AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
Committee on Research in the Social Sciences
KR ^i6l .' d 01 .,,: hIl A 1I.r LI liM n I p a C A
AUSTRALIAN SOCIAL SCIENCE ABSTRACTS
Dr. K. S. Cunningham (Chairman)
Professor R. M. Crawford, Professor O. A. Oeser, Professor G. L. Wood,
NMr. H. L. White
Mr. S. J. Lengyel, School of Commerce, University, Carlton, N.3, Melbourne
(on leave), Dr. F. Schnierer (Acting).
AccoULrNT.NCY-Mr. L. Goldberg and Miss J. Kerr
AGRICULTURE AND RL.RAL PROBLEaMl-Professor S. AI. Wadham and
Mr. I. Molnar
EcoNoNMcs-Professor G. L. Wood, Dr. F. Schnierer, Messrs. O.
de R. Foenander and C. P. Haddon-Cave, Miss H. Smith
EDUCATION-Dr.. K. S. Cunningham
GEOGRAPHY-I-ISS M. Bayne, Messrs. E. J. Donath and R. K. Wilson,
and Dr. F. Loeue
HlsTORY-Professor R. NI. Crawford, Messrs. L. E. Baragwanath,
C. MN. H. Clark, F. K. Crowley. R. F. Ericksen, N. D. Harper and
A. G. L. Shav., Mis- MI. Kiddle and Mrs. J. Parnaby.
L.\\ -Professor G. W. Paton
PHILOSOPHY--Professor A. Boyce Gibson I
POLITiCAL SCIENCE--Iessrs. A. P. Davies, P. Freadman, A. W.
Stargardt and T. Truman, and NlMis J. \Wllis
PSYCHOLOG--Dr. D. \. lcElr-ain
TERRITORIES AND NATIl\ PROBLEMLA-Dr. L. Adam
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Economics and Economic Policy
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. . 758
ind Public Health .. .. .. .. 81o
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.. . .. .. 873
tive Problems .. .. .. .. 876
Australian Public A.fairn Informatirn Service, or .4.P.A.I.S., indexes books,
magazine articles and government documents on Ausrrahan political, economic
and social affairs. It is published monthly by the Commonwealth National
Library, and will be sent free upon request to the Librarian.
AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
Committee on Research in the Social Sciences
AUSTRALIAN SOCIAL SCIENCE ABSTRACTS
A publication of the Committee on Research in the Social Sciences, Australian
National Research Council, subsidized by the Commonwealth Government.
All communications should be addressed to the Editor, Faculty of Economics
and Commerce, University of Melbourne, Carlton, N.3, Victoria, Australia.
No. 6 September 1948 5s. per annum
Where the size of a Government publication or Parliamentary Paper (P.P.) is not given, it is 81 ins. x 1z3 ins.
(A) Economics and Economic Policy
672. Gifford, J. K. Economics for Commerce,
2nd ed. Brisbane, University of Queens-
land, 1947, pp. XVIII, 356. Price
An introductory textbook for practical businessmen
and University students: the first edition was pub-
lished in 1942. After an introduction on economic
goods and activity a 'preliminary explanation' of money
and its relation to prices and quantity of goods sold is
presented. In the following nine chapters (3-11) the
author deals with demand and 'willingness to sell' (his
term for supply). Subject of the next three chapters is
profit, rent and wages respectively. After a short
exposition of index numbers the author examines in a
more detailed way the money and capital market,
monetary aspects of the theory of prices (chapter 17)
interest rates and money lent, foreign exchange and
international trade and finally public revenue and expen-
diture. The practical illustrations of theory given by
the book are mainly taken from the Australian economy.
The second edition introduces marginal analysis to
a limited extent and includes new sections on the Com-
monwealth Bank Act 1945, the Banking Act 1945, the
Commonwealth White Paper on Full Employment and
the Bretton Woods Agreement. Other changes concern
the theories of cost of production, interest rates and
international trade. The most important change has
been made in chapter 17 where the explanation of the
business cycle is not quite as predominantly monetary
as in the first edition.
673. C. Hartley Grattan (ed.). Australia : A
symposium by thirty authors, edited.
Univ. of California Press, 1947, pp. 415.
This work is one of the United Nations Series pro-
duced under the general editorship of Robert J. Kerner,
Sather Professor of History in the University of Cali-
fornia. Hartley Grattan enrolled a team of experts to
survey every important aspect of the Australian scene,
and the result is an authoritative interpretation of the
development and present condition of life, work, and
thought in the Commonwealth.
After a geographical introduction by J. Macdonald
Holmes, Professor of Geography, Sydney, the essays
are arranged in six groups-the historical background,
the constitutional and political development, economic
and social trends, cultural aspects, the Commonwealth
in the Pacific setting, and post-war reconstruction in
Monsignor Eris O'Brien discusses the coming of the
British to Australia and examines the policy of the
administrators in the early days of settlement. John
M. Ward, Lecturer in History (Sydney), traces the
development of the pastoral economy through the early
explorations in search of productive possibilities .which
could provide a response to the demand for wool by the
textile industries of Great Britain. R. M. Crawford
and G. F. James, Professor and Lecturer, respectively,
of the School of History at Melbourne University,
examine the economic and social effects of the 'gold
episode' after 1851, with particular reference to the
rural and industrial developments, from sugar planting
to base-metal mining, and from immigration policy to
trade unionism. L. F. Fitzharding sketches the politico-
economic history of the Commonwealth from the
founding in 19go to the outbreak of World War II.
These chapters provide an introductory background
to a section dealing with constitutional and political
developments, in which K. H. Bailey, Solicitor-General
to the Commonwealth, examines the Australian Consti-
tution and its problems, with special attention to the
effects of depression and world war upon the realities
of the separation of Federal and State powers; Ross
Gollan, Sydney journalist, outlines the structure of
Australian party politics with pertinent sketches of
prominent personalities; F. A. Bland, Professor of
Public Administration (Sydney), using the method of
historical approach, surveys the problems of public
administration in the Commonwealth; and Sir Frederic
Eggleston, ex-Australian Minister to China and to the
United States, contributes a constructive critique of
foreign policy with final reference to Australia's new
obligations as a member of the United Nations.
The following section on the growth of the Australian
economy comprises a valuable survey of much that is
characteristic of Australian attitudes in social and
political affairs. Herbert Burton, head of the Depart-
ment of Economic History (Melbourne), reviews the
growth of the Australian economy, with special attention
to the rapid rise of factory industry in pursuance of the
policy of expanding employment. E. Ronald Walker,
Counsellor at the Australian Legation, Paris, and
formerly Deputy Director-General, Commonwealth
Department of War Organisation of Industry, examines
the place of Australia in the world economy and con-
cludes that her 'future role . may depend less on
the present aspirations of her manufacturers than on the
success achieved by the Great Powers in political and
economic collaboration among themselves'. John
Crawford, Director of the Bureau of Agricultural
Economics, discusses primary industries and examines
home-price schemes and other devices for alleviating
the uncertainty of dependence upon world conditions.
The objectives of a coherent national policy as implied
in post-war developments are suggested. Brian Fitz-
patrick, Research Fellow (Melbourne), discusses the
place of secondary industries in the economy; and
Colin Clark, Director of the Queensland Bureau of
Industry, together with R. N. Fields, examines the
place of tertiary industries. Significant chapters are
one on banking, finance, and fiscal policy, contributed
by S. J. Butlin, Professor of Economics (Sydney), and
another on the role of Labour, by Lloyd Ross, Director
of Public Relations, Ministry of Post-war Reconstruc-
tion. The discussion of public finance in the former,
and of the development of Labour policy during and
after the war in the latter, draw to completion much
of the work in preceding sections. The development
of social services by T. H. Kewley rounds off the record
of national policy and social development, which is
reviewed by Hartley Grattan in a critical chapter.
Cultural achievements are treated by Vance and
Nettie Palmer (authors and essayists) on Australian
culture in general; by H. M. Green (librarian and
author) on literature ; by Bernard Smith (teacher and
critic) on art; by Clive Turnbull on journalism; by
Bishop Bergmann, of Bathurst, on religion; and by
K. S. Cunningham, Director of the Australian Council
of Educational Research, on education.
In the final sections are included four important
chapters dealing with Australia's new interests and
responsibilities. These are by A. P. Elkin, Professor
of Anthropology (Sydney), on Australian problems of
administering native peoples both in Australia and New
Guinea, with much factual material on the history of
relations between the natives and the 'whites'; by
Gordon Greenwood, Lecturer in History (Sydney), on
Australia's interest in the South Pacific islands; by
Gavin Long, general editor of the official history of
Australia's part in World War II, on the national war
effort; and by H. C. Coombs, Director-General,
Ministry of Post-war Reconstruction, with the assistance
of Gerald Firth, Professor of Economics (Tasmania),
on the pattern of reconstruction in Australia, with special
attention to the policy of maintaining full employment.
674. Walker, E. R. Australia, Chapter XVI of
Towards World Prosperity, edited by
Mordecai Ezekiel. Harper and Brothers,
New York, 1947, pp. 309-329.
A much larger proportion of Australia's population
is engaged in secondary than in primary industries.
The development of manufacturing is not chiefly due
to protection. At present protection includes farming.
Australian wartime industrialisation was far greater
during the second than during the first world war.
Some of the new industries cannot be kept up in peace-
time, as their costs are too high. Private industry had
its full share in wartime development, but the Govern-
ment gave much financial assistance and controlled
investment, plant, materials and labour. The main
problem for agriculture earlier in the war was to dispose
of its produce, later it was to increase production while
rural manpower was depleted.
Next the author discusses post-war planning, its
machinery and its programmes about wool, immigration,
technical progress of agriculture. Australia insisted on
her version of the full employment thesis as a key to
international economic collaboration. 'Other factors of
our industrialisation policy are the stress on the defence
aspect and doubts about future rural expansion'. The
prospects of industrialisation depend on future terms
of trade which Colin Clark believes to be in favour of
our primary products. Protection of manufacturing
must be selective : the size of the market is important
(motor-car industry). Greater export of manufactures
might be possible. Internationally Australia has to fear
world economic instability, and to consider world
economy principally in the directions towards U.K.,
U.S. and the Far East.
675. Wood, G. L. International Economic Co-
operation and the Australian Economy.
Presidential Address to Section G of
A.N.Z.A.A.S., Perth, August 1947.
Economic Record, pp. 159-176, December
The main theme is the conflict between the trend in
most countries towards 'managed' economies and the
need for world co-operation for expanding trade and
increasing world prosperity. In the inter-war period
the alternatives became greater freedom of individual
action as a basis for international co-operation, and more
rigid internal controls which were designed to insulate
each national economy from the worst effects of cyclical
The aim of the Geneva Conference was to find
methods of economic co-operation which would promote
expansion of world trade, and to set up the International
Trade Organisation. The objective of economic
co-operation is to build bridges between the different
economic systems (and political objectives) of the major
industrial nations and their satellites. Main influences
unfavorable to free-trade agreements are British adher-
ence to Imperial Preference, reluctance of U.S.S.R. to
accept the dollar as the main world currency, and the
agitation in U.S.A. for higher tariffs. Attitudes favour-
able to collaboration can be seen, however, in the U.S.,
where dependence of American prosperity upon world
economic conditions is widely admitted.
The mechanisms for restraining cyclical fluctuations
are the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund
and the International Trade Organisation. The Inter-
national Fund and the International Bank act as instru-
ments of anti-cyclical policy by counteracting shortage
of world credit and depression.
It is unlikely that there will be a wholesale removal
of trade barriers. There is a danger of commodity
controls being revived. From previous experience one
can conclude that, whatever their form, they tend to
restrict the volume of exchange and depress world
standards. The tariff problem is seen merely as a symp-
tom of the complex and chronic malaise. Two practical
approaches to this problem are suggested-tariff com-
promises on a commodity for commodity nation to
nation basis, and the extension of the 'most favoured
Australia's part in world economic co-operation is
likely to be conditioned by her relationship with sterling,
and she can do little more than react intelligently to
676. International Trade Discussions. A Mem-
ber of the Australian Institute of Inter-
national Affairs. Australian Outlook, pp.
42-47, March 1948.
After a survey of the development of the programme
of the International Trade Organisation (I.T.O.) the
tariff negotiations in Geneva 1947 and Havana 1948 are
mentioned. The results of these were incorporated in
the draft General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
(G.A.T.T.). At present only U.S. can do without
direct import controls and make tariff reductions effec-
tive at once. U.S. duties on manufactured goods have
been reduced to the pre-1914 level. Important for
Australia are the U.S. reductions on the wool tariff by
25 per cent and on duties for beef, lamb and butter by
50 per cent. In return Australia agreed to some reduc-
tions of her preference margins in British markets-
mainly for dried and canned fruit-and to some tariff
Free trade has its strongest appeal in U.S. and some
appeal in U.K., while under-developed countries are
afraid that it would confirm their industrial status quo.
These apprehensions have caused some modifications
of the I.T.O. proposals to relate them to the prevailing
level of employment and economic activity and to make
them more flexible. Chapters on employment and
development were added. As to I.T.O.'s prospects,
Europe's dependence on dollar help makes immediate
non-discrimination between U.S. and other imports
impracticable. A balance between U.S. and the rest
of the world seems far off. Countries outside U.S.
value stability higher than economic success. Instability
in U.S. and chronic dollar shortage might force other
countries to fall back on group arrangements.
677. The Distribution of the Product of Indus-
try. Economic News, pp. 1-3, June-July
An attempt to compare the average income per head
of the wage-earning population with the average income
per head of employers and working proprietors,
excluding rural industries. The working population is
expressed as 'adult male equivalents' (A.M.E.), i.e., all
men aged 20-59 are assumed as seeking work; women,
juveniles and old men are regarded as half an A.M.E.
A comparison is made for various countries and periods
between wage and salary payment per A.M.E. of wage
and salary earners with national income per A.M.E.,
in both cases excluding rural work. The highest share
of the product is obtained by wage-earners in Canada,
France and Australia, where about zo per cent is addi-
tional remuneration for property and enterprise. This
process cannot go much further; to preserve enterprise
the remuneration of other production factors must be
at least o1 per cent.
A comparison between periods is made for U.S.A.,
U.K., France and Germany. An unexpectedly high
proportion (70.3 per cent) goes to labour in Japan,
because large-scale factories occupy only a small pro-
portion of Japan's working population.
678. (a) Australia. Pp. 498-505.
(b) New Zealand. Pp. 511-516.
Round Table (London), December 1947.
(a) An Australian correspondent examines the dollar
crisis which is not only a reflection of the British dollar
shortage. Australia's own trade position has been
deteriorating since April 1947, particularly in respect
of the dollar countries. In August 1947 the petrol
ration and subsequently most other dollar imports were
greatly reduced. The Geneva trade negotiations are
dealt with mainly from the angle of Empire preference
and of the U.S. import duty on wool. In a section on
banking the High Court decision is set forth which
declared section 48 of the 1945 Banking Act invalid.
Shortly afterwards the Banking Nationalization Bill was
introduced. In a section on wages and taxes the judg-
ment of the Arbitration Court is discussed introducing
the 4o-hours week and the present buoyancy of the
Commonwealth is stressed which made tax reductions
(b) A correspondent from N.Z. investigates the dollar
crisis in its relation to N.Z. A National Aid to Britain
Conference made plans for a maximum contribution of
help from the Dominion. Higher production and
restrictions on import were recommended. In a section
on post-war finance the present high level of public
expenditure and taxation is attributed to higher debts,
social security measures and price stabilisation which
necessitates payment of subsidies. In a chapter on
wages the higher award rates granted by the Arbitration
Court or after negotiations are mentioned. State control
has been extended, price control has become permanent
and a state monopoly of workers' compensation insurance
has been established.
679. The Benelux Economic Union. A. Lode-
wyckx. Economic Record, pp. 227-237,
Prior to the recent war attempts to bring about closer
economic collaboration between Holland, Belgium and
Luxemburg were unsuccessful with the exception of a
customs agreement concluded 1921 between Belgium
and Luxemburg. On 5 September 1944 a customs
convention between the three countries was agreed
upon providing for a union in three phases: (i) Com-
mon tariff for goods imported from abroad. (2)
Abolition of customs frontiers between the three coun-
tries after unification of excise duties, transfer duties
and licences. (3) Economic union. After negotiations
in Brussels in 1946 three councils roughly corresponding
to these three phases and seven commissions were set
up. Problems to be handled by these are industrial
development, prices, wages and monetary questions,
etc. A common tariff has been approved by the three
parliaments and has been in force since I January 1948.
Naturally the different conditions in many respects in
the three countries are obstacles to a speedy achievement
of complete unification.
680. Productivity of the U.S.A. (Anon.). Insti-
tute of Public Affairs-Victoria-Review,
pp. 74-86, June 1948.
The physical output of goods and services in U.S.
to-day is 76 per cent above the average of the last three
pre-war years, that of U.K. and Australia is only
slightly above the pre-war level. 1947 U.S. production
was over 50 per cent of the known industrial world
production as against 30 per cent before the war. The
first reason for this U.S. superiority is her wealth in
natural resources and raw materials. Tables show the
percentage of the world output of various minerals in
U.S., U.S.S.R., U.K., Australia and all other countries,
and figures for 1947 relative to 1937 in U.S. and the
rest of the world. Comparative figures are given for
the production of black coal, pig iron and ingot steel
1939 and 1947 in U.S. (great increases), U.K. (declines)
and Australia (slight increase in black coal, no changes
in pig iron and steel). Figures are presented of the
labour forces in Australia, U.K. and U.S. 1939 and 1947.
Increases have occurred in all three countries, but to
the largest extent in U.S. where also the average hours
of work were lengthened and the intensity of work is
greatest. As shown by statistics, capital equipment and
therefore productivity per man hour was far superior
in U.S. compared with U.K. and Australia already
before the war. U.S. also enjoys the advantages of
mass production and elaborate industrial research.
Finally the importance of the economic and political
background is stressed, in U.S. even labour supports
free enterprise, taxation is lower, money and real wages
are much higher than in U.K. and Australia.
(B) Industry, Trade and Commerce
(a) General Works
681. Geneva Agreements. Overseas Trading,
pp. 9-11, November 1947; pp. 10-13,
February 1948; pp. 12-14, March 1948.
A summary of the benefits obtained and concessions
made by Australia in the Geneva conference. The
first article presents details of the Australian negotiations
with U.S.A. The second article deals with trade rela-
tions between Australia and various other countries,
among them China, France, South Africa, Britain,
India and Pakistan. The third article discusses our
trade with some further countries, among them Benelux,
Brazil, Czechoslovakia. Graphs show figures of Aus-
tralian trade with a number of countries before the war
and in 1946-47.
682. The Trade Agreements. The Australia-
United States Agreement. I. A. Butler.
Farm Front, pp. 175-182, December 1947.
This agreement was worked out at the Geneva
meeting of the I.T.O. Preparatory Committee. The
main Australian concessions are reduction in the mutual
preferences between Australia and U.K., Canada and
N.Z. The main U.S. concessions are tariff reductions
for wool, butter and meat. The reduction of the U.S.
duty of 34 cents to 25.5 cents per lb. of clean content
of greasy wool, similar on skin wool and carbonised
wool, will encourage U.S. wool consumption and assist
competition with synthetic fibres. It will also bring
about a reduction of duties on imported woollen goods.
Prior to the war wool imports to U.S. from the five
main wool exporting countries including Australia, were
far smaller than imports to many other countries. Since
1943 U.S. wool production has considerably fallen and
wool consumption greatly increased (since 1941), even
in the two post-war years. Thus this concession will
probably have immediate advantages in increasing
Australian wool sales for dollars.
The duty on butter is reduced from 14 cents per
lb. to 7 cents on an aggregate of 5om. lb. entering U.S.
from I November to 31 March of each year. During
the war U.S. butter consumption declined, but probably
all butter Australia can export will be absorbed by U.K.
for some time.
The duty on beef, veal, mutton, lamb, edible offal
and rabbits has been reduced by 50 per cent, but again
Britain will probably absorb all meat that can be supplied
by us, for the next 3 to 4 years, even though there are
plans to restore British meat production to pre-war
683. Councilfor Scientific and Industrial Research.
zist Annual Report for year ended 30
June 1947. P.P. Government Printer,
Canberra, 1947, pp. 139. Price 6s.
In the year under review the establishment of two
divisions for wool and textile research was taken into
consideration, one for work on the chemistry and physics
of the wool fibre, the other on the technology of the
spinning and utilisation of wool. New investigations
as far as C.S.I.R. is concerned have been commenced in
meteorological physics, metallurgy, nuclear physics,
radio-active tracer elements. Reference is made to the
visit of the late Professor T. David Jones to investigate
the prevention of dust in coal mines, to the plans for
the Australian Antarctic expedition, and to the Council's
work connected with the National Association of Testing
Authorities, with overseas training and with collabora-
tion with the Universities.
A survey is presented of the C.S.I.R.'s activities,
including plant, entomological, animal health and
production, biochemistry and general nutrition, soils,
irrigation settlement, forest products, food preservation,
fisheries, metrology, electrotechnology, physics, aeronau-
tical, industrial chemistry, radiophysics, tribophysics,
building materials research, flax research, other investi-
gations. In conclusion an account is given of the
information services and library, finances, staff and
684. Australian Industry. British Firms' Inter-
est. Sydney Correspondent. Chamber
of Commerce Journal (London), pp. 96, 98,
H. N. Hume, chairman of the Charterhouse Invest-
ment Trust Coy., came to Sydney to establish an
associate firm in Australia to assist Australian secondary
industries in the form of 'partnership capital'. Lord
Nuffield announced the construction of a motor body
building plant in Sydney. The Premier of N.S.W.
gave details of overseas interests in N.S.W. manufactures
including telephone equipment, carpet and electrical
appliances factories. Other sections of the article deal
with company earnings in Australia in 1947, with the
increase of Australia's export values, her dollar shortage
and the negotiations of the Commonwealth with the
British Food Mission to increase food exports to U.K.
685. Stocker, H. E. Economics of Mechanisation.
Institute of Industrial Management, Mel-
bourne, pp. 15. Price is. 6d.
An address delivered in Melbourne on 5 November
1947 by the author, a U.S. consultant on materials
handling. Savings in materials handling can be made
in large and small plants. Any delay in improving
materials handling methods is expensive. On an average
59 tons of materials are handled for every ton produced,
hence the importance of materials handling. Materials
handling costs are not clearly shown in accounting which
prevents managements from realising the outlay. The
return on investment in materials handling equipment
is usually high. The author has developed 17 principles
of economic materials handling. Every case requires
careful study of the alternative ways of attaining savings.
Information on the available material is essential. The
economics of indirect savings, e.g. by reducing accidents,
are often hard to work out. Not only management,
but also labour has to be convinced of the recommenda-
686. Education for Management in Australia and
Abroad. H. A. Harvey. Address
delivered at Institute of Industrial
Management, Melbourne, on 3 February
1948, pp. 20. Price is. 6d.
The lecturer outlines a programme for management
education and training in Australia, as agreed upon at a
conference in 1947. It concerns colleges and Univer-
sities, the government, business and educational organ-
isations. Australia's reputation in this field is high.
England still largely relies on brilliant individuals
for quality results, on workshops and craftsmen.
Training is mainly done in technical colleges, assisted
by the Institute of Industrial Administration, while
University courses are not adequately organised. A new
Administrative Staff College at Greenlands, Henley-
on-Thames, provides for a limited number of selected
administrators from 28 to 34 years. U.S. is more con-
cerned with quantity production and training of
specialists for quality. Leading U.S. Universities pro-
vide graduate schools. The lecturer sketches the
approach made by Harvard University under the
headings of product, process and control. Some Uni-
versities arrange for short-term courses for business
executives, e.g. Harvard a 13-weeks course. The rest
of the lecture deals with training facilities in business
organizations, training of executives as a top manage-
ment function, and foremanship training.
687. The Natural Lighting of Industrial Buildings.
Factory Planning, Part II. Bulletin No.
Ii, Industrial Welfare Division, Depart-
ment of Labour and National Service,
Melbourne, 1948, pp. 83. Price as.
The first chapter deals with the essentials of natural
lighting-sufficiency of illumination for various indus-
trial tasks and processes, distribution of illumination,
brightness contrast and glare, distant vision. In
chapter II: Designing for natural lighting, first the
assessment of natural light, the 'daylight factor' measured
in 'foot candles', is discussed, losses due to obstruction,
in transmission through glass and from dirt on windows.
Next the booklet sets forth the calculation of the daylight
factor with protractors, and the relationship between
natural lighting and natural ventilation. The subject
of chapter III is the design of windows, of chapter IV
the design of roof lights: sawtooth roofs, monitor roofs
and skylights. Chapter V is concerned with factory
layout and siting of buildings, i.e. directional lighting,
the placing of operatives and machines, sunlight penetra-
tion, brightness and colour. Chapter VI discusses
maintenance (glass cleaning) and safety.
The booklet is richly illustrated by photos, drawings
688. An Estimate of Australian Export Income
for 1947-48. J. N. Lewis. Quarterly
Review of Agricultural Economics, pp.
15-19, January 1948.
The total export value in 1947-48 is estimated at
39om., i.e. 27 per cent more than 1946-47 and 182
per cent more than the average of the five years ended
1938-39. Wool and wheat comprise 57 per cent of
this total value in 1947-48. However, the volume
of nearly all principal rural commodities exported
annually in the last five pre-war years was greater than
in 1947-48, the present higher value is due to the greatly
increased prices. The raised value of total exports in
1947-48 compared with the previous year is largely
caused by the expected very substantial export of wheat
(9om. compared with 28-9m. in 1946-47). The
volume of loom. bush. wheat exports estimated for
1947-48 is still smaller than the pre-war average of
Io7-5m.bush. Wool exports are estimated to be worth
I33m., compared with a pre-war average of 48"8m.,
the expected volume, 834'5m.lb. is slightly higher than
the pre-war average of 833m.lb. Butter exports are
expected to be lower by 27 per cent than the pre-war
average, while their value will have risen from Io'4m.
to 16-7m. Similarly the total exports of frozen beef,
veal, lamb, mutton in 1947-48 will have fallen in volume,
but risen in value by comparison with the pre-war
Statistical tables present details of exports for the
five-year pre-war average and the years 1945-46,
1946-47 and 1947-48.
689. Food from Australia. I. A. Butler. Aus-
tralian Quarterly, pp. 21-32, March 1948.
In the last pre-war years it became increasingly
difficult to expand the markets for most Australian food-
stuffs, particularly the U.K. market was limited. In
the early stages of the war food exports from Australia
were not much in demand, agriculture was allowed to
decline in favour of the armed forces and armaments
manufacture. The feeding of grain to livestock was
encouraged. In the later war years food production
was most important, but the trend of agriculture was
hard to reverse.
To overcome the present U.K. food shortage there
are plans for increasing local British food production,
for better colonial development-including the African
Groundnuts Scheme-and for greater Dominion pro-
duction, as far as grain is concerned, mainly from Aus-
tralia. As to food from Australia, the prospects of
increased grain, meat, butter and oil crops are discussed.
The most effective method of promoting higher produc-
tion in wartime was a system of contracting with the
grower and of long-term agreements with U.K. The
author stresses the importance of seasonal factors.
Significant increases cannot be expected before four
or five years.
690. British Plans for Developing Overseas
Resources. C. P. Dowsett. Farm Front,
pp.20-24, February 1947.
