developmental
work planned, of shipping, imports, exports, overseas,
interstate and state trade of the port in 1947. Particu-
larly stressed is the slow turn-round of ships and its
reasons : shortage of labour and industrial trouble.
Revenue has reached an all-time record, 1,95,000ooo.
A special section discusses port improvements, including
the erection and reconstruction of cargo-sheds. The
Chief Engineer's Report mentions improvements to
wharves and cargo sheds, to approaches and other
946. The Fremantle Harbour Trust Commissioners.
47th Report for Year ended 30 June
1946, pp. 17 ; and 48th Report for Year
ended 30 June 1947, pp. 26. Govern-
ment Printer, Perth, 1947 and 1948 respec-
Gross earnings in 1945-46 declined compared with
the year before, and 1946-47 showed a further decline
because of the diminished volume of trade, but there
was still a surplus. In 1945-46 there was a considerable
decrease both of imports and exports, particularly of
the quantity of wheat exported, while the volume of
wool and meat exports increased. In 1946-47 exports,
especially of wheat, were further reduced.
947. International Civil Aviation. C. P. Haddon-
Cave and D. M. Hocking. Australian
Outlook, pp. 156-166, September 1948.
The Paris Convention, 1919, and the Havana Con-
vention, 1928, though valuable in securing some co-
operation, achieved little regarding freedom of the air
for international air route operators. As a result of
the Chicago Conference, 1944, the International Civil
Aviation Organisation (I.C.A.O.) was formed with
wider powers than its predecessors to investigate into
all aspects -of international aviation and a number of
promising multilateral arrangements have already been
Australia's proposal for internationalisation of owner-
ship and operation of international services was rejected
by most members, but the emergence of services
operated by joint British Commonwealth organizations
is a step towards such a goal.-D.M.H.
948. International Civil Aviation Convention 1944.
Report by Minister for Civil Aviation on
Conference held at Chicago, November-
December, 1944. P.P., ordered to be
printed ii March 1948. Government
Printer, Canberra, pp. 6.
Four instruments were adopted by the conference,
viz., (i) The Interim Agreement on International Civil
Aviation, covering a period up to three years until the
permanent Convention on International Civil Aviation
would come into force. It provided for a Provisional
Civil Aviation Organization with an Interim Assembly
and an Interim Council.
(2) The Convention on International Civil Aviation,
which regulates air navigation, provides for an Inter-
national Civil Aviation Organization, to come into
force after ratification by 26 states.
(3) The International Services Transit Agreement,
granting two freedoms of the air, accepted by 29 states.
(4) The International Air Transport Agreement,
granting five freedoms of the air, so far accepted by
only 16 states, not including any British Commonwealth
949. Report on Civil Aviation in Australia and
New Guinea. 1946-47. Department of
Civil Aviation, Melbourne, pp. 113 (ro-
The most notable events in the year under review
were the South Pacific Regional Meeting of P.I.C.A.O.
in Melbourne in February 1947, the meeting of the
South Pacific Air Transport Council in Canberra in
December 1946 and the establishment of the govern-
ment-owned Trans-Australia Airlines which began
operations in December 1946. On 4 April 1947 the
International Civil Aviation Organisation was set up.
Its activities are outlined, the report then mentions
bilateral and multilateral agreements, the Common-
wealth Air Transport Council, the South Pacific Air
Transport Council and the Internationl ional Commission
for Air Navigation.
950. New Zealand. Air Department. Report for
Year 1947-48. Government Printer,
Wellington, pp. 39, price is.
The first part of this publication is a report on the
R.N.Z. Air Force. Its operations included a squadron
in Japan and one in Fiji. Its quasi-civil transport
services in N.Z. were taken over by the N.Z. National
Airways Corporation (N.Z.N.A.C.) on 31 May 1947.
The second part is a report of the Director of Civil
Aviation. There were on 31 March 1948 12 internal
services, all operated by the N.Z.N.A.C. ; of external
services there are Tasman Empire Airways (Auckland-
Sydney); N.Z.N.A.C. (three services to the Pacific
Islands); Pan-American Airways (Auckland-San
Francisco) and British Commonwealth Pacific Airlines
(Auckland-Vancouver), operated by Australian National
Airways. A third part is a report of the Director
of Meteorological Services.
951. The Overseas Telecommunications Commission
(Australia). First Annual Report, for the
Period from the Establishment to 30 June
1947. Government Printer, Sydney, 1948,
The commission was set up on 23 August 1946 to
transfer to the Commonwealth Government the overseas
radio and cable services in Australia. Part I of the
report gives an historical account of U.K. developments
and of British Commonwealth conferences in London
1944 and 1945, reaching agreement on the transfer
to public ownership of the external cable and wireless
services of the British Empire as a whole. These ser-
vices will be a unified system, operated by a co-ordinated
group of national corporations with authority in their
own spheres. Part II deals with the purchase of the
radio communication assets and services of Amalgamated
Wireless. The commission now operates international
and Pacific Islands radiotelegraph and radiotelephone
services, coastal radio and picturegram services, as
discussed in detail in part IV.
(G) Labour and Industrial Relations
952. Increased Production through Training and
Information. Editorial Staff Report.
Manufacturing and Management, pp. 404-
409, June 1948.
This is a summary of the discussion at a top-manage-
ment conference held by the Institute of Industrial
Management at Melbourne University on i June 1948.
953. Profit-Sharing in Australian Industry. M.
Kangan and W. J. Byrt. Bulletin of
Industrial Psychology and Personnel Prac-
tice, pp. 9-19, June 1948.
The article offers some account of the nature and
content of plans for profit-sharing now in operation in
Australia, serving to emphasise how comparatively few
employees in Australia are covered by such schemes.-
0. de R.F.
954. Profit Sharing Benefits Production at Nolex.
C. R. Sexton. Manufacturing and Manage-
ment, pp. 112-113, October 1948.
Nolex Engineering Co. in East Perth decided to
introduce profit sharing in preference to piece work.
In June 1945 Nolex started joint consultation of key-
men with the production manager every two weeks,
and a keyman bonus was paid for exceeding a certain
target. Profit sharing covering all employees came into
force from July 1947. The total bonus is one-third of
the net profit after deducting the bonus payment, and
is paid according to the worker's wages. Two-thirds of
the bonus assessed every quarter is paid with the weekly
wages, one-third is held in reserve until the end of the
financial year. In 1947-48 the output increased by
25 per cent, and tradesmen earned on average i gs.
a week in addition to their wages.
955. The Financial Effects of Labour Turnover-
A Case Study at Jaques Bros. Pty. Ltd.
M. Kangan. Bulletin of Industrial Psy-
chology and Personnel Practice, p. 19-30,
Jacques Bros. is an engineering firm in Richmond,
Melbourne, with 140 male workers, of whom 70 are
tradesmen. The study covers six months from October
1947 to March 1948. The overall factory labour turn-
over was below average, that of tradesmen above
average in four months. Actual production costs
exceeded standard costs by 2,418. Of the effects of
labour turnover on production time only two could be
estimated : time lost in filling vacancies, and in train-
ing replacements. The total lost was 10,323 hours.
The effects of these losses on standard costs and on
actual production costs were calculated, broken up
into chargeable wages, variable factory overhead,
variable administration overhead. Without labour
turnover the actual costs would have been by i8 lower
than standard costs.
956. Shortage of Apprentices Hampers Industrial
Expansion. Manufacturing and Manage-
ment. Editorial Staff Survey, pp. 153-156,
Vol. 3, No. 5, November 1948.
In this article some of the reasons for the shortages
of apprentices from which the trades in Australia
generally are now suffering are suggested. Apprentice-
ship figures for the period 1938-1946 for a number of
Victorian industries are set out, and it is believed that
these figures are indicative of the trend of apprentice-
ship employment in the other States as well.-O. de R.F.
957. New Zealand. Department of Labour and
Employment. Report for Year ended 31st
March 1948. Government Printer, Wel-
lington, pp. 80, price is. 6d.
Part I deals with the industrial position, i.e. employ-
ment levels and trends and the current characteristics
of industrial relations and welfare. Part II surveys
departmental activities. Section 2 discusses immigra-
tion; up to 31 March 1948 only 695 females and
606 males had arrived as free or assisted immigrants.
In section 3-industrial relations-the most important
information concerns industrial disputes and minimum
wages. Section 4-industrial welfare-refers to the
operation of the Factories Act 1946, and of various other
958. Working Conditions in the Brick, Tile and
Pipe Industry. Bulletin No. 12. Industrial
Welfare Division, Department of Labour
and National Service. Melbourne, 1948.
In the introduction the high accident rate in the clay
products industry is stressed, which is partly due to its
small degree of mechanisation. Part II first deals with
clay pits, both hand and mechanised methods. Then
it discusses the manufacturing process, giving descrip-
tions of the methods. The third part refers to per-
sonnel practices, with recommendations regarding
recruitment of labour, initial placement and induction,
training on the job, young workers. Part IV discusses
AGRICULTURE, LAND AND RURAL
959. Beef Cattle in Australia, ed. Frank O'Loghlen.
F. H. Johnston Publishing Co. Pty. Ltd.,
Sydney, 1948, pp. 278. Price 26s.
A symposium of short papers by various authors,
and a stud section in which the histories and specifica-
tions of the various breeds are set out with the histories
of forty well-known pedigree herds. The papers cover
the main aspects of cattle raising, showing, and market-
960. McIntyre, A. J. Sunraysia-A Social Sur-
vey of a Dried Fruits Area. Melbourne
University Press, 1948, pp. 149 Price
Based mainly on interviews with a sample of 150
horticultural families around Mildura, this survey
deals with :-The area and its history, climate, soils;
the dried fruits industry ; size of holdings, their layout,
tenure, mechanisation, yields, grower co-operation;
incomes, debts, assets ; effect of 192o influx of settlers,
drift to city, high population density, high fertility,
background of settlers, persons of non-British birth;
routine of work, numbers and conditions of workers;
growers' homes, various designs and amenities; trade
and social centres, means of transport; health and
food ; standards of schooling, education, research,
farm extension ; leisure, organizations. Growers' views
are recorded throughout.-A. J. Mcl.
961. King, H. W. Frost Control in Australian
Dried Fruit Areas, Australian Dried Fruits
Association, Melbourne, 1948, pp. 54.
The result of a Conference on the subject. A
comprehensive account of the whole matter, including
an explanation of the factors governing frost incidence,
various methods of control applied in Australia and
overseas, and some estimates of their cost. Each
method is examined critically and suggestions for
future investigations are made.-S.M.W.
962. Dairy Research and Australian Progress.
R. K. Morton. Triticum, Journal of the
Sydney University Agricultural Society,
1947-48, pp. 1o-i8.
The main centres of dairy research in the world are
enumerated and their activities briefly mentioned.
Problems associated with the production of the cow
and with the processing and distribution of milk
products are discussed with special reference to Australia.
The present state of knowledge in these fields indicates
that there is an interaction among the various phases of
dairy production, and hence there is a need to co-
ordinate dairy research. The facilities for dairy
research in Australia are inadequate and the author
makes several suggestions for improving them.-I.M.
963. Twenty-eighth Annual Report of the Forest
Commission of Victoria for the Financial
The report covers the management of indigenous
forests, forest plantations and nurseries; forest pro-
tection ; timber utilisation ; forest engineering, fores-
try research and education. Balance sheets and sta-
tistical tables are also presented.-I.M.
964. Vegetable Seed Production in Australia.
J. R. A. McMillan, Triticum, Journal of the
Sydney University Agricultural Society
1947-48, pp. 2-4.
Before tfie war Australia imported most of its vege-
table seed requirements. During the war vegetable
seed production was undertaken locally. Except in a
few species, seeds produced were equal if not superior
to the imported seeds. Although local production
costs are relatively high, the cost of the seed is only
about I per cent of the total vegetable production
costs. Merchants in Australia are forced to import
cheaper seeds, because there is a keen competition in
this trade. Merchants seldom offer contracts to the
local seed producers, without which production is too
risky. Strong action should be taken to ensure the
production of vegetable seed in Australia under careful
965. Costs and Returns for Apples and Pears
at Batlow-1944-45 and 1945-46. Alison
Kingsland, Review of Marketing and Agri-
cultural Economics, Vol. 16, No. 5, pp. 185-
197, May 1948.
The productions costs of seven apple and pear orchards
are analysed. Apple crops show a marked fluctuation
from season to season, while successive pear crops are
more even. Consequently, production costs and net
returns vary greatly from year to year. Individual
orchardists show very different costs within the same
year, but yield is a major factor.-I.M.