The author briefly sets forth the provisions of the Over-
seas Resources Development Act of 1947 for a Colonial
Development Corporation and an Overseas Food Cor-
poration. The former, directed by the Secretary of
State for the Colonies, is to operate in British colonies
on projects for the expansion of existing food and other
agricultural production, both to improve the colonial
peoples' conditions and to increase supplies to U.K.
The latter is concerned with production, processing
and marketing of foodstuffs or other products in places
outside the U.K. It is directed by the Minister of
Food. The Overseas Food Corporation can also under-
take production of products not previously produced in
Among objections raised is the question of priorities
of capital investments in Britain and overseas, between
a public corporation and private enterprise, and between
different colonies or areas. Tentative proposals for the
O.F.C. were the East African groundnut project, fish
canning in the Indian Ocean, rice growing in Borneo.
Of plans in Australia the production of sorghum, pigs
and sunflowers in Queensland, groundnuts and beef in
Northern Australia, have been mentioned. The author
asks why the initiative for projects in Australia or New
Guinea should come from outside and why British rather
than Australian capital should be employed.
691. Decentralisation. A. Date. Farm Front,
pp. 17-20, February 1948.
A summary of the theme of five papers read at the
annual summer school of the Australian Institute of
Political Science, held at Armidale from 24 to 26 January
1948. Decentralisation means a deliberate reversal of
the 'drift to the cities'. Apart from possible military
necessity there are aspects of economic, political, social
and administrative decentralisation which are inter-
dependent. The big city economy might shortly reach
saturation point-in transport between suburbs, con-
gested housing, difficult water and power supply.
However, relocation of industries in country centres
would also require heavy costs in completion of public
works. The location of some industries such as mining,
food processing is naturally determined, the aim of
decentralisation is the dispersion of general manufac-
turing industries. There are economic problems
involved in this concerning revision of rail and road
systems, more port development, decentralisation of
marketing, higher transport costs of raw materials and
Australia is committed to developing her food pro-
ducing areas for maximum exports. The basic require-
ments for primary and secondary industries connected
with these commitments are water and power. This
might contribute to decentralisation. Economic decen-
tralisation will, in turn, 'force a revision of present
692. Report of the Director of Marketing. Queens-
land Department of Agriculture and
Stock. Government Printer, Brisbane,
The report covers the wide-spread primary products
marketing organisation in Queensland for 1946-47.
During this period a Dairymen's State Council was
established. It deals with marketing boards concerning
arrowroot, Atherton Tableland maize, barley, broom
and millet, butter-including details of the dairy indus-
try subsidy and dairy price stabilisation-cheese, cotton,
eggs (South and Central Queensland). The Committee
of Direction of Fruit Marketing has pineapple, citrus,
other fruits, vegetables, beans, deciduous fruit sections ;
new branches of the Committee of Direction were estab-
lished in Albury (Vic.) and Mackay (Queensland).
Next other marketing boards are discussed for ginger,
honey, navy beans (newly constituted), northern pigs,
plywood and veneer, peanuts.
Subject of a special chapter is the wheat industry.
The State Wheat Board is agent for the Australian Wheat
Board. The heavy drought in 1946 necessitated a
special provision for feed grains distribution. Finally
the report examines the production trends reports and
forecasts and marketing reports services.
693. Empire Preference on Rural Products-What
it has Meant to Queensland. Queensland
Department of Agriculture and Stock,
Division of Marketing. Queensland Pro-
ducer Pty. Ltd., Brisbane, 1947, pp. 20.
In 1938-39 the export of primary products to U.K.
constituted 13 per cent of Queensland's gross income
and the value of Empire preference to the major rural
industries in that state was about A4m. The brochure
presents statistical details about exports of the most
important rural products to U.K. As to dairy products
i24-6m.lb. of butter were exported to U.K. in 1938-39,
nearly 5im.lb. more than in 1932-33, 81 per cent of
Queensland's butter factory output. The value of
Empire preference for butter was about 1,040,000.
Queensland cheese exports to Britain in that year were
9-2m.lb. out of a total factory production of 15-7m.lb. ;
97 per cent of all exports went to U.K. 1,4oo,ooo
dozens of eggs in shell were then exported to U.K., in
the meantime the exportable surplus of eggs including
egg pulp has increased more than twice.
In the meat group more than 90 per cent of Queens-
land's exports were beef; 1938-39 209m.lb. of beef
and veal were exported to U.K., the tariff preference on
beef in that year had a value of 741,ooo. Provided a
market is assured by preference, there is much scope
for expansion of the meat industry in Queensland.
Australia's sugar export comes nearly entirely from
Queensland, 1938-39 88 per cent of it was absorbed
by U.K., II per cent by Canada. The value of
the preference on both markets was AI,83o,ooo and
293,ooo respectively. The state's wool export to U.K. in
that year was about 67m.lb. Most of the fruit exported
from Queensland is canned pineapple (1938-39
3,296,000 lb.), which mostly went to U.K. and Canada.
694. New Zealand: Marketing a Pastoral Sur-
plus. Irene A. Moke. Economic Geo-
graphy (Worcester, Massachusetts), pp.
248-255, October 1947.
Low population density and favourable climatic con-
ditions are responsible for N.Z.'s pastoral development.
N.Z. is the world's first exporter of cheese, mutton and
lamb, the second of butter and the third of wool. From
1921 to 1946 the value of the country's animal industries
exports was never less than go per cent of the total value
of its exports. In recent years more emphasis has been
placed on manufacturing, but on the whole manu-
factured goods are imported and paid for by pastoral
exports. Since the 1920's there was much concern over
marketing increasing pastoral surpluses.
This expressed itself firstly in attempts to obtain
tariff preference on the U.K. market (Ottawa agree-
ments), secondly in government control of marketing,
particularly since the Primary Products Marketing Act
of 1936 which was also the basis for marketing during
the war. Bulk purchasing contracts have survived the
war. At present there is doubt about the excessive
reliance on the U.K. market, but N.Z. does not want to
give up preference without substantial concessions from
other countries. Funds for the stabilisation of the
pastoral industry are financed by that industry itself
which, in the case of heavily falling prices might make
the situation precarious.
695. Landlords and Tenant Farmers of Japan.
K. Singer. Economic Record, pp. 238-
249, December 1947.
The problem of the Japanese tenant farmer with pre-
carious tenure of land, and paying exorbitant rents is
urgent, but by no means a 'feudal' remnant. Payment
of the land tax in money caused many peasants to
become tenants instead of free owners. The new land-
lords are not feudal, but mainly urban capitalists and
liberals. Small-scale agriculture prevails in modern
Japan because the topographical character of the
country and the nature of rice production in monsoon
areas requires intensive farming ot small plots. The
aggressive policy of Japan's last decades was indeed
supported by the majority of the landlords, but not as
feudalists, but as a decaying middle class.
(b) Individual Industries
696. Shaw, A. G. L., and Bruns, G. R.: The
Australian Coal Industry. Melbourne
University Press, 1948, pp. X, 197.
Price i7s. 6d.
A survey of the coal industry in Australia since 1929.
After considering world trends in coal consumption
and supplies in the inter-war period, the authors
examine past consumption in Australia and likely future
trends, bearing in mind the effect of fuel economies and
the use of substitute fuels ; particular reference is made
to the demand for coal for export, gas manufacture,
electricity generation, railway transport, iron and steel
works and the possibility of extracting oil from coal;
the effect of trade fluctuations on the industry is dis-
cussed and the conclusion is suggested that after a few
years when the post-war boom is spent, and Victorian
plans for using brown coal mature, the demand for
black coal is likely to fall again.
In discussing coal production since 1929, the effects
of the depression are considered, the price and output
control schemes adopted in overseas countries and the
problems of mechanisation and surplus capacity are
examined. A short chapter deals with Australian coal
production in other states than New South Wales.
There follow discussions of wages in the industry
compared with levels in other industries and overseas,
unemployment and its effects and the health and safety
of miners. A lengthy survey of the industrial unrest
in the industry since the great 'lock-out' of 1929-30
covering both general and local disputes describes
an unfortunate aspect of the industry and offers little
hope of any rapid improvement in industrial relations.
In the final chapter the relative merits and defects
of the policies of laissez-faire, government control and
ownership are canvassed, leading to the guarded con-
clusion that since 'something must be done', nationalisa-
tion, despite its drawbacks, might be worth an experi-
ment if adopted with safeguards against political
697. Report on Large-Scale Development of Blair
Athol Coalfield. P.P. Government
Printer, Brisbane, 1947, pp. 45.
Part A of this report (General Survey, Conclusions
and Recommendations) by J. R. Kemp, Co-ordinator-
General of Public Works, confirms the selection of
Blair Athol in Central Queensland-the largest known
deposit of black coal in the southern hemisphere which
can be worked by open-cut methods-for first considera-
tion for large-scale development. Blair Athol coal is
bituminous to sub-bituminous, good steaming coal but
not coking or gas making. Reserves of coal are esti-
mated at zoo,ooo,ooo tons. Present annual production
(open-cut) is 170,000 tons, the existing railway to Rock-
hampton (239 miles) has a very limited haulage. The
only alternative to Blair Athol in Queensland might
be the Callide field, 80 miles from the port of Gladstone,
but its potentialities are not yet sufficiently explored.
A market for all coal to be produced by large-scale
development of Blair Athol could not be found in
Queensland, but in the southern states, where coal is
short. In addition there might be export markets in
China and Noumea. Estimates have been made on the
basis of a railway line to be constructed from Blair
Athol to Mackay, zo5 miles. Port facilities and methods
of handling coal required in the port of embarkation
were also examined. Estimates of capital and operating
cost are on the basis of winning 1,300,000 tons of coal
a year (300,000 tons for Queensland, Im. for the southern
states or overseas). The total capital required would
be 17'5 to 2o-5m., including 7 to 8m. for 14 to 17
colliers of 500ooo tons each, needed to ship Im. tons per
year to the south. This means, according to the number
of hours working in winning coal, a cost per ton f.o.b.
Queensland port from 23s. 7d. to 25s. 4d., or from
54s. id. to 55s. Iod. in Melbourne or 6xs. 7d. to 63s.
4d. in Adelaide. With a market for supplying double
this quantity the costs f.o.b. Queensland port could be
reduced by 6s. per ton. A purely commercial success
could be expected only with a production in excess of
3m. tons per year. With N.S.W. coal which is much
cheaper in Melbourne and Adelaide, Blair Athol coal
would not be competitive. The project could proceed
only if a market could be secured and if the Common-
wealth and Queensland governments co-operate.
Part B presents estimates and costs for coal winning,
port facilities and shipping, part C deals with railway
transport of Blair Athol coal to the coast. Appendices
discuss various technical details including the question
of spontaneous combustion of Blair Athol coal, appendix
D examines developments in Northern Australia arising
from the proposed development of Blair Athol.
698. The New Zealand Gold Rushes. E. P.
Neale. Economic Record, pp. 250-263,
There were various smaller N.Z. gold discoveries
since 1852. The large finds on the Otago goldfields
since May 1861 made the European population of N.Z.
rise from 58,000 in December 1858 to 99,000 in Decem-
ber 1861. New discoveries in the Dunstan area of
Central Otago caused new rushes so that 1864 the non-
Maori population was as high as 172,ooo. 1864 brought
gold rushes to the west coast of the South Island.
The following sections of the paper deal with the
development of quartz mining and dredging. A chapter
on the demography of the early gold rushes examines
arrivals in and departures from N.Z., the proportion of
women and children, the migration between Otago and
Southland and Australian ports and the numbers of
miners and their masculinity in various districts.
In later years the mining of auriferous lodes became
more important and since the I88o's the cyanide process
was developed. Before the gold rushes N.Z. was a
purely pastoral country, and gold mining brought about
the settlement of people on the land as small farmers.
What became of the miners when the mines petered out,
can be gathered from statistics referring to Chinese in
N.Z. 1874 85 per cent of 4,816 Chinese were miners,
1936 of 2,887 Chinese only 18 were gold miners, the
main occupations were market gardeners, sellers of fruit
and vegetables, and laundrymen.
Finally the author gives data about the share different
parts of N.Z. had in the country's total gold production.
699. The Current Rice Situation with Particular
Relation to Australia. P. C. Druce.
Review of Marketing and Agricultural
Economics, pp. 456-464, December 1947.
There is at present a world shortage of rice, and it
might take from five to eight years until rice production
reaches its pre-war level. Before the war 97 per cent
of the world's rice was grown in Asia and 60 per cent
of the Asiatic rice was produced in China and India,
but both countries were net importers of rice. The
five major pre-war rice exporting countries which
accounted for 94 per cent of international rice trade,
were Burma, French Indochina, Siam, Korea and
Formosa. Only 7 per cent of the world's pre-war rice
production entered international trade, most of this was
inter-Asiatic. As shown in statistical tables, during
the war rice-production declined in most Asiatic coun-
tries, with the exception of India, which, however, was
still short of rice because of the lack of Burmese imports.
North and South America's rice output increased during
the war and there is now an export surplus from these
Australian rice production was established in 1924-25
in the Murrumbidgee Irrigation area, five years later
Australia became self-sufficient in rice and disposed of
her surplus by export to Britain. In the 1930's our
rice production area was stabilised at 23,000 acres and
the average production at 42,000 tons. During the
war Australian production expanded both in the original
and in new areas, but Australian rice was reserved for
the services and for the Pacific islands. Production
reached its peak in 1943-44 (41,500 acres and 75,000
tons), since then it has fallen again, in the next two or
three years it might reach 30,000 acres, but it will
probably be stabilised at 23,00ooo-26,oo acres. For
1955 a sharp fall in prices is expected, until then there
will be unlimited demand at satisfactory prices.
700. Welsh, J. E. Melbourne and Metropolitan
Milk Supply. Report and Recommenda-
tions, pp. 62 roneoedd).
In connection with the pasteurisation of milk the
question arose in Victoria whether the treatment of
milk was, hygienically and economically, possible only
in large centralised depots. The Melbourne and Metro-
politan Milk Distributors' Association sent its secretary,
the author of this report, overseas to investigate this
problem. The report is based on the author's observa-
tions in U.S., Canada and England from June to
October 1947. He deals first with pasteurisation. In
the three countries visited small and medium sized
pasteurisation plants outnumber the larger ones.
Controls, standards and supervision are discussed and
compared with Melbourne conditions. Among further
subjects the report is concerned with inspection, tem-
perature, cooling and sterilising on farms; various equip-
ment, hooded capping, homogenised and sterilised milk,
wages conditions, hours of delivery, fluctuations of
supply, transport, the economic size of plants, control
and fixation of prices, consumption of milk.
The author considers Melbourne's milk supply as
very good, but consumption could be increased when
the public had confidence in the safety of the supply,
i.e. when all milk were pasteurised. The concentration
of pasteurisation in large depots is not the most econ-
omical way. Production, distribution and handling of
milk should be under the control of a central authority.
For breaches of regulations the revocation of the
licences is the most adequate penalty. Milk treatment
methods in Melbourne are very good, but supervision
and control is much further advanced overseas. The
author recommends that all control should be vested
in the Department of Agriculture, that the Milk and
Dairy Supervision Act should deal with anybody
handling or selling milk, that producers' licences should
be revoked, if tests prove unsatisfactory, that pasturisa-
tion in all places with more than 500 inhabitants should
701. The Sheep Industry of Australia. Pre-
pared by the Department of Economics,
International Wool Secretariat. Wool
Digest, pp. 20-28, April 1948.
A survey of 'the most important single industry in
the Commonwealth', the wool export representing more
than 40 per cent of the gross value of Australia's total
exports. A short history of sheep growing is given,
supported by a table on the growth of sheep farming
from 1860-1945. 1890 marked a turning point because
of new methods of wheat farming and of refrigeration
which opened overseas markets for our rural products.
Next the article deals with the distribution of sheep
among the Australian states, the average size of sheep
stations in these states, the influence of droughts in
connection with natural grass as basis of the industry.
Further topics are the slaughtering of sheep and lambs
for meat, wool production and exports, research. The
relative importance of sheep raising has declined with
closer settlement and increasing industrialisation.
However, where the rainfall is below 20 in. p.a., wool
growing remains supreme.
702. The U.S.A. Tariff on Wool. F. H. Booth.
Australian Quarterly, pp. 68-77, Decem-
The author tries to justify the U.S. tariff on wool and
wool products by referring to the much higher wages
in U.S. compared with other countries. Under the
fixed rate of ii cents per lb. of greasy wool U.S.
importers imported mainly higher yielding wools, con-
taining less grease and wax. 1930 a new tariff for raw
wool (34 cents per lb.) was based on its 'clean content'
with a 'moisture content of 12 per cent'. The method
of determining clean content is examined. U.S. is the
largest consumer of wool in total, before the war she
mainly imported crossbreds, during the war more
In U.S. wool is produced in three areas : (i) 'Domes-
tic' wools grown east of the Missouri in great settled
farming areas where most farms carry Ioo to 150 sheep.
(2) 'Territory' wools in western states with cold winters
and hot summers, mostly without fencing. (3) Texas
which has about 25 per cent of the sheep in U.S. and
often similar conditions as in Australia.
Since 1943 sheep numbers and wool production in
U.S. have declined considerably, because of the sale and
slaughter of ewe lambs, as lamb fetches very high
prices. Domestic and Texas wool production is likely
to be maintained, but territory wool may decline.
Australian wool exports to U.S. averaged only 67,500
bales p.a. in the last eight years prior to the war, in the
following eight years they averaged 925,ooo bales p.a.
During the war this was due to service demand, in the
last two years to increased civilian demand. In future
Australia will have to grow more wool and wool of a
higher average standard.
703. Effects of Reduction of American Wool
Import Duties. R. B. McMillan, Quar-
terly Review of Agricultural Economics,
PP. 5-9, January 1948.
The effects on Australia of the 25 per cent reduction
of the U.S. tariff on wool imports are too complicated
to be safely expressed in figures. Fundamental is the
level of economic prosperity in U.S., there are possible
gains of wool at the expense of competing fibres and
the tariff reduction may have an influence on U.S. Wool
production. Assuming that the total U.S. outlay on
imported wool remains the same and that Australia's
share in U.S. wool imports is 50 per cent, there are
two broad alternatives : that the total quantity bought
by U.S. wool importers increases or that the quantity
and the overall duty-paid price remains unchanged,
i.e. that the Australian wool seller gets a higher net
price. In both cases the benefit to Australian sellers
is roughly estimated at A4-5m. Other factors to be
considered are : bottlenecks in the U.S. worsted textile
industry; the effect of strong U.S. demand on other
buyers; the influence of U.S. Commodity Credit
Corporation stocks, which is not very great because
these stocks mostly contain types which are not com-
petitive with Australian imports; the U.S. tariff on
goods manufactured from wool which has also been
704. The Australian Wool Board. IIth Annual
Report, 1946-47. Melbourne, pp. 31.
A survey of the board's activities in the year under
review. Among these are: Attempts to evolve a uni-
form standard of the clip; wool textile labelling; films
for woolgrowers; distribution of handlooms and of a
booklet 'Concerning Wool' to schools; advertising;
campaign against brand damage; mobile display unit
for country districts; wool upholstery for motor-cars ;
displays of British all-wool wardrobe and shop window
displays; international wool exhibition in Sydney;
the issue of the monthly 'Wool Digest' and of a drought
feeding calculator; wool news service; fashion display
in Brisbane ; finance.
In the following section the International Wool
Secretariat reports on 'Overseas Wool Promotion', com-
prising an Indian wool survey; textile labelling; news
service ; advertising; various displays ; lectures and
economic research; secretariat activities in France,
U.S. and Canada, etc. Sir Charles Martin contributes a
short article on 'Technical Research'. A chapter on
pastoral research deals with pests and diseases, internal
parasites, breeding investigations, wool biology and fibre
characters, pastures. Finally financial statements are
705. 'J.O.-A Commercial Jason'. W. A. Cun-
ningham. Farm Front, pp. 29-34, March
A short survey of the activities of the Joint Organisa-
tion for Empire Wool Marketing.
706. Meat. Twelfth Annual Report of the
Australian Meat Board for the year
ended 30 June 1947, pp. 31.
During the first half of the year under review drought
conditions prevailed in N.S.W. and Queensland, while
parts of N.S.W., Victoria, S.A. and Tasmania were
affected by dry autumn and early winter.
Cattle slaughtering in the Queensland season is
expected to be below normal owing to seasonal condi-
tions. Exports were nearly double those of the previous
years in all classes except pig meat.
Late in 1946 the Board assumed the administration
of purchase, on behalf of the Australian government,
of meat for export under contract with U.K. govern-
ment. A new schedule of prices under the contract
became operable as from I October 1946. Details of
this are included in Appendix i.
The Board acts in an advisory capacity to the Ration-
ing Commission and Prices Branch. In February the
resolution was made that controls affecting meat should
be lifted as soon as possible, but not until adequate
livestock supplies are available.
Reports on scientific research refer to fat lamb
breeding experiments and meat preservation investiga-
Appendix Ii gives statistical data regarding meat
707. Dried Fruits. The Twenty-third Annual
Report of the Commonwealth Dried
Fruits Control Board for the year 1946-7,
The Board reports that the production of currants,
sultanas and lexias for 1947 season is the lowest since
1931. This is the third successive year in which
growers have sustained heavy losses because of adverse
Low production has made the allocation of dried
vine fruits between the various markets very difficult,
and in each case the amount allotted was considerably
below requirements. Supplies to the Commonwealth
and other markets were severely cut to provide U.K.
with 32,000 tons and 21,262 tons during the years 1946
and 1947 respectively.
The industry supports the principle of inter-govern-
mental contracts because of their stabilising effect, and
negotiations are proceeding for the extension of the
present contract with U.K., which expires at the end
The importance of the U.N. Conference on Trade
and Employment is discussed with special reference to
the future of tariff preferences and their effect on the
Dried Fruits Industry.
Further discussion includes the plans for expanding
the industry, overseas publicity, and research work.
Statistical information concerning dried fruits produc-
tion, consumption and export, is given.-H.S.
708. Australian Canned Fruits Board. 21st
Annual Report, for Year 1946-47, pp. 15.
The 1947 pack of canned apricots, peaches, pears and
the composite pack was 2,625,000 cases which was an
improvement compared with the recent war years,
although it was still somewhat below the pre-war annual
output. Of these a quota of 1,455,000 cases was allotted
to U.K., of which 312,000 had been despatched on
30 June 1947. The quota for N.Z. was ioo,ooo cases,
for service requirements 48,673, for Australia and
general export. trade 1,o21,740. Probably 900,000 of
the latter will be consumed in Australia. Canned
pineapples suffered under adverse seasonal conditions
in Queensland. The combined summer and winter
pack in 1946 was 163,600 cases, the summer pack in
1947 77,500 cases. Nearly all will be distributed on
the Australian market. The question of the maintenance
of Empire preference caused anxiety in the industry.
709. Butcher, A. D. and Thompson, C. T.
Fish Farming. Management of Water for
Fish Production. Victoria, Fisheries and
Game Department, Fisheries Pamphlet
No. 3, pp. 36, June 1947. Price zs.
This publication is not based on research in Australia,
but on success obtained overseas which led the authors
to make certain suggestions for pond raising in Victoria.
After a short historical sketch the significance of fertil-
isers or nutrients, organic and inorganic, is briefly
discussed. The 'nutrient cycle' is presented and various
factors are dealt with which contribute to increased
productivity. Of these the pond bottom, the deficiency
of the soil in lime, the acidity or alkalinity of the water,
are important. Data are quoted referring to produc-
tivity per acre and year in fertilised and unfertilised
As to fish farming in Victoria the pamphlet suggests
that both 'cold water' (as in Europe) and 'warm water' (as
in U.S.) species of fish should be utilised, generally one
species of fish per pond. There is an objection to carp
as food in this country. Details are given how to pre-
pare a pond: the requirements (dam and farm water
storage, ponds with deep and shallow water, draining
facilities), tree planting, aquatic weeds, fertilisation of
ponds, introduction of fish foods. The next chapter
mentions the species of fish available, the controlling
factors which species are to be chosen (temperature,
discoloured water, dissolved oxygen content, weed
growth in the pond, departmental control of the distribu-
tion of fish), where to obtain the fish, the stocking of
the pond. Finally the connection of soil conservation
with fish ponds is explained and suggestions are made
how to construct the pond.
710. The Symposium on Australia's Native
Tanning Materials. Further Experiments
with E. Sieberiana and C. Glauca, and an
Investigation of the Tannins of E. Rostrata
and E. Crebra Barks. H. Anderson.
Australasian Leather Trades Review, pp.
5-6, March 1948.
Abstracts on experimental work concerning Australian
tanning material were published as abstracts No. 361
in No. 4 and No. 532 in No. 5 of this periodical. The
subsequent use of wood for pulp manufacture has cau sed
the preparation of tannin in extract form with slightly
different qualities from those reported earlier.
Of pine barks Callitris calcarata yields a tannin too
dark for sole leather, but useful for belting leather.
C. glauca has only half the tannin content as calcarata,
but is more frequent. It enables the manufacture of
goo-looo tons of extract p.a. E. crebra contains 12-30
per cent tan ; its sulphited extract yields a leather like
quebracho. E. rostrata (River Red Gum) grows along
the Murray and can produce about iooo tons p.a. of
Experiments were made to find the proportion of
hydrosulphate required for sulphiting these tans, only
E. rostrata does not seem to be improved by sulphiting.
For comparison Mimosa and Myrobalans were included
and colour readings of the tanned yearlings, and other
qualities of the tannages are set forth in tables.
711. Planned Maintenance. System of Common-
wealth Fertilisers. R. C. Sticht. Manu-
facturing and Management, pp. 315-322,
A presidential address delivered before the Society
of Chemical Industry in Victoria. The object of
planned maintenance is to save money, and the lecturer
gives reasons why it should have this effect. The
system described is operating in the factories of the
Commonwealth Fertilisers and Chemicals Ltd., in
Yarraville, Vie. It is based on forms whose preparation
is most important, and is related to the costing system.
The forms used are : (i) Plant history cards in which
all work done is briefly described (mostly by using the
time slips), the number of man-hours charged against
any repair in a week, spare part issues, inspections,
etc., are recorded; (2) reminder cards, mainly main-
tenance cards; (3) inspection forms; (4) plant shut-
A specification of 13 points indicates the aims and
achievements of the system, e.g. that it must function
automatically, that it must forecast the time when over-
hauls or replacements are required, that it must ensure
that replacement parts are on hand in time, that infor-
mation is given of the cost of maintenance of specific
items, that the working life of plant components is
712. Parts for Motor Vehicles, Tractors and
Cycles. Question of Cancellation of By-
Laws. Tariff Board's Report, pp. 18.
P.P., 2 August 1946, ordered to be
printed ii March 1948. Government
Printer, Canberra. Price Is.
This matter was referred to the Tariff Board in con-
nection with the proposed manufacture in Australia of
complete motor cars and with the interpretation of
article 12 of the Ottawa agreement. The By-laws
concerned were issued under Tariff Item 404 with
respect to various parts of vehicles, such as rims and
wheels, carburettors, etc., and under Item 174(Y) with
respect to various electrical machines and appliances,
such as dynamos, magnetos, motors, high tension dis-
tributors, etc. Under both items entry from U.K.,
Canada and N.Z. is free of duty and primage. A
number of requests were made for removal of different
articles from by-law entry and for making them subject
to duty. Witnesses were heard representing the
Department of Trade and Customs, Australian and
British manufacturers, some of them in favour of and
some opposed to cancellation of by-laws.
The Tariff Board recommended that By-laws No.
388, 295 and 47, all under Tariff-Item 174(Y), covering
dynamos, starting motors, and high tension distributors,
be amended to remove these articles from their opera-
tion, except when not imported for use in the manu-
facture in Australia of motor car and truck chassis;
that other By-laws under the same tariff item be not
altered; that By-law No. 12o under Tariff Item 404
be cancelled with respect to a number of articles used
in the manufacture of motor car and truck chassis, such
as crank cases, engines, demountable rims, wire and
wood wheels, carburettors, etc. No alteration was
recommended for articles imported for replacement and
other uses, particularly of dynamos for cycle lighting
sets and magnetos for internal combustion engines.
713. Tractors. Tariff Board Report on Bounty
on Tractors, pp. 16, September 1947.
The question to be considered by the Tariff Board
was the necessity for continuing the bounty on tractors.
The bounty has been offered on tractors manufactured
in Australia for the past 25 years, but it is only during
and since the war that serious proposals have been made
to manufacture them here on a scale bearing any relation
to the country's needs. The reason for this recent
development lies in changes in Australia's manufacturing
potentiality and competitive position in relation to other
countries; but the availability of the bounty has
influenced manufacturers in their decision to enter the
The Board recommends that the payment of the
bounty should continue for three years from October
25, 1947, and that the government should announce
that continuance thereafter will depend on the proved
needs of the industry, and the results of an inquiry as
to whether, if any assistance is justified, it should be
better rendered by bounty or other means.-H.S.
714. Static Condensers of the Oil-Immersed Type.
Tariff Board's Report. 12 May 1947.
Government Printer, Canberra, pp. 11.
Static condensers of the oil-immersed type are im-
ported under Tariff By-law Item 415A(z), By-law No.
124, i.e. when coming from U.K. free of duty and
primage. In the absence of this by-law they would be
dutiable under Item I8o(L) (2), i.e. under the British
preferential tariff 30 per cent plus 5 per cent primage.
The present inquiry was held at the request of an Aus-
tralian condenser manufacturer to remove these con-
densers from the by-law mentioned. The board had
also to deal with the question what rate of duty should
apply in case the by-law would be withdrawn. The
board heard witnesses representing Australian condenser
manufacturers who supported increased duties, and
witnesses of behalf on British condenser manufacturers
and of the Electricity Supply Association of Australia
who were opposed to increased duties. A tariff board
inquiry on the same question was held in 1936, when
very few static condensers of the oil-immersed type were
made in Australia. In the meantime Australian indus-
try extended the production of this type and now meets
all local needs. A comparison with the landed cost of
British-made condensers was difficult because of the
absence of recent imports.
The Tariff Board recommended that static condensers
of the oil-immersed type should be removed from the
provisions of entry under Tariff By-law Item 415A(2),
and that Tariff Item i8o(L) (2) should be applied.
W. J. Rose issued a minority report in which he recom-
mended that the present rates of duties for the con-
densers in question should not be altered.
715. Internal Combustion Engines. Tariff Board's
Report, pp. 23. Government Printer,
Canberra, 24 December 1947.
The Tariff Board had to deal with a request made by
S. F. Ferguson on behalf of Internal Combustion
Engine Manufacturers Association in London, that
internal combustion engines at present charged duty
under various clauses of tariff item 178 be admitted
under tariff by-law item I74(Y), i.e. under the British
preferential tariff duty-free, for twelve months, subject
to extension beyond that period. Various witnesses
were heard in favour of admission under by-law, amgng
them S. F. Ferguson and other representatives of Brifsh
manufacturers, of Australian manufacturers of lawn-
mowers and of professional fishermen. Other witnesses
opposed the request on behalf of Australian manu-
facturers of internal combustion engines, stressing that
the present lower prices of Australian-made compared
with engines imported from U.K. might soon change
owing to rising costs in Australia.
The Tariff Board after a survey of the history of the
industry, discussed the types of engines made in Australia,
the sources of import, supply and demand, and the
margin of protection to be given generally and under
the Ottawa agreement. The Board recommended that
the request for by-law admission be not granted, but
that further consideration should be given to a 'flexible
and expeditious method' of adjusting margins of protec-
tion. A minority report issued by W. J. Rose recom-
mended that admission under by-law should be granted
except for air-cooled petrol engines and outboard
716. Vacuum Cleaners. Tariff Board Report
March 1948, pp. 19.
In this report the Tariff Board gives a history of the
vacuum cleaner industry in Australia, with details of
quantity, value and sources of imports and the duties
The present position of the industry in Australia is
dealt with in full; prices and production costs are
compared with those in the U.K.
The Board considers that protection duties alone will
probably not lead to the soundest development of the
industry in Australia, but on the other hand it considers
that some protection is necessary for development to
proceed. Details are given of the proposed classifica-
tions and tariff adjustments.-H.S.
717. Alkalis, Chlorine and Chlorine Products.
Tariff Board's Report, 19 February 1948.
Government Printer, Canberra, pp. 16.
The original question referred to the Tariff Board
was what assistance should be given to the production
of raw and intermediate raw materials used in the manu-
facture of plastics. Of the alkalis produced in the
ammonia-soda process only caustic soda, chlorine and
two chlorine products are protected by the tariff while
soda ash and bicarbonate of soda are duty free under
the British preferential tariff. It was suggested that
the price per ton of caustic soda should be reduced by
4 and the prices of soda ash, bicarbonate of soda,
calcium chloride and chlorine should rise by i.
I.C.I.A.N.Z., the only Australian manufacturer of
alkalis, opposed a change of the present prices relation-
ship, which is the same here as overseas. The board
also heard witnesses representing users engaged in the
plastics industries including the manufacturers of syn-
thetic phenol, who supported a reduction in the caustic
soda price. Further witnesses were spokesmen of other
users, such as the soap, paper, textile, glass industries,
graziers, water supply and sewerage authorities. The
phenol, soap, food and rubber industries would profit
by the suggested changes in the price relationship, the
glass, textile and chemical other than phenol industries
The anomaly that duty free moulding powders and
resins are produced from a protected intermediate
material, phenol, has been removed, as synthetic
moulding powders and resins have been made dutiable
under Tariff Item 369 since i January 1948. The
Board found 'that at present no useful purpose would
be served by taking action to revise the selling prices
of the various products covered by this inquiry', as the
present ratio of z : i between the prices of caustic soda
and soda ash seemed fair.
718. Moulders' Chaplets or Studs and Moulders'
Pipe Nails (or Chaplet Nails). Tariff
Board's Report, 26 February 1948
Government Printer, Canberra, pp. 7.
A Victorian firm, probably the only Australian manu-
facturer who produces these articles for the local market,
has applied for removal of moulders' chaplets or studs
and pipe nails from entry under Tariff By-law Item
415(A) (2), i.e. under the British preferential tariff free
of duty and primage. Witnesses in favour of this
request said that the local manufacturer who had started
production in war-time, could not compete with possible
future importation. Witnesses opposed to the request
stressed the need for cheap chaplets to keep the costs
of founding low. The range and design of these
locally made moulders' accessories was inadequate; the
Australian demand was higher than the local producer's
capacity, and to protect the local article, very high
duties would be required. The Tariff Board recom-
mended that the articles in question should not be
removed from entry under the by-law mentioned,
mainly on the grounds put forward by the witnesses
opposed to the request.
719. Kit Bag Frames. Tariff Board's Report,
27 February 1948. Government Printer,
Canberra, pp. 8.
A South Australian firm, probably the only Australian
manufacturer of this article, applied for removal of kit
bag frames from entry under Tariff By-law Item 404,
i.e. under the British preferential tariff duty- and
primage-free, and their placing under Tariff Item
376(G), i.e. for British imports 30 per cent duty plus
5 per cent primage. The applicant had started this
production in 1939 when there was plenty of juvenile
labour and cheap scrap sheet metal, while now labour and
material was much dearer. Witnesses representing
leather goods manufacturers were opposed to the request
because the quality of the locally made frames was
inferior and the quantity insufficient for the demand.
At present imports came only from U.K., in too small
quantities and at very high prices, so that the applicant
need not fear competition. The Tariff Board recom-
mended that kit bag frames should not be removed
from entry under the By-law mentioned, mainly on the
grounds set forth by the opponents to the application,
which was premature.
720. Acetylene Black. Tariff Board's Interim
Report, I March 1948. Government
Printer, Canberra, pp. I1.
Acetylene black (a.b.) is produced only by a Canadian
firm and by Electronic Industries Ltd. in Melbourne,
which started production in March 1946. At the time
of the inquiry, i.e. 1946-47, a.b. for use in manufacturing
electrical dry cells and storage batteries could be im-
ported duty-free under Tariff By-law Item 404A which
from 19 November 1947 has been replaced by Item
23I(E) (I), i.e. imports from Canada were again free
of duty and primage. Electronic Industries requested
that By-law 4o4A should be cancelled and Canadian
a.b. pay is. per lb. duty. This was based on the price
margin of 71d. per lb. and additional 41d. to induce
the largest Australian user, Eveready, to purchase the
local and not the Canadian product. Eveready and
another Australian batteries manufacturer opposed the
The Tariff Board found that the applicant was pro-
ducing a.b. of suitable quality and that a certain amount
of protection was justified. At present, however, local
production was safeguarded against competition by
import licensing and in future both the local a.b. pro-
ducer and the Tasmanian producer of carbide, the raw
material of a.b., might reduce costs. The board
recommended that no action should be taken until all
means of cost reduction were exploited, and as long as
the restrictions on imports from hard currency areas
were not altered.
721. Production Planning for Fashion Industries.
L. C. Danby. Manufacturing and Manage-
ment, pp. 383-387, May 1948.
An account of production planning in the shoe and
slipper industries which are subject to summer and
winter fashion changes. The first step is the prepara-
tion of samples by means of searching of fashion and trade
journals and conferences with sales representatives and
potential buyers about likely future colour and fashion
trends. The author suggests the planning of a roster
of production in nine stages with precise dates so that
the summer lines can go into production about June I,
the winter lines about October I. Important features
of this roster are a sales budget forecast for a particular
season, a bloc bill of material and stock cards from which
certain items in the bloc bill of material can be appropri-
ated. Various probable objections and difficulties to
be encountered are discussed in a series of questions
(C) Monetary Policy, Banking, Insurance
722. The Dollar Situation. Statement by J. B.
Chifley, Prime Minister, in the House of
Representatives on 4 December 1947.
P.P. Government Printer, Canberra, pp.
12. Price 9d.
The statement explains the world-wide dollar short-
age whose main reason is the disparity between levels
of production in U.S.A. and in Europe and Asia,
aggravated by the increase in U.S. prices. The P.M.
sets forth the U.K. dollar position in connection with
the U.S. loan to U.K. Figures are presented on
conversion into U.S. dollars between I January and
2o August 1947 and on the dollar reserves and deficits
of the U.K. and the Sterling area.
The statement then deals with the Australian position
and our present dollar deficit. Our exports to the dollar
area might be increased, but wool exports in 1947-48
will probably be smaller in value than in the year before.
The values of imports from U.S. in the first four months
of 1947-48 were already two thirds of the imports of
the whole 1946-47 period. 1946-47 our dollar deficit
was about $Ioom. This led to dollar import cuts
announced on 2 September 1947 (motor-chassis,
tobacco, petrol, newsprint, etc.). Subsequent talks in
London revealed the gravity of the situation. The
Australian government had to co-operate with U.K. in
reducing dollar expenditure. In October 1947 all out-
standing dollar import licences were recalled for review,
valued at A52m. These licences will be confirmed in
cases of goods in transit, of irrevocable letters of credit
and of highly essential goods. Licences to the value
of Ai7m. will be cancelled. Probably imports from
U.S. and Canada in 1947-48 will still be about Agom.
723. Australia and the Dollar Crisis. W. Prest.
Australian Quarterly, pp. 57-67, Decem-
After a short survey of Australian restrictions on
imports from U.S. and Canada the author draws some
conclusions from Australian trade statistics. 1946-47
the favourable trade balance of 4m. with U.S. was off-
set by an unfavourable balance of 13m. with Canada.
Most of the favourable balance accrued in the early part
of that period, later the balance was progressively
deteriorating. Exports (mainly of wool) of 1946-47
were 'inflated', as they had been purchased and paid
for by overseas buyers during the war, but left in storage
in Australia. About 40om. of shipments were recorded
as exports, without adding to Australia's overseas
income in that year. Expenditure on invisible items
(freight and insurance, expenditure on war account,
interest payments, dividends, etc.) were not covered
by the trade balance, but the dollar deficit is greatly
increased by such items.
For this specifically Australian dollar problem a
resumption of U.S. wool purchases in Australia at
higher prices is the only possible remedy. Our position
generally might improve with increasing export prices
and wheat exports. The passive balance in relation to
dollar countries would not matter much, if stg.
obtained from exports were freely convertible, while in
fact Australia takes part in the British dollar pool and
is deeply involved in Britain's dollar difficulties. The
world-wide dollar shortage is not so much due to the
higher productivity of the U.S. economy as to the far
greater rise in the prices of U.S. exports, particularly
foodstuffs than in the prices, e.g. of textiles which U.S.
imports. The demand of other countries for U.S.
goods and their supply of goods to the U.S. market
is inelastic. This prevents U.S. inflation from having
the usual effect of increasing imports and decreasing
724. Two Points of View. The Dollar Position.
T. Hytten. Rydge's, pp. 1117-1122,
December 1947. Address to the Institute
of Industrial Management, Sydney.
The author presents a survey of Britain's imports
from U.S.A. under lend-lease and under the American
loan of 1945, of Britain's indebtedness to countries of
the Sterling area and the difficulties of converting Stg.
balances into dollars. To provide payment for neces-
sary imports from America, U.K. can now only increase
her exports to dollar countries which takes time, or
draw on her meagre reserves (gold and International
Monetary Fund). In the short run reduction of Ameri-
can imports and, where possible, substituting of imports
from Stg. countries is imperative.
U.S. opinion points to loans and grants to U.K.,
Greece and Turkey and to other aid supplied, it thinks
that the loans will not be repaid and are actually gifts.
Besides, Americans do not want to assist countries
drifting into socialism, working less hard and enjoying
more extravagant social services than U.S. They feel
that British nationalisation schemes lower efficiency,
and that Frenchmen have huge secret holdings abroad
and private gold holdings, because they have no faith
in France's recovery. Thus U.S. cannot be expected
to have that faith.
The plans of the Committee of European Economic
Co-operation under the Marshall plan are discussed
which envisage balancing with the dollar area after
1951, provided America admits more European and
other imports. This amounts to revision of the U.S.
tariff. It is fundamental 'that European countries
restore confidence in their own peoples in their ability
725. The International Monetary Fund and the
Treatment of Cyclical Balance of Pay-
ments Disequilibria. H. W. Arndt.
Economic Record, pp. 186-197, December
According to the Bretton Woods agreement the I.M.F.
shall approve of a devaluation of a member country's
currency by more than io per cent if 'the change is
necessary to correct a fundamental disequilibrium'.
The paper deals with the interpretation of the term
'fundamental' disequilibrium following a discussion in
essays by G. Haberler, A. H. Hansen and R. Nurkse.
Temporary disequilibria-such as seasonal fluctuations
-should be offset by drawing on international liquid
reserves, fundamental disequilibria by more far-reach-
ing measures, particularly exchange rate adjustments.
Cyclical disequilibria are borderline cases between
fundamental and temporary. It is controversial whether
the criterion for 'fundamental' is actual balance of pay-
ment deficit for a minimum period or the existence of
under-employment, and whether the remedy is exchange
rate adjustment, domestic compensatory budget policy
or the use of international currency reserves. At the
request of the U.K. government the I.M.F. itself gave
an interpretation which, however, is rather doubtful.
Another complication is a clause in the agreement that
resources of the I.M.F. may not be used 'contrary to
the purposes of the fund'.
The author examines the advantages and difficulties
of currency depreciation and the alternative 'offsetting'
policy. The objections to the latter would have been
much smaller under the system proposed by Keynes
than under the Bretton Woods system. He concludes
that an offsetting policy is in most respects preferable to
currency depreciation, but has to be supplemented by
other measures (commercial policy) if there is a serious
slump or depression in the country with an active
balance of payments. 'Fundamental' disequilibrium
should include cyclical disequilibrium.
726. The Direct Control of Interest Rates.
B. Tew. Economic Record, 198-205,
Direct official control of short-term interest rates,
in Australia based on regulations and law, in U.K. on
practice, has proved efficient and was made easier by
structural changes, such as close collaboration between
central bank and Treasury and greater influence of both
monetary authorities over trading and savings bank
business. In the case of most short-term obligations
commercial and savings banks are the main borrowers
and lenders. Undesirable international capital move-
ments owing to cheap money can be countered by
Arguments that stabilisation of short-term rates
prejudices the monetary authority's control over the
quantity of money, are unjustified, unless the cheap
money policy applies to all, not only short-term interest
Control of long-term rates will contribute to reducing
the service of the public debt and might also stimulate
investment in assets with a long earning life, such as
house building. The monetary authority and the banks
are not so predominant in the bond market and therefore
less well able to control long-term rates directly.
Indirect control is possible by influencing long-term
rates through short-term rates. Most important bor-
rowers on long-term rates are firms which are unlikely
to switch to short-term borrowing because of lower
short-term rates. Of lenders on long-terms many want
a stable money income, they prefer bonds. Others
want stable money capital; they might turn to long-
term assets if short-term rates are reduced.
A direct way of control is the issue of as many bonds
by the monetary authority as the market can absorb
at the 'official' rates. Direct control has been successful
in U.S. and U.K., but has the drawback to increase the
liquidity of assets held by the public. This is a dis-
advantage in an inflationary situation when illiquidity
of a high proportion of assets is a valuable safeguard.
727. Commonwealth Bank of Australia in the
Second World War. John Sands Pty.
Ltd., Sydney, 1947, pp. 230.
The aim of this book is primarily to record the activi-
ties of the Bank in wartime. It shows how central
banking functions and controls were increased under
the National Security Regulations, and to a considerable
extent embodied in 1945 in the Commonwealth Bank
Act and the Banking Act. (The nationalising legislation
of 1947 had not beenapassed at the date of publication.)
It deals in detail with exchange control, involving
almost necessarily export control and import licensing.
It covers also the mobilisation of gold, and the part
played by the bank in the raising of Commonwealth
loans. The various methods of wartime commodity
finance, including the export contracts with U.K. and
the defence and munition contracts are referred to.
The bank also performed important functions in meeting
the financial needs, not only of the Australian forces
at home and abroad, but also of our allies' forces
located in this part of the world. The expansion of
the services provided by the Commonwealth Savings
Bank is the subject of a separate chapter which clearly
demonstrates that the organisation of the Savings Banks,
as of the Commonwealth Bank itself, was sufficiently
flexible to meet the varied needs of wartime. This
was largely due to the staff, to whom a special tribute
is paid in the last chapter.
728. State Banking for Australia ? A Banking
Correspondent in Australia. Banker
(London), pp. 83-87, November 1947.
Of the contents of the Bill to nationalise the Australian
banking system particularly the provision for exemption
from taxation in case of a voluntary agreement for the
acquisition of a private banking business by the Com-
monwealth Bank, and Section 1 on the scope and func-
tions of the new Commonwealth Bank are dealt with.
In the author's view safeguards against political dis-
crimination, abuse of financial privacy, and deterioration
of banking efficiency in the private banking system are
to be removed or weakened by Section 1x.
Mr. Chifley's arguments for the nationalisation of
banking are outlined. The author gives details of the
1945 legislation, especially of the special accounts the
trading banks had to keep with the Commonwealth
Bank. The trading banks objected to this provision,
but co-operated in carrying it out. 1947 the legality
of Section 48 was successfully challenged, and possibly
the entire 1945 legislation might break down in the
That effective banking control can be secured without
nationalisation, was stated by the Royal Commission
on Banking in 1936. Before the special accounts con-
trol powers of the Commonwealth Bank were exercised
by the issue and funding of Treasury bills, the purchase
and sale of Government securities on the open market,
and by the Commonwealth Bank's own trading activities.
The Royal Commission suggested an elastic system of
minimum deposits with the central bank. The govern-
ment does not want to keep the existing banking system
in being, because of its party hostility to the banks and
of its aim to concentrate power in federal hands,
ultimately to achieve a socialised state.
729. Bank Nationalisation Delusions. C. V.
Janes. Australian Quarterly, pp. 9-19,
According to most Government spokesmen including
Mr. Chifley the case for bank nationalisation is based
on 'the maintenance of full employment'. The under-
lying assumption concerns the relationship between the
volume of credit and the state of business activity, i.e.
that the trade cycle is mainly a monetary phenomenon.
The author regards prolonged full employment as
incompatible with a stationary or rising standard of
living and with the retention of personal liberty.
Provided that Sections 18 to 22 of the Banking Act,
dealing with 'Special Accounts'I would be declared
invalid, the Commonwealth Bank would still have
sufficient power to control the trading banks' credit
However, more important than the volume of credit
in determining economic conditions are the anticipations
of producers which are influenced far more by non-
monetary than by monetary factors. This is the
opinion of R. F. Harrod, Keynes in the General Tdeory
and Haberler. The author outlines the theories of these
economists to show the complexity of the trade cycle
73o. Australia. The Banking Act 1947. Aus-
tralian Correspondent. Round Table
(London), pp. 608-615, March 1948.
The author discusses the principal features of the
Act and the legal proceedings against its validity, also
the establishment of a federal Court of Claims for com-
pensation. Some figures about private banks in Aus-
tralia are presented and an account of the opposition
to nationalisation of banking is given, which, in the
author's view, was responsible for the defeat of the
Labour Government in the Victorian State elections
in November 1947. Next the article presents a sum-
mary of the debate in the federal parliament and the
likely political consequences. Much depends on
whether the banking issue will still be alive at the time
of the next federal election in 1949. 'The banking issue
has also strengthened the general hostility to economic
controls. The outcome of the referendum to be held
in 1948 on federal price fixing powers might depend on
731. Social Credit in Alberta. Report Prepared
for the Government of Tasmania by K. J.
Binns. Government Printer, Canberra,
November 1947, pp. 53.
In 1947 the Tasmanian government sent the author
to Canada to enquire into Dominion-provincial financial
relations. He also investigated the social credit move-
ment in the Canadian province of Alberta, where the
social credit party has been in office since 1935. The
report sketches the political philosophy of the social
credit movement in Alberta and its monetary theory
with its alleged 'chronic shortage of purchasing power',
which the author considers a fallacy. The fourth
section of the report deals with social credit in prac-
tice. All legislative attempts of the provincial govern-
ment to provide monetary reform in the social credit
sense were held invalid and ultra vires, as currency,
coinage and banking under the Canadian constitution
are under the exclusive legislative authority of the
Dominion parliament. Prosperity certificates issued
to the amount of $359,oooin 1936-37 had to be redeemed
after eight months. Forty-three Treasury branches
established throughout Alberta are doing some banking
business, but only between 5 and io per cent of the
entire banking business of the province. A Bill of
Rights enacted 1946 with a view to create credit against
the security of the national wealth and income of Alberta,
was held ultra vires by the Privy Council.
In fact, the government has followed completely
orthodox methods of public finance and Alberta's credit
stands as high as that of any other Canadian province.
The author concludes that not only for constitutional,
but also for economic reasons monetary reform would
have to be on a national, not a provincial scale. 'There
is nothing to be learnt from the social credit experiments
of Alberta', apart from the interesting social psychology
732. Aviation Risks in Relation to Life Insur-
ance. H. G. Walker. Australasian Insur-
ance Journal, pp. 185-188, October 1947.
Paper read to the Insurance Institute of
After a survey of Australian underwriting principles
concerning aviation risk the author briefly reviews
Australian aviation mortality statistics. According to
Civil Aviation Department statistics the mortality rate
per Ioo,ooo passenger miles sank from -o81 in the period
1927-37 to o008 in 1938-45 and -0035 in 1945-47.
An extra annual premium of 5s. per annum would
cover the risk for 50 return trips a year between Sydney
and Melbourne which supports the practice of covering
passenger risk without extra charge. The mortality
rate per i,ooo pilots holding the Australian B (Commer-
cial) Licence p.a. fell from 17-2 in 1927-37 to 7-0 in
1945-47. An extra premium of los. per year is
justified. The mortality rate per I,ooo pilots holding
A (private) licences p.a. dropped from 7-0 in 1927-37
to 4'4 in 1945-47. The mortality rate per ioo hours
flown in aero clubs by A and B pilots was oi173 in
1926-37 and '0175 in 1945-47. The extra risk in
private flying would be covered by o1 to i5s. per Ioo
per year. For naval and military flying there are no
statistics available, probably 2 to 3 per ioo would
cover the extra risk for pilots and other air crew in
Where a substantial extra premium is charged for
aviation risk, usually the period of payment is limited
to a number of years (5-15), or the extra payable is
limited, e.g. to 15 per cent.
(D) Public Finance
733. The Australian Social Services Contribu-
tion and Income Tax Acts, 1947. H. S.
Carslaw. Economic Record, pp. 177-185,
These two acts deal with income received in the year
ending 30 June 1948. The rebatable amounts for
dependants were increased and new cases allowing
rebates were added. These concessions raise the
stages at which liability to social services contribution
starts, considerably for persons with defendants, whilst
to income tax even a single taxpayer is liable at a higher
stage of income than under the 1946 act. The author
presents detailed schedules and formulae.
Graphs show the amount paid by each of income in
1947-48 in income tax and social services contribution,
separately for earned income and income from property,
and also under the 1943, 1946 and 1947 acts. These
graphs give an indication of the tax reductions provided
by these three successive acts for various stages of
734. Commonwealth Disposals Commission. Third
Annual Report. Year ended 31 August
1947. Commonwealth Disposals Com-
mission, Melbourne, 1947, pp. 32.
Total realisations for the three years up to 31 August
1947 were Io3m., of these 47'3m. in 1945-46 and
45-5m. in 1946-47. The maximum activities took
place from May to November 1946 with a monthly
average of realisation of 5-8m., but even in July and
August 1947 sales were going on at 2m. per month.
The proportion of items of specialised military applica-
tion which realise only a small fraction of the cost, is
increasing. Peculiar problems were involved in dis-
posals in the Bomeo-Morotai area, and in New Guinea
and the Pacific Islands, the latter completed in March
1947. Part V of the report deals with realisations of
particular items-textiles, textile products, clothing and
footwear; motor transport; machine tools; real
property (land and buildings), partly used for temporary
housing; metals and chemicals; foodstuffs, partly
exported ; ships and small craft; tractors, earth moving
equipment and related heavy machinery; aircraft
including spare parts; U.S. Army Air Corps stocks were
acquired and disposed by the commission. Most war
material had to be dumped or destroyed but part of it
could be broken down for recovery of saleable residues.
Disposals in eothe Northern Territory presented a special
735. Public Works. Parliamentary Standing
Committee. Twentieth General Report.
P.P. Ordered to be printed 28 November
1947. Government Printer, Canberra,
pp. 14. Price 9d.
This report covers the work of the inth committee
on public works from 31 March 1944 to 16 August 1946.
Two inquiries which had not been completed when the
i9th report was published, were now completed; (a)
On the erection of a hostel for 190 persons, mainly
public servants, in Canberra, which the committee
recommended; (b) On the Baerami shale oil proposal.
The committee recommended not to adopt the project
and to delay its further development until more experi-
ence would be gained at Glen Davis.