966. The Annual Report of the New Zealand
Department of Agriculture for 1947-8.
Government Printer, Wellington, pp. 86.
The Report is prefaced by a survey of the origin and
operation of the F.A.O. The annual review of the
operation of the various Divisions of the Department-
Fields, Dairy, Rural Development, Livestock, Animal
Research, and Horticultural-follows. In each the
present position is reviewed and the research in progress
briefly surveyed. It is stated (p. 46) that on 22 m. of
the 43 m. acres of the Dominion, fertility is not im-
proving. The Sociology Section has been strengthened
by the appointment of a Rural Sociologist and three
graduates in home science. The first records of
butter yield of heifers produced by artificial insemina-
tion are shown, and the animal breeding techniques now
being developed are surveyed.-S.M.W.
967. Dairy Farming as a Business. F. H. Gruen,
Review of Marketing and Agricultural
Economics, Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 141-157,
A Review of the financial position of 37 dairy farms
in the coastal Divisions of N.S.W., for the year ended
30 June 1946. Nine farms were located in the Berry-
Nowra region, a supply area of the Metropolitan Milk
Zone. Although the financial position of each farm is
analysed in great detail, the nine Metropolitan Milk
Zone suppliers are not dealt with separately from the
968. Some Aspects of Pasteurisation in a Market
Milk Plant. A. G. F. Itzerott, Australian
Journal of Dairy Technology, Vol. 3.
No. 3, PP. 91-95.
The two main systems of pasteurising equipment are
the 'batch', in which the milk is held at low temperature
for a longer time, and the 'flash' in which it is treated at
.a high temperature for a short time. The importance
of these is to be measured in their bactericidal capacity,
and in their effect on the 'cream line' shown by the
milk in the bottle. The paper describes experiences in
a commercial plant. The former method gives better
results in bacterial control, although it is not clear
whether the species which survive in the latter are
pathologically important. The latter method is prefer-
able for holding the cream line, provided the tempera-
ture control is effective.-S.M.W.
969. Planned Regeneration of N.Z. Indigenous
Forests. C. M. Smith. Australian Timber
Journal, pp. 365-375. July 1948.
In the Dominion indigenous forests have been
replaced by grassland in many areas. Regeneration of
local forest species is usually said to be. too slow to be
a commercial possibility, but some are reasonably effec-
tive. In the present paper each factor influencing
regeneration is discussed in turn. No endemic species
regenerates vegetatively, most are shy seeders, many
will only grow on land which is valuable for agriculture.
Three species of Beech are reasonably satisfactory, and
the writer considers that the much-debated Rimu will
have a place in certain localities. Kauri is also a possi-
bility, apart from the economic factor.-S.M.W.
970. Report of the Hunter River District Water
Board for the Year ended 30 June 1947.
Government Printer, N.S.W., pp. 16.
The report gives an analysis of the operations and
finances of the Board to which are appended the annual
971. Studies in the Environment of Queensland.
The Climatology of Semi-Arid Pastoral
Areas. Joan N. Farmer, S. L. Everist and
G. R. Moule. Queensland Journal of
Agricultural Science, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 21-
59, September 1947.
The study is approached by an enumeration of the
climatological indices. Some deviation is made from
the orthodox methods in the climatic classification of
65 stations in Queensland. These are discussed with
special reference to the sheep industry.-I.M.
972. Noxious Weed Control-Shires Association
of New South Wales, pp. 14.
This pamphlet sets out the views of the Association
on the problem, and urges that it will be tackled most
effectively if it is in the hands of County and Shire
Councils, provided the government assists financially
and that adjacent bodies co-operate !-S.M.W.
973. Annual Report of the Department of Agri-
culture and Stock for 1947-48, pp. 92.
Government Printer, Brisbane.
This report opens with an interesting review of the
happenings and progress during the preceding ten
years in so far as they have affected technical problems
in Queensland farming of all types. A Summary of
the year 1947-48 then precedes the reports of the
various Divisions and Branches of the Department-
Plant Industry, Animal Industry, Dairying and Market-
ing. In each of these the present position of our know-
ledge in relation to a wide array of problems is set
974. The Peanut Production Scheme in British
East Africa-with a comparison between
the Climates of Certain Localities in
British East Africa and Tropical Australia.
I. Molnar. Journal of the Aust. Inst. of
Agricultural Science. Vol. 14, No. 3,
pp. 125-137, September 1948.
The development of the peanut production scheme
under the auspices of the British Overseas Food Cor-
poration is described. The climate of certain localities
in B.E.A. and Tropical Australia are compared.-I.M.
975. Rainfall, Evaporation, and Drought Fre-
quency in South Australia. H. C. Trumble,
Journal of the Department of Agriculture
of South Australia, Vol. LII, No. 2, pp.
55-60 plus 15 pp. of tables.
The records of these factors at 204 S.A. stations are
given in the accompanying tables. The figures were
computed in the light of the revised evaporation data
for this State.-I.M.
976. The Beef Cattle Industry in the Far West.
J. C. J. Maunder, Queensland Agricultural
Journal, Vol. 67. Part I. July 1948,
pp. 11-22; Part z, August 1948, pp. 1o8-
114; Part 3, September 1948, pp. 165-177.
A paper discussing cattle production in the 'Channel
Country' of Western Queensland. Channel formation,
soils, vegetation in the various parts of this region are
described and brief notes made on the climatic con-
ditions and land tenure. Station management is
discussed under the headings of personnel employed,
carrying capacity, improvements, and watering facilities ;
while herd management covers the fields of breeds of
cattle, breeding practices, store cattle fattening and
breeding. Disease and pest problems are enumerated
and brief notes are made on the social conditions. The
stock movements and stock routes are described in
great detail. The extension of the existing railways to
areas further inland could do most in the interest of this
977. Some Aspects of Agricultural Policy. W. F.
Owen. Review of Marketing and Agri-
cultural Economics, Vol. 16, No. 7, pp. 289-
314, July 1948.
The 'drift to the cities' is a trend which must not
be hindered. A long-term type of subsidisation will
slow down the 'natural movement of labour from an
inefficient and depressed industry to one in which
opportunities are greater'. It is better to place migrants
at the start into secondary and tertiary industries than
after a few years of rural work.
There is a great difference in the average net income
per person in the primary and secondary industries,
also in pastoral, dairying and agricultural production.
The importance of farm management and of a more
efficient land use are emphasised. The causes of
instability of farm incomes are discussed and the
various ways of reducing it are enumerated. Problems
of water conservation and irrigation in N.S.W. are also
(A) Government and Politics
978. Decentralisation. Papers read at the Summer
School of the Australian Institute of
Political Science at Armidale, January
1948. Sydney. Angus and Robertson.
1948, pp. 204; Decentralisation and the
Individual. E. J. Trapp. Australian
Quarterly, pp. 82-90, June 1948.
'The Implications of Decentralisation,' by H. L.
Harris, discusses the meaning of decentralisation in
Australia, and why it matters.
H. S. Nicholas discussed 'Decentralisation-the
Constitutional Problem', i.e. 'the provisions of the
Constitution of the Commonwealth so far as they may
impede or facilitate the establishment of new units
as distinguished from the division of existing services'.
F. A. Bland examined 'Decentralisation-the Ma-
chinery of Government' and outlined the existing
machinery and its weaknesses from the standpoint of
democracy and efficiency. He also suggested improve-
ments, including more decentralisation.
A. Mainerd-'Local Government and Decentralisa-
tion'-briefly describes the existing Local Government
System in N.S.W., and goes on to urge the necessity
of making full use of local government in schemes for
T. Hytten discusses 'The Economic Aspects of
Decentralisation'. He argues that 'if the cost is to be
kept at a reasonable level, the decentralisation has
definite limits both in extent and in time.'
E. J. Trapp's article is by way of commentary on the
979. The Politics of Proscription. John Anderson.
Australian Quarterly, pp. 7-15. June
1948; The Menace of Communism.
Norman Cowper. Australian Quarterly,
pp. 16-23, June 1948.
Professor Anderson here argues that the agitation
to ban the Communist Party is both undemocratic and
inexpedient. Not only is it impossible to justify such
action on grounds compatible with democratic pro-
cedure, but also the Liberal Party would lose the truly
liberal support it has been gaining by its opposition to
Mr. Cowper gives an outline of Communist theory,
and, in contrast, of six conditions of progress. He
goes on to deplore the activities of non-Communists
who play into the hands of the Communists, e.g. by
exaggerated political propaganda which destroys faith
n representative government, concluding with an
eight-point programme which he thinks might check
the Communist menace.-J.W.
980. The Staff Organisation of the Railways
Department. A. F. Taylor. Journal of
Public Administration (Wellington), pp. 28-
44. March 1948.
This article gives an outline of the various authorities
which have some control over personnel administration
in the N.Z. Railways, a brief history of the growth of
the Railways Staff Division, and an account of the
functions and organisation of the several Sections of
that Division. A chart showing the organisation of the
Staff Division is appended.-J.W.
981. The Staff Organisation of the Post and
Telegraph Department. L. W. Keys.
Journal of Public Administration (Welling-
ton), pp. 45, 53. March 1948.
An account is given of the principles and adminis-
trative machinery in use in the N.Z. Post and Telegraph
Department for dealing with such problems as classifi-
cation, promotions, rehabilitation, staff welfare and staff
982. The Information Service of the Govern-
ment. R. S. Odell. Journal of Public
Administration (Wellington), pp. 54-66.
The author here gives the story of the origin of the
various forms of Government publicity which have
lately been brought under more unified control in the
Information Section of the N.Z. Prime Minister's
Department, together with an account of the home and
overseas publicity services of the Section and of its
983. Representation in French Oceania. Nancy
Robson. Australian Outlook, pp. 177-185,
A factual account of French Oceania's new Repre-
sentative Assembly-the form of representation,
organisation, and powers-is followed by a brief
discussion of its significance in the development of the
French Union, and of the difficulties which have
arisen and are likely to arise for its successful operation.
(B) International Relations
984. Ball, W. Macmahon. Japan . Enemy
or Ally? Cassell, Melbourne, 1948, pp.
Mr. Ball surveys the Allied and Japanese instruments
of control, and methods, policies and results of de-
militarisation, and concludes with a chapter on the
future of Japan. He considers that the two main
factors influencing the change in American policy
since 1945 are the limitations imposed by the decision
to work through a Japanese government, and the
U.S.-Soviet conflict. In some fields he is rather sceptical
about the success of the occupation, and concludes
that 'if we want Japan as our ally, the way to succeed
is not by subsidising reactionary governments, or
resuming trade relations with a disguised Zaibatsu,
but by giving firm friendship and effective help to the
985. Emperor and Government in Japan. W.
Macmahon Ball. Australian Outlook,
pp. 67-77, June 1948.
This article is taken, with some omissions, from the
chapter on Japanese Instruments of Control in Mr. Ball's
book on Japan. It describes the present position and
powers of the Emperor, the Cabinet, the Diet, and the
bureaucracy, both in constitutional theory, and as they
exist in actual practice, so far as this can be discovered.-
986. Dependencies and Trusteeships in the Pacific
Area. By a Study Group of the Australian
Institute of International Affairs. Aus-
tralian Paper No. I, presented at the Insti-
tute of Pacific Relations Stratford Con-
ference, September 1947, pp. 44.
This paper deals with the political, social and
economic situation and problems, both in areas affected
by the trusteeship provisions of the U.N. Charter,
and in older dependencies and areas where the colonial
Powers now have 'the problem of ceasing to act as
trustees'. It touches on the U.N. trusteeship system,
the economic development of the Pacific countries, the
problem of national minorities, the impact of Japan,
the nationalist movements, and the question of regional
987. Australia's Interests and Policies in Regard to
Problems of Economic and Social Recon-
struction in the Pacific. By a Study Group
of the Australian Institute of International
Affairs. Australian Paper No. 2, presented
at the Institute of Pacific Relations Strat-
ford Conference, September 1947, pp. 62.
This paper is composed of contributions by four
authors. N. D. Harper discusses Australian policy
towards Japan, in the pre-war, war, and post-war
periods. W. Prest gives an account of Australian
relations with China, particularly on the two points of
immigration and trade. G. Sawer deals with Australian
political relations with South East Asia and comments
that not only are the official statements on this vague,
but the actual policies pursued seem to be cautious
and tentative. Miss D. Crozier writes on Australian
economic and social policy in Papua and New Guinea,
including a section on the significance of the Anzac
Pact and the South Pacific Commission.--. W.