The following new projects were referred to the com-
mittee which recommended the proposals concerned:
(c) Extensions to the School of Public Health and
Tropical Medicine, Sydney; (d) Additions to Institute
of Anatomy, Canberra, to be used for nutrition work;
(e) Automatic telephone exchange and postal building,
Russell Street, Melbourne; (f) Batman automatic
telephone exchange, Flinders Lane, Melbourne.
736. The New Zealand Government Finances,
1946-1947. H. W. King. Economic
Record, pp. 271-274, December 1947.
The only major financial changes in the year ended
31 March 1947 were: (i) The removal or reduction of
some subsidies. The prices of essential commodities,
such as milk, butter, bread, eggs, coal, are to be held
at the present level, but other subsidies are to be with-
drawn. (2) The increase in pension benefits by 5s.
per week. (3) small income tax concessions to owners
of unearned incomes. The estimate for 1947-48 shows
lower war expenses-to be financed by transfer from
last year's surplus of the Consolidated Fund-but higher
expenditure from Consolidated Fund, on social security
and particularly on national development which has to
be financed from loans.
737. National Debt Commission. 24th Annual
Report being the report on the trans-
actions of the National Debt Sinking Fund
for the Year ended 30 June 1947. P.P.
Government Printer, Canberra, 1947,
pp. 21. Price is.
After a short exposition of the legal foundations of the
sinking funds in respect of Commonwealth and states'
debts the report sets forth the sinking fund transactions
during the year under review. By these transactions
the Commonwealth debt has been reduced by 14-Im.
in that year, by 149m. since the fund's inception
(1923). States' debts have been reduced by 9-6m.
in 1946-47, by 11i-8m. since the inception of the
fund. Statistical tables cover the transactions of the
fund in 1946-47 both in respect to Commonwealth debt
and to the debt of each of the six Australian states.
738. War Damage Commission. Report for the
period I January 1947 to 31 December
1947. Government Printer, Canberra,
1948, pp. II.
In 1947 544 new claims were lodged, mostly in respect
of New Guinea, Papua and the Northern Territory,
due to abandonment in evacuated areas or by represen-
tatives of missing persons. Since the inception of the
Fund 6,223,ooo compensation was assessed. Pay-
ments of compensation and interest amounted to
5,685,ooo, in addition payments for supplementary
compensation were made of 1,o89,ooo. Claims in
process of assessment were estimated at 7,520,000,
the estimated outstanding liability per 31 December
1947 was 3,497,000 for war damage, 804,000 for
739. Tasmania. Statement presented to the
Commonwealth Grants Commission on
behalf of the Government of Tasmania.
1947, PP- 7-
This statement discusses a difference of opinion be-
tween the Grants Commission and the State Finance
Committee on vital questions of principle, e.g. assess-
ment of special grants on the basis of 'needs', and what
is known as 'the balanced budget standard'.-H.S.
740. Some Observations on Municipal Finance.
G. E. Fitzgerald. Australian Accountant,
pp. 56-61, February 1948. Lecture
delivered before the Institute of Muni-
cipal Administration, Melbourne.
The lecturer discusses some principles of business
finance and municipal finance, many of which are com-
mon to both types of finance. The costs of fixed
assets and major improvements in municipalities are
usually financed with loan money, often by debentures.
Expenditure on working, maintaining and repairing
fixed assets and permanent works should be financed
by revenue in both types of finance. The Local
Government Act limits the purposes for which money
may be borrowed. Next differences between business
and municipal finance are dealt with, e.g. that a munici-
pality has to incur costs for general social wealth, public
health and education. The lecturer sets forth some
financial maxims, gives a classification of municipal
expenditure and makes comments on financial adminis-
tration. The offices of town clerk and treasurer should
be separated. Municipal expenditure can be a substan-
tial help in combating depression. Finally the form
of presenting financial statements is explained.
741. Fitzgerald, A. A. Analysis and Interpreta-
tion of Financial and Operating Statements.
Butterworth & Co. (Australia) Ltd., 1947,
pp. 228. Price 17s. 6d.
This book is concerned with the technique of analysis
and methods of interpretation of operating statements,
i.e., profit and loss statements, and of financial state-
ments, i.e., balance sheets. The need for analysis and
interpretation arises from the fact that accounting state-
ments are subject to limitations and reservations which
are not generally understood by persons untrained in
accountancy, and because these statements are frequently
presented in a highly technical form.
Analysis and interpretation may be undertaken on
behalf of managers, shareholders, creditors, prospective
shareholders and creditors, government departments
such as the taxation department, and also as part of an
The limitations of accounting statements resulting
from accounting conventions and doctrines are discussed
before a study is made of the structural and trend
relationships in the balance sheet and profit and loss
statements, and also of the interstatement relationships.
One chapter deals with the distortion of accounting
statements through the application of the doctrine of
conservatism. Illustrations are given of the steps neces-
sary in the analysis and interpretation of accounts on
behalf of shareholders and managements.
742. Solomon, V. L. Principles and Practice of
Mechanised Accounting. Butterworth &
Co. (Aust.) Ltd., Sydney, 1948, pp. 165.
Price I7s. 6d.
This book outlines the scope of application of
mechanical appliances to the recording function of
accounting. In the first chapter, the author indicates
the general principles in accordance with which mechan-
isation of office records should proceed, and in subse-
quent chapters he deals with the application of machines
to specific types of records, such as invoices and other
sales records, accounts receivable, rental, hire-purchase,
loan and lay-by accounts, cash receipts and disburse-
ments, purchases, expenses and accounts payable, cost
accounting, stock records, payrolls, and others. Numer-
ous illustrations are given of forms and stationery used
with the various machines described.
743. Proceedings of Cost Problem Panel.
Meeting No. i. Parts I and 2. Austral-
asian Institute of Cost Accountants. Cost
Bulletin Nos. II and 12, pp. 16, I Decem-
ber 1947, and pp. 14, 15 December 1947.
These two Cost Bulletins cover the first meeting of
the Cost Problem Panel which was created to allow the
views of leading members of the accountancy profession
on current cost problems to be obtained.
The topics covered in the bulletins include overhead
on work of a capital nature, overtime premium and over-
head, control of work in progress, valuation of stock at
standard cost, standard costs-common variance factor,
budgeting for repairs and renewals, measurement of
labour turnover, manufacture of records, repairs and
maintenance, and administration expenses.
744. Influence of Volume on Cost, Price and
Profit. W. Prest. Australasian Institute
of Cost Accountants, Cost Bulletin No. 15,
pp. 20, I May 1948.
The economist's treatment of the influence of volume
on cost, price, and profit, differs from that of the account-
ant, as represented by the 'profit-graph', firstly in
regard to the manner of presentation, and secondly in
regard to the nature of the relationships themselves.
In the 'profit-graph' the accountant shows the relation-
ship between total revenue, total cost, and total profit,
whereas the economist prefers to concentrate his atten-
tion on average revenue, average cost, and average
profit per unit of output.
Again the 'profit-graph' as presented by accountants
assumes that prices and average variable costs are
constant, no matter by how much volume expands.
To the economist these two assumptions are not only
invalid, but also mutually incompatible.
The author suggests a common field for co-operation
between economists and accountants in which the
accountants' contribution would be empirical research
into the shape of the cost and revenue curves in par-
745. Production Records and Cost Accounting
in a Ham, Bacon and Smallgoods Factory.
Q. W. Rackham. Australasian Institute
of Cost Accountants. Cost Bulletin No. 16,
pp. 27, I June 1948.
In the ham, bacon and smallgoods industry there are
two types of cost methods in general use. They are,
(a) joint costs (used in the bacon department), and (b)
assembly costs (used in the smallgoods department).
In the bacon department, the operations consist of
the disintegration of the raw material into major products
(sides, hams, etc.) and by-products (tongues, livers,
etc.), and the processing of these. The net value of
by-products is deducted from the total costs of major
products and by-products to give the total cost of major
products-this total cost then being arbitrarily appor-
tioned to the major products on the basis of their relative
market values. By applying information from 'cost
tests' to actual production, the estimated expenditures
under normal operating conditions can be obtained
and then compared with actual costs.
Costing in the smallgoods department differs from
that in the bacon department, as no division of raw
material takes place during the process of manufacture.
The description of the complete costing system is
illustrated with specimen forms of the various records.
746. The Accounts of Government Railways.
G. E. Fitzgerald. Australian Accountant,
pp. 7-22, January 1948.
A greater degree of uniformity in railway accounts
had been reached in the governmentally regulated rail-
ways operated by private enterprise in England (prior
to nationalisation in 1947) and in U.S.A. than in the
government-owned railways in Australia. In the latter,
differences between states are evident in the presenta-
tion of operating statements and balance sheets, in the
treatment of depreciation, in contributions to national
debt sinking funds, in the treatment of interest, in
terminology used, in the treatment of losses resulting
from concessions in fares and freight and other causes,
in the items of working expenses, and in the methods
of bringing results into the parliamentary budget.
Suggestions are made for improvement in presentation
of financial statements, terminology, treatment of
depreciation and relationship to treasury accounts.
747. Depreciation and Fixed Asset Replacement.
A. A. Fitzgerald. Australian Accountant,
PP. 33-37, February 1948. The Absorp-
tion of Deferred Charges. H. W. Slater.
Australian Accountant, pp. 54-56,
These two articles present two points of view from
which the charge for depreciation may be regarded.
The former argues that depreciation should be regarded
as a periodical charge for allocation of the cost of fixed
assets, the problem of replacement of the asset (especially
acute in periods of rising prices) being one of financial
management and not of accounting theory. The latter,
starting from an interpretation of cost as sacrifice of
purchasing power, proposes the incorporation in the
books of accounts to measure actual price variations of
fixed assets with consequent variations in periodic
748. The Pastoral Industry. R. F. Rushton.
The Chartered Accountant in Australia,
pp. 799-809, May 1948.
Any attempt to solve the problem of matching costs
and income, must, in the pastoral industry, have regard
to cyclical movements-both seasonal and market-in
the industry. If the drought cycle is taken to be ten
years, annual accounts should be supported by subsidiary
statements providing for estimated losses based upon
this factor and upon market variations. Tax legislation
is criticised on the ground that it has failed to recognize
this cyclical feature in the pastoral industry, and suggests
that, in assessing returns, a longer accounting period
should be adopted by provision of a two year carry-back
and a seven year carry-forward of losses.
(F) Transportation and Communication
749. Transport Costs and the Decentralisation
of Secondary Industries. C. P. Haddon-
Cave. Australian Quarterly, pp. 103-111,
The Prime Minister announced that the Tariff Board,
in association with the Secondary Industries Commis-
sion, would be responsible for investigating regularly
the efficiency and costs of production of Australian
The first report was issued independently by the
Tariff Board. It is stated that 'the main obstacle in the
way of decentralisation of industry was the cost of
transporting raw materials to, and finished products
from, decentralised factories'. No data to substantiate
these statements were submitted and it is easy to over-
emphasise the influence of transport costs both on the
location choice and the planning of output policies.
The significant ratio of transport costs to total costs
of production and/or selling price is rarely worked out.
It will be higher or lower according to the bulk and/or
selling value of the particular commodity.
A policy of decentralisation of secondary industries
can be carried out only at considerable cost, until such
time as the less developed areas are able to diversify
the pattern and expand the volume of their production.
This cost may be offset by advantages from production
at given sites away from Sydney and Melbourne and
will tend to decrease as a skilled labour force is built up.
One of the alleged financial disabilities suffered by
manufacturers located outside Sydney and Melbourne,
but producing goods largely for sale in these markets,
is the cost of transport. Again, manufacturers in
Western Australia and Tasmania, often have to pay
higher transport costs on fuel than manufacturers in
Sydney and Melbourne. Finally, decentralised indus-
tries may incur higher transport costs on raw materials
and plant and equipment. Where these items are
imported, the imported price is equalised for all Aus-
tralian ports; but these ports of call do have an
advantage over other ports and inland towns.
In three ways shipping and rail freight rates might
be adjusted for the purpose of reducing the overall
transport costs involved in decentralisation. These
three methods of adjustment are examined but none is
likely to be a useful method of promoting decentralisa-
tion, although individual manufacturers are likely to
benefit from appropriate rate adjustments.
The conclusion is reached that the only satisfactory
means of promoting decentralisation is by the payment
of specific subsidies to manufacturers, computed on the
basis of the total net disadvantages of manufacturing
at the site chosen compared with manufacturing in
Sydney and Melbourne. In the March 1948 issue of
the Quarterly a letter from Mr. Barrington Darley
criticised this conclusion and related the transport cost
problem to Queensland experience.-C.P.H.-C.
750. Report of the Victorian Railways Commis-
sioners for the Year ended 30 June 1947.
P.P. Government Printer, Melbourne,
The Vie. railways had a deficit of 1,482,000 in the
year under review after payment of interest, exchange,
etc., compared with a deficit of 6a,ooo in 1945-46,
and a surplus in the two preceding years. This was
due to a decrease in revenue as a result of industrial
troubles in October 1946 and from March to May 1947
and of restrictions in train services because of coal
shortages, while working expenses rose by 392,ooo.
Savings owing to stoppages of work were more than
offset by increased wages and costs of materials and
supplies. Mounting competition with commercial road
and air transport is another factor. Coal shortages
caused restrictions and interruption in train services
which led to reductions in the country passenger train
mileage between 14 and 73 per cent and in the goods
train mileage up to go per cent. However, a rich wheat
harvest required greatly increased rail transport.
Further sections of the report deal with rolling stock,
the use of brown coal, way and works, stores and
materials, fuel oil and coal supplies. In a chapter on
staff there is an account of industrial relations and
disputes, of which the most important were the general
railway stoppage from 21 to 29 October 1946 and the
withdrawal of engineers from metropolitan workshops
and the Newport power station on 24 March 1947.
Appendices present various financial statements and
information about traffic.
751. Department of Railways, New South Wales.
Report for the Year ended 30 June I947.
Government Printer, Sydney, 1947, pp.
A survey of the department's activities, starting with
a financial review. Earnings for the year under review
were 961,ooo less than in the previous year, because of
the cessation of troop movements, the increased use
of private motor-cars and competition with air services.
Revenue from goods and livestock traffic and electricity
sales increased, so did working expenses. For the
first time since 1937 (except 1938-39 and 1939-40
because of major coal strikes) a deficit resulted
(1,558,ooo). Traffic was badly affected by coal
shortages which caused reduced train services for five
months and also reduced truck loadings. Special
sections of the chapter on traffic deal with wheat, wool
and livestock traffic.
Further chapters discuss mechanical problems, sig-
nalling and telegraph energy, stores and materials. The
last 'general' chapter examines the staff position, public
relations and various minor points. Appendices
contain statistical material.
752. Annual Report of the South Australian
Railways Commissioner for the Year 1946-
47, Government Printer, Adelaide, 1947,
There was a deficit on current operations of 327,000
and a total deficit (after payment of interest, exchange
etc.) of 1,612,ooo in the year under review, a rise of
x65,ooo on last year's deficit. Passenger revenue fell
off by 325,ooo, freight revenue by IIo,ooo, while
wages and costs of materials increased by 178,ooo.
New awards and the 40-hour week will raise costs
further to an amount 2,3oo,ooo per year higher than
in 1937-38. The coal used by the railways is of
an unsatisfactory quality. 27,000 tons of Leigh Creek
coal was burned by the railways, 8,ooo tons last year.
The competition of road transport is increasingly felt
and would justify the co-ordination of all transport
services under a Transport Control Board. This prob-
lem is one of the subjects of a Royal Commission
appointed by the S.A. government on 27 February 1947.
The remainder of the report presents statistical tables
on railway finances, traffic, etc.
753. Report on the Working of the W.A.
Government Railways, Tramways and
Ferries for the Year ended 30 June 1947.
Government Printer, Perth, 1947, pp. 85.
In 1946-47 the financial position of the W.A. railways
has deteriorated further. The working expenses
beyond the control of the department have increased,
the earnings decreased. Working expenses were in
excess of earnings by 378,ooo, and after payment of
interest the deficit was 1,411,000. 'The department is
carrying the burden of post-war cost while continuing
to operate at pre-war charges'. The report advocates
some increase of freights and fares. Various sections
of the report deal with traffic, mechanical matters,
stores and materials. In the general section a chapter
on Australian Standard Garratt locomotives discusses
the antagonistic attitude of the engine-drivers to their
use, the recommendations of the Royal Commission
on this problem, the 16-days general railways strike
in November 1946. On 30 June 1947 only 6 Garratt
engines had returned to service, at the time of writing
the report z2.
The W.A. Government tramways also showed a
deficit in the year under review.
754. Victorian Transport Regulation Board.
Annual Report for Year ended 30 June
1947. P.P. Government Printer, Mel-
bourne, 1947, pp. 28. Price is. 9d.
The report deals with the general problems of the
'rational division of function between road and railway
transport' and the special problems of limited population
and comparatively light traffic which cannot afford a
duplication of transport facilities. Among current
problems are the backlog of deferred railway main-
tenance, and manpower and coal shortages which reduce
the efficiency of railway services and make temporary
supplementary road transport indispensable. In handling
applications for road transport the Board has in the long
run to expect a fully efficient and modernised railway
system. A new Transport Regulation Act came into
force on I July 1947, providing for an increase in
licence fees, an increase in the currency period of
licences to four years and the establishment of a Trans-
port Regulation Fund.
Among other subjects discussed by the report are:
rail and tram stoppages and their effect on road trans-
port; interstate road movement of goods; subsidy
for road transport of superphosphate during the time
of restricted railway services ; timber and log transport ;
ancillary road transport, i.e. firms using their own
vehicles in association with their business ; road trans-
port of fish, cheese, honey ; touring services. Appen-
dices present statistical data abou various kinds of
755. Country Roads Board (Victoria). 34th
Annual Report, for Year ended 30 June
1947. P.P. No. 14. Government Printer,
Melbourne, pp. 44. Price zs. 3d.
In the year under review 2,390,000 wer allocated
for reconditioning and maintenance work on roads and
bridges, an all-time record. Federal aid was given
to the amount of 555,ooo. The report deals with
work on state highways, main roads, developmental,
tourists' and forest roads, bridges and the Essendon
aerodrome. On I July 1947 a new Commonwealth Aid
Roads and Works Act 1947 came into operation.
Among other subjects discussed are the development
of mechanical plant, safety measures, assistance to
municipalities on construction work. In an all-Austra-
lian conference attended by the board, held on 31 March
I947, the formation of an Australian Road Safety
Council was recommended.
A special report is presented by the chief engineer.
Financial statements are contained in an appendix.
756. Shipping and Shipbuilding. C. P. Haddon-
Cave. Economic Record, pp. 274-277,
To T. Hytten's references to shipbuilding in 'Some
Problems of Australian Transport Development' in the
Economic Record, June 1947 (abstracted as No. 575 in
No. 5 of these Abstracts), the author replies that ship-
building activities fluctuate violently with the conditions
of world trade, particularly when the great increase in
world shipbuilding capacity is taken into account. The
government plan for annual construction of 32,000 ton
merchant ships is apparently an attempt at stabilisation.
Without government action shipbuilding activities in
Australia are difficult, as the collapse of the industry
in 1924 has proved. The age-limit of 25 years is
obviously related to the plans to maintain the industry.
Any prediction of Australian shipbuilding costs in
future is very uncertain. The main scope for reduction
of ship operation costs is not interest on capital value,
but stevedoring costs, wages of the crew and cost of
757. Postmaster-General's Department. 36th
Annual Report, Year 1945-46. P.P.
Government Printer, Canberra, 1947,
pp. 59. Price 2s. 9d.
The total net surplus of the department was
6,178,ooo while the wireless services handled by the
department showed a deficit of 144,ooo. Of the postal
services internal and overseas air mails greatly expanded
in route distance, but the number of postal articles
carried in internal air mails decreased by 27-2 per cent
owing to the return of the armed forces to their home
states. For telephone services five metropolitan and
one rural automatic exchange were opened. In August
1945 54,000 applications for telephones had accumulated
which could not be complied with. Representatives
of the Australian telegraph services took part in the
Commonwealth Telecommunications Conference held
in London in July 1945. Subsidies on press telegrams
to U.S.A. were discontinued as from 28 February 1946,
but rates for telegrams between Australia and U.S.A.
generally were reduced. In June 1946 the broadcasting
of federal parliamentary proceedings was introduced.
Statistical material is presented in appendices.
(G) Labour and Industrial Relations
758. Collective Bargaining in the Sydney
Printing Industry, 1880-1900. N. G.
Butlin. Economic Record, pp. 206-226,
Part I surveys developments in collective bargaining.
Until 1894 skilled hand compositors were dominant in
the industry which consisted of three sections : news-
paper printing, usually on a large scale; jobbing
printers, mostly with small offices-the largest enter-
prise was the Colonial Government Printing Office; a
few book publishers, in size between the two other
sections. 1894 machine composing was introduced in
newspapers which, in addition to the depression,
caused much unemployment.
After previous attempts 1880 the Sydney Typograph-
ical Association was founded, I881 replaced by the
N.S.W. Typographical Association, essentially a com-
positors' union which soon represented a very high
degree of unionism in Sydney. In the first years
bargaining was mainly with individual employers until
in 1887 at the workers' suggestion a Master Printers'
Association was set up. From that time collective
bargaining was undertaken, but there was still bilateral
office bargaining with newspapers and unorganised
jobbing printers. From 1894-1897 after the introduc-
tion of machine printing and the increase of unemploy-
ment most printers again dealt individually with their
employees. The Association generally pursued a con-
servative policy, mainly aimed at bolstering bargaining
power, and disapproved of strikes. There was only
one major strike in 1894.
The author discusses details of the policy of bargaining
on behalf of jobbing and newspaper printers.
Part II examines the course of negotiations in the two
periods i88o-I890 and 1890-1900. The Association
did not become an effective bargaining organisation
before 1888 when it secured a basic jobbing wage of
3 a week. In the depression of the 1890's the news-
papers began rate-cutting and machine composing. An
unsuccessful jobbing strike in 1894 crippled the Associa-
tion as effective bargaining agent for years.
759. International Labour Organisation. 29th
Session, held at Montreal, September
1946. Reports of the Australian Govern-
ment and Employers' Delegates. P.P.
Government Printer, Canberra, ordered
to be printed 19 November 1947, pp. 49.
Price 2s. 6d.
The conference committee on constitutional questions
dealt with proposed constitutional amendments aiming
at completing the separation of I.L.O. from the
League of Nations. Most controversial was an amend-
ment moved by French representatives to increase the
number of members of each delegation from four to
six. Two of these should be employers' delegates of
whom one should be chosen from among managers
of government controlled enterprises. This amendment
was opposed by employers' delegates and finally with-
drawn. A unanimous report of the committee was
accepted by the conference. Of particular importance
to Australia is art. 19, par. 7 of the amended constitution
concerning the responsibilities of a federal country.
The conference also adopted a draft agreement of I.L.O.
A committee on the protection of children and young
workers discussed the medical examination of young
workers for fitness for employment and the restriction
of night work of children and young persons in non-
industrial occupations. Three conventions and two
recommendations concerning these matters were adopted
by the conference. A committee on minimum standards
of social policy in dependent territories reached various
conclusions on social policy, international labour stan-
dards, the maximum length of contracts of employment
and freedom of labour.
760. Formulating a Personnel Policy. F. L.
Fitzpatrick, Bulletin of Industrial Psycho-
logy and Personnel Practice, pp. 3-11,
An account of the personnel policy of Rocla Ltd.,
which operates seven factories in three Australian states
and employs about 300 persons. The company issues
a written 'Personnel Policy and Rules' prepared by the
directors with consideration of past experiences and
after consultation of branch managers and senior execu-
tives. This policy statement is presented in roneoed
sheets and continually revised. Among items included
in this personnel policy are: (i) Employment pro-
cedure of selecting and placing employees, engagement
of relatives of supervisory personnel is discouraged,
provisions are made for promotions, retiring and dis-
missal, and for appeals in case of dismissal. (z) Super-
vision including guiding rules for supervisors in likely
situations, progress reports based on merit rating, which
is scored on the employee record. (3) Wages and
incentives: employees are encouraged to take shares
in the company, arrangements for loans to employees
and for a Provident Fund. (4) Management-employee
relations. At each major works a production committee
has been set up with participation of management and
elected employees. Information about the company is
given to employees. A social club has been established.
(5) Unions. The Company wants co-operation with
The company's experience with its written personnel
policy has been favourable.
761. A Study of Labour Turnover. J. J.
McCreadie and B. K. Phelan. Bulletin
of Industrial Psychology and Personnel
Practice, pp. 12-17, December 1947.
In most Australian factories labour turnover is
excessive. The author's attempt to measure its extent
in two N.S.W. industries based on figures concerning
1o textile and clothing firms and 12 radio and electrical
firms. Table I gives the monthly rate of engagements
and separations for August 1947 in the textile group,
divided into spinning, weaving and made-up garment
sections, with separate figures for males and females,
day and shift workers. In each group the turnover of
the highest and lowest firm and the group average is
shown. Turnover varies greatly between individual
firms and is highest in the spinning section and among
shift workers. The separation rate for men is higher
than for women in the spinning and weaving groups,
probably because increasing numbers of men enter
these industries and are less adjusted to them than
Table II presents engagements and separations for
August 1947 in the radio-electrical group, separately
for tradesmen, non-tradesmen and females. Here the
turnover is much higher for women and that of non-
tradesmen higher than of tradesmen.
Table III shows group average figures for the months
of May to August 1947 in the textile, June to August
1947 in the other group. The annual turnover is about
ioo per cent in the textile, 66 per cent in the radio-
electrical group. There is very little information about
the cost of replacement, they have been estimated up
to Ioo per head.
In one firm it was found that 50 per cent of the
women who left, did so after the first day, 70 per cent
after one or two days. New methods of employee
introduction were tried and resulted in a fall of this
762. The Cost of Labour Turnover. A Review
of the Literature. M. Kangan. Bulletin
of Industrial Psychology and Personnel
Practice, pp. 12-27, March 1948.
This survey is based on a number of U.S. and U.K.
publications written between 1917 and 1945, which
attempt to estimate the increases of individual cost
items owing to labour turnover, that is separations,
external as distinct from internal turnover. Among the
factors affecting the cost of labour turnover the author
mentions the extent of turnover, the skill required for
the job, etc. Cost items affected by labour turnover
are : (i) The cost of hiring replacements. (2) Cost of
training replacements. (3) Excess labour costs caused
by the new employees' initial lower production. (4)
Cost of excess spoilt work. (5) Cost of increased damage
of equipment. (6) Excess plant cost. (7) Cost of
higher accident rate. Various overhead costs.
Finally the article briefly discusses a number of U.S.
and one British reported investigation concerning
763. Thoughts on Incentive Plans. S. J.
Blundell. Manufacturing and Manage-
ment, pp. 243-246, January 1948.
Incentive plans are discussed from the employee's
viewpoint. Motives, i.e. internal discipline, should be
stimulated rather than incentives, i.e. inflicted discipline,
provided. The main desire of the employee is to build
and protect his 'investments', that is family, home,
insurance, means to enjoyment of leisure hours. The
management should create reserves to be drawn upon
in adverse times to protect the employee's investments.
Only thus can the employee's feeling of frustration be
overcome. Based on past experience, the attitude of
trade unions to incentive plans is intensely suspicious.
Among factors essential for the success of incentive
plans which have often been disregarded in the past,
are the establishing of the most accurate basic data, and
provisions to meet future influences and trends. Often,
the merely financial incentive is overrated; increases
of piece rates by 20 per cent may lead to an unchanged
total of wages and to longer leisure hours.
Motive plan payments as distinguished from incentive
plan payments 'are only partially dependent on output,
as reserves can be established from efficiency of all
costs to permit some measure of protection of employee
interests at all times'.
764. The Development of a Security Plan for
Employees. A. L. Ife. Bulletin of Indus-
trial Psychology and Personnel Practice,
pp. 3-11, March 1948.
This is, in outline, an account of a scheme devised
by the Directors of Australian Paper Manufacturers
Limited for the purpose of ensuring for workers in their
pay the enjoyment of better conditions of employment.
The scheme deals with both security of income and
security of employment. It covers inter alia sick pay,
accident pay, lodge subsidies, unemployment benefits,
pension benefits and mortuary benefits, and provides
for longer notice of dismissal than is allowed for in
relevant awards (the period of notice varying with the
elngth of employment in the company's service).
O. de R.F.
765. Function of Welfare Officers in Industrial
Relations. L. C. Danby. Manufacturing
and Management, pp. 270-273, February
The functions of a welfare officer include the promo-
tion and preservation of harmonious employer-employee
relations. However, the welfare officer's activities often
bring about a danger of the manager losing touch with
his employees. The author cites examples of cases
of welfare officers who want to be particularly popular
with the workers and cause the management to lose
contact with the employees, or who antagonise the fore-
men and encourage petty complaints. Among qualities
taking a man to the head of an organisation is the ability
to get on with people, to become a 'sound practical
psychologist'. The expansion of a business should not
induce such a business leader to neglect personal
contact with his employees and to rely exclusively on
the welfare officer. The manager of a big business
may not have time to attend to all personal problems of
the workpeople. But labour maintenance is an impor-
tant responsibility of the manager himself, and he should
reserve one day a week or a fortnight as 'employees' day'
to mingle with the workers, aided in his memory by
foremen, department supervisors and welfare officers.
The author suggests an employee record which should
deal only with employees whom employee officer and
foreman consider worthy of personal recognition of
some employee incident. A copy of this record should
go to the manager for perusal to enable him to decide
what to do or to say on the 'employees' day'.
766. Employee and Staff Training. Manufac-
turing and Management, pp. 280-282,
This is the summary of a report of a conference group
of the Institute of Industrial Management in Melbourne,
headed by L. W. Rogers. The report deals with the
reasons for training-increased quantity and improved
quality of production and lower costs-the evaluation
of training, the organisation of training. The reporting
group considers the use of a small training committee,
consisting of management representatives and a training
officer, as most efficient. Next policy formation is
discussed, based on the principle of 'promotion from
within'. Under the heading of training procedure
training of particular groups is examined, such as induc-
tion training, apprenticeship training, supervisory
training and executive training. In conclusion the
report is concerned with training aids. Actual demon-
stration followed by practice is regarded as the best
767. University of Melbourne. University
Appointments Board. Fourteenth Annual
Report. Melbourne University Press,
1947, PP- 37-
Part I of this report deals with the board's activities.
Its principal functions are: (I) To provide an employ-
ment service without fees to graduates, undergraduates
and employers. This includes enquiries made by
employers and advice to graduates and undergraduates
on opportunities for employment. (2) To collect
statistics; the Melbourne Appointments Board is the
only one in Australia to compile such figures. It aims
at ultimately calculating forecasts of the demand for
various kinds of graduates. (3) The guidance of stu-
dents and advice on careers. (4) Public relations and
Enquiries from employers, registration of graduates
and undergraduates and the number of placements
arranged by the board, reached record levels in the year
ended 30 June 1947. In April 1947 the first conference
of Australian University Appointments Boards was held
Part II presents statistical figures on direct and
indirect enquiries registered by the board in various
classes of employment, on supply and demand of gradu-
ands in certain scientific courses, detailed tables on
enquiries for different categories of scientists, positions
filled by the board and vacation jobs filled.
768. Report of the New Zealand National
Employment Service for Year ended 31
March 1947, Government Printer, Wel-
lington, 1947, pp. 52.
Part I deals with administration. The National
Employment Service was set up on I April 1946 under
the Employment Act 1945, and amalgamated with the
Labour Department on i April 1947. In addition to
a monthly review the department has issued a half-
yearly survey since January 1947. It has also assumed
responsibility for immigration. Among other subjects
part I discusses placement activities ; hostels and camps
for accommodating workers; employment promotion-
for workers who are semi-employable because of failing
health or advanced age; immigration: in the year
under review only 157 assisted immigrants arrived, all
female trainee nurses and cooks ; employment informa-
tion; home aid service-3,996 cases of emergency,
mostly maternity or sickness were serviced during the
Part II examines employment levels. Important
among other sections of this part are those on problems
arising from labour shortage-which is most severe for
males in engineering and metal work industries, for
females in textiles, clothing and leather industries;
lines of approach to these problems : location of reserve
pools of labour to decentralise industry, handling of
public work projects; Maori employment which is
still unsatisfactory. Part III investigates the district
by district employment position. Appendices present
AGRICULTURE, LAND AND RURAL
769. Rural Land Tenure and Valuation. Ninth
Report of the Rural Reconstruction Com-
mission. Government Printer, Canberra,
1946, pp. 65.
The report opens with a brief discussion of the func-
tions of land tenure in relation to the rights of the
individual, to the needs of a progressive system of land
use, and to the interests of the nation. The Commission
expresses the opinion that individual ownership (subject
only to resumption for the public interest) is the best
system of tenure, the State having the right to intervene
in order to prevent undue aggregation.
The problem of land 'value' is approached through
a consideration of the various factors which influence
the worth of land for productive and other purposes.
That the market price of land exceeds its productive
values is often inevitable. Permanent control of land
price is unjustifiable for a variety of reasons. The
method recommended for mitigating the tendency for
land prices to become too high is the development of
better extension services and a broader system of agri-
cultural education. The nation's right to increments in
unimproved value are next discussed; leasehold tenure
is rejected as a method of securing this because political
pressure will not allow it to operate effectively for the
purpose. Increment taxes-both annual and capital-
are also considered. The former would be unsatis-
factory, and the latter difficult until a uniform system of
valuation is established.
The importance of land prices to satisfactory oppor-
tunities for settlement is stressed. The possibility of
a 'debt ceiling' for farm lands is discussed. Efforts to
assist needy settlers by making adjustments in tenures
are shown to be expensive and unsatisfactory.
The present multiplicity of land valuations for various
purposes is described as chaotic. An impartial and
competent valuation system would be most beneficial.
A central land valuation service is recommended.
Bases of land valuation are discussed.
The appendices to this report, which are frequently
referred to in the text, have not been printed with it.
770. Australian Rural Industries. Rural Bank of
N.S.W. publication, pp. 45, Sydney, 1948.
A concise description of the economic factors
affecting land use in Australia, also its natural resources,
population and land settlement. 24 maps and 68
charts are used to present the data in graph form.-I.M.
771. The Unit Cost of Producing Agricultural
Products. P. C. Druce. Review of
Marketing and Agricultural Economics, pp.
41o-7. November 1947.
A survey of the difficulties and limitations of esti-
mating costs of production of agricultural products.
772. Seventh Annual Report of Soil Conservation
Board. Government Printer, Melbourne,
PP- 9, June 1947.
A statement of the progress of soil conservation
activities in Victoria.-I.M.
773. Annual Report of the State Rivers and
Water Supply Commission of Victoria for
the year ended 30 June 1947, pp. 117.
Government Printer, Melbourne.
The numerous activities of the Commission are dis-
cussed district by district. Progress on the new irriga-
tion projects, both in the drawing office and in the field,
are presented. The Commission is co-operating in the
preparation of irrigation land for the settlement of
ex-servicemen. The numerous movements in connec-
tion with land-use control, and future irrigation develop-
ment are referred to. A full statement of accounts of
the various activities of the Commission is presented.
774. Progress in Land Development (Non-
Irrigation). Statement Prepared for the
Commonwealth Grants Commission by
Allan R. Callaghan, Journal of Agriculture,
S.A., Vol. LI., No. 9. pp. 419-438, 1948.
A description of land development intended primarily
for ex-servicemen settlements. The Land Develop-
ment Executive's experience in the co-ordination of
planning and in developmental works is described in
detail. Progress as regards structural improvement,
acquisition of livestock for the settlers, allotment of the
holdings in various parts of the State is recorded. The
position of plant, stores, equipment and staff is shown.
Subdivisional plans, tentative or complete, covering
16,796 acres (207 holdings) in the South East Region,
84,358 acres (64 holdings) in Eyre Peninsula, and
68,000 acres (53 holdings) on Kangaroo Island have
been made. The extent of developmental operations
performed since March 1946 is as follows:
South-East Region Eyre Peninsula
Rolling, Logging, etc.
775. Annual Report of the Bureau of Investigation
(Queensland) for the Year 1946, pp. 22.
Reports of investigations into the land and water
resources of various regions of Queensland with sugges-
tions for their proper utilisation and further develop-
ment. The water potentiality of certain Queensland
rivers for irrigation is discussed with reference to the
existing position. A detailed account of the beef indus-
try in the 'Channel Country' around Cooper's Creek is
provided. The relationship between the beef production
of this area and that of the whole State is shown. The
menace of soil erosion in many parts of Queensland is
The report includes several coloured maps and dia-
grams, viz. Burdekin River potential irrigation and flood
areas ; flood areas and land classification in the 'Channel
Country' ; land utilisation map of the Atherton Table-
land; stock movement to and from Cooper's Creek;
relationship between cattle number, flood discharge and
local rainfall on the Cooper properties between 1924-44.
An Appendix shows the big difference between the
findings of the Stanley River Works Board and the
assumptions of the 'Bradfield Scheme'.-I.M.
776. A Review of the Financial Position of 18
Central-Western Wheat-Sheep Farms in
1945-46. P. C. Druce. Review of
Marketing and Agricultural Economics,
PP- 5-17, January 1948.
In the Parkes-Forbes districts of N.S.W. 28 farmers
agreed to compile records in the 1945-46 season ; of
these x8 forwarded their records for analysis to the
State Department of Agriculture. 'No attempt was
made to obtain a representative sample . and
undoubtedly the majority, if not all, of the selected
farmers are of above average ability'. Farm size varied
between 652 to ,988 acres, arnd the percentage of area
under all crops between 186 and 58.4.
The farmers' valuations on their own land, improve-
ments, machinery, livestock, etc., were accepted where
they appeared reasonable. The invested capital varied
from 3,035, on a farm of 761 acres, to 18,491, on a
farm of 2,988 acres; 8,324 was the maximum liability
on any farm. On only one farm were 'cash costs' less
than 50 per cent of the total costs (= 'Cash Costs' +
'Allowances'). 'True Net Income', 'Net Family Farm
Income', 'Net Farm Income', 'Operator's Earnings',
'Managerial Return', and 'Farm Capital Earnings' were
The returns of 17 farms for 1945-46 compared with
the returns for 1944-45 showed great variation in income.
While in 1945-46 only one farmer did not obtain any
return for his management, in the 1944-45 drought-
affected season only one did.-I.M.
777- Survey of Production Costs on Australian
Dairy Farms. Report No. I of Joint
Dairying Industry Advisory Committee,
Brisbane, 1947, pp. 18.
A survey of the Australian dairying industry was made
between the i7th February and the end of July, 1947,
'to ascertain a cost of production per pound of com-
mercial butter on farms . and to relate this finding
to the determination of returns appropriate to the
economic well-being of the industry having regard to
the requirements of the market here and overseas'.
Production costs were collected for a five-year period
through personal contact with the farmers. The survey
covered all the recognized dairy districts.
In the States of Queensland, N.S.W. and Victoria
2 per cent of the dairy farms were surveyed, while in
S.A., Tasmania and W.A. 'the surveyed farms were in
proportion to the respective production of these States'.
In this order of States the number of surveyed farms
-selected at random-was 293, 226, 369, 68, 22, 22;
a total of x,ooo farms.
Capital value of the farms was based upon current
Commonwealth or State valuation or if this was not
available then it was assessed by the surveying officers.
The value of the building, plant, fencing, and water
supply shown for income tax purposes was accepted.
Livestock values per head were taken as follows :-
milking cow I2, heifer 1-2 years io, heifer under I
year 7, herd sire 25, pig (breeding stock) 6, draught
horse 20, light horse io.
Depreciation was allowed at income tax schedule
rates, while the labour of the farmer-owner and any
member of the family over io years of age was assessed
at the dairy industry award rates. Amounts actually
paid by the farmer for all non-family labour were fully
accepted. An allowance of I 5s. was made for manage-
ment. Interest on borrowed money was at the rate
paid by the individual farmer, and 4 per cent interest
was allowed on the farmer's equity. Income from other
than cream and milk production was deducted from the
cost arrived at by using these data in determining the
cost of production.
Four types of costs were calculated : 'a' cost = cost
without considering interest paid by the farmer on
borrowed capital, interest on farmer's equity, or mana-
gerial allowance; 'b' cost = 'a' cost plus interest on
borrowed capital; 'c' cost = 'b' cost plus interest on
equity; 'final cost' = 'c' cost plus managerial allowance.
Farms were grouped according to 'a' and 'c' costs
in a series of classes with 3d. class intervals. On the
'a' basis 658 farms had a cost of less than 2s. ird. per
lb. of commercial butter. On the 'c' basis 437 farms
produced at this cost or less. Generally lower costs
were associated in every cost group with larger average
herd size and average yield per cow.
As a result of the survey the majority of the Committee
recommended 2s. iod. pricee to be paid to the farmers
per lb. of commercial butter at the factory door. The
minority's recommendation was 2s.-I.M.
778. Australian Dairy Produce Board, Annual
Report for the Year 1946-47.
A report on the various activities of the Board
including notes on continuous butter-making processes,
timber supplies for butter boxes. Appended to the
document is a report on the year from the Board's
London office which reviews the food crisis and British
779. New Zealand Dairy Board. Annual Report
for the Year ended 31 July 1947,
A review of the marketing operations of the Board
including statements on the price structure of the indus-
try and the state of the stabilisation account, together
with reports of the various other activities of the Board,
and detailed statistical tables concerning dairy
In addition reviews are presented of the progress
and results of herd testing, of the sire survey, artificial
insemination, of studies in calf wastage and herd
fertility, which are of obvious importance to the
780. The Economic Outlook for the Pig Industry.
Bulletin No. 4 of the Bureau of Agri-
cultural Economics, Canberra, March
1948, pp. 93.
This study endeavours 'to assess the probable future
demands for pig-meats in both local and overseas
markets and to determine what expansion in production
could be safely encouraged'. The investigation gives
a historical survey of events which had a bearing on the
local pig-meat production and exports. It also refers
to pig industries overseas. Estimates of production
costs in Australia are presented and the standards of
local production are compared with those of N.Z. and
Denmark. Local and overseas consumption, marketing,
and price trends are discussed.
In recent years high prices of wheat and the diversion
of more whole milk to the manufacturer of dairy products
has reduced the amount of pig food which is readily
available, although grain sorghums are now being pro-
vided for this purpose in Queensland and northern
N.S.W. Many producers invested considerable sums
in improving their facilities for keeping pigs, but these
will not be used until grain supplies are easier.
Assuming a population of 8,500,000 in Australia by
1956, the consumption of pig-meats, expressed as
pork, is estimated at 227 million lb. 'Some long-term
expansion in the U.K. market for Australian baconer
carcases can be expected, but the market for Australian
bacon is still expected to be negligible'. 'In the short
run it would appear attention will need to be concen-
trated on stability of production rather than on the
development of new markets'.-I.M.
781. A Statistical Survey of the Pig Industry in
Australia, Part IV-VI. E. Murray Pullar.
Australian Veterinary Journal Vol. 23,
No. 10, pp. 272-285, No. ii, pp. 309-324,
No. 12, pp. 348-357; Vol. 24, No. 3,
Part IV. The geographical distribution of the pig
population, pig-dairy cow ration, and pig herd size are
shown by statistical regions for the various States for
the 1931-40 decade. In Victoria pigs are more evenly
distributed than in the other States. In the four
eastern States about 70 per cent of the pigs are in areas
with 20 inch rainfall, while in S.A. and W.A. about
60 per cent are in the 1o-2o inch areas.
Part Va. The terminology of pig products, and the
limitations of the existing production records are
explained. Pig meat and lard production, export and
import figures, are given by States for the 1901-45
period with export statistics showing the main markets
for the Australian products.
Part Vb. The annual apparent and per capital con-
sumption of pig meats in Australia is compared with
consumption in other countries. Pig meat consumption
in Australia is low because of its relatively high price.
This is due to the general lack, or unsuitability of
mechanised dressing equipment, the variability of supply
to butchers, and the size of many of the carcases which
give joints too large for the average household. Slaugh-
tering and carcass weight statistics and the live pig
imports and exports are also discussed.
Part VI. Correlation coefficients have been worked
out showing the relationship between various statistical
attributes such as pig population and pigs slaughtered,
and various other factors such as dairying, cereal pro-
duction of various types, etc.-I.M.
782. Recent Changes in Composition of Wool
Clip in Australia. B. J. L. Fernon.
Quarterly Review of Agricultural Econ-
omics, pp. 11-14, January 1948.
A steady decrease in the proportion of finer wools is
shown in the 'Analysis of Australian Wool Appraisal
by Seasons' and in 'Sales at Auction, 1946/7 Season'
(published by the Australian Wool Realisation Com-
The decrease can be partly attributed to the low
margin between merino and crossbred wool prices during
the war years. Numerous other factors also played
their part, e.g. the loss of about 25 million sheep in the
drought which began in 1942 and which was very severe
in some merino areas; subdivision of large estates;
the extension of pasture improvement, and an increase
in the crossbred flocks kept for fat lamb production.
783. A Planting Policy for the Canning Peach
Industry in the Murrumbidgee Irrigation
Area. B. Owen French and A. E. Vincent.
Agricultural Gazette, N.S.W., Vol. LIX,
Parts 4 and 5, pp. 212-215, 251-254.
Three main peach varieties are grown in the M.I.A.
for canning purposes. They have become so pre-
dominant in recent years that although the total peach
production has increased the harvesting period in the
area has gradually shortened. 'Golden Queen' has
qualities which make it the most popular and most
widely grown variety. However, its harvest overlaps
with the other two main varieties and hence its planting
in rapidly increasing numbers gives considerable concern
to the canner. The tree census of the area has shown
that in 1955-56 production of 'Golden Queen' will be
6,500 tons and that of the other two main varieties
2,2oo and 3,100 tons. These figures may be compared
with the average production of 9,000 tons for all
varieties in the five-year period 1940-41 to 1944-45.
At the Leeton cannery practically all peach deliveries
are made within 4 to 6 weeks and 'it takes about three
times as long for the first 25 per cent of the crop to
come in as it does for the next 50 per cent'. If produc-
tion were spread evenly, it would reduce the overhead
costs by 20 per cent. Although, at Leeton, apricots,
tomatoes and other vegetables are also used for canning,
'Trevatt' is the only apricot variety. It is harvested
in the second half of December, while the peach harvest
starts only two months later. Between these two dates
some vegetables are canned, but their processing involves
many technical and marketing problems.
Since the construction of cold storage would be too
expensive for smoothing out the supply to the cannery,
the solution is in new peach and apricot varieties which
are at present under investigation.-I.M.
784. The Story of Fibre Flax in Australia.
Prepared by the Flax Production Com-
mittee, 1947, revised April 1948, pp. 5,
The history of the flax industry in Australia, with
particular reference to its rapid war-time development
is given. Research and economics related to the indus-
try are briefly mentioned.-I.M.
785. Sorghum Production in Australia. C. P.
Dowsett. Farm Front (Sydney), pp.
156-159, November 1947.
The place of sorghums in Australian agriculture
is discussed with reference to the greatly increased
production of grain types in recent years.-I.M.
786. The Potato Industry in Australia. A. G.
Bollen. Quarterly Review of Agricultural
Economics, pp. 14-19, April 1948.
A survey of the factors which affect the potato industry
in the different States of Australia. Production, con-
sumption, overseas exports, transport, marketing,
standardisation, mechanisation, and potato by-products
are outlined. Potato-market prospects are briefly
787. Vegetable Oils in the Australian Economy.
F. H. Gruen and W. Poggendorff. Review
of Marketing and Agricultural Economics,
pp. 93-114, March 1948.
A discussion of the present Australian vegetable oil
requirements, imports, and production, with special
reference to experiments with some oil-producing
plants in N.S.W. The agricultural and economic
possibilities of growing various oil-producing plants
are compared by taking into consideration the relative
chemical, nutritional, and industrial merits of their oil,
and the feed value of their by-products.-I.M.
788. Current S.A. Forest Problems. Bednall.
Australian Timber Journal, pp. 49-53,
67-68, February 1948.
Gives a short account of the history of afforestation
and of its financial background in S.A. Planting native
hardwoods was always uneconomic. The south-east
is the chief district for planting ; in this there are 104,336
acres of Pinus radiata, which is by far the most successful
During and since the war cutting has been too early
for full yields to be obtained. Comment is made on
future prospects and on certain unsatisfactory features
of the financial side of the enterprise.
The conclusion is reached that while the over-cutting
of virgin native forest for general revenue purposes used
to be the practice in other States, S.A. should build up
a financial reserve out of its forest revenue for success-
ful economic forestry, and not regard forests simply as
a source of general revenue.-I.M.
789. War Service Land Settlement Progress
Report. P.P. April 1948. Government
Printer, Hobart, pp. 7.
The estates acquired for the settlement of ex-service-
men in various parts of Tasmania are described with a
statement on the progress of their improvement for
subdivision. Statistics of the purchased livestock kept
for disposal among prospective settlers and of the
re-establishment loans, advances and other assistance
so far rendered to them are also given.-I.M.
(A) Government and Politics
790. The Undialectical State-A Study in
Marxist Political Theory. S. Dominitz.
Australasian Journal of Philosophy, pp.
33-41, May 1948.
The author writes 'the aim of this paper is to show
. the Marxist theory of the State . must be
rejected on methodological grounds'. We are given
one such ground: asking 'What is the State ?' couches
the answer in terms of 'essence', i.e. puts the answer
beyond refutation. There is also some discussion of
the relations of 'superstructure' and 'base' in the
Marxist theory of social change, closely following
791. Democrat on a Socialist. A. G. Lowndes.
Australian Quarterly, pp. 81-86, Decem-
The author criticises an article by Lloyd Ross in
the September issue entitled 'A Socialist on Democracy'
and extends his criticism to those who contend that
national planning and democracy are compatible. He
implies that Ross's view of democracy is majority
dictatorship. He asserts that for a democrat freedom
is the supreme value. The democrat does not oppose
all collective action but all compulsory collective action
-'the suppression by the State of voluntary private
organizations which desire to make their own arrange-
ments'. Ross and his like do not put freedom first.
No solution can be achieved through compromise-
the Road to Serfdom is a one way road.
'More Australians than are dreamed of by Ross are
sceptical about the possibility of retaining their cultural
and political freedoms if we surrender to the State the
undisputed power to control commercial matters.' The
Australian people realise the relative inefficiency of
socialised industry lacking the profit motive. Within
the system of free enterprise which stands as the alter-
native to socialism it is possible to achieve a greater
measure of prosperity than under socialism or 'national
planning', and greater prosperity is the only certain
way to gain relative security while retaining freedom.
792. Democrat on a Socialist A Rejoinder.
D. B. Miller. Australian Quarterly, pp.
95-100o, March 1948.
The author says Lowndes 'is unconcerned about the
actual forces which are operating in the politics of our
time'. Ross takes the realities of the situation into
account. The State has taken over many of the func-
tions once performed by private enterprise and intro-
duced new services not previously performed at all.
The demand for State action comes from all groups in
the community for a variety of motives. Having regard
to the vested interests created in state action and its
importance to the economic stability of the community
no retreat is possible and all the probabilities point to
the development of national planning. Ross and the
British and French Socialists like Cole and Blum, are
concerned first and foremost with the problem of how to
preserve individual liberty in a planned economy.
Free enterprise in the sense Lowndes means does
not exist in Australia. Industry in Australia is monopo-
listic and is 'among the first to demand centralised
governmental action when it suits them (the sugar
industry is a good example) ; and these industries ..
have never shown themselves particularly interested in
the economic freedom of potential competitors, nor
have they been concerned about personal freedoms, in
the sense of civil rights'.
In every country to-day there is a clash between three
main views of society:
(x) those of the monopoly capitalists who desire to
use the mechanism of State in their own interests ;
(2) those of the totalitarians, varying from Peron to
the Communists, who aim at a dictatorship of the whole
social life in their own interests;
(3) those of the groups which are trying to administer
the added state responsibilities arising from the war,
and the general demand for security, in such a way as to
preserve personal liberties while keeping in check the
managerial and totalitarian elements. This is the point
of view so cogently argued by Ross.-T.C.T.
793. Labour, Catholicism and Democratic
Socialism. Lloyd Ross. Twentieth Cen-
tury, pp. 74-89, December 1947.
This well-documented article discusses the position
of Catholics in the Australian Labour Party, and their
attitude towards its socialist objective. He considers
that there is no inconsistency between Catholic prin-
ciples and the ideals of an Australian democratic
794- What's Wrong with Socialism. W. C.
Wentworth. Institute of Public Affairs
Booklet, pp. 32.
Socialists start out with good intentions, but every-
where socialism in practice fails them. Stalin, Mussolini
and Hitler all represent socialism in action. As an
economic system socialism cannot deliver the goods
because of its inflexibility, the corruption of its bureau-
cracy, its removal of incentives. Socialism means
totalitarianism and war, providing both the motive and
means for war. . 'The socialist dictator naturally
sighs for more worlds to conquer'. Honest socialists
are in a dilemma over communism, trying to hide the
fact that both communism and socialism spring from the
same roots. To-day we are watching the end of
intellectual socialism. Socialism is in its death throes.
795. Twenty-third Report of the Commonwealth
Public Service by the Public Service
Board. P.P. Canberra, 1948, pp. 23.
The March 1948 Report of the Public Service Board
is more interesting than its predecessors, which were
very brief, and composed chiefly of not particularly
enlightening statistical tables. The Commissions have
taken the opportunity of the first full post-war year to
review a wider range of matters and also to give a
general background survey of the Public Service and
its problems and practices. The Report is divided into
a number of sections : Structure and Problems of the
Commonwealth Public Service: Establishment Matters
and Remuneration : Recruitment: Training: Staff
Welfare: Major Staff Movements: Administration in
Canberra: Employer-Employee Relationships and
Administrative Staff Changes. In addition there are
ten appendices including a graph showing staffs
employed 1904-47. The Report will serve those in
charge of courses on Australian politics as an introduc-
tion to these problems for students.-A.F.D.
(B) International Relations
796. Europe and the Great Powers. H. D.
Black. Australian Outlook, pp. 34-41,
December 1947; and pp. 7-18, March
In the first of these articles the author is mainly
concerned with the reasons for the clash of the Great
Powers in the European sphere. He rejects as inade-
quate two theories on this-firstly, a centrifugal 'law'
that coalitions tend to fall apart on victory, and secondly,
Schuman's theory that the Yalta agreement provided
for a wide Soviet sphere of influence in the interests of
Russian security, but that the Western Powers later
tried to revise this global order. The author contends
that the basic problem is that 'Soviet aims are irrecon-
cilable with recovery in Europe, at least in the Western
lands'. He deals particularly with the question of
The second article outlines a plan for expansion which
the author thinks may underlie Soviet policy. He then
gives a brief account of American counter-measures,
especially the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan.