988. New Zealand and the Pacific. New Zealand
Institute of International Affairs. New
Zealand Paper No. i, presented at the
Institute of Pacific Relations Stratford
Conference, September 1947, pp. 45.
Willis Airey's report on 'New Zealand and Security
in the Pacific', deals with the connection between the
country's economy and security, relations with the
Great Powers, its role in the U.N., the Canberra
Agreement, and its interest in the treatment of Japan.
E. Beaglehole's paper on 'Trusteeship and New
Zealand's Pacific Dependencies' covers the internal
social and economic problems of N.Z.'s three groups of
island dependencies, their present political status,
the Trusteeship Agreement for Western Samoa, and
the South Pacific Commission Agreement.
C. G. F. Simkin's report on 'New Zealand's Economic
Interests in the Far Eastern Settlements' deals with the
likely effects of war-time and post-war changes in
countries of the Far East on the N.Z. economy. 'New
Zealand's economic interests in the Far East are shown
to be more indirect than direct, depending mainly upon
the importance of the Far East as a market for British
exports and as a source of dollars.'--.W.
989. Germany under Allied Military Government.
W. Friedmann. Australian Outlook, pp. 78-
87, June 1948.
The author has discussed briefly the original problems
and aims, the methods adopted, the failures and the
achievements of the occupying powers in Germany, in
the political, constitutional, economic, social and
ethical fields. He concludes that 'the formation of two
separate states is now not only inevitable but desirable',
and, because of the importance of the antagonism
between the U.S. and the Soviet Union, urges the
formation of a Western European association of nations
under the moral leadership of Britain.-J.W.
990. Some Notes on Iran and Oil. Duncan
MacCallum. Australian Outlook, pp. 102-
115, June 1948.
After a general outline of the interests of Britain,
U.S., and the Soviet Union in Iran, based on oil and
strategy, the author gives an account of Iranian politics
from 1944, particularly in relation to the Soviet request
for oil concessions, the Azerbaijan revolt, and military
and economic co-operation with the United States. A
list of the sources from which the article was written is
991. Our British Future. R. G. Casey. Twentieth
Century, pp. 18-25, September 1948.
The British race suffers from maldistribution. In
order both to help solve Britain's economic problems,
and to assure Australia's prosperity and independence
in the future, Mr. Casey advocates migration from
Britain to Australia, and joint British-Australian develop-
ment of some of Australia's untapped resources.
America might also be interested in the latter task.
The initiative in such plans must come from Australia.-
992. White Australia and South East Asia.
D. C. M. Jackson. Twentieth Century,
pp. 26-36, September 1948.
Australia is making the worst of both worlds by
maintaining the unrealistic White Australia Policy, and
at the same time offending the Western colonial powers
by its failure to give them full support in South East
Asia. Australian criticism of American Pacific policy
is also tending to ignore our dependence on the U.S.
for security. Mr. Jackson goes on to analyse the tactics
of the Red offensive in the countries of South East
Asia, using the nationalist movements for the ends of
the revolutionary planners in Moscow.-f.W.
993. Geography and New Zealand's External
Relations. L. K. Munro. New Zealand
Geographer, pp. 1-14, April 1948.
Mr. Munro deals with a number of aspects of N.Z.
foreign policy, such as the question of a common
empire foreign policy, co-operation in the Pacific
with Australia, her trusteeship area in Western Samoa,
and her part in the establishment of the South Pacific
Commission. In all aspects of the dominion's foreign
policy, her position as a small and remote power in the
South Pacific is one of the most important factors.-
994. Housing and Public Policy. R. I. Downing.
Economic Record, pp. 72-86, June 1948.
The Australian housing target of 60,ooo houses a
year falls short of our housing needs, based on standards
accepted by housing authorities. But without a public
housing policy, it will be impossible for the market
to absorb a steady output of this size. Governments
should offset fluctuations in housing demand by
counter-variations in demolitions; should reduce
building costs by encouraging new and improved
methods of production ; and should extend the existing
and good subsidy scheme. Housing can eventually
offer good scope for counter-cyclical public investment
policy. A successful public housing policy will open
up new markets for private enterprise.-R.I.D.
995. The Australian Housing Cost Index. R.
Mendelsohn and J. M. Hamilton. Economic
Record, pp. 87-1oo, June 1948.
This article deals with a statistical series launched
recently by the Housing Division, Commonwealth
Department of Works and Housing. For four specimen
dwellings: two-bedroom and three-bedroom brick and
timber houses with a certain area, cost data were collec-
ted at quarterly intervals, to prepare indexes for the
six capital cities, based on official trade prices and
award wage rates. Costs in each section, e.g. concreting,
brickwork, carpentry, were expressed in terms of a
'unit schedule rate'. To put these cost figures into
index form, two- and three-bedroom dwellings were
weighted equally, brick and timber dwellings according
to housing activities in 1946-47. To prepare indexes
for all capital cities population figures were used as
weights. From 1939 to December 1947 the cost of
erecting houses similar to the specimen has risen by at
least 90 per cent.
996. The Future Urban Boundaries of Melbourne
and the Distribution of Population Therein.
Melbourne and Metropolitan Board of
Works, pp. 22.
This is a report presented in December 1947 by
E. F. Borrie, Chief-Engineer of Sewerage, who was
authorised by the M.M.B.W. to plan for a population
of z,ooo,ooo, probably not to be reached before the
year zooo. Sewering planning must be related to
watershed boundaries and to 'the population likely to
dwell within such boundaries'. The present metro-
politan area is classified into seven sectors. Various
factors affecting the population distribution in the
seven sectors (average time of travel to the City, cost
of land, flats, public reserves and parks, etc.) are pointed
out. The trend is towards loss of population in the
central sector, absorption of the largest population
increase in the eastern, south-eastern and southern
sector, and expansion beyond the present metropolitan
997. Co-operative Housing Societies, Victoria.
Second Annual Report of the Registrar
for Year ended 30 June 1947. P.P.
Government Printer, Melbourne, pp. 14.
Price is. 3d.
During the year under review the Co-operative
Housing Societies (Guarantees) Act 1946 came into
force, which increased the maximum liability to be
accepted by the Treasurer from 8 m. to 12 m. In
September 1946 a Federation of Co-operative Housing
Societies of Victoria was formed. Part II discusses
the formation and operation of societies. The number
of registered societies rose from 63 to 93, the aggregate
amount of guarantees to more than 9 m. Up to
30 June 1947 390 dwelling houses were completed,
1,204 in course of erection.
(B) Social Security and Public Health
998. Sixth Report of the Director-General of
Social Services, Year ended 30 June 1947.
P.P. Government Printer, Canberra, pp.
17. Price is.
The report presents statistical tables concerning
various social services administered by the department.
The means test for invalid, old-age and widows' pen-
sions was liberalised, which resulted in an increased
number of pensioners and in the rise of the expenditure
on old-age, invalid and widows' pensions. The scheme
of rehabilitation of disabled ex-service personnel was
further developed. The referendum held on 28
September 1946 conferred new power on the Federal
Parliament to make laws regarding various social
benefits and services. Subsequently the Social Services
Consolidation Act was passed and came into operation
on I July 1947. Since July 1947 invalid and old-age
pensions, widows' allowances and pensions were paid
at rates increased by 5s. a week.
999. New Zealand Rehabilitation Board. Report
for Year ended 31 March 1948. P.P.
Government Printer, Wellington, pp. 25,
At 31 March 1948 202,000 N.Z. ex-service persons
had been demobilised. Trade training is arranged at
board's training centres for building workers, the
majority carpenters, as subsidized training with
private employers and subsidized revived apprentice-
ship. Special provision is made for the disabled.
Educational assistance is granted for full-time and.
part-time study at N.Z. university institutions and in
the form of overseas bursaries. Loan facilities are
available for entering business, farming, housing,
furniture and tools of trade. A section of the report
deals with farm training and settlement. Subject of a
special section of the report is Maori rehabilitation.
0ooo. Sickness Absence among AustralianWorkers.
M. Whitehead. Bulletin of Industrial
Psychology and Personnel Practice, pp. 3-
18, September 1948.
A sample of 10,400 workers employed on i January
1944 in Commonwealth munitions factories was studied
for monthly variations throughout 1943. Workers
who began work during 1943 were excluded, leaving
6,492 employees in the sample. Of factors affecting
sickness absence, age and marital status, the number
of dependent children, shift system, length of service,
and the rate of pay were recorded. Sickness absence
was 3.2 per cent of all days in 1943, among production
workers females had more sickness absences. The
majority of the absences were not covered by medical
certificate, but these were mostly cases of one or two
days' duration. About 30 per cent of all time lost
through sickness was due to respiratory disorders.
Iooi. Analysis of the Causes of Accidents.
H. Greenwood Thomas. Manufacturing
and Management, pp. 13-15, July 1948.
This article is based on 'American Recommended
Practice for Compiling Industrial Accident Causes' in
American Standards Association Code Z.16.2-1941 and
on H. W. Heinrich, 'Industrial Accident Prevention'
(McGraw-Hill Book Co.). The author presents a
classification of physical and mechanical hazards which
are either due to initial defects in design or planning,
e.g. improper guards, or to poor operating practice,
e.g. equipment defective through use. The classifica-
tion usually suggests a remedy, viz., engineering revision
or improved supervision. Next unsafe acts are classified,
e.g. making safety devices inoperative. These acts are
mostly a result of unsafe personal factors, such as lack
of skill, bodily defects. The best remedy might be
found by improved supervision.
(C) Social Surveys
(D) Population and Migration
1002. Marital Fertility. Economic News, pp. 1-5,
This article calculates fertility rates for Queensland
from 1864-1945. Crude and 'standardised'-to elimin-
ate the effect of a changing age composition-fertility
rates per 1ooo married women are presented. In all
age groups the fertility rate reached its peak in 1913,
then fell rapidly (except in the group under 20) until
1929, from 1930-39 the rapid decline was checked,
to be followed by an upswing.
The comparative fertility of the whole population is
measured by the reproductivity rate, standardised with
the use of two nuptiality functions, that for 1946 and
that of women born 1900-1904. The 1913 fertility of
women would have doubled the population in each
generation, that in 1933 would have increased the
population by 8 per cent in a generation, that in 1946
gives a net reproduction rate of 1.457. A further
refinement of the net reproduction rate is made by
considering the distribution according to duration of
1003. The Density of World Farm Population.
Economic News, pp. 1-8, October-Decem-
According to Thornthwaite's classification the cli-
mates of the eastern-central states of the U.S. and those
of N.W. Europe are taken as standard (i), other
climates are presented in equivalents of standard from
2 to I/1oo. Tables show the equivalent areas of
standard farm land in various countries in thousands
of square miles. Figures compare the pressure on
land in different countries as related to the density
level on standard farm land in U.S. (six male rural
workers per square mile of cultivable area) and to
that of N.W. Europe (22). Efficiency is measured by
I.U. (International Units, i.e. average quantities of
goods and services exchanged for $i in U.S.
1925-34). Countries with the lowest density are most
efficient in I.U. and vice versa. The bulk of popula-
tion transfer between 1937-87 should be between
Asia as emigration area-and Africa and South America
as immigration areas.
1004. Immigration and Agriculture. J. Weeks.
Farm Front, pp. 86-89, June 1948.
Figures for 1914-23, 1924-33 and 1934-43 are pre-
sented, giving the average annual quantities of pro-
duction and numbers of permanent workers in various
rural industries in N.S.W. There was considerable
expansion of output between 1914 and 1943 with a
smaller labour force. Australian home demand for
rural products will greatly increase only in case of
large immigration. The population in the main
countries importing Australian rural produce rises at
a diminishing rate or declines. In the long run the
demand for farm goods is growing at a diminishing
rate, their supply at an increasing rate because of
improving farm practices. Probably our agriculture
will offer little scope for the absorption of immigrants.
100oo5. Regional Population Trends in New South
Wales. State Development (Sydney),.
pp. 46-53, June 1948.
Of the o2 regions comprising N.S.W. only seven
made population gains between the census of 1933 and
of 1947, the other thirteen lost population. The popu-
lation gains of the Sydney, Newcastle and Illawarra
regions (all coastal) were 399,000, that is nearly 15,000
more than the net gain of the whole state. Of the other
four regions showing gains three are coastal: Richmond-
Tweed, Clarence and Oxley, and only one, Upper
Murray, is an inland region. However, the majority
of the municipalities in all regions made population
gains, while the shires with few exceptions lost
Ioo6. Steinberg, I. N. Australia-The Un-
promised Land. Victor Gollancz Ltd.,
London 1948, pp. 172.
This book deals with the proposal of the Freeland
League for Jewish Territorial Colonisation to establish
a Jewish settlement in the East Kimberley region of
the north of W.A. The author came to W.A. as
representative of that League in 1939 and visited the
Kimberleys on a three weeks' trip together with three
Australians. In the author's opinion the Kimberley
region has good soil, water supply and a tolerable
climate. In August 1939 the W.A. State Government
gave its official consent to the proposed settlement.
Subject of Chapter 6 is a project suggested by C. Parker
for a Jewish settlement in the S.W. of Tasmania. The
last chapter discusses the progress of the plan during
and after the author's stay in Australia (1939-43).
The Federal Government finally rejected the project
on the ground that alien group settlements in Australia
are not favoured.
1007. Hunt, H. K. Training through Latin.
Australian Council for Educational Re-
search, Melbourne University Press, 1947,
pp. VII+176. Price 15s.
This work is written for students in Education as a
basis for discussion and as a teaching guide. Latin
is justified through the training it offers in language
skills (and particularly its value for the understanding
of English), through the cultural objectives attained by
classical studies, and through the mental training
offered. These values will be attained if there is a well-
balanced curriculum with correlations of syntax,
grammar, reading and background information, with
adequate time devoted to each. The method should
be linguistic rather than grammatical, and the syntax
should be studied in its functional uses.
Ioo8. Maslin, J. S. Hagley : The Story of a
Tasmanian Area School. Georgian House,
Melbourne, 1948, XVI+82. 41 illustra-
tions. Price 15s.
Hagley is an area school established in 1936. It
began as a small rural school; between 1931 and 1936
its work was related to the environment. After 1936
it was reorganised as an area school; its curriculum
included manual and domestic crafts, and farm and
home studies. Between 1939 and 1942 it developed
its farm activities and began its residential side. Details
are given of the activities of the school.
1oo9. Beckenham, P. W. The Education of the
Australian Aborigine. Australian Council
for Educational Research, Melbourne, 1948,
pp. 54. Price 4s.
Aboriginal education is in the hands of both states
and missions; in Queensland, S.A. and W.A. the
missions receive some subsidy for certain work. In
the states, educational work is shared between a depart-
ment dealing with native affairs and the Education
Department. There are about 50 missions distributed
throughout Australia. Their purpose in education
varies greatly, as do the provisions made for it. There
are many Aborigines receiving no education or an
inadequate one, teachers are not specially trained,
equipment is inadequate, and the curriculum is not
Io1o. Parkyn, G. W. Children of High Intelligence.
New Zealand Council for Educational Re-
search, Wellington, 1948, pp. 288. Price
A survey of children of high general intelligence in
N.Z., based on factual data obtained from a completed
six-year study of 50 of these children, together with
data available from the Otis standardisation of 1936,
and from a guidance study over the period 1935-40.
The book describes the general characteristics of such
children, and the educational facilities available for
them in N.Z. schools. Methods of teaching, methods
of class grouping, and suggestions as to how the schools
could better serve the interests of these children are
IoII. The McColvin Report on Public Libraries
in Australia: a rejoinder by its author.
L. McColvin, Australian Quarterly, pp. 66-
72, September 1948.
Replying to an article by McLoskey, in the Australian
Quarterly, March 1948, McColvin defends his report.
He maintains that he spent enough time at sufficient
libraries to judge their value, and that if much said in
the Munn-Pitt report has been repeated it is because
nothing has been done to change the position. He is
not concerned with the relationships between central
and local authorities but only with the provision of
library services. He disagrees that the best way of
educating people to use libraries is to begin with the
children; the only way is to set up good libraries.
He is not opposed to decentralisation, but believes
that organised society can be more effectual than
IoIz. Teaching English to D.P. Migrants.
Dr. R. Crossley. Education News, pp. 3-5,
June 1948, and pp. 3-6, August 1948.
The learning of English and the assimilation of the
Australian way of life are even more important with
present-day, directed, large-scale immigration than
before the War. Language teaching at immigrant
camps aims to make immigrants understand, speak,
read and write simple English. In the short time
available only the foundations of future competence in
reading and writing can be laid. Instruction is mainly
oral, with ample use of concrete objects. Recognition
that these are adults, that they are keener than less
motivated pupils, mostly of above average intelligence,
and that language learning enables their survival in
Australia fashions the teacher-pupil relationship and
the methods used.
1013. The Marking of Children's Essays. G. E.
Phillips. The Forum of Education (Sydney),
pp. 19-29. Vol. VII, August 1948.
Thirty essays written by a sixth class in a public
school under examination conditions were ranked by
450 university students during 1943-47. The range of
judgments was large, o2 being ranked in every place
from first to last. Mean correlation between indi-
vidual rankings was .41, which rose to .98 for groups of
ioo. The mean intercorrelations for individual raters
was .61, for groups of five .89 and .99 for a group of
moo. The judges could only be reasonably confident
about the best and worst 2o per cent. They were
later re-ranked by 353 students. The average correla-
tion between two rankings by the same marker was
found to be .66.
1014. Victoria-Report of the Minister for Public
Instruction for the Year 1946-47. Govern-
ment Printer, Melbourne, 1948, pp. 39-
The report begins with a general statement of the
difficulty in providing sufficient staff and buildings
during the year. The general report is followed by
reports on primary, secondary and technical education
and on art and applied art. The statistical tables
have been grouped into the pattern recommended by
the Conference on Educational Statistics 1947, and the
classification of expenditure is much more detailed than
has been the custom in previous years.
1015. South Australia-Report of the Minister of
Education for the Year ended December 31,
1947. Government Printer, Adelaide, 1948,
The major problems tackled were those connected
with shortages of staff and school accommodation
arising from curtailment of building and recruitment
during the war, and from an increase in school popula-
tion. Solutions attempted included the recruiting of
trained women teachers from U.K., retention of the
services of married women teachers and teachers due
to retire, wider advertising of positions, and the acquisi-
tion of land, temporary buildings and army huts to
iox6. Queensland-The 72nd Report of the Secre-
tary for Public Instruction for the Year ended
31 December 1947. Government Printer,
Brisbane, 1948, pp. 41.
Includes an outline of the activities of the depart-
ment, statistical tables, and the reports of the Director-
General, Senate of the University, and Library Board.
The Secretary's outline consists of itemised factual
material. The tables of statistics are presented in the
form recommended by a Conference on Educational
Statistics, May 1947. The report of the Director
emphasises the difficulties due to shortages of staff and
accommodation, and indicates the need for new and
revised curricula with the prospect of raising the school
leaving age. The developments of new activities are
1017. Report of the Commonwealth Council for
National Fitness, Tenth Session, November
1947. Government Printer, Canberra,
1948, pp. 72.
A summary of discussions held and resolutions passed
at the tenth meeting of the Council, 1947. Appendices
give reports for 1947 from: The Commonwealth
National Fitness Officers; the State National Fitness
Councils ; the physical education staffs of state educa-
tion departments ; the Universities of Melbourne,
Adelaide and Queensland, and Sydney Teachers'
College, on degree and diploma courses; a conference
of university lecturers in physical education, and an
analysis of present courses in universities ; an examina-
tion of existing health services in Australian universities;
and the text of the Commonwealth Fitness Act (No. 26
ioi8. New Zealand-Report of the Minister for
Education for the Year ending 31 December
1947 (EI). Government Printer, Welling-
ton, 1948, pp. 36.
Statistical tables giving inter alia numbers of schools,
roll numbers by ages and by grades in certain types
of school, an age grade classification for public, primary
and post primary schools, and for registered private
primary schools and lower departments of secondary
schools, number of teachers in schools of various
sizes, size of classes, average teacher salaries, etc.,
University education, and a detailed analysis of expendi-
ture. Deals chiefly with problems arising from the
increased birth rate, and increased proportions of
pupils in post-primary education.
oI19. New -Zealand-Education-Primary and
Post Primary Education (E2). Government
Printer, Wellington, 1948, pp. 48.
Includes the report of the Chief Inspector of Primary
Schools for 1947, which discusses standards of work
and questions of social promotion, etc. ; the report of
the Chief Inspector of post primary schools for 1947,
which discusses the reorganisation and decentralisation
of the inspectorate, problems of staffing, etc. ; statistical
tables showing (by education districts) public primary
schools by grade, attendances, etc. ; statistical tables
showing enrolment and grade classification of pupils in
intermediate schools, etc. ; similar information on
registered secondary schools.
1020. New Zealand-Education of Maori Children
1947 (E3). Government Printer, Welling-
ton, 1948, pp. 12.
This contains the report for 1947 of the Senior
Inspector off Maori Schools, which reviews briefly
the development of the schools into Maori institutions.
Primary, secondary and university education for Maori
children are reviewed, and comparisons drawn between
1931 and 1947. Statistical tables are presented dealing
with the number of schools classified by size, Maori
secondary schools, scholarship holders at various
colleges both pakeha and Maori, Maori children attend-
ing public schools, age-grade classification in Maori
schools (including European children in these schools).
1021. New Zealand. Child Welfare, State Care
of Children, Special Schools and Infant
Life Protection 1947 (E4). Government
Printer, Wellington, 1948, pp. 1o.
This report for 1947 by the Superintendent of Child
Welfare reports developments in buildings and organisa-
tion, gives details of special schools for backward
and deaf children, and records statistics of placements
in foster homes and employment; committals, admis-
sions, and discharges, from the Children's Courts; and
1022. New Zealand. Higher Education (E7) 1947.
Government Printer, Wellington, 1948,
Statistics are given of numbers of students taking
different courses and subjects at each of the four
university colleges, and the two agricultural colleges in
1947, the number of candidates completing degrees, etc.,
at examinations in 1947, and passing in sections of those
examinations in 1947.
1023. Thirteenth Annual Report. New Zealand
Council for Educational Research, Welling-
ton, 1948, pp. 28.
The report covers the activities of the Council for
the year ended 31 March 1948. The chairman's
report contains a brief outline of the progress of the
Council, its relationship with other organizations, and
some indications of its policy. Recent publications of
the Council are described in the Director's report, with
a list of 15 Council-sponsored studies and investigations
now in progress, and a reference to information and
advisory services available. Synopses of the annual
reports for 1947-8 of the four local Institutes for
Educational Research are followed by a list of Council
1024. Near North : Australia and a Thousand
Million Neighbours : edited by R. J.
Gilmore and Denis Warner, pp. 348.
Angus and Robertson. 1948. Price i6s.
A symposium 'to answer Australian questions about
brown, yellow and black neighbours, written by
Australian newspapermen (13) who variously have
worked, fought and been enslaved in the Near North',
i.e. Indonesia and South-East Asia. The authors are
concerned to describe the countries and explain the
attitudes of the peoples in this great region, to aid, as
Dr. Evatt puts it, 'in the formulation of Australian public
opinion' and so to assist in the development of Australian
policy in relation to those countries. The writers of
the various chapters accept the view that it is the re-
sponsibility of Australians to help the peoples of the
Near North to attain self-government, as well as social
and economic security. The countries examined are
Netherlands East Indies, Malaya, Hong-Kong, Burma,
India, i.e. the countries whose development has been
under British control, Indo-China, Siam, the Philip-
pines, Manchuria and Japan. The chapters vary
greatly in content from geographical to historical, and
from linguistic to political studies. Short biographies
of the contributors complete the work.
1025. Rawson, Geoffrey. Australia, pp. 190.
Chatto and Windus, 1948.
A popular treatment of Australian political and
economic history, followed by chapters explaining the
Australian economy, the political system of the Common-
wealth, industries and developmental works, migration
and defence. The history and development of each
State is treated separately in later chapters, and a
final chapter on the aborigines ends the work.
1026. Gentilli, J. Australian ClimatesandResources,
pp. 333. Whitcombe & Tombs, 1947.
Price 8s. 6d.
This book is a geography of Australia, based on
climatic regions according to Koeppen's system, con-
taining chapters on isolation and differentiation,
coasts and seas, structure, mining and quarrying,
climatic regions, temperature, pressure and winds,
rainfall, inland waters, soils, plant life, grain and other
crops, animal life, animal-raising industries, human
life, secondary industries and transport and communica-
tion. There is also a chapter on New Zealand and
New Guinea and smaller islands.
One Appendix explains how to use temperature and
rainfall statistics for classifying climates according to
Koeppen's system, and another contains an Australian
1027. Gloe, C. S. Underground Water Resources of
Victoria. State Rivers and Water Supply
Commission of Victoria, 1947, pp. 158.