He considers that the recovery of Western Europe should
be the great aim of the Western Powers.-f.W.
797. Australia's Attitude to British Common-
wealth Relations. Douglas Copland.
International Journal (Toronto), pp. 39-
48, Winter 1947-48.
The author examines Australia's changing status in
the British Commonwealth, which was greatly acceler-
ated by the war.
The Australian Parliament adopted the Statute of
Westminster in 1942. This had the effect of removing
legal obstacles to its competence in certain domestic
matters. Paradoxically, as Dr. Evatt pointed out, no
legal restrictions existed even without this adoption,
in international and external affairs. Nevertheless
Australia's Prime Minister announced in 1939 that we,
with Britain, were at war. The matter was not sub-
mitted to Parliament. In 1941, however, we declared
war on Japan independently.
In effect, this development, though raising Australia
to full dominion status, did not involve the assumption
of new legal rights or obligations. Nor has it promoted
separatism. Australian participation in the war, how-
ever, and particularly her importance then and now in
the Pacific areas, have made equal partnership with other
members of the British Commonwealth very much a
reality. Prof. Copland mentions important examples
of Australian participation in international events; e.g.,
membership of the Pacific War Council; initiative in
the matter of the Anzac Pact; representation on the
Advisory Council in Japan on behalf of several members
of the British Commonwealth. This last example,
according to Dr. Evatt, contributes to the emergence
of a new principle in British Commonwealth relations,
whereby a Dominion in a given region may act for other
dominions, thus achieving co-operative action through
a new and higher medium.
These developments in no way weaken the structure
of the British Commonwealth. On the contrary,
Australia has accepted new responsibilities in regard
to defence, as the most important dominion in the
Pacific, and has continued to provide all possible econ-
omic aid to Great Britain in her post-war crisis.-P.F.
798. Australia's Foreign Policy. W. Levi. Fort-
nightly (London), pp. 408-414. Decem-
An examination of the basic principles of Australian
foreign policy. The author points out that despite
radical internal political changes, the basic principles
of Australian foreign policy have remained unchanged
for over a century. Australian geographical isolation
has produced a feeling of helplessness in the face of
determined threats from outside : 'fear is the leitmotif
of Australian thinking on foreign policy, and Australian
minds never lack a potential aggressor'. Regional
security is linked with the problem of immigration, and
until Australia modifies its immigration policy, it will
be impossible for her to attain security or to achieve her
big power ambitions. 'White Australia' has evoked
resentment in Asiatic countries and has led to curious
contradictions in actual policy. Attachment to Britain
and a determination to preserve the Anglo-Saxon
character of Australian population and institutions have
strongly influenced policy. 'No Australian government
has ever attempted to conduct policy independent of
Great Britain or the empire' and party conflicts have
arisen over the extent rather than the fact of collabora-
tion with Britain. Although for a long period policy
has been made in Australia and executed by Britain,
in recent years the administrative framework of Austra-
lian policy has been elaborated, and to-day Australia
is attempting to implement her own policy. There is
a distinct gap between the active policy pursued by
Australian governments, dominated by 'a small power
complex' and public opinion which 'shows little interest
in understanding let alone influencing' the political
relations of the continent with the rest of the world.
799. Australian Policy Towards Japan. N. D.
Harper. Australian Outlook, pp. 14-24,
Australian relations to Japan have been for a long
period considered in terms of security and commercial
expansion. Heavy war losses and growing national
feeling have led to greater concern with problems of
world and regional security. Pacific security for Aus-
tralia is related to the probable power balance and,
therefore, to the economic structure of post-war Japan.
The Pacific power structure has been modified by the
decline of effective British influence in the Far East,
the emergence of U.S.A. as the major world power,
the emergence of Russia as a major Pacific power, the
instability of China and the weakening of Dutch power
in the N.E.I., the protective screen for the north Aus-
tralian coast. Japan appears likely to become a strategic
area in a Russian-American conflict. Australian short-
term security has been effected by the demilitarisation
and geographical disarmament of Japan. Long-term
security and the nature of Australian trade relations with
Japan are bound up with the MacArthur policy of
economic disarmament. The Rural Land Reform Act
of 1946 envisages an agrarian economy on the basis of
peasant proprietorship. The destruction of heavy
industry and its relegation in future to a secondary posi-
tion may jeopardise the economic structure and produce
a collapse of living standards threatening the new demo-
cratic political structure. Accordingly an expansion of
light industry and of external trade is essential to prevent
Japan from becoming a depressed colonial area threat-
ening Pacific security. Despite Australian prejudices
an early resumption of trade with Japan is essential
alike to Australian security and external trade. 'Japan
will be either a powerful bulwark for peace or a danger-
ous springboard for war', and so must be permanently
weakened as a military power but peace terms should not
be too tough economically.-N.D.H.
8oo. Reflections on Japan. W. M. Ball. Pacific
Affairs (New York), pp. 3-19, March 1948.
The author discusses the problems of Allied control
of Japan, both as they exist now, and as they will arise
for the writers of the peace treaty. He outlines the
progress made by the Occupation authorities to date
in the fields of disarming and demilitarising Japan,
removing from office former war leaders, and of pro-
moting economic reforms to bring about a redistribution
of economic power. A large number of the difficulties
and delays he attributes to the necessity to work through
the Japanese government and to rely on Japanese
officials. He asserts that the two main aims of the
Allies in Japan after the Occupation should be demilitar-
isation and democratisation. He thinks there should
be no wavering from the first of these aims, as otherwise
Japan might again become a military danger. The
second he considers cannot be secured by compulsion,
but only by Japanese reformers, whom, however, the
Allies could assist by making sure that they are not
suppressed when the Occupation ends.-J.W.
801. Japan in Defeat. D. J. M. Frazer. Aus-
tralian Quarterly, pp. 46-50, March 1948.
This short article reviews very briefly some out-
standing problems in the Japanese scene. The author
is manager of the Foreign Department of the Bank of
New South Wales, and recently visited Japan.
Some scepticism is expressed over the view that
Japan's apparently enthusiastic acceptance of the Allies
since the war ended, is merely a matter of duplicity.
Volte-faces of this kind are not untypical of Japanese
history and are to be accepted as a manifestation of a
distinctive Japanese 'psychology'. The slow recovery
of Japan is partly due to the purges connected with the
dissolution of the Zaibatsu family trusts, and partly to
economic decentralisation. S.C.A.P. has now decided,
after considerable discussion, to allow larger units to
remain in certain industries than was contemplated
earlier. Recovery will depend on measures which can
restore Japan's foreign trade. In a world of shortages
there is every reason to shepherd Japan into taking its
place in the comity of democratic nations.-P.F.
802. Political Development in South-east Asia.
A. H. McDonald. Australian Outlook,
pp. 6-13, December 1947, and pp. 7-18
The author holds that there is a common process in
the rise to power of nationalist movements in South-east
Asia, which can be represented in four stages :
First, certain representative institutions, varying in
real political content, were introduced by the colonial
Powers, and the definition of nationalist programmes
was permitted in varying degrees. Secondly, these
institutions were further developed by the Japanese,
but only in form and without any real political content.
Thirdly, these institutions and the nationalist pro-
grammes survived the Japanese collapse, and the
nationalists proceeded to put real political content into
the representative institutions. The degree of this
varied in different countries according to the strength
of the colonial Power. Fourthly, 'even where the
nationalists may gain political independence, the
economic and social complications left by colonial rule,
new economic pressure and the questions of strategic
security may still gravely diminish the real content of
their political institutions'. But this applies also to
other small nations, and the problem is no longer
strictly colonial in character.
The author applies this formula to nationalist develop-
ment in the Philippines, Burma and Malaya, in part one
of this article, and to Indo-China and Indonesia in
803. Security Problems in the Indian Ocean.
G. Parker. Australian Outlook, pp. 25-33,
An important Indian political leader has suggested a
scheme for a South-east Asia security system under
Indian leadership. The author summarises these pro-
posals, and on this basis considers the possible role of
India in the present 'two-world' universe-where
American policy is aimed at containment of Russia.
The Indian's proposals suggest underwriting of the
security system by Britain. Mr. Parker points out the
difficulties in the way of this. However, America might
undertake this role, supporting an Indian bloc 'as
complementary to the Marshall Plan for the stabilisation
of Western Europe and the MacArthur plan for the
industrial restoration of Japan'.
The author points out the embarrassing repercussions
this could have for the Commonwealth, including Aus-
tralia, because of both the possible clash between
American and British interests, and the increased power
804. The Political Situation in India before
Partition. J. A. McCallum. Australian
Quarterly, pp. 78-80, December 1947.
The author records a few observations made when
he was in India as an observer at the Asian Relations
Conference. The educated Indians showed much
evidence of their capacity and character, but they stood
in sharp contrast with the vast majority of the population.
'Britain had governed with a firmness, a justice, and a
delicacy of understanding . Her impending
departure was a hoped-for, but dreaded event. After
February 20 key factors in sound government in India
showed evidence of defection from requisite standards :
the police and armed forces, the Civil Service, the trans-
port service, in a word India, was not yet ready for self-
805. Britain in a Changing World. Gordon
Greenwood. Australian Outlook, pp. 42-
48, December 1947.
Britain's economic plight to-day is but one manifesta-
tion of the change in the balance of power which has
taken place as a result of the two world wars and long-
term developments. Britain's weakness shows itself
chiefly in 'the discrepancy between (her) economic
power and world-wide commitments'.
Recognition of this situation has largely conditioned
the government's policy in India, Burma, Egypt, the
Middle East as a whole, and the Pacific, where either
withdrawals or token participation have become
apparent. Britain is maintaining her position, however,
In this situation, relationships with the Soviet Union
have assumed particular importance. For some time
the Soviet harried Britain as the weaker of the two main
Western democracies. Subsequently, the Soviet trans-
ferred its emphasis to the U.S. largely because it
appears to be the sole nation capable of offering an
effective and sustained challenge to the Soviet Union.
This has placed Britain in the insidious position of trying
to reconcile two superior antagonists without favouring
either. Bevin's policy in this connection has caused a
two-way split in the Labour ranks. R. H. S. Crossman
(Political Quarterly, 19 May 1947) advocates Western
Union as the best way of achieving effective neutrality
(as well as securing cultural ideals and economic advan-
tages) under these circumstances.
Are Eastern and Western blocs unavoidable ? The
Soviet does not want war, but her suspicions are dis-
ruptive, and may precipitate such groupings. Along
with them may go Western Union.-P.F.
806. The Religious Basis of World Peace. L. A.
Triebel. Australian Quarterly, pp. 71-78,
The central issue to-day, the author contends, may
not be the control of the means of production, or
individualism versus collectivism. Europe between
the wars suffered a decline in Christian values and prac-
tices, and the pagan faiths of Fascism and Nazism
flowed in. The international problem, and the remedy
for the evils of international life is a re-direction of the
Force must now be brought under the sway of
righteousness and exerted only for the general well-
being. The British Commonwealth of Nations is the
greatest international instrument to-day for liberty, fair
dealing and humanity. Its democratic creed, embracing
social security, is consistent with the idea of the Divine
Unity-the equality of all men before the One God.
The mission of international justice and goodwill is
accepted by the Empire as its own, and its policy is to
uphold realistically the policing measures of the United
807. New Zealand-Some Aspects of External
Affairs. Round Table (London), pp.
616-621, March 1948.
The article gives a brief account of New Zealand's
relations in 1947 with the United Nations and UNESCO,
recent international trade agreements, the attempt to
abolish the Legislative Council and difficulties encoun-
tered through New Zealand's position in the British
Commonwealth, and concludes with the question of
New Zealand's island trusteeships, in particular Samoa.
808. Seventh and Eighth Annual Reports of the
Housing Commission of Victoria for the
Period i July 1944 to 30 June 1946. P.P.
Government Printer, Melbourne, pp. 46.
Price is. 6d.
The number of applicants for houses in the metro-
politan area increased from 5,161 on 30 June 1945 to
17,335 on 30 June 1946. In March 1945 ballots were
introduced to choose persons whose claims should be
investigated. The most important housing legislation
in the period under review was the ratification of the
Commonwealth-State Housing Agreement made on 19
Successive chapters deal with the inspection of sub-
standard houses; the acquisition of building sites-
8,861 in the metropolitan area, 4,000 of these in Heidel-
berg, and 1,817 in the country, of which 361 were in
Geelong; land resumption policy: mostly compulsory
in the metropolitan area and by negotiation in country
centres; building activities : contracts were let for
the construction of 3,133 houses, of which I,ozz were
in the country; country housing which considerably
expanded since 1944; rising costs : the average for
houses constructed in 1944-45 was 956, in 1945-46
Among non-orthodox housing methods discussed are
prefabricated concrete houses, the Beaufort steel house,
pre-cutting depots and factory-built timber houses.
The report furthermore examines the problems of rising
rents and rental rebates, and road contracts which often
lag behind house construction so that completed houses
lack proper drainage and even proper access to their
Appendices present financial statements. The general
revenue account shows a deficit of 6,233 for 1944-45,
but a surplus of 19,283 for 1945-46, mainly owing to
the full operation of the Commonwealth-State Housing
Agreement and because the maintenance requirements
in that year were small, as most houses were new.
809. Report on the Development of the Town of
Morwell. Central Planning Authority.
Government Printer, Melbourne, 1948,
In connection with the plans to expand the brown
coal resources at Morwell the Centre Planning Authority
in August 1947 appointed three of its members as a
committee to inquire into and report on Morwell's
town development. The State Electricity Commission
protested against 'encroachment on lands covering coal
capable of being won by open cut methods'. The
present township of Morwell had a population of 2,942
on I July 1947. The commission's plan provides for an
increase to 14,600. The expansion is suggested succes-
sively in four areas, marked on two maps, A-the present
township, B, C, and D-to be reserved for workshops.
Detailed planning is left to the local authorities. The
report has been adopted by the Central Planning
(B) Social Security and Public Health
8io. Social Services. "What shall they profit us ?"
Economic Papers No. 7. The Economic
Society of Australia and N.Z., N.S.W.
Branch, Sydney, 1947, pp. 86. Papers
read before the N.S.W. Branch.
H. T. Kewley presents 'A General Survey of Social
Services' (pp. 5-29). He distinguishes three main
periods of development: between 1900-1912 when Aus-
tralia became noted as a 'social laboratory' ; from 1912
to 1939, for the Commonwealth a period 'of endeavour
rather than achievement'; and since 1939 when the
social services provided by the Commonwealth have
greatly extended. The two principal trends have been
the evolution of statutory out of voluntary services and
the growing part of the Commonwealth whose services
largely superseded those supplied by States. Next the
lecturer gives details of the past development and present
state of the different types of 'income-security' services.
Finally, he discusses the contributory method and its
rejection in connection with the introduction of a
social services contribution as part of the income tax,
beginning in 1946.
W. D. Borrie deals with 'Population Policy and Social
Services' (pp. 30-43). After a historical survey the
lecturer explains the Victorian attitude to population
policy which 'served the requirements of laissez faire
capitalism'. During the 20th century the working class
gained much political influence and changed its pro-
creative habits. A high level of employment is hard
to maintain with a contracting population with an
increasing number of aged dependants. This consti-
tutes an economic case for a population policy. In
Australia the falling birth rate was mainly due to a
decreasing size of the family. A modern population
policy should ensure population stability rather than
increase. There are repressive and progressive popula-
tion policies-the former in totalitarian Italy and
Germany, examples of the latter are France with the
emphasis on cash benefits and Sweden with the em-
phasis on environmental changes. In Australia cash
benefits already exist, environmental changes could be
effected by social services including housing, education,
regional development of large cities, steady employment,
H. W. Arndt's subject is 'Progress and Social
Security' (pp. 44-63). Economic progress, i.e. contin-
uous increase in real income which requires constant
redistribution of resources, may clash with social
security. This has been stressed by A. G. B. Fisher,
who says that security for the individual worker is 'the
undisturbed possession of his present job'. The lec-
turer objects to Fisher that he is mainly concerned with
one aspect of social security, that of protection from
structural unemployment, as distinct from general
(cyclical) unemployment. The types of social security
measures aimed at counteracting cyclical unemploy-
ment, the effects of ill health, old age, etc., are at first
sight unrelated to economic progress, they are more
likely to strengthen it. However, income-maintenance
services may by weakening incentives hamper economic
progress. The changed social outlook of the 2oth
century is due both to a change in objective environ-
ment-greater instability-and to increased reluctance
on the people's part to put up with insecurity, the higher
political power of the working classes. Measures are
to be taken to facilitate mobility of labour, to overcome
the resistance to adjustment and to find new incentives.
W. C. Wentworth discusses 'Social Services and the
Budget' (pp. 64-86). He analyses the costs of various
social services. The cost of social services has risen
from I6-7m. (Commonwealth) plus 8m. (States) in
1938-39 to 68-4m. (Commonwealth) in 1946-47.
Forecasts are made of the numbers of pensionable age
up to 1991 and their numbers are compared with the
numbers of active age groups. Next the lecturer
presents a survey of social service finance compared with
Commonwealth revenue and national income. He
deals with the suggested contributory principle and the
National Welfare Fund set up in 1943. The following
section set forth some questions of principle, among
these the need to guard against, the emergence of a
totalitarian state, the necessity to preserve an 'economic
gradient' in the lower and middle income ranges, the
problem of re-distribution of income. In conclusion
the paper in concerned with some particular proposals,
such as the abolition of the means test for pensioners,
the inclusion of endowment for the first child, etc.
811. Fifth Report of the Director-General of
Social Services, Year ended 3oth June
1946. P.P. Government Printer, Can-
berra, pp. 16. Price 9d.
The report presents statistical tables about various
social services administered by the department. In the
year under review the maximum invalid, old age and
widows' pensions were raised to 37s. 6d. per week and
the reciprocity with N.Z. so far practised for old age and
invalid pensions was extended to a number of other
services. Social services are now conceded to certain
British migrants and ex-servicemen. In addition to
normal peace-time services the department is also paying
Civil Constructional Corps, Civil Defence Workers'
and War Injuries Compensations, is active in the scheme
of rehabilitation of disabled members of the forces and
provides sustenance and after-care for evacuees and
ex-internees and the transition allowance to war workers.
812. Australian Coal Mining Fatalities. A. C.
Clarke. Bulletin of Industrial Psychology
and Personnel Practice, pp. 22-26, Decem-
Table I shows fatal accidents in N.S.W. coal mines
where about three-quarters of the Australian coal miners
work, for all years between 1917 and 1946. Over this
period there was neither a tendency to worsen nor to
improve, but 'a series of peaks and troughs of roughly
five years duration which may be due to a fluctuation
of interest in safe working methods'. Table II gives
fatality rates per I,ooo employees in all Australian states
except S.A. The small employment figures outside
N.S.W cause much wider fluctuations because a single
fatality may imply a much higher rate. On a ten-year
average the other states do not show a great difference
from N.S.W except the far higher rates in Vie. and W.A.
Compared with British coal mines, the Australian
fatality rate is much the same, but only half as bad as
that in U.S.A.
Table III examines the nature of mining fatalities
in various states in 1945 and 1946. Peculiar to coal
mining are only fall of coal or stone and explosions
and/or fires. Collapse after heavy exertion as agency
of fatality would suggest periodical medical test of
miners. Unsatisfactory working conditions and unsafe
working methods account for many fatalities.
813. Report of the Secretary for Public Health,
Tasmania, for Year ended 31 December
1946. P.P. Government Printer, Hobart,
The Tasmanian birthrate in 1946 was 27-25 per I,ooo
persons living, i.e. higher than the average of 21 48 for
the ten years 1936-45. The report of the Acting
Director of Public Health (section I) includes work in
maternal welfare and child health which was hampered
by inadequate nursing staff, school medical and dental
services. The latter were handicapped by the inability
to obtain dental surgeons, so that itinerant clinics had to
be reduced from three to one. The report of.the Direc-
tor of Hospital and Medical Services (section II) deals
with public and private hospitals, bush nursing, govern-
ment medical services and itinerant specialist medical
services. The report of the Director of Tuberculosis
(section III) mentions that Tasmania had not one
patient on a waiting list for the sanatorium. Two new
sanatoria are planned for Tasmania. Section IV con-
tains the report of the Director of Mental Hygiene who
recommends provision of an institution for the care and
control of mental detectives and the segregation of
criminal mental detectives. Ample statistical data are
814. Safety Organisation of Commonwealth
Steel. Manufacturing and Management,
pp. 302-308, March 1948.
Between 1941 and 1943 the number of employees of
the Commonwealth Steel Co. Ltd. in Waratah, N.S.W.,
increased from 700 to 3,500 and new lines of goods were
manufactured. This necessitated an extensive safety
campaign which resulted in reducing the accident rate
by 50-70 per cent. Its main features were : a safety
department, an ambulance department and general
safety conferences in which representatives of all depart-
ments meet every fortnight. In addition departmental
conferences also meet fortnightly. Regular general
inspection and crane inspection is carried out and safety
measures are given the widest publicity. Since 1944
a goods safety bonus has been operating with great
New employees are being trained by an officer of the
safety department and by their foremen and issued
with instruction cards and safety booklets. Apprentices
undergo a long-range safety training plan. Special
sections of the article deal with the medical and ambu-
lance service and with protective equipment.
815. Prevention of Industrial Accidents. H.
Greenwood Thomas. Manufacturing and
Management, pp. 380-382, May 1948.
Not only physical hazards, but also unsafe personnel
habits have to be controlled. Australian methods to
prevent accidents have been developed successfully, but
not properly co-ordinated. There is a need for investi-
gation of unsafe conditions based on more accurate
accident records, standardisation based on safety codes,
and safety training. All this requires guidance by
specialists from various professions.
(C) Social Surveys
(D) Population and Migration
816. Immigration-Government Policy. State-
ment by the Minister for Immigration,
A. A. Calwell, in the House of Represen-
tatives, 28 November 1947, pp. 25
1947 Australia will have received 30,000 permanent
arrivals. Immigration is desirable because of the low
natural increase of Australia's population. British
migration comprises the vast majority of the 1947
immigration. Despite her own population problem and
labour shortage Britain supports British emigration to
Australia. Since 31 March 1947 the British-Australian
agreement on free and assisted passages has been
operating. The existing system of priorities for intend-
ing migrants prevents migration from aggravating our
precarious housing position. Among other attempts
to relieve the shipping position the statement mentions
negotiations about the construction of migrant ships
and transport of migrants by air.
The second source of Australian immigration is U.S.A.
Financial assistance to U.S. ex-servicemen settling in
Australia has been granted, and negotiations with the
Matson Line for additional vessels on the Australian
run are conducted. U.S. immigration will bring a
considerable amount of dollars to Australia. Among
continental Europeans to come to Australia there are
mainly displaced persons. The Commonwealth govern-
ment has concluded an agreement with the International
Refugee Organisation to admit 12,000, later 20,000
D.P.'s per year to Australia, selected by Australian
selection teams. After their arrival in Australia D.P.'s
are accommodated in a former military camp and given
instruction in English and Australian conditions. In
addition there are limited prospects to bring Scandin-
avian, French and Dutch migrants to Australia.
Immigration offices have been set up abroad. For
1948 50,000 new arrivals are expected.
817. Population and Agriculture. Wyn F. Owen.
Review of Marketing and Agricultural
Economics, pp. 46-64, February 1948.
To blame the lack of amenities in the country for
the drift to the cities means to mention a symptom
instead of a cause. In Australia there is ot only a
slower increase of the rural than of the urban population,
but a decrease in absolute numbers of people engaged
in rural industries. As shown in graphs and tables
all countries with a high standard of living including
Australia have only a small proportion of their working
population engaged in rural industries. The income
elasticity of primary industry is low, that is with a
rising national income and standard of living the
demand for farm products rises at a declining rate. The
proportion of income spent on primary products falls,
the proportion spent on products of secondary or tertiary
industries rises. Countries with an improving standard
of living, even Australia with her predominantly agri-
cultural exports, show a rising rate of industrialisation
and a rising proportion of their working population
engaged in secondary and even more so in tertiary
The output per worker in primary industries in pro-
gressive countries increases owing to technical advances
which are bound to be larger in future. Some migration
of labour from primary to other industries is, therefore,
inevitable. This means migration to cities, as in most
countries secondary industry has developed in the cities.
Besides, the birth rate is usually highest in country
districts. In addition, a 'large proportion of farmers
earn less per hour of work than workers of similar
capacity in secondary and tertiary industries'.
818. Education and Infertility. Economic News,
pp. 1-4, August-September 1947.
Data from the U.S. 1940 census show that the hus-
bands' education has a small effect on the wives' repro-
duction, the wives' education, however, a very large one.
Women were classified in six educational groups: A.
University education for one year or more, B. High
school education for four years (full course), C. high
school educ. of one to three years, D. primary school ed.
of seven to eight years, E. the same of five to six years, F.
the same of less than 5 years. There are data for each
generation of women born 1920-24, back to 1865-74,
cross-classified by date of marriage, e.g. 1937-39. Under
certain assumptions gross rates of reproduction and the
median age of marriage for each generation of women are
worked out. A further step is the standardisationn' of age
at marriage, i.e. to assume that the ages at marriage would
have been the same, e.g. as in the generation of farm
women born 1885-89. Standardisation is also made
for education, e.g. by assuming that the proportion of
women in different educational classes was the same as
in the 1915-19 generation. Tables are presented of
reproductivity by educational groups A-F of urban,
rural non-farm and rural farm women of different
generations, their gross rate of reproduction, median
age of marriage, gross reproduction rate with age of
marriage standardised. Part of the falling reproduc-
tivity is due to urbanisation, part to the rising age of
marriage, the increasing education of women and to the
'spirit of the time'.
A rough analysis has been made in Canada for the
generation of women born 1886-95. Additional factors
taken into consideration were religion-Protestants and
Catholics-and language-English and French.
819. Wilcher, Lewis. Education, Press, Radio.
Cheshire Pty. Ltd., Melbourne and
London, 1948, pp. ino. (Education pp.
II-40.) Price 5s.
To deal with our problems adequately we must be
well educated. To be well educated is to be prepared
for a good job, to have a developed mind, to be aware of
our culture, to be good citizens. Arguments are given
for and against raising the school leaving age. Adults
in Australia will use education, if it is provided. Too
great stress in method is placed on imparting knowledge
and on examinations. There are conflicting views on
the merits of co-education and boarding schools. The
quality of teachers is important. They should be care-
fully selected, paid adequately, and given adequate
Australia appears to spend less per head on education
than some other countries, and a smaller portion of its
total budget. To obtain better results we must be
prepared to spend more on it.
820. School Buildings and Equipment. Australian
Council for Educational Research. Mel-
bourne University Press, 1948, pp. 80.
In Australia, far too many antiquated school buildings
have become a hindrance to the educational process,
making activity programme methods, e.g., almost impos-
sible. School buildings are a community problem,
their planning part of town planning. Since educa-
tional needs change, the emphasis should be on
correct function, not on permanence. The necessary
elements of a school can be arranged all under one roof,
each under a different roof, or a combination of the two
methods. Properly planned, a school can serve as a
community centre and be used 14 hours a day, 365 days
a year. Area and consolidated schools, made possible
by modern roads and transport, provide wider social
contacts, specialised teachers, libraries, medical and
dental care, educational and vocational guidance, which
the one-teacher school cannot offer; yet up to 70 per
cent of our schools are one-room, often one-teacher,
schools. The lighting in practically every Australian
school is sub-standard, but natural lighting can be
improved or supplemented by artificial lighting. Not
only buildings, but most furnishings and equipment, are
out-dated and deficient; they must be temporarily
reconditioned, supplemented, and eventually replaced:
their provision should not be made dependent on the
generosity and wealth of parents' committees. The
book relies for its appeal on 126 illustrations and their
captions rather than on the brief interspersed text.