This is the first of a series of volumes to be issued
by the S.R.W.S.C. 'as a result of a comprehensive
investigation of underground water supplies'. Part I
deals in general terms with the origin, occurrence,
movements and quality of underground waters. In
Part II records of bores and wells in the Mallee,
Wimmera, and Glenelg regions are examined, and
Part III is devoted to an examination of the Murray
Artesian Basin, with maps, plans and geological sec-
tions. These parts are to be completed later until
the whole of Victoria has been covered. Then Part IV
will follow with recommendations and a bibliography
of 'all previously published work having some bearing
on underground water in Victoria'.-M.B.
1028. Douglas, I. Opportunity in Australia.
Rockliff. London, 1947, pp. 186.
A practical book containing chapters on climate,
government, food and dress, social services, culture
and language, unions and jobs, main primary and
secondary industries, and where to settle in the six
States of Australia.-E.J.D.
1029. Heath, F., and Gower, W. Latrobe Valley
Development. Regional Survey and Report,
pp. 50. State Electricity Commission,
Three maps and a number of tables, diagrams and
photos illustrate this detailed regional survey, dealing
with the physical conditions and the natural resources,
population, industry, land use, communications, public
utilities and housing of this part of the Latrobe Valley
which will be affected by the establishment of a new
Open Cut and the expansion of the State brown coal
briquetting industry and electrical generation.-E.J.D.
1030. An Experiment in Teaching Climate. C. D.
Back. Australian Geographer, pp. 159-167.
Six lessons conducted at a N.S.W. High School
are described in detail, to show how climatic regions
based on the Koeppen scheme of classification could
be taught to children aged 13-14 years. 'The lesson
series commenced with a consideration of the character-
istics of the six climatic regions present in Australia,
the remaining five types of climate being studied when
each was encountered in a study of the climates of the
other continents.' 'The use of climatic statistics as a
basis of classification was within the powers of compre-
hension of the class.' Two tables, temperature and
rainfall figures and two maps of Australia which were
the main aids of teaching are reprinted.-E.J.D.
1031. The Size of the Australian Desert. A.
Marshall. Australian Geographer, pp. 168-
176. June 1948.
A great number of attempts at defining a desert
climatically are discussed, and four maps show the
different extent of the desert in Australia, according to
seven of these attempts. The concept 'length of grow-
ing period' is considered the most satisfactory. However,
'the principal difficulty in mapping the Australian
desert according to length of growing season is common
to all such attempts-the lack of observational material.'
The article is documented by references to the literature
on deserts and on the desert in Australia.-E.J.D.
1032. Whyalla. . A Study of Geography in
the Making. J. B. Rowe. Australian
Geographer, pp. 176-183. June 1948.
'Australia has had no more spectacular example of
geography in the making than that provided by the
industrial progress of Whyalla during the past ten
years.' Some sociological aspects, the Morgan-Whyalla
pipeline, and the old established pastoral activities of
Whyalla's hinterland are also discussed.-E.J.D.
1033. New Zealand Farms and
Islands. Sir Albert Ellis.
Geographer, Vol. 4, No.
I, pp. 55-68,
The need for food being urgent now and for some
time to come, methods of fertilising farmlands are
important to the N.Z. farmer. Large phosphate imports
are necessary if N.Z. is to maintain or increase food
production. Since i92o N.Z. and Australia have been
obtaining phosphate from Nauru and Ocean Islands.
Bombardment from the sea and air throughout the war
badly damaged loading gear on both islands. After
seven months of reconstruction phosphate shipping
was resumed, with the first year's production at one-
fifth of the pre-war rate. The demand for super-
phosphate will continue to expand with closer settle-
ment and more intensive methods of cultivation.-
1034. Services Vegetable Production. Market
Gardening in Wartime. Ian Blair. New
Zealand Geographer, Vol. 4, No. I, pp. 69-
77, April 1948.
During 1943-45 the N.Z. Department of Agriculture
organized a scheme for the production and distribution
of vegetables to the N.Z. and American services. Most
of the 4,000 acres used were large paddocks, broken
from grasslands. Labour was done by Japanese P.O.W.s,
Maoris and pakeha workers. In I944 22 different types
of vegetables were produced at one time. Total pro-
duction at the end of the scheme in 1945 had reached
46,000 tons, at a cost of little more than 2d. per lb.
The scheme was dropped quickly in 1945, and the
lessons learned, and information gathered have not yet
been made available to private market gardeners, who
stand to gain from this wartime experience.-R.K. W.
1035. Coal Resources of Victoria. G. Brown.
Mining and Geological Journal, pp. 4-15.
The history of the seven black coal-fields and nine
brown coal-fields in Victoria is very briefly given, and
production figures, estimated reserves, and coal analyses
are discussed ; special attention is drawn to the shortage
of experienced miners and the increased use of brown
coal for industrial purposes by about 160 firms, apart
from many hospitals and Government Institutions.-
1036. The Indian Ocean-A Background to
History. J. Gentilli. Australian Outlook,
pp. 167-177, September 1948.
The importance of maps for the appraisal of geo-
graphical positions is discussed; the author wrote this
article in front of a specially constructed azimuthal
orthographic map of the Indian Ocean. After sketching
the climate of the Indian Ocean and its bordering
regions, the general pattern of racial distribution and
its history are summarised, and the impact of European
conquest, and especially that of the two World Wars
upon the many peoples of the Indian Ocean is assessed.
'The white communities of Australia and South Africa
will be accepted as partners and good neighbours if
they show a farsighted understanding of historical
1037. Hounam, C. E. Climate of the West
Australian Wheat Belt with Special Refer-
ence to Rainfall over Marginal Areas.
Comm. Met. Bureau. Studies in Applied
Climatology. Western Australian Pamphlet
No. i, 1947, pp. 32
Rainfall over marginal areas of the W.A. wheat
belt is assessed by arithmetical means, medians, the
probabilities of receiving more than specified amounts
and effective rainfall. Physiography, soils, temperatures
and natural vegetation of the area are discussed. The
marginal limit of wheat growing can approximately be
fixed by an average rainfall of 8 in. for the period April
to August. Another index of wheat growth is the
'seasonal growth factor'. This term and the terms
'effective rainfall' and 'influential rainfall factor' are
The results suggest a possible extension of the
present wheat growing eastward south of 320 S.-F.L.
1038. -Report on Antarctica. Gabriele Rabel.
Science News 6, Penguin Books, pp. 9-37,
Summarises the history of Antarctic exploration and
describes the existing territorial claims and the recent
beginnings of permanent occupation in the Falkland
Sector. Discusses some new studies on food, clothing
and transport. Compares the geographical peculiarities
of the Arctic and Antarctic regions and analyses recent
studies on topography and ice conditions. The article
concludes with a survey of the biological conditions of
Antarctic land and water expanses, with particular
reference to seals and penguins.-F.L.
1039. Ward, John M. British Policy in the South
Pacific (1786-1893). Australasian Publish-
ing Company, Sydney, 1948, pp. XII. 364.
Price 22s. 6d.
This work discusses the history of British policy
in the south Pacific between 1788 and 1893. It is an
attempt to indicate the main trends in that period, so
that later scholars may fill in the details. The principal
sources used are the British and Australian Parlia-
mentary Papers, Debates, Colonial Office correspon-
dence and newspapers. There is a full bibliography
1040. Murphy, F. Daniel Mannix, Archbishop of
Melbourne, Advocate Press, Melbourne,
1948, pp. 258. Price 15s. Iod.
Drawing his material from the files of 'The Advocate',
the author has recounted the outstanding events in
the public life of Dr. Mannix over the past thirty years.
No attempt has been made at a detailed biography, but
the more memorable of the Archbishop's activities,
such as his tour abroad 1920-1921, the notable events
of Catholic life in Melbourne and elsewhere in Australia
during his Episcopate have been related. Significant
advances in the organisation of the Church are touched
on. Mr. Murphy has also summarised the Archbishop's
principal public addresses on both religious matters and
1041. Holman, Ada A. Memoirs of a Premier's
Wife. Angus & Robertson, Sydney, 1947.
Mrs. Holman was premier's wife in N.S.W. during
the vital years 1912 to 1920, when her husband, the
late W. A. Holman, held office. She describes her
experiences both in Australia and overseas, telling
many amusing stories and often quoting her husband's
comments. Her book is a record of people and
incidents, not an analytical account.-M.K.
1042. Sir Henry Parkes and Federation. D. McR.
MacCallum. Royal Australian Historical
Society, Journal and Proceedings, Vol.
XXXIV, 1948, Part I, pp. 36-62.
This article outlines Parkes' role in the Federal
movement, with particular reference to the period
1889-91. After a brief survey of the part played by
Parkes according to contemporary and later opinion,
the author develops his theme that compromise was
Parkes' most important contribution to this movement,
sketching his relations with political leaders in other
states and with the later advocates of Federation-Reid
and Quick. The 1891 Conference and Convention
have the central place in this survey, in which the
writer underlines the difficulty of distinguishing between
the work of individuals in framing a federal constitution
and in helping to bring about federation.-f.P.
1043. Mr. Jacob Mountgarret, R.N. W. E. L.
Crowther. Royal Australian Historical
Society, Journal and Proceedings, Vol.
XXXIV, Part I, 1948, pp. 1-35.
In his account of 'the pioneer colonial surgeon of
Van Diemen's Land' the author sketches in the back-
ground of the early period in Tasmania, touching on
the exploration and settlement of Risdon, Sullivan
Cove, Hobart Town, and Port Dalrymple, in all of
which Mountgarret figured. The social and pro-
fessional activities of Mountgarret's career as Colonial
Surgeon, and later his more dubious activities as
landowner, implicated as he was in the bushranging of
Peter Mills, show his 'steady deterioration' in the
environment of the colony.-A.G.T.
1044. The Five Dock Farm. Kenneth G. Allars.
Royal Australian Historical Society, Journal
and Proceedings, Vol. XXXIV, pp. 89-105,
1948, Part II.
This article describes how the original grant of land
to Dr. John Harris in 1806 on the banks of the Parra-
matta River, and which came to be known as the Five
Dock Farm, was gradually subdivided and has eventu-
ally become the present Sydney suburbs of Abbotsford,
Chiswick, Five Dock and Drummoyne. It contains
an account of the inauguration of the punt across the
river and of later communication with the city by road,
ferry, tram and train. Mention is made of some of the
old buildings, landmarks and residents of the district.-
1045. Governor Arthur and the Gellibrand
Affair. William J. Judd. Royal Australian
Historical Society, Journal and Proceedings,
Vol. XXXIV, Part III, pp. 113-125.
In the early years of his administration in Van
Diemen's Land Governor Arthur aroused considerable
opposition by his attempt at reform. One of his
opponents was Lathrop Murray, a contributor to the
Hobart Town Gazette, with whom Gellibrand, Arthur's
Attorney-General, was associated.
Tension between the Governor and the Attorney-
General grew. The latter's affairs were investigated, and
although he was acquitted of 'unprofessional conduct'
by the Supreme Court the Board of Inquiry presented
an unfavourable report and Gellibrand was removed
from office. The press continued to suggest, however,
that he was a martyr to Arthur's tyranny.-B.G.
1046. Sir Hubert Murray, Australia's Achieve-
ment in Native Administration. Lewis
Lett. Royal Australian Historical Society,
Journal and Proceedings, Vol. XXXIV,
Part III, pp. 126-145.
A sympathetic sketch of Murray's life and work in
Papua. His policy was aimed at the conversion of a
backward people into a 'civilised and competent race'.
Murray and his patrol officers opened up the back
country, but niggardly Commonwealth finance led to
the imposition of native taxation and a Labour Ordin-
ance. Personal isolation and a tremendous devotion to
duty enabled Murray to achieve most of his long-range
objectives (despite considerable commercial opposition)
and to make Papua in contrast to New Guinea a model
1047. Maribyrnong. Alan Cross. Victorian His-
torical Magazine. Melbourne, pp. 49-66,
This is an historical survey of the exploitation and
development of the Maribyrnong district from the time
of its exploration by Grimes until the end of the Second
0I48. Historical Aspects of the Wonnangatta
Valley. Nial Brennan. Victorian Historical
Magazine, Melbourne, pp. 67-84, Septem-
The settlement of the Wonnangatta Valley provides
a tale of pioneering courage. It is 'primarily . a
story of spiritual values, and if you neither accept nor
acknowledge the existence of such values then this
story will not interest you much.'-A.S.
1049. Jawaharlal Nehru. N. D. Harper. Aus-
tralian Outlook, pp. 147-155, September
A critical appreciation of the first Prime Minister of
the New Dominion of India, who for long has been a
symbol of Indian nationalism. One of his distinctive
contributions to Congress policy has been his attempt
to fuse Indian nationalism with socialism. He has
emphasised the unity of India, although he has under-
estimated the strength of Moslem nationalism and
perhaps the religious basis of the communal conflict.
He has always envisaged the Indian struggle for inde-
pendence and social reform against a background of
world conflict. India will be the natural leader of
Asia against western imperialism, perhaps the centre
of an Asiatic Federation of Nations.-N.D.H.
(A) Constitutional Law
1050. H. S. Nicholas (formerly Chief Judge in
Equity of the Supreme Court of New South
Wales). The Australian Constitution.
Law Book Co. of Australia Pty. Ltd.
1948, pp. xxviii, 293, appendices and index,
This work fills a gap in Australian legal literature
and surveys the constitutional structure with learning
1051. Delegated Legislation. A. E. Currie.
Australian Law Journal, pp. 110-113,
A survey of an English decision, Blackpool Corporation
v. Lecker  rAi E.R. 85, which discusses critically
problems arising out of the delegation of power by the
Minister of Health to municipal corporations.
1052. The Planned State and the Rule of Law.
W. G. Friedmann. Australian Law
Journal: pp. 162-172, August 1948,
pp. 207-213, September 1948.
This penetrating article deals with the problem of the
preservation of liberty in a planned state, discussing the
propositions of Dicey and of Hayek. The lawyer can
assert with confidence that the incompatibility of
planning with the rule of law is a 'myth sustainable only
by prejudice or ignorance'.
(B) Criminal Law
1053. J. V. Barry, G. W. Paton and G. Sawer.
An Introduction to the Criminal Law in
Australia (Vol. VI of English Studies in
Criminal Science). Macmillan 1948,
London, pp. x, 128.
An attempt to delineate the salient features of the
.criminal law in Australia in order to foster interest in
comparative law. The chapters deal with the reception
of English law, the working of the criminal codes in
Queensland, Western Australia and Tasmania, and of
the common law in the other States, and the methods of
1054. Criminal Justice Bill 1947. N. R. Morris.
Res Judicatae, pp. 23-30. May 1948.
This is an interesting general summary of the pro-
posals for reform in the administration of English
1055. Accountants and Taxation Law. N.H.B.
Australian Law Journal, November 1948,
A discussion of the limits within which an accountant
is at liberty to give advice and otherwise act in connection
with taxation matters.
1056. Logic and History. An Assessment of
R. G. Collingwood's Idea of History.
G. Buchdahl. Australasian Journal of
Philosophy, pp. 94-113. September 1948,
Vol. XXVI, No. 2.
This article discusses Collingwood's theory of know-
ledge of history. The situation in the natural sciences
is contrasted with that in history. The facts with which
the historian deals are primarily the thought which
motivated the various events. This thought must be
of the nature of a reconstruction. In history, unlike
science, the process of getting at the facts and of under-
standing them are one and the same. This involves
us in a vicious circle : the facts are based on a construc-
tion which clearly must in turn-somehow-be based
on the facts.
Instead of the concept of law Collingwood uses the
metaphor of an historical growth, particularly of
thought: the thought of one period being contained in
that of subsequent ones. He thinks that it is in
principle possible to re-live the thought of the past.
Whether this doctrine is more than a metaphor is
1057. Child Guidance in Australia. Education
News, pp. 7-11, August 1948.
All six States of Australia have guidance services.
In May 1948 the Commonwealth Office of Education
convened a conference of the leading psychologists and
guidance officers of the States. The discussion in-
cluded differentiation in the primary school, transition
to secondary education, guidance within the post-
primary school, and vocational guidance; also the
agents and instruments of guidance : clinics, classes for
atypical children, and testing programmes.
There are about 70 people engaged in full-time
psychological work in the public educational systems.
In N.S.W. there are also some 300 teachers officially
engaged as part-time 'Careers advisers'. However, the
policy is to use as psychologists specially trained
members of the teaching staff giving full-time service.
In N.S.W., W.A. and Tasmania (limited by staff)
guidance services are available to all children in urban
areas and some country areas at any time during their
school career. In Victoria and S.A. guidance is offered
only to children specifically referred.
Group tests used are the Otis series, A.C.E.R. Speed
and Accuracy, Minnesota Paper Form Board (A.C.E.R.
Edition), A.C.E.R. Mechanical Comprehension. The
Terman-Merrill revision of the Binet test is the basic
Associated child psychiatric clinics with full staffing
operate in N.S.W. (4), Victoria (3), and W.A. (i).
Three main points arose from the conference:
(i) guidance services must be designed for the child
and not for the educational system; (ii) the public,
teachers, parents and children should be educated to
more 'tolerance for the deviate' ; (iii) guidance services
are continuous processes and should not occur only at
those points at which the child may urgently need them.
1058. Selection Tests for Power-serving Machine
Operators. M. N. Oxlade. Bulletin of
Industrial Psychology and Personnel Prac-
tice, pp. 26-36, June 1948.
A battery of five tests : (a) Minnesota Paper Form
Board (Australian Edition); (b) Name and Number
Checking (from N.S.W. Education Department Clerical
Test); (c) N.I.I.P. Paper Folding Test; (d) A.C.E.R.
Aptitude Booklet; (e) Otis Higher Examination
(Australian Edition), were applied to 63 girls aged 15
and 16 years in a training school for power-serving
Three criteria were investigated : (i) standard work
samples (with a repeat trial a week later) ; (ii) super-
visors' ratings; (iii) ratings by the trainees of each
other. The ratings of work samples correlated highly
between judges (order of 0.8), but uniformly lower
between trials spaced a week apart (order of 0.5). The
correlations between pairs of criteria were all significant,
with that of (ii) with (iii) highest.
The correlations between tests (a), (c) and (d) and
all criteria were calculated. Multiple R for the tests
with supervisors' ratings was 0.73, with trainees' ratings
0.56 and with work samples (second trial) 0.59. This
is regarded as a sufficiently high value to warrant
using the battery of tests for selection in this trade.
1059. The Application of Aptitude Tests to the
Selection of Actuarial Students. Edwin F. W.
Sumner. Address read before the Actuarial
Society of Australasia, 1948, pp. 99-113.
In actuarial examinations the proportion of successes
is low. The probability of passing all seven parts of
the examination at the first time is 26 in io,ooo. The
examinations fall in two main divisions, (i) mathe-
matical problems; (ii) application of actuarial know-
ledge. Failure occurs in both. Most new entrants to
the profession have little true idea of the scope and
difficulty of examinations. Aptitude tests, with personal
interview and a testimonial from the authority which
is aware of the individual's qualities and achievements,
would enable unsuitable candidates to be detected
early. Suggested forms for the testimonial and content
of the interview are appended.
o160. Assessing Group Characteristics of Em-
ployees. D. P. Grahame. Manufacturing
and Management, pp. 73-77, September
A group of skilled employees from a large engineering
firm were given a standardized individual interview
centred on their interests and their work attitudes.
From these interviews each man was rated on a 3-point
scale with respect to 20 characteristics. From these a
profile graph for the 'Group Man' was constructed.
This profile graph should indicate to the management
ways in which (i) appeals to prospective employees can
be made more effective, (ii) labour turnover can be
reduced, (iii) satisfactory placement of new employees
can be effected, (iv) work conditions can be acceptably
modified, (v) undesirable tendencies can be discerned
and corrected, and (vi) the character of the working
force can be gradually changed.
TERRITORIES AND NATIVE
o161. Annual Report of the Aborigines Welfare
Board, New South Wales, for Year ended
30 June 1947. P.P. Government Printer,
Sydney, 1948, pp. ii.
The full-bloods in N.S.W. number only 5 per cent,
the others being of various castes. Most of them have
for many generations been in close touch with white
society. The Board's task is to build up responsibility
and a desire to become more desirable members of the
community. Important is to get as many as possible
established in their own homes. Housing was ham-
pered by the general economic difficulties, but contracts
were arranged for the reconstruction of one aboriginal
station and the establishment of two new settlements.
Other sections deal with the Board's.various activities
and the living conditions of aboriginal families who
have recently migrated to Coffs Harbour.
Io6z. Report on the Administration of the Northern
Territory for 1945-46. P.P. Government
Printer, Canberra, pp. 44. Price as.
The report shows the progress made in the transition
from war to normal life. Post, telegraph, health
services reverted to civil control, the Darwin Public
School reopened. Production figures are given for
cattle, kangaroo skins, wool, minerals. Steps were
taken to rehabilitate full-bloods employed by the Army
or indirectly affected by the war, and to return half-
caste women and children evacuated from the N.T.
to S.A. and N.S.W. In many cases the natives found
private employment themselves. They accept what is
being done for them as in their best interests. Refer-
ence is made to stations operated by church bodies for
aborigines or half-castes, and to the churches' educa-
It is proposed to constitute six patrol districts, each
of which will be controlled by a resident officer.
1063. Department of Maori Affairs, New Zealand.
(a) Annual Report of the Under-Secretary
for Year ended 31 March 1948,
Government Printer, Wellington, pp.
(b) The Development and Settlement of
Maori Lands and the Provision of
Houses for Maoris. Government
Printer, Wellington, 1948, pp. 21.
(a) The term 'Native' has been replaced by 'Maori'
in the Maori Purposes Act, 1947. This change has
been welcomed by the Maori. The report deals with
a number of land claims. For the first time a Maori
has been appointed Under-Secretary. 170 Maori
officers, i.e. 28 per cent of the staff, were in the Depart-
ment. Maori welfare work is done by official and
voluntary organizations. Among their activities are
education, housing, child welfare, Maori Land Court
proceedings, vocational guidance, etc. Through volun-
tary organizations the revival of Maori arts and culture
may be possible. In Auckland and Wellington there
are some hostels for Maori boys and girls. Seven large
reserves for Maoris, vested in the Maori Trustees,
comprise 94,309 acres.
(b) This publication includes a report by the Minister
for Maori Affairs and six parts dealing with state
development schemes, Maori Land Board under-
takings, Maori Trust Office activities, housing opera-
tions and work organisation, the Rehabilitation Finance
Committee and the East Coast Maori Trust lands.
Housing has been promoted with the co-operation of
the Maoris, whose relationships with the administration
are happy. They are playing a significant part in the
drive for greater production and the Food for Britain
1064. Territory of Western Samoa. 25th Report on
the Administration of the Territory for
Year ended 31 March 1948. Government
Printer, Wellington, pp. 54.
This report is a concise handbook on Western
Samoa's present conditions. It deals with the status
of the territory and its inhabitants, international and
regional relations, law and order, political, economic,
social and educational advancement, research. An
introductory chapter outlines the group's political
history. The revised constitution is closely in line with
the recommendations of a U.N. mission sent to W.
Samoa in 1947. It provides for a Council of State
and a Legislative Assembly, composed of the members
of the Council, ix elected Samoan members, five
elected representatives of the Europeans and part-
Europeans, and six official members. The Samoans
have an absolute majority in the Assembly. The
population per 31 March 1948 comprised 67,149
natives, 5109 part-Europeans, 316 Europeans and
Io65. Cook Islands. Report of the Administration
for Year ended 31 March 1948. Govern-
ment Printer, Wellington, pp. 37.
As usual, the report includes two sections, the first
concerning the islands except Niue, the second Niue
only. There was a continued high incidence of tubercu-
losis and an epidemic of whooping-cough so that the
infant mortality rose from 141.1 per i,ooo births in
the previous year to 269.29 in the islands; in Niue
(broncho-pneumonia and whooping-cough) from 84.8
to 253. Niue has been without a European medical
officer since 1947, but probably such an officer will
shortly be available.
o166. Tokelau Islands. Report to both Houses
of the General Assembly, New Zealand,
for the year ended 31 March, 1948.
Government Printer, Wellington, N.Z.,
1948, pp. 14.
The report is by the High Commissioner of Western
Samoa, to whom the administration of these islands has
been delegated by the N.Z. Government. The islands
have a small native community closely allied to Western
Samoa in language and culture. These natives have
little contact with the outside world, an economy
sufficient for their needs, and are reasonably happy and
contented. The report contains topographical and
historical chapters and sections on demography, mis-
sions, administration, the local Criminal Code, health
and sanitation, water-supplies, educational and economic
conditions, the latter including chapters on soil analysis,
meteorology, trade and communications, finance.