82z. Shann, F. The Canberra System of School
Athletics. A.C.E.R. Research Series No.
63. Melbourne University Press, 1947,
pp. xii, 88. Price 7s. 6d.
Athletics can be enjoyed by, and useful to, all; the
Canberra system attempts to ensure that these aims will
be realized. In Section I a system of grouping for
athletic events is described based on a composite rating
of age, height and weight. In Section II is described
the award of points in an event according to the order
of a boy's performance in it when compared with the
whole school and with his own group, and the acceptable
standards of performance in an event. Standards
reached are converted into points, to be used to deter-
mine the individual athletic quotient (and the individual
scores if these are needed) and house totals.
Section III describes the increase in boy participation
in Canberra and Trinity Grammar Schools when the
system was used. It illustrates the failure of the single
standard system to satisfy all boys.
Section IV discusses the merits of various events in
the programme, explains the dangers of races of 2zo
yards or more for boys too young for them, describes
the events available for different rating groups, discusses
the arrangements and time table required to put the
programme into operation, and concludes with a scheme
Section V discusses the amount of work involved in
putting the scheme into operation, the best methods of
handling results, explaining the system to competitors
and parents and the keeping of record cards.
Appendix I gives a comparison of height-weight
growth of European and Canberra boys. Appendix 2
gives an example of a notice advising a school of the
822. Accrediting for Public Examinations in
Australia. Australian Council for Educa-
tional Research, 1947, pp. 44. Price 2s. 6d.
In Victoria and Tasmania a system of accrediting
is in operation by which pupils in approved secondary
schools are not required to sit for certain Public Exam-
inations but may be credited with passes or failures at
these Examinations on the results of their school records
and school examinations. This scheme also applies
partially at one Public Examination in New South Wales
and a brief note is given on the practice followed there.
The replies to questionnaires sent to a number of
head teachers in accredited and other secondary schools
in Victoria and Tasmania are summarised. Accredit-
ing met with general favour. Although greater freedom
was desired some attempt was being made in accredited
schools to vary courses to suit individual needs. The
lack of uniformity was considered a disadvantage but
there was no evidence to show that standards of achieve-
ment were lower in accredited schools. It was felt
that internal examinations were fairer, and that pupils
in accredited schools showed fewer signs of examination
strain than pupils sitting for Public Examinations.
823. Talent Erosion. A. J. Greenhalgh. Aus-
tralian Quarterly, pp. 79-86, March 1948.
Drift to the city from rural areas is at present a social
necessity owing to different reproductive rates and
opportunities. The more able portion of the population
moves to urban centres leading to loss of talent in rural
areas. Illustrations of this are given from a study of
the distribution of I.Q.'s in part of New England,
including town population (5,000-7,000), small town
(I,ooo-1,500) and smaller centres. Comparisons are
made between the I.Q.'s of local and non-local children,
and it is argued that the brighter children are those whose
parents are transient and move to better opportunities.
These moves take from rural areas their best leaders,
lead to exploitation of the land, and make effective group
life possible. Decentralisation, which will increase the
importance and attractiveness of towns in rural areas,
may by drawing the more able of the population to the
towns, lower further the quality of the farm population.
824. The McColvin Report on Public Libraries
in Australia. McLoskey, H. L. Australian
Quarterly, pp. 33-45, March 1948.
The McColvin Report (published in 1947) is criticised
first on general grounds : (i) It is based on too cursory
an examination of Australian library systems; (ii) It
repeats the strictures of the Munn-Pitt report and,
adding little to it, did not justify the expenses involved.
(iii) It does not take sufficient account of the constitu-
tional set-up in Australia, and therefore its proposals
Attention is then directed to more specific criticisms.
McColvin does not give due credit to existing library
services, sets too little score by voluntary and municipal
action in library matters, makes too simple the problems
of central purchasing, cataloguing and processing, and
is inconsistent in his approach to the necessary function
of parliamentary libraries. He had no warrant to report
on the latter, gave inadequate time to them, and does not
give due regard to the functions they fulfil, nor the type
of material they are called upon to provide.
Credit is given for the sections on Children's libraries
and for the proposals on the Australian Institute of
825. Some Features of Objective Tests. A. E.
Tucker. Tasmanian Education, pp. 31-40,
The purpose of this article is to point out some of the
forms, uses and limitations of objective tests, to indicate
some weaknesses that may occur, and to suggest
methods of avoiding them. Tests may be divided into
diagnostic tests which are used to discover the difficulties
of individual pupils, and achievement tests which are
used to rank pupils according to their respective
achievements in a given field of study. In an achieve-
ment test the field of work covered should not be too
varied, items must differentiate throughout the range
of difficulties, and every item should have a high
validity. A procedure in test-building is suggested,
consisting of eight steps. The assigning of letter
grades, based on the number of deviations above or
below the mean instead of percentages for the indication
of individual progress is advocated.
Objective tests are divided into simple recall exercises,
sentence or paragraph completion exercises, multiple
choice exercises and true-false statements, and remarks
on these item types are given. After each application
of a test, the teacher should note its imperfections and
take steps to eliminate them. He can build up a series
of objective tests of great value both in themselves and
as a basis of any further tests required.
826. Education of Baltic Immigrants. Education
News, pp. 6-7, February 1948.
At the request of the Department of Immigration,
the Commonwealth Office of Education organised a
teaching programme at Bonegilla camp for 800 Baltic
immigrants, only 150 of whom could speak intelligible
English. The instruction was directed by Dr. Crossly
of Sydney University, and carried out by teachers from
Victoria and N.S.W. who could speak fluent German
(which was known to 90 per cent of the immigrants).
The curriculum concentrated on English and civics,
instruction was (after the first few days when German
was spoken) by the direct method of language teaching
and numerous word games, visual aids; in addition,
there was informal discussion, individual study and
reading, making for a full 12 hour day for the teachers.
The students were eager and co-operative, and despite
limited facilities in the camp, the minimum aim of
equipping the migrants with sufficient knowledge of
English and the Australian background to avoid undue
hardships in the community was apparently achieved.
It was realized that the migrants would make a more
positive contribution to Australian life if they were not
compelled to forswear entirely their cultural traditions
and scope was given them for celebrating Christmas
and New Year in their own national ways. Medical
examinations and vocational interviews were also
827. Twenty-fourth Report of the Commission of
Public Health to the Minister of Health,
Victoria, 1946. Government Printer, Mel-
bourne, 1947. Appendix A. Report of
the Director of Maternal, Infant, and Pre-
School Welfare for I945-46. Pre-School
Section, pp. 32-34.
There has been marked growth in interest in pre-
school movement in recent years. In 1944-45 the
Victorian Government granted a per capital subsidy of
4 per head to approved free kindergartens in Vic-
toria, increased to 6 in 1945-46; in 1945 made a
subsidy for training kindergarteners ; in 1946 a sub-
sidy to the salaries of municipal pre-school child
development officers. Special courses of training have
been given to play leaders and others at the Kindergarten
828. Report of the Minister of Public Instruction,
N.S.W., for 1946. Government Printer,
Sydney, 1948, pp. 24.
The report deals with the activities of the Department
of Public Instruction under the provisions of the public
Instruction Acts of 1880, and of such institutions as
the University of Sydney, the National Art Gallery,
the Conservatorium of Music, the Public Library and
the Australian Museum and the Sydney Observatory.
However, the report on Technical Education is published
A preliminary statement deals with problems which
have arisen during the war years, and indicates some of
the developments which have taken place during 1946.
This is followed by a systematic account of the activities
of the Education Department and of the institutions
mentioned above. Tables of statistics are used to
demonstrate the scope of these activities, and there is
a large collection of statistical tables at the end of the
report. These tables deal with the numbers and classi-
fication of schools, the enrolment and attendance of
children and their grade placement at different ages, the
occupations of school leavers listed separately for each
type of school, the classification and qualifications of
teachers, the religious denominations of children, and
with some analysis of the gross expenditure by the
829. An Introduction to Technical Education in
N.S.W. Technical Education Branch,
Education Department, N.S.W. Govern-
ment Printer, Sydney, 1946, pp. 28.
The purpose of this booklet is to place before teachers
the objectives of the Technical Education Branch and
to relate these to present achievements so they can
evaluate the importance of what may otherwise appear
to be isolated steps.
The functions of the Branch are to provide these
services, which are essential for Australia's progress in
commerce and primary and secondary industries com-
parable with that of other countries. These services
include the provision of supplementary instruction for
technicians and craftsmen, of basic courses for profes-
sional, managerial and business groups, of post-graduate
courses for professional workers in specialised fields
and of research facilities and projects, especially in the
form of investigations into the specific problems of
The courses are broadly outlined and the guidance
and library services discussed; the leaflet closes with
a plan for the future.
830. Seventy-first Report of the Secretary for
Public Instruction, Queensland, for the
Year 1946. Government Printer, Bris-
bane, 1947, pp. 29.
The work carried on during 1946 under the four
acts relevant to education is summarised. The acts
are dealing with state education, technical instruction,
grammar schools and the University.
The report begins with statement of the numbers of
various classes of schools and of the enrolments and
average attendances of children in those schools. New
schools applied for, and schools opened and closed are
listed. Primary, secondary and grammar schools are
shown separately. This is followed by a list of scholar-
ships, etc., granted during the year. Tables set out
the number of teachers in the various classifications,
and types of schools and the numbers leaving the service.
The number of students at the Senior Teachers' College
and the number receiving correspondence tuition are
This mainly numerical description is followed by a
verbal account of some of the more specialised activities
such as-evening tutorial classes, religious instruction,
radio and films in the schools, music, physical education
projects, summer schools, agricultural education, adult
education and libraries. Technical education is
described in terms of the numbers of full time and part
time students and the number of apprentices.
The main body of the report concludes with a state-
ment of gross expenditure and receipts. The cost per
head of population and cost per pupil are calculated.
Three Appendices contain the reports of the Director-
General of Education, the Senate of the University of
Queensland and of the Library Board of Queensland.
831. Further Education for Adults. Report of a
Consultative Committee. Council of
Adult Education, Wellington, New Zea-
land, 1947, pp. I18. Price 2s.
The terms of reference of the Committee enabled it
to survey the whole field and make recommendations
for improvement, extension, organisation, finance, etc.
Its investigations lasted from May 1945 to July 1946.
A brief survey is made of development from 1919
until 1946, leading to recommendations for co-ordinating
the agencies of supply, and for providing services to
voluntary bodies. A most urgent need is for a staff
of resident tutors in each area and a team of itinerant
tutors. Expansion is desirable in country districts, in
Maori areas, and amongst young people. Residential
people's colleges are recommended, as is closer liaison
between existing agencies, including libraries, museums,
art galleries, and broadcasts.
The existing organisation by which an annual grant
from the Government is disbursed by the University
of New Zealand in accordance with the directions of a
Council of Adult Education needs changes. Recom-
mendations made are : increasing autonomy for regional
councils; an extension of the functions of the Council
(to be called a National Council) with adequate head-
quarters staff and wider representation on it, including
district representation, but excluding direct representa-
tion of WEA and other bodies; the establishment of
regional councils with wide functions, and a full time
Director as executive officer, and power to recommend
tutors, to fix fees, to establish local committees. An
increased grant is recommended, to be disbursed by
the National Council. Community centres of a multi-
purpose type, housed in separate buildings, are recom-
mended in places of over 2,ooo population. Brief
descriptions are given of Feilding and Risingholme
community centres, and the need for more experience
of such centres is stressed before they are used as models.
The Education Department should be given power
to proceed with additional experimental centres, State
assistance to others should be strictly controlled and
limited to centres showing themselves suitable and
capable, and a Joint Advisory Committee on Community
Centres should be set up.
832. Education in Australia. Department of
Immigration and Information, Canberra,
1948, pp. 20.
This pamphlet consists of a short description of the
Australian educational system prepared for the informa-
tion of prospective migrants and others who are inter-
ested in Australia. It contains sections on the pre-
school child, primary education-state schools, correspon-
dence schools, area and consolidated schools and private
schools-secondary education-high schools, technical
and home science schools, agricultural schools and
private schools--technical education including training
in business, art and music, agricultural colleges, univer-
sities, physical education, teachers and training, medical
services, vocational education and the national aspects
833. Standards in Youth Work. Character Edu-
cation Enquiry, Melbourne, 1947, pp. 48.
The Report of the Ballarat Youth Con-
ference held in September 1947.
The conference consisted mainly of addresses, group
discussions, and the screening of documentary films.
The report includes addresses on 'Standards and Values
in Youth Work', 'Material Standards in Youth Work',
'Standards in Community Organisation for Youth
Work', 'Standards in Programmes and Leadership',
and 'Standards in World Citizenship'. The underlying
theme of the addresses concerns the ends and means of
youth work. Emphasis is laid on the need and impor-
tance of values in youth work and the necessity for
definite goals in character building.
The conference findings were 'that to be of real value
to the individual or community, all activity must be
spontaneous, of the nature of play ; that all planning for
youth work should be based on the needs of each partic-
ular locality as revealed by an adequate survey; that
youth work and adult education should spring from the
interest, desires and initiative of the people themselves,
and should be based on natural groupings of individuals ;
that governmental assistance should be afforded in such
a way as not to destroy the native self-activity of the
local organizations; that programme-planning was of
secondary importance to leader-training, for skilled
leaders are always able to develop their programme from
the groups themselves.'
834. Holmes, J. M. The Murray Valley.
Geographical Reconnaissance of the Mur-
ray Valley and a New Design for its
Regional Organisation. Angus and
Robertson, Sydney, 1948, pp. 280. Price
The author says that 'it has been assumed, but not
yet demonstrated, that cohesion of the many isolated
districts and centres of the Murray Valley into a single
economic-political unit would lead to greater material
progress and also a better way of life. . It has also
to be demonstrated that the creation of such a Murray
Valley unit is not detrimental to progress elsewhere in
the States and in the capital cities'. These quotations
from the introduction show the scope of the book.
The term 'Murray Valley' has been restricted to a
quarter of the Murray-Darling Basin; it refers chiefly
to the Murray River Valley itself, containing 300,000
people and excluding places such as Wagga, Hay, Omeo,
Bendigo and Murrayville. Part i-The Legacy of the
Past-gives detailed descriptions of the exploration and
early settlement of the M.V. 'The Murray Valley is a
series of regional areas united by the common bond of
river water supplies.' Part 2-The Growth of Regional-
ism-discusses the meaning of Regionalism and its
development in Australia. 'A region is not an arbitrary
zone but an area where fundamental environmental
forces, such as soil, rainfall, and mineral wealth, give
expression to human activities-for example, horti-
culture through irrigation or industry through coal
mining; and where group responsibility is fully
developed and functioning.' 'Regionalism assumes
that development can be planned . that science
and designing can be brought into government with-
out depriving the ordinary citizen of a voice in his
destiny; and that the right type of men and women
will be attracted to make it work.' Part 3-The
Regional Structure of the Murray Valley-deals with
the topography, climate, river regime, surface geology,
soil and soil erosion, and irrigation of the M.V.
Attention is drawn to the fact that land utilisation has
become very complex. 'Land utilisation along the
Murray Valley has progressed from nomadic pastoralism
to intensive single-crop farming for cash or mixed
farming and animal husbandry intensively organised
for the export market.' 'Initial' and 'Consequential'
landscapes, and industrial activities are discussed.
' . there is a return of industries to the Murray,
and many of them are secondary-primary and of neces-
sity situated in areas suited to their activities and are
not expected to grow beyond an optimum size consis-
tent with the servicing of their region . the growth
of industrial foci is a distinct feature of the Murray
Valley and of some of its proximate regions . a
regional economy is in being and it will require scientific
guidance in the near future.' The author draws the
boundaries of six regional Government areas which are
discussed in detail. Region i contains Albury and
Corowa; 2. Echuca, Rochester and Deniliquin; 3.
Kerang, Swan Hill and Balranald; 4. Mildura; 5.
Renmark and Morgan; 6. The lower Murray and its
mouth. Part 4.-Basic Problems and Regional Control
-deals with the work of the River Murray Commission,
the prospects of obtaining more water, the possible
sites of storage and the purpose of using water. The
persistence of the geographical environment-geograph-
ical inertia-in deciding land utilisation in the Mallee
is shown in detail. The importance of markets, proper
social organisation of the regions and the optimum size
of an irrigation town are discussed. Many suggestions
are put forward in order to bring about the necessary
changes, among them a Commonwealth ministry solely
in charge of Murray Valley affairs. The creation of a
new State-The Murray Valley-is suggested. More
than 40 maps, 16 plates (mainly photographs) and a
great number of tables support the author's contentions.
There is also a 16-page bibliography.-E.J.D.
835. Dr. John Andrews, Australia's Resources
and their Utilisation. Part i. Conpress
Printing Ltd., Sydney, 1948, pp. 74.
Price is. 6d.
After discussing the terms resources, living standard,
the salient features of the Australian climate, inland
waters, soil fertility and mineral wealth, attention is
drawn to the fact that 'Australian rural settlement has
been commercial in aim, mechanised where possible,
largely dependent on the growth of overseas markets'.
Reasons for this 'commercialised' farming are given;
likewise for the increasing participation by governments
in settlement and production. In five chapters-sheep
and wool, the wheat regions, the tropic north, dairying
and specialised agriculture, irrigation and forestry-
the author deals with the main primary industries,
discussing problems, such as sheep carrying capacity,
competition from synthetic fibres, efforts to improve
farming standards in the wheat areas, the battle with
soil erosion, extension of the wheat and sheep areas,
government control of the sugar industry, White Aus-
tralia policy, extension of the tropical cattle industry,
location of dairy farms, marketing problems, the post-
war possibilities of the vegetable industry, expansion of
irrigated areas, and softwood plantations. In a sum-
mary he discusses whether 'men, money and markets'
or 'soils, seasons and sales', will be the limiting factors
of Australia's rural development. As to Australia's
tropics-' . only a brave man will prophesy about
the future . new settlement, and the intensification
of present settlement, depend on a number of factors,
some of which . are largely beyond the influence of
the Australian settler or legislator . even with the
best possible conditions of markets operating, north
Australia must be recognized as one of the difficult
environments of the world . in comparison with
the temperate lands of the south and the tropical lands
further north, it is a poor land'. The book contains
io maps and 5 photographs.-E.J.D.
836. Handbook of Western Australia. Prepared
for the Australian and N.Z. Association
for the Advancement of Science. z6th
Meeting. Perth, August 1947, pp. 127.
Articles in the handbook are: 'History of Settle-
ment'; 'Climate and Meteorology'; 'The Fauna of
Western Australia'; 'Outlines of the Vegetation';
'Transport and Industrial Development'; Electricity
and Fuel Resources' ; 'Water Supply and Irrigation'
'Rural Industry' ; 'Forests and Forestry' ; 'Mining'
'Geology of the Perth Area'; 'Soil Formations of the
Perth Area'; and descriptions of the routes to be
traversed and the areas to be visited on three excursions.
837. Annual Report of the Water Conservation
and Irrig ition Commission for Year ended
30 June 1947, Parliament of N.S.W.,
The report gives details of irrigation areas, water
conservation works, stream measurement, domestic and
stock water supply and artesian boring. It also has a
useful appendix presenting charts of the production in
the Murrumbidgee irrigation area.-M.M.B.
838. Regional Planning and Water Supply. E.
Brown. Planning Bulletin, pp. 5-9, April
The importance of a regular water supply for rural
and urban industries is discussed and attention is drawn
to 'a good deal of misconception as to what can be
ultimately achieved in water conservation and distribu-
tion. . Investigations have shown that where the
annual rainfall is below 35 inches water supply becomes
a critical factor in relation to agricultural practices and
we find that more than 75 per cent of Victoria's total
area has an annual rainfall of less than 35 inches'. The
major projects for additional conservation and distribu-
tion of water for irrigation, stock purposes and town
water supplies are very briefly mentioned.-E.J.D.
839. Water Supply in the Agricultural Areas of
Western Australia. A study in the
technique of Regional Development. T.
Langford-Smith. Australian Geographer,
pp. 115-156, December 1947.
Commonwealth Government departments made a
study of the agricultural triangle of W.A. lying between
Geraldton, Esperance and Cape Leeuwin, and evolved
a water supply scheme for a smaller area within the
triangle. This area is shown on the first map. The
first section of the article is devoted to Natural Resources.
(a) Climate, (b) Physiography, (c) Water, (d) Soils,
(e) Minerals, (f) Forests and Natural Vegetation, (g)
Fisheries, (h) Land Use. The next section deals with
Industries and Power under the headings, (a) Primary
Industries, accompanied by statistics of production in
the state, and the area to be served by the scheme, (b)
Gold, (c) Secondary Industries, (d) Power. A short
section on Transport is succeeded by Social Resources,
under the headings, (a) Population, with estimates for
the South-west and the Water Scheme area, (b)
Employment, (c) Amenities.. The following section
discusses various miscellaneous factors, (a) Salinity,
(b) Developmental Works, (c) War Service Land Settle-
ment. Part II deals with the History of Development,
starting with pioneer settlement, and continuing with
stages in the growth of the wheat industry, and an
analysis of trends in rural development. Part III dis-
cusses amenities and social aspects, under the headings,
A. Towns, B. Secondary Industries, C. Towns and
Estimated Town Populations in the Water Scheme
Region, D. Farms.-R.K.W.
840. Factory Orientation in Metropolitan
Sydney. J. Macdonald Holmes. Austra-
lian Geographer, pp. 96-113, June 1947.
The machinery of local government in N.S.W. appears
to need overhauling, and some form of planning appears
necessary particularly with regard to the location of
In 1942-43 io,ooo factories in the Sydney district
employed 316,ooo persons. The most widely dis-
tributed are the food and drink types of factories, their
location being in small groups in the most congested
part of each municipality. Oils and fats, chemicals
and paints factories show a concentration from the City
to Botany Bay. Books, paper and printing factories are
concentrated in the city and its immediate surroundings.
The motor industry is largely found near to the City,
with consequent noise and congestion in residential
districts. Glass brick and furniture factories are very
widely scattered. Textile industries are centrally situ-
ated, and machine and metal working industries are
spread along traffic arteries. The distribution of dress-
making factories is shown, public utilities and radio
factories are located on another map, craftsmanship
industries and large factories are also shown. A distri-
bution map of all factories, when compared with others
of built-up areas and shopping centres, suggests the
ideas of congestion and aggregation, ribbon development
and wide open spaces remaining free from factories.
For administration an outer ring of eight cities is sug-
gested, but any future plan must recognize that Greater
Sydney is an organic whole.-R.K. W.
841. Summary Reports on the Mineral Resources
of Australia. Bureauof Mineral Resources,
Geology and Geophysics, Canberra, 1945
The Reports deal with antimony, bismuth, molyb-
denum, magnesium, diatomite, barium, felspar, asbestos,
beryllium, tantalum and columbium, mercury, arsenic,
pigment minerals, lithium, zinc sillimanite, kyanite,
aluminium and bauxite, mica, graphite, fluorite and
cryolite, and bentonite and fuller's earth; they are
from 19 to 44 pages long and contain many production
tables and graphs. All reports compare Australia's
output with that of the respective leading countries,
give the uses of the minerals in Australia and overseas,
outline the history of the industry in Australia, refer
to the leading firms and prices, and give a detailed
description of the deposits, Australian consumption and
export. There are also up-to-date locality maps and
lists of references.-E.J.D.
842. Opal Deposits and the Hayricks Opal Mine,
Quilpie. H. G. S. Cribb. Queensland
Government Mining Journal, pp. 48-51,
This is primarily a geological survey report of the
opal mining area north-west of Quilpie, but it includes
also a brief outline of the history of the opal mining
industry of western Queensland.-M.M.B.
843. South Island, New Zealand, and Prince
Edward Island, Canada. A. H. Clark.
New Zealand Geographer, pp. 137-151,
One of the popular geographic terms which have been
used very loosely is Insularity. 'Yet the danger in the
use of the term lies less in the repetition of truisms than
in the assumption that insularity implies a broad range
of concomitant characteristics.' The author examines
the 'Physical and cultural characteristics of the two
islands with which the concept of insularity might be
connected . one is in an isolated spot in the open
sea, the other nestles in a deep bay on a continental
shelf-yet the people of the latter are in a much more
intimate contact with the sea than those of the former.
Which, then, is the more truly "insular" ? . Not
only does one speak of more "insular" climates with
trepidation in comparing these two islands . In
discussing the pre-European population the author
points out that 'culturally, as ecologically and climatic-
ally, Prince Edward Island was simply a fringe of the
North American continent . Neither can any
'insular' features be found in the culture of the Maoris.
As to the Europeans-insularity did not play 'a distinc-
tive role in the development of present institutions and
attitudes'. Special attention is drawn to 'New Zealand's
socialistic, intensely democratic, internationally oriented,
restlessly experimenting political and social character.
* . In comparison 'we must rate Prince Edward Island
as culturally and politically much more "insular" than
South Island to the confusion of the environmentalists'.
Can 'insularity explain the major industries in the two
islands ?' Location has undoubtedly aided P.E. Island's
potato industry, but the fact of insularity as such has
probably hindered it. The South Island's emphasis
on sheep seems to be connected with the fact of insularity
only incidentally through the influence of climate . .
and the facts of relative location. 'In both islands the
exigencies of trade and transportation have played some
significant role in shaping land use, and insularity has
some obvious incidence on transportation costs and
facilities.' Clark comes to the conclusion that 'to a
large extent the "insularity" which might be stressed
is rather to be read as "Maritime Location" or "Relative
Location"' . .and warns against using the term
'Insularity' unless clearly defined.-E.J.D.
844. Feilding: A rural township and its region.
L. L. Pownall. New Zealand Geographer,
pp. 161-177, October 1947.
Feilding is a market town at the junction of the Oroua
Valley and the Manawatu Plain giving it a central loca-
tion in the southern part of the North Island. Its early
settlement, contemporary functional character, secondary
industries, administrative functions, the tributary region,
their natural landscape, cultural vegetation and land
use regions are discussed and the author comes to the
conclusion that 'Feilding is an industrial town in so far
as the majority of its population depends upon manu-
facturing for its livelihood. But its industries depend
on agriculture, for the factories process only farm
products, and its businesses depend for their existence
upon the trade of the farmer whose produce the factories
handle. Therefore all the functions of Feilding are
dominated by the use to which the land of its tributary
region is put . with an increased rural population
Feilding will in turn expand, but the character of the
town is likely to remain unchanged-that of a represen-
tative New Zealand market centre with an industrial
845. The Relations of New Zealand Weather
and Climate. Ian E. M. Watts. New
Zealand Geographer, pp. 115-129, October
Discusses with the aid of instructive photographs and
charts the most important weather situations affecting
New Zealand, and the modifications brought about
regionally by the exposition to wind and rain and by
orographic differences. The funnelling effect of Cook
Strait upon wind and precipitation on its shores is
particularly striking. The eastern and western sides,
particularly of the South Island, show big weather dif-
ferences. Much of the typical weather and even of
the climatic features of the south-eastern parts is due to
the spreading of weather influences directly from the
south and not across the mountain ranges in the west.
846. Evaporation and Storage Changes in River
Catchment Areas, with special reference
to the Goulburn River, above Eildon
Reservoir. V. G. Anderson. Proceedings
Royal Society Vic., Vol. 58 (New Series),
1947, PP- 48-66.
'This study is an integral part of an investigation on
relationships between composition of natural waters and
environmental conditions . the term "storage" is
not restricted to ground-water below the water-table,
but includes soil moisture and all other water, whether
temporarily immobilised or moving towards the water-
table, or to the outlets of the drainage system as a whole.'
The author discusses annual evaporation losses and
storage changes in the river catchment areas in relation
to their effects on the composition of natural waters.
The composition of the water from the Goulburn is
compared with waters from the Yarra river catchment
which is nearer the coast, and the more distant Murray
River catchment. The author comes to the conclusion
that 'evaporation and storage conditions in catchment
areas are closely related, and both have important effects
upon the quality of river waters. The effect of evapora-
tion can be recognized and estimated by observing
changes in the concentration of chlorides originally
present in the rain-water. . The possibility of being
able to make even approximate estimates of the upstream
storage capacities of catchment areas opens up an inter-
esting field for further investigations'. Two maps and
a number of tables and graphs (e.g. a compound bar-
chart shows the annual variations in precipitation, river
flow, estimated evaporation, and storage changes).
847. A Walkabout Down Under. Recent Geo-
graphical Literature on Australia and New
Zealand. Robert G. Bowman. Geo-
graphical Review (New York), pp. 250-
271, April 1948.
'Geographers and scientists in related fields in Aus-
tralia and New Zealand have not been idle during the
last few years, in spite of the war and the many difficul-
ties, not the least of which have been severe restrictions
on paper, travel, and film.' This is a fairly comprehen-
sive and up-to-date bibliography of books and articles
(including non-Australasian writers) under the following
headings-the over-all picture, international relations,
weather, climate, and water supply, phases of volcanism,
soils, vegetation, and locusts, land use and misuse,
population and settlement, regional literature.-E.J.D.
848. Bradfield Scheme for 'Watering the Inland',
Meteorological Aspects. Commonwealth
Meteorological Bureau, Bulletin No. 34,
1945, pp. 82.
Dr. Bradfield suggested to produce in the interior of
Australia extensive irrigation areas by damming the
episodic rivers of the inland and some diverted coastal
rivers of Queensland. He claimed that by the forma-
tion of 2o,ooo square miles of water surface the climate
over wide expanses would be affected, in particular
the rainfall increased. A committee appointed to
consider this climatic aspect comes to the majority con-
clusion that the changes would be insignificant.
E. T. Quayle, the dissenting member of the com-
mittee, had in earlier publications endeavoured to show
that water bodies like Spencer's Gulf, temporary filling
of Lakes Torrens and Frome and the clearing and irriga-
tion of certain areas had increased precipitation on their
leeward sides. Reconsideration and extension of his
data led the majority of the committee to the conclusion
that Quayle's results are not conclusive and that in the
same way execution of the 'Bradfield Scheme' would not
result in appreciable changes in the climate, especially
the rainfall of the inland. Extensive appendices contain
much of the numerical data upon which Quayle's
opinions as well as the conclusions of the majority have
been based. They are in the main presented by J. C.
Foley, Supervising Meteorologist, Australian Meteor-
ology, at the Commonwealth Meteorological Bureau.
The extension of the data to 1943 makes the volume of
849. Rain. Eric Kraus. Science News 5, Penguin
Books, 1947, pp. 104-120.
A popular presentation of the physical processes
underlying rain and snow formation in the atmosphere
leads to a description of the recent experiments in rain-
making in which water clouds in an unstable supercooled
state were transformed into clouds of bigger ice crystals
which thus became able to fall out of the clouds and to
reach the ground as rain. The author who was in
charge of such experiments near Sydney in 1947 of
which impressive photographs are given, warns against
exaggerated expectations on account of the success of
these experiments, the potentially enormous economic
importance of which is obvious.-F.L.
850. Antarctic Saga. Norman Bartlett. South
West Pacific (Canberra), pp. 3-1o. No.
17 (no date).
A brief summary of Antarctic exploration with par-
ticular emphasis upon the share of Australians in it.
851. Ellis, M. H. Lachlan Macquarie: His Life,
Adventures and Times. Dymock's Book
Arcade Ltd., Sydney, 1947, pp. 697,
illustrations and maps.
Mr. Ellis surveys in great detail the career of Lachlan
Macquarie (1761-1824), who, as Governor of N.S.W.
from 18io to 1821, was in a great measure responsible
for laying the foundations of subsequent economic and
social development. The greater part of the book is
concerned with a detailed chronological study of Mac-
quarie's methods of administration based on an extensive
use of manuscripts and collections of family papers in
the Mitchell Library, Sydney. The central theme is a
vindication of Macquarie's treatment of his antagonists
852. History as a Science. R. M. Crawford.
Historical Studies, Australia and New
Zealand, pp. 153-175, November 1947.
This was a paper read before Section E of the A. &
N.Z.A.A.S. Conference, Adelaide, August 1947. It is
a discussion of the conflict of views between those who
regard the study of history as separated from the natural
sciences by virtue of its being intuitive, and those
who regard the study of history as sharing common
presuppositions with the natural sciences. Discussion
of the concept of uniformity of nature, which is inter-
preted as consistency in the behaviour of the material
studied, is followed by analysis of the logical structure
of explanation and prediction in science and history.
The Argument is supported by some discussion of
types of explanation commonly used by historians,
and of the function of general patterns or models of
explanation as instruments of enquiry. The paper con-
cludes with discussion of difficulties confronting history
as science, of the various methods of coping with the
complexity of human affairs, and of the functions of
853. Kewley, T. H. Social Services in Australia,
(1900-1). A paper read before the Royal
Australian Historical Society, 1947, with
bibliography, pp. 69.
An introductory chapter describes the organisation of
the charitable relief indoor and outdoor, for children, the
aged and infirm, carried on by voluntary and government
organizations in N.S.W. in the nineteenth century.
There follows an account of the struggle to introduce
a system of old age and invalid pensions in New South
Wales, of the legislation of 19oo, the principles on which
it was based and its administration up to the date when
it was superseded by the Commonwealth pensions
854. The Hungry Years: 1788-1792. Lois
Davey, Margaret Macpherson and F. W.
Clements. Historical Studies, Australia
and New Zealand, pp. 187-208, November
Between 1788 and 1792 the main problem for the
convict settlement at Port Jackson was food supply.
This article-written by three members of the Australian
Institute of Anatomy-attempts to assess the quantity
of food available for each member within those years,
the food value of the ration, and its likely effects. The
article concludes with a discussion of the lessons learnt
by the white men in the first four years, stressing especi-
ally the need to use new methods for food production.
The material used is, in the main, the diaries of the
officers-Collins, Tench, White, Dawes and Bowes-
and the despatches of Phillip.-C.M.H.C.
855. The Australian Depression of the Eighteen
Twenties. R. M. Hartwell. Historical
Studies, Australia and New Zealand, pp.
209-216, November 1947.
By an examination of seventeen representative texts
published between 1836 and 1939, the author of this
article seeks to show the dependence of subsequent
histories of this particular event on a common source--
An Historical and Statistical Account of New South
Wales by John Dunmore Lang, first published in 1834.
Such reliance is proved to be imprudent by the
inadequacy of Lang's analysis and the conclusion is
reached that a careful study of this depression still
remains to be undertaken.-F.C.
856. Bibliography of a History of New England.
D. M. Long. Historical Studies, Australia
and New Zealand, pp. 225-231, November
The author writes of some of the difficulties encoun-
tered in collecting source material for a history of the New
England region and comments on the general nature
of his sources in the hope that other regional historians
may benefit from his experience. A descriptive list of
the more valuable sources consulted is given together
with some advice on their use.-R.F.E.
857. Australia's Federal Archives : John Curtin's
Initiative. C. E. W. Bean. Historical
Studies, Australia and New Zealand, pp.
176-186, November 1947.
'Australia still awaits the provision of a fully estab-
lished federal archives system to ensure that Australia's
national records, when they have ceased to be of current
use in federal departments, will be available for historians
and administrators.' The author outlines the steps so
far taken, discusses the problems encountered, and points
to some future needs. The story is told from the
appointment of the War Archives Committee in 1942
by the then Prime Minister, Mr. Curtin (to whose fore-
sight the author pays tribute), and includes discussion
of the initial inquiries and planning, the early organisa-
tion and appointment of officers, and the establishment
of an interim system. Originally an urgent precaution
to preserve departmental records for the use of the
war historians, the committee on 17 June 1946 was
renamed the Commonwealth Archives Committee with
the function of advising on all archives of the Australian
858. Anthony Trollope: Travels and Impres-
sions in Australia. G. R. S. Reid. Royal
Australian Historical Society, Journal and
Proceedings, Vol. XXIII, Part III, 1947,
The author prefaces his extracts from and comments
on Anthony Trollope's Australia and New Zealand
(1873) with a brief outline of his life and his desire in
visiting Australia to 'see his son among his sheep'.
The extracts cited deal with the hardy enterprise of
the colonists, the rivalry of the states and the desirable
attitude of the mother country to possible future
independence. Sections are devoted to Trollope's
reactions to Australian scenery, to his comments on
the general economic set-up of the colonies-in particular
the struggle between selector and squatter-and to the
development of the outlying states.
The author commends Trollope's judgment, his fore-
sight and his shrewd insight into Australian develop-
859. Who First Discovered Payable Gold in
Australia ? (A critical analysis of the
evidence before the Select Committees
of 1853 and 1890). K. R. Cramp. Royal
Australian Historical Society, Journal and
Proceedings, Vol. XXXIII, Part V, 1947,
The first news of gold discoveries in Australia was
suppressed. Hargraves made his discovery in 1851 and,
by New South Wales, was given 1o,ooo as a reward,
with a life annuity of 250. Victoria gave him 2,381.
Hargraves' assistants, John Lister and the brothers
James and William Tom, disputed his claim to be the
first discoverer with the result that two Select Commit-
tees were appointed to investigate the matter,
On examination the findings of the 1853 Select
Committee justified Hargraves' claim, while those of
the 1890 Select Committee are 'in many respects a
strong contradiction' of the former. But the 189o
Select Committee is 'far less meticulous, thorough,
critical and impartial' than its predecessor.
The conclusion is that Hargraves knew how and where
to look for gold while his associates did not, and could
not have found it without his guidance. Hargraves
'did not wish to reveal too much until the Government
recognized the validity of his claim'.
A list of dates relating to the gold discoveries is
appended to this article.-M.K.
860. The Evolution of the Conservatorium of
Music, Sydney. T. S. Champion Royal
Australian Historical Society, Journal and
Proceedings, Vol. XXXIII, Part V, 1947,
The Sydney Conservatorium is housed in the old
Government Stables built in Macquarie's time by Green-
way. By the beginning of this century, when horses
were superseded by motor cars, the stables fell into
In May 1912 the Minister for Education (Campbell
Carmichael) appointed a Committee of Advice to draw
up plans for a Conservatorium, and the recommendation
to convert the Government Stables for the use of the
Conservatorium was adopted. The architect chosen for
the conversion was R. Seymour Wells of the Education
The inaugural concert was held on 6 May 1915, and
in August 1915 the first conductor, Henri Verbrugghen
arrived. A competent staff of instructors was appointed
and the next year 320 students were enrolled.
Dr. W. Arundel Orchard succeeded Verbrugghen in
1923; he was succeeded by Dr. E. L. Bainton and the
present conductor is Eugene Goossens. There are now
When Macquarie Street is replanned it is to be hoped
that Greenway's old stables will be preserved.-M.K.
861. Early Schools in New South Wales. E. C.
Rowland. Royal Australian Historical
Society, Journal and Proceedings. Vol.
XXXIII, Part V, pp. 296-312.
This paper surveys the first century of public educa-
tion in the Colony of N.S.W. Beginning with the
Rev. Richard Johnson's instruction in the first Church,
and the provision of education by religious bodies, it
traces the development of schools until free and secular
education under direct Government control was intro-
duced. A discussion of the difficulties faced by the
Anglican Church and Schools' Corporation (1826-33)
precedes an analysis of the religious controversies
aroused by the attempts to secure uniformity in the
schools, and the control of public education by a single
authority. Attention is directed to the Public Schools
Act of 1866 and the Educational Act of 188o.-F.C.
(A) Constitutional Law
862. Cases on the Constitution of the Common-
wealth of Australia. Selected, annotated
and indexed by Geoffrey Sawer, with a
foreword by the Right Honourable Sir
John Latham, Chief Justice of the High
Court of Australia. Law Book Co. of
Australasia Pty. Ltd., 1948, pp. 538. Price
The importance of this work lies in the fact that there
is no comprehensive modern text-book and this book
contains the essential material necessary for under-
standing the problem of the constitution.
863. Sawer, Geoffrey. Australian Government
To-day. Melbourne University Press,
1948, pp. 48. Price 2s. 6d.
A survey which covers with admirable insight the
structure of Federal and State Governments. No
comprehensive work on Australian government has ever
been written, but this is a useful production which
contains much information within a small compass.
864. Conciliation and Arbitration of Industrial
Disputes. Geoffrey Sawer. Economic
Record, pp. 266-271, December 1947.
The purpose of the paper is to consider some juristic
aspects of conciliation and arbitration. The conclusions
are : (a) it is unlikely that conciliation will be carried
very far if the power to arbitrate is held in reserve.
(b) a rational system of conciliation and compulsory
arbitration should either (i) provide strict sanctions
against refusal to work or to employ under the terms of
an award once made or (ii) require that disputes 'against
awards' should be as much subject to continuous
'official' conciliation as disputes on which an original
award is based.
865. The Legal Status of Incorporated Public
Authorities. W. G. Friedmann. Austra-
lian Law Journal, pp. 7-16, May 1948.
A provocative study of the public corporation and
the liability of the Crown in tort. It is an unquestion-
able principle of legal policy in a modern democratic
society in which public and private enterprise operate
side by side that if the state directly or indirectly engages
in activities which may, through contract, torts, or in
other ways, interfere with the life and security of the
private citizen, it should as far as possible be made
legally responsible to the same extent as private legal
persons. The current tests used by the law to deter-
mine the legal character of a 'public corporation' are
criticised and a plea made for the clarification of the
problem by statute.
(B) Company Law
866. The Trend of Company Legislation. K. N.
Stonier. Chartered Accountant in Aus-
tralia, pp. 386-402, December 1947.
A survey of the influence of the English Act of 1928
on legislation in the Australian states.
867. Company Law Reform. G. Wallace. Aus-
tralian Law Journal, pp. 33-38, May 1948.
A general survey of modern developments.
(C) Legal Education
868. Some Problems of Post-War Legal Educa-
tion. K. O. Shatwell. Australian Law
Journal, pp. 17-25, May 1948.
A study of the ends of legal education and the extent
to which the present system realises those ends with
special emphasis on the supposed conflict between
'cultural' and 'practical' training.
(D) Legal Assistance
869. A Legal Assistance Scheme. D. B. Ross.
Australian Law Journal, pp. 51-57, May
There is an imperative need for a better system of
free legal aid. The history of this problem in England
is sketched with special emphasis on the report of the
Rushcliffe Committee in 1945. In Australia no serious
attempt to solve the problem was made until after
1918. S.A. introduced a Poor Persons Legal Assistance
Act 1925, the operation of which is discussed. The
scheme has worked successfully.
(E) Trial by Jury
870. Trial by Jury, Its Origins and Merits. P.
A. Jacobs. Australian Law Journal, pp.
A plea for the retention of trial by jury.
871. The Nature of Analytical Jurisprudence.
F. C. Hutley. Australasian Journal of
Philosophy, pp. 20-32, May 1948.
The purpose is to indicate some of the practical
and scientific achievements of analytical jurisprudence
and to question some of Professor Stone's conclusions
as to its scope. The role of analytical jurisprudence is
a humble one but it is a study which must be kept alive
in the Universities.
872. Liability of a Hospital for the Negligence
of its Staff. Mr. Justice E. A. Dunphy.
Australian Law Journal, pp. 302-304,
A study of recent English decisions tending to increase
the liability of the hospital for the negligence of servants,
nurses and resident doctors.
873. The application of the J-curve hypothesis
of conforming behaviour to industrial
absenteeism. Kenneth F. Walker. Journal
of Social Psychology (Provincetown,
Massachusetts), Vol. 25, pp. 207-16, 1947.
Data on industrial absenteeism in wartime in aircraft
plants in Southern California reported by Mayo and
Lombard are shown to agree sufficiently with Allport's
J-curve hypothesis of conforming behaviour, when
appropriate sub-groups are considered.
A study of Australian wartime industrial absenteeism
is presented and the frequency of absence per 6 weeks
period is shown to agree with the hypothesis concerning
conforming behaviour. Large sex differences in absen-
teeism are pointed out, females showing lesser con-
formity or a greater amount of real illness, or both. The
writer emphasises that the J-curve hypothesis is only
shown to be applicable to frequency of absence and is
doubtful of its descriptive appropriateness for other
aspects of absenteeism, such as duration of absence,
total time lost, reasons for absence and so on.
874. Vocational Guidance in New Zealand.
Winterbourn. International Labour
Review (Geneva), pp. 393-407, October
The present vocational guidance system in N.Z. can
be traced back for thirty years. It began with careers
advisory officers working with the Y.M.C.A. Voca-
tional guidance work began officially in 1928 in the
Education Department with the appointment of special
teachers to offer vocational advice on the staffs of the
principal Technical Colleges. The present scheme
began in 1938, with offices run jointly by the Depart-
ments of Education and Labour, but more recently
solely by the Education Department.
There are Vocational Guidance Centres with full-
time staff in the main cities and ancillary offices in
smaller towns. .In Christchurch and Wellington there
are psychological divisions for research and for the
training of staff. Vocational guidance centres offer a
placement as well as an advisory service. The V.G.
service is directed towards juveniles. The Department
of Labour Employment Service does not as yet offer
specialised vocational guidance for adults. Since 1938
there has been a New Zealand Vocational Guidance
Association working very actively to promote the work
of Vocational Guidance in N.Z.
Considerable use is made of a system of cumulative
educational record cards kept for every child at school.
These contain attainment, interests and medical records,
with psychological data where available. These are the
basis of interviews done at the V.G. Centres. Books and
pamphlets giving occupational information are available.
The following are deemed to be the most important
further requirements : (a) extension of the service to
more areas ; (b) a good scheme for training personnel;
(c) more adequate occupational information; (d) wider
use of psychological procedures; (e) improvement of
the cumulative educational record system; (f) greater
emphasis on vocational civics in the school curriculum;
(g) integration of the work of the Education Department
and the Labour Department.
875. Aptitude Tests for the Selection of Men
for Cotton Textile Spinning. K. F.
Walker and M. N. Oxlade. Bulletin of
Industrial Psychology and Personnel Prac-
tice, pp. 28-35, March 1948.
This is the account of an extension of an investigation
reported earlier in the same journal, June 1946 (see
abstract No. 269 in No. 3 of the 'Abstracts'). The
previous study concerned the selection of women for
cotton textile spinning and this for the selection of men.
Four tests were used: (a) spinning board; (b)
Detroit manual ability ; (c) lacing board and (d) cording.
The tests took about iI hours to administer and were
applied to 196 applicants. The criterion was foremen's
ratings on 'speed of learning' and 'efficiency' which,
however, correlated highly and the former rating was
used for the analysis of test efficacy. Since some
applicants did not commence work and some left early,
only 87 criterion ratings were available on a 4 point
rating scale. Twenty-five criterion ratings were checked
and found to have reasonable reliability. Criterion
groups showed diminishing scores on all tests for pro-
gressively lower job ratings. Tests (a), (b) and (d) gave
significant differences between the two lowest groups.
Test (c), however, had given the greatest discrimination
for women. Tests (a), (b) and (d) have a multiple R
for +o065 with the criterion and (b) and (d) gave +0-64
with the criterion.
There was a slight negative correlation of tests and
of criterion with age. Former occupational experience
seemed to have no relation to performance. A 'side'
investigation showed that the pieces of equipment for
the manual tests were sufficiently uniform. The Detroit
test was introduced provisionally for selection soon after
the experiment started and this alone reduced the
percentage in the lowest criterion grading from 25 to
4 per cent.
Various critical selection levels were examined and
some results reported. The use of tests (b) and (d)
taking io minutes actual test performance time has
been shown to give a drastically improved selection of
men for this occupation.
TERRITORIES AND NATIVE
876. Strehlow, T. G. H. Aranda Traditions.
Melbourne University Press, 1947, pp.
xxii, 181, ten plates, one appendix (class
relations of the Aranda), and map.
Price 17S. 6d.
The author was born in Central Australia where his
late father, the author of the classical monograph on
the Aranda and Loritja tribes (ed. by Baron v. Leonhardi,
Frankfort-on-Main, 1907), was a missionary. The
author learned Aranda as a second mother-tongue and
spent a large proportion of his life in the centre and
among the natives. For these reasons, he was qualified
in a unique way to write this book. The volume is
composed of three papers ; the introduction describes
the difficulty in recording native texts ; the first chapter,
'Northern Aranda Myths' gives a brief outline of the
legends of one of the Aranda sub-groups. It has to be
mentioned here that Dr. Strehlow emphasises the
necessity for a sharp distinction between at least five
geographically separated sub-divisions of the Aranda,
viz., a northern, eastern, central, western, and southern
group. The legends and customs of all these groups
are to a considerable extent different. This accounts
for the different facts and interpretations given in the
publications of Strehlow sen. and, on the other hand,
Spencer and Gillen. There are no contradictions as
soon as we realize that there are different sections of
the Aranda nation. The second chapter of the book
deals with three of those sub-divisions, viz., the northern,
western, and southern Aranda. The third, and largest,
chapter is entitled 'Tjurunja Ownership' and deals with
the laws of incorporeal property connected with the
ownership in ritual objects and rights in texts and songs.
It is understood that this volume may be followed by
a publication of the philologically exact records of the
Aranda texts themselves, i.e. the original texts without
any alterations and with interlinear phonetic transcrip-
tion, with perhaps an English translation in a more
readable form attached to them. The present book is
evidently intended for the general reader and, therefore,
has only translations in a more or less abridged form.
877. N.S.W. Annual Report of the Aborigines
Welfare Board for Year ended 30 June
1946. P.P. Government Printer, Sydney,
1948, pp. 8.
A full-blooded aboriginal, A. Solomon, had been
elected by the aborigines as a member of the Board,
but resigned after having attended two meetings. The
latest figures available are for 1941 : Full-blood adults
478, children II6, total 594 ; mixed blood adults 5,410,
children 4,612, total 1o,z22. Full-bloods are on the
decline while mixed bloods are increasing. Since 1943
the Board has been empowered to acquire land, erect
buildings, and to sell or lease them on terms to the abo-
rigines. During the year under report, six further appli-
cations of this kind were received from the aborigines,
but the number of applications had to be restricted to
the extent of the vote of 3,oo0. 'No progress had
been made with the scheme.'
The authorities cannot grant old age, invalid and
widows' pensions or maternity allowances to aborigines
with a preponderance of aboriginal blood or residing
in a reserve, unless they have been granted certificates
of exemption from the provisions of the Aborigines
Protection Act. Children of parents holding such cer-
tificates are permitted to attend ordinary State schools.
In 1945-46 47 applications were dealt with, of which
38 were granted, 4 refused and 5 deferred. Employ-
ment figures showed a small decrease, owing to the
absorption into civilian life of (white) men from the
services. At several centres, however, young aboriginal
women were placed as domestics or wardsmaids at the
There were able-bodied men on aboriginal stations:
Number in Number in Percentage in
Residence Employ- Employ-
Period ment ment
April-June 1944 693 667 96'2
April-June 1945 543 51o 93'3
April-June 1946 578 515 89-1
Aborigines may attend local public hospitals and be
admitted for treatment. The Government was asked
for a substantial grant to carry out an extensive building
programme. Agricultural activity on aboriginal stations
receives encouragement. Home production of veget-
ables and milk is regarded as necessary to morale, health
Child endowment is paid to 'thoroughly reliable, fit
and proper persons', and the following amounts were
received from the Commonwealth for endowment in
1944, 1945 and 1946: 11,249; 10,542; 13,952. An
appendix 'C' shows that the total sum expended on
aboriginal welfare and relief during 1945-46 was
51,794, not including 15,425 spent by the Depart-
ment of Education for the education of aboriginal
children in native schools.
878. South Australia. Report of the Aborigines'
Protection Board for the Year ended 30
June 1947. Government Printer,
Adelaide, pp. 8.
The report contains fourteen sections followed by
accounts showing the receipts and expenditure of the
Aborigines Department, and income, expenditure and
balance-sheets of the Point McLeay and Point Pearce
Stations. For the year under report, the S.A. aborigines
cost the State Government 32,839. The largest
sections of the report are the first, which deals with the
establishment of the guided projectile range, and the
sixth ('Welfare Work and Education'). Seven adminis-
trative arrangements were made to ensure that the
aborigines of the area be protected as much as possible
against the dangers implied by the tests. 'Provided
the contacts brought about by the construction and use
of the range are controlled and of a wholesome nature,
and the experiments free from unforeseen eventualities,
the arrangements made for the protection of the natives
appear to be quite satisfactory.' However, Dr. Charles
Duguid, one of the original members of the board,
recently resigned after 7 years service, as a protest against
the establishment of the rocket range. According to
the chapter on Welfare Work and Education native
girls in the schools, also those employed in factories,
vineyards, and in domestic service, are under supervision
of a welfare officer. The domestic staff at the Memorial
Hospital is largely composed of native girls trained for
domestic service, and the housekeeper stated that the
girls are most satisfactory in their work.
In criminal cases, when aboriginals are brought to
trial, the secretary of the Board appears in court to assist
the judge, by giving evidence on tribal law and custom.
There is always a conflict between tribal law and the
law of the state, and the sentence has to be adapted to
these difficulties. There is a point at which tribal natives
living on the fringes of civilisation pass from tribal to
civil responsibility. They must be dealt with according
to the degree of detribalisation.
Judges and other officials of the courts are most sym-
pathetic and helpful in dealing with aborigines on trial.
In cases where natives are involved 75 per cent are
directly traceable to the sale of bottled liquor of inferior
quality provided for the natives for ulterior purposes
by poor types of white men. These facts were taken
into account by the judge in fixing the penalty.
The Board has made repeated requests to the Com-
monwealth Government to provide pensions and other
social benefits for all aborigines living under conditions
comparable to the European way of life, particularly
as such persons are liable for the payment of income tax.
879. Pagan Religion in a New Guinea Village.
H. Ian Hogbin. Oceania, pp. 120-145,
i plate. Vol. XVIII, No. 2, December
The paper deals with the religious and magical beliefs
and rituals among the natives of Busama, a village on
the west coast of the Hiion Gulf, between Lae and Sala-
maua. This village can be traced back to its foundation
between 1840 and 185o. The earlier home of the
natives was at Lutu on the Salamaua peninsula. As
the ground there is poor, migrations to the opposite
mainland became necessary with the growth of the
population, the first to Asini in the south in about I8oo,
followed by the emigration to Busama; and, lastly,
the emigration to Buakap in 19i1. Each of the Busama
settlers chose his own piece of land-eighteen to thirty
areas in all to every settler-consisting of various fields,
namely, small strips along the beach for planting coco-
nuts, sections of swamp for stands of sago palms, large
plots in the river valleys and on the hillsides for culti-
vating taro, and remote tracts of forest for timber for
houses and canoes. This selection established perma-
nent rights which have been handed down through the
generations to certain descendants