1067. The Post-war Solomon Islands. Cyril
Belshaw. Far Eastern Survey (New York),
Vol. XVII, No. 8, pp. 95-98, 21 April
The administrative system of the islands was radically
altered during and after the war. Since 1943 native
courts and councils were encouraged. Districts were
reduced to three and, except Malaita, the resulting
districts became unwieldy, close contacts with the
natives was lost. The capital was transferred from
Tulagi to Honiara on Guadalcanal, with a dangerous
anchorage. The medical department is expanding, a
native hospital for each island, a leprosarium and
investigation of tuberculosis is planned. Until 1947
only the five missions ran poor village schools and some
better district schools. Now a Government education
service is to be inaugurated. Economically the islands
have greatly suffered during the Japanese and Allied
occupation. The village rice growing scheme on some
islands could be developed, rice and ground nuts are
now grown in rotation. The copra output has fallen
from a pre-war annual output of z1,000 tons to 963 tons
between the occupation and 25th October 1947, only
2.5 per cent of which was grown by natives. Available
funds should be used to finance production instead of
1068. Santa Isabel, Solomon Islands. George
Bogesi. Oceania, Vol. XVIII, No. 3,
pp. 208-232, March 1948; No. 4, PP.
327-357, June 1948.
The author is a native of Bugotu in Santa Isabel.
He gives an account of the ethnology of his people,
beginning with topography and the explanation of
place names. Further chapters deal with the clan
and kinship system, the position of women, land and
property, daily life, manufactures and currency, dances
and games, magic and religion, disease, dreams, the
life cycle. Finally seven texts are recorded in phonetic
transliteration with a free translation.
1069. Class and Status in a Mixed-Blood Com-
munity. Marie Reay and Grace Sitlington.
Oceania, Vol. XVIII, No. 3, pp. 179-207,
Moree, a N.S.W. country town, is a pastoral centre
with hot artesian baths. In 1946 there were 5,ooo per-
manent inhabitants of the district, comprising a white
and an aboriginal mixed-blood community. The
white population is divided into four classes; the two
higher classes include pastoral and professional, the
two lower trading and labouring people. Between the
two groups there is little social contact. In the mixed-
blood community there is an analogous division into
four classes, due to the mixed-bloods' desire to identify
themselves with the white community. The class
divisions are more significant for the upper class
women, who uphold basic white values (thrift, hygiene,
sobriety, marital constancy).
1070. Sacred Figures of Ancestral Beings of
Arnhem Land. R. M. Berndt and C. H.
Berndt. Oceania, Vol. XVIII, pp. 309-326,
Mr. and Mrs. Berndt, of the Department of Anthro-
pology, Sydney University, in Arnhem Land discovered
and collected 51 human figures carved in wood by
aboriginals, all of indigenous inspiration and execution.
These sculptures are now kept in the museum of the
Department. Ten of these figures are described in the
paper. Their average length is between 27 and 37 inches.
They are real sculptures of the primitive type known as
'pole sculptures', decorated with polychrome paintings
of conventional or symbolic patterns. They represent
ancestors, or secular characters bearing totem designs,
or in some cases, spirits of men or women. The
general opinion so far was that the Australian aborigines
never produced any sculpture in the round.
INDEX TO Nos. 6 AND 7
Aborigines, 877, 878, 1oo9, io61, 1062.
Aborigines, Education, 1009.
Accidents, Industrial, 815, 1ooi.
Accountancy, 741-748, 939-941.
Accountants and Taxation Law, 1055.
Acetylene Black, 720.
Adult Education, 831.
Agriculture, 770, 771, 817, 898, 966, 973, 977, 1004.
Air Department, N.Z., 950.
Airey, W., 988.
Alkalis, Chlorine, 717.
Allars, K. G., 1044.
Anderson, H., 710.
Anderson, J., 979.
Anderson, V. G., 846.
Andrews, J., 835.
Andrews, R. S., 916.
Antarctic Exploration, 850, 1038.
Apprentices, Shortage of, 956.
Aptitude Tests for Actuarial Students, 1059.
Aptitude Tests for Cotton Spinning, 875.
Aranda Tribe, 876.
Arndt, H. W., 725, 81o.
Arnhem Land, Sculptures, 1070.
Arthur, Governor, 1045.
Australia, 673, 674, 678, 1025, 1028.
Australian Climates, 1026.
Australian Depression of i8zo's, 855.
Australian Desert, 1031.
Australian Economy, 675, 886, 889.
Australian External Trade Policy, 903.
Australian Foreign Policy, 798, 799.
Australian Government, 863.
Australian Industry, 684.
Australian Resources, 835, 1026.
Australian Tariffs, 894.
Australia's Federal Archives, 857.
Australia-U.S. Trade Agreement, 682.
Authors, State Aid to, 938.
Aviation Risks, 732.
Aviation Sparkling Plugs, 928.
Back, C. D., 1030.
Balance of Payment Disequilibria, 725.
Ball, W. M., 8oo, 984, 985.
Baltic Immigrants, 826.
Bank Nationalisation, 728, 729, 730.
Barry, J. V., 1053.
Bartlett, N., 850.
Beaglehole, E., 988.
Bean, C. E. W., 857.
Beckenham, P. W., loo9.
Beef Cattle, 959, 976.
Belshaw, C., 885, 1067.
Berndt, R. M. and C. H., 1070.
Binns, K. J., 731, 936.
Birt & Comp., 908.
Black, H. D., 796.
Blair, I., 1034.
Blair Atholl Coal, 697.
Bland, F. A., 978.
Blundell, S. J., 763.
Bogesi, G., o168.
Booth, F. H., 702.
Borrie, E. F., 996.
Borrie, W. D., 810.
Bowman, R. G., 847.
Bradfield Scheme, 848.
Brennan, N., 1048.
Brick Industry, 958.
Brigden, J. B., 892.
Britain's Economy and Policy, 805.
British Commonwealth Relations and Australia, 797.
British Future, 991.
Brodsky, N., 891.
Brown, E., 838.
Brown, G., 1035.
Bruns, G. R., 696.
Buchdahl, G., 1056.
Butcher, A. P., 709.
Butler, I. A., 682, 689.
Butlin, N. G., 758.
Byrt, W. J., 953.
Callaghan, A. R., 774.
Calwell, A. A., 816.
Canada, 843, 936.
Canned Fruits, 708, 783.
Cannon, M., go1.
Carpenters' Braces, 929.
Carpet Industry, 920.
Carslaw, H. S., 733.
Casey, R. G., 991.
Catholicism and Socialism, 793.
Champion, T. S., 86o.
Chifley, J. B., 722.
Child Guidance, 1057.
Child Welfare, N.Z., o121.
Children of High Intelligence, iolo.
Children's Deferred Assurances, 935.
Circuit Breakers and Switch Units, 927.
Civil Aviation in Australia and New Guinea, 949.
Clark, A. H., 843.
Clarke, A. C., 812.
Clements, F. W., 854.
Climate of W.A. Wheat Belt, 1037.
Coal, 696, 697, 812, 914-916, 1035.
Coal Mining Fatalities, 812.
Collective Bargaining, 758.
Colour in Industry, go1.
Commonwealth Bank, 727.
Commonwealth Disposals Commission, 734.
Commonwealth Steel, 814.
Companies Act, English, 940.
Company Law, 866, 867, 940.
Conciliation and Arbitration, 864.
Condensers, Static, 714.
Conservatorium of Music, Sydney, 86o.
Constitution, 862, 1050.
Cook Islands, 1065.
Co-operative Housing, 997.
Copland, D., 797.
Cosmetics Industry, 919.
Cost Accounting, 743-745, 941.
Cotton Textile Industries, 921.
Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, 683.
Cowper, N., 979.
Cramp, K. R., 859.
Crawford, R. M., 852.
Cribb, H. G. S., 842.
Criminal Law, 1053, 1054.
Cross, A., 1047.
Crossley, R., 1012.
Crowther, W. E. L., 1043.
Crozier, D., 987.
Cunningham, W. A., 705.
Currie, A. L., 1051.
Dairy Farming, 777-779, 909, 962, 967.
Danby, L. C., 721, 765.
Date, A., 691.
Davey, L., 854.
Decentralisation, 691, 749, 978.
Dedman, M., 907.
Delegated Legislation, 1051.
Density of Farm Population, 1003.
Dependencies and Trusteeships, 986.
Dobbie, J. M., 938.
Dobson, A. J., 917.
Dollar Crisis, 722-724.
Dominitz, S., 790.
Douglas, I., 1oz8.
Downing, R. I., 994.
Dowsett, C. P., 690, 785.
Doyle, B., 915.
Dried Fruits, 707, 910, 911, 960, 961.
Drills and Braces, 929.
Druce, P. C., 699, 771, 776.
Dunphy, E. A., 872.
Dunstan, J. L., 880.
Economic and Social Reconstruction in Pacific, 987.
Economic Commission for Asia and Far East, 893.
Economics, 672, 887.
Education, 686, 818, 819, 826, 828-832, 861, 1009,
Elford, H. S., 914.
Ellis, A., 1033.
Ellis, M. H., 851.
Empire Preference, 693.
Employee Training, 899.
Employment Service, 768.
English, Teaching to D.P. Migrants, 1012.
Europe and the Great Powers, 796.
Evaporation and Storage, 846.
Everist, S. L., 971.
Export Income, Australian, 688.
External Relations, N.Z., 993.
Ezekiel, M., 674.
Factory Orientation in Sydney, 840.
Farmer, J. N., 971.
Fashion Industries, 721.
Federal Financial Relations, 936.
Fernon, B. J. L., 782.
Fertility, Marital, 1oo2.
Fibre Flax, 784.
Financial and Operating Statements, 741.
Fish Farming, 709.
Fitzgerald, A. A., 741, 747, 940, 941.
Fitzgerald, G. E., 740, 746.
Fitzpatrick, F. L., 760.
Five Dock Farm, o144.
Food Exports, Australian, 689.
Food Supply from 1788-1792, 854.
Forestry, 788, 963, 969.
Frazer, D. J. M., 801.
Fremantle Harbour Trust, 946.
French, B. O., 783.
French Oceania, 983.
Friedmann, W. G., 865, 989, 1052.
Frost Control, 961.
Gas Industry, 917.
Gellibrand Affair, 1045.
Geneva Agreements, 681, 682.
Gentilli, J., 1026, 1036.
Geographical Literature, 847.
Gifford, J. K., 672.
Gilmore, R. J., 1024.
Gloe, C. S., 1027.
Gold, 698, 859.
Government Finances, N.Z., 736.
Government Railways Accounts, 746.
Gower, W., 1029.
Grahame, D. P., 1060.
Grattan, C. Hartley, 673.
Greenhalgh, A. J., 823.
Greenwood, G., 805.
Group Characteristics of Employees, o06o.
Gruen, F. H., 787, 898, 967.
Haddon-Cave, C. P., 749, 756, 947.
Hagley Area School, 1oo8.
Ham, Bacon and Smallgoods Accounting, 745.
Hamilton, J. M., 995.
Harper, N. D., 799, 987, 1049.
Harris, H. L., 978.
Hartwell, R. M., 855.
Harvey, H. A., 686.
Heath, F., 1029.
History, 852, 856.
Hocking, D. M., 947.
Hogbin, H. I., 879, 884.
Holman, A. A., 1041.
Holmes, J. M., 834, 840.
Hounam, C. E., 1037.
Housing, 808, 994, 995, 997, o163.
Hunt, H. K., 1007.
Hunter River District, 970.
Hutley, F. C., 871.
Hytten, T., 724, 978.
Ife, A. L., 764.
Immigration, 816, 1004, ioo6.
Incentive Plans, 763.
Increased Production, 952.
Indian Ocean, 803, 1036.
Industrial Assurance, 934.
Industry, W.A., 904.
Information Service, 982.
Interest Rates, 726.
Internal Combustion Engines, 715.
International Civil Aviation, 947, 948.
International Currency, 931.
International Economic Co-operation, 675.
International Labour Organisation, 759.
International Monetary Fund, 725.
International Relief, 891.
International Trade, 675, 676, 681, 682, 903.
Irish, R. A., 939.
Itzerott, A. G. F., 968.
Jackson, D. C. M., 992.
Jacobs, P. A., 870.
Janes, C. V., 729.
Japan, 799-801, 984, 985.
Japanese Farming, 695.
Jaques Bros., 955.
J-Curve Hypothesis of Conforming Behaviour, 873.
Judd, W. J., 1045.
Jurisprudence, Analytical, 871.
Kangan, M., 762, 953, 955.
Kewley, H. T., 810, 853.
Keys, L. W., 981.
Kimberley, East, 1oo6.
King, H. W., 736, 961.
Kingsland, A., 965.
Kit Bag Frames, 719.
Kraus, E., 849.
Labour Turnover, 761, 762, 955.
La Nauze, J. A., 894.
Land Development and Utilisation, 774, 775.
Langford-Smith, T., 839.
Latin, Training Through, 1007.
Latrobe Valley, 1029.
Leather Industry, 922.
Legal Assistance, 869.
Legal Education, 868.
Lett, L., 1046.
Levi, W., 798.
Liability of Hospital, 872.
Libraries, 824, lol1.
Lighting, Natural of Industrial Buildings, 687.
Lodewyckx, A. C., 679.
Logic and History, 1056.
Long, D. M., 856.
Lowndes, A. G., 791.
McAuley, J., 884.
McCallum, D., 990.
McCallum, D. McR., 1042.
McCallum, J. A., 804.
McColvin, L., io11.
McCreadie, J. J., 761.
McDonald, A. H., 802.
McIntyre, A. J., 960.
McKeown, M. R., 914.
McLoskey, H. L., 824.
McMillan, J. R. A., 964.
McMillan, R. B., 703.
Macpherson, M., 854.
Macquarie, Lachlan, 851.
Mainerd, A., 978.
Maintenance, Planned, 711.
Management, 896, 897.
Management Education, 686.
Mannix, D., Archbishop, 1040.
Maori Education, 1020.
Marketing, 692, 694.
Markham Valley, 883.
Marking of Essays, 1013.
Marshall, A., 1031.
Marxist Political Theory, 790.
Maslin, J. S., roo8.
Maunder, J. C. J., 976.
Mayne, J. B., 908.
Mechanised Accounting, 742.
Melbourne Urban Boundaries and Population, 996
Mendelsohn, R., 995.
Milk, 700, 968.
Miller, D. B., 792.
Mineral Resources, 841.
Mission Work, 880.
Mixed Blood Community, 1069.
Moke, I. E., 694.
Molnar, I., 974.
Moriarty, M. J., 909.
Morris, N. R., 1054.
Morton, R. K., 962.
Motor Vehicles, Tractors, Cycle Parts, 712.
Moulders' Chaplets, 718.
Moule, G. R., 971.
Mountgarret, J., 1043.
Municipal Finance, 740.
Munro, L. K., 993.
Murphy, F., 1040.
Murray, Sir Hubert, 1046.
Murray Valley, 834.
National Debt Commission, 737.
National Fitness, 1017.
Neale, E. P., 698.
Near North, 1024.
Nehru, J., 1049.
New England, 856.
New Guinea, 879, 883, 884, 949.
New Hebrides, 885.
New South Wales, 751, 776, 828, 829, 837, 861, 877,
906, 910, 1005, io61.
New Zealand, 678, 694, 698, 736, 768, 779, 807, 831,
843-845, 874, 890, 905, 909, 912, 937, 943, 950, 957,
966, 969, 980-982, 988, 993, 999, ioio, o118-1o23,
1033, 1034, 1063.
New Zealand Economy, 890.
New Zealand Weather and Climate, 845.
Nicholas H. S., 978, 1050.
Northern Territory, 1062.
Noxious Weed Control, 972.
Objective Tests, 825.
Odell, R. S., 982.
Oil Firing, 900.
O'Loghlen, F., 959.
Opal Mine Hayricks, 842.
Optical Lenses and Blanks, 925.
Overseas Resources, British Plans for Developing, 690.
Owen, W. F., 817, 977.
Oxlade, M. N., 875, 1058.
Pagan Religion, 879.
Palmer, G. B., 934.
Parker, G., 803.
Parkes, Sir Henry, and Federation, 1042.
Parkyn, G. W., 1053.
Pastoral Industry Accounting, 748.
Paton, G. W., 1053.
Peach Industry, 783.
Peanut Production, 974.
Personnel Policy, 760.
Phelan, B. K., 761.
Phillips, G. E., 1013.
Phosphate Islands, 1033.
Pig Industry, 780, 781.
Pipe Industry, 958.
Planned State, 1052.
Plunkett, G. M., 902.
Poggendorff, W., 787.
Pollard, A. H., 933.
Population and Agriculture, 817.
Population Trends, Regional, 1005.
Port of Melbourne, 945.
Post and Telegraph Department, N.Z., 981.
Postmaster General's Department, 757.
Potato Industry, 786.
Pownall, L. L., 844.
Premier's Wife, Memoirs, 1041.
Prest, W., 723, 744, 987.
Prince Edward Island, Canada, 843.
Printing Industry, 758.
Productivity of U.S.A., 680.
Profit Sharing, 953, 954.
Public Corporations, 865.
Public Health, 813, 827.
Public Service, 795.
Public Works, 735, 937.
Pullar, E. M., 781.
Queensland, 692, 693, 775, 830, 913, 918, 942, 971, 973
Rabel, G., 1038.
Rackham, Q. W., 745.
Railways, 750-753, 942, 943, 980.
Rain, 849, 975, 1037.
Rawson, G., 1025.
Read, K. E., 883.
Reay, M., 1069.
Rehabilitation, N.Z., 999.
Reid, G. R. S., 858.
Renwick, C., 888.
Roads, Victoria, 755.
Robson, N., 983.
Rogers, L. W., 766.
Ross, D. B., 869.
Ross, L., 793.
Rowe, J. B., 1032.
Rowland, E. C., 861.
Rural Land Tenure and Valuation, 769.
Rushton, R. F., 748.
Rutherford, J. G., 935.
Rutherford, R. S. G., 906.
Safety Organisation, 814.
Santa Isabel, o168.
Sawer, G., 862, 863, 864, 987, 1053.
School Athletics, 821.
School Buildings and Equipment, 820.
Scott, W., 896.
Security for Employees, 764.
Selection Tests for Machine Operators, 1058.
Sexton, C. R., 954.
Shann, F., 821.
Shatwell, K. O., 868.
Shaw, A. G. L., 696.
Sheep, 701, 776, 906.
Shipping and Shipbuilding, 756.
Sickness Absentees, 1ooo.
Simkin, C. G. F., 890, 988.
Singer, K., 695.
Sitlington, G., 1069.
Slater, H. W., 747.
Smith, C. M., 969.
Social Credit, 731.
Social Services, 8Io, 811, 853, 998.
Social Services Contribution, 733.
Soil Conservation, 772.
Solomon, V. L., 742.
Solomons, 885, 1067, io68.
South Australia, 752, 788, 878, 911, 975, 1015.
South East Asia, 802, 992.
South Island, N.Z., 843.
South Pacific, British Policy in, 1039.
Spectacle Frames and Mountings, 925.
Staff Organisation, 980-982.
Staff Training, 766.
Steinberg, I. N., 1oo6.
Sticht, R. C., 711.
Stocker, H. E., 685.
Stonier, K. N., 866.
Stores for Army, 902.
Strehlow, T. G. H., 876.
Sumner, E. F. W., 1059.
Talent Erosion, 823.
Tanning Materials, 710.
Tariff Board, 895.
Tasmania, 739, 789, 813.
Taylor, A. F., 980.
Teaching Climate, 1030.
Technical Education, 829.
Tew, B., 726, 93i.
Thomas, H. G., 815, Ioor.
Thompson, C. T., 709.
Tile Industry, 958.
Timber Export, N.Z., 912.
Tokelau Islands, Io66.
Tractors, 712, 713.
Transport, 754, 944.
Transport Costs, 749.
Trapp, E. J., 978.
Trial by Jury, 870.
Triebel, L. A., 806.
Trollope, Anthony, 858.
Truck Cabs, 924.
Trumble, H. C., 975.
Tucker, A. E., 825.
Unit Cost of Agricultural Products, 771.
University of Melbourne Appointments Board, 767.
U.S.A. Agriculture, 898.
U.S.A. Economy, 892.
U.S.A. Wool Tariff, 702, 703.
Useem, J., 881, 882.
Vacuum Cleaners, 716.
Vegetable Oils, 787.
Vegetable Production Services, 1034.
Vegetable Seed Production, 964.
Victoria, 750, 754, 755, 772, 773, 8o8, 827, 963, 1014,
Vincent, A. E., 783.
Vocational Guidance, 874.
Volume, Influence on Cost, Price, Profit, 744.
Voluntary Group Assurance, 933.
Walker, E. R., 674, 886.
Walker, H. G., 732.
Walker, K. F., 873, 875.
Wallace, G., 867.
Wallace, K. J., 903.
Ward, E. E., 893.
Ward, J. M., 1039.
Ward, W. C., 912.
War Damage Commission, 738.
War Service Land Settlement, 789.
Warner, D., 1024.
Water Resources, Underground, 1027.
Water Supply and Conservation, 773, 775, 837-839,
846, 848, 1027.
Watts, I. E. M., 845.
Weeks, J., 930, 1004.
Welfare Officers in Industry, 765.
Welsh, J. E., 700.
Wentworth, W. C., 794, 8io.
Western Australia, 753, 836, 839, 904, 1037.
Western Samoa, o164.
Wheat-Sheep Farms, 776.
Wheels and Casters, Industrial, 923.
White Australia, 992.
Wilcher, L., 819.
Wilson, A. S., 897.
Wilson, J. S. G., 889.
Wonnangatta Valley, 1048.
Wood, G. L., 675.
Wool, 702-705, 782, 908.
Wool Textile Industry, 907.
World Peace, Religious Basis, 806.
Youth Work, 833.
THIS publication of abstracts in the social sciences is intended to provide a survey
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AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
COMMITTEE ON RESEARCH IN THE SOCIAL SCIENCES
The Committee on Research in the Social Sciences is a special
committee of the A.N.R.C. charged with the duty of reporting upon
the main investigations which appear to be required in the social
field, ofconsidering the best machinery for conducting these enquiries,
and of arranging for finance.
The Committee is also making a detailed examination of the
position in Australia with regard to training in the social sciences at
* the various universities, with special attention to the provision of
research workers. The scope of the committee's work includes the
sociological aspects of such studies as anthropology, economics,
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An outline of the history and functions of the committee by the
chairman, Dr. K. S. Cunningham, was recently published ; and
may be obtained free of charge on application to the Australian
Council for Educational Research, T. & G. Building, Russell St.,
Members of the Committee :
ALEXANDER, Prof. F., University of Western Australia.
BAILEY, Prof. K. H., Solicitor-General, Canberra.
BLAND, Prof. F. A., University of Sdney.
BURTON, Prof. H., Canberra University College.
BLITLIN, Prof. S. J., University of Sydney.
CONLON, Mr. A A., Sydney.
CIRAWFORD, Mr. J. G.. Department of Post-War Reconstruction, Canberra.
CRAWFORD, Prof. R. MN., University of Melbourne.
CUNNINGHAM, Dr. K. S., Director, Australian Council for Educational
Research, Melbourne (Chairman).
CURTIN, Dr. P. W. E., Public Service Board, Canberra.
ELKIN, Prof. A. P., University of Sydney.
FIRTH, Prof. G., University of Tasmania.
FRIEDMANN, Prof. W G., University of Melbourne.
GIBLIN, Prof. L. F., Hobart.
GIBSON, Prof. A. Boyce, University of Melbourne.
GIFFORD, Prof. J. K., University of Queensland.
HASLUCK, Mr. P., University of Western Australia.
HIGGINS, Prof. B. H., University of Melbourne.
LA NAUZE, Mr. J. A., University of Sydney.
MclRAE, Prof. C. R., University of Sydney.
MAULDON, Prof. F. R. E., University of Western Australia.
MAZE, Mr. W. H., University of Sydney.
OESER, Prof. O. A., University of Melbourne (Secretary).
O'NEIL, Prof. W. M., University of Sydney.
PARTRIDGE, Prof. P. H., Unisersily of Sydney.
PASSMORE, Mr. John, University of Sydney.
PREST, Prof. W., University of Melbourne.
SHATTWELL, Prof. K. O., University of Sydney.
STONE, Prof. Julius, University of Sydney.
STOUT, Prof. A. K., University of Sydney.
TEW, Prof. J. H. B., Unnersit) of Adelaide.
WADHAM, Prof. S. M., University of Melbourne.
WHITE, Mr. H. L., Commonwealth National Library, Canberra.
WOOD, Prof. G. L., Unisersity of Melbourne.
WRIGHT, Prof. R. D., University of Melbourne.
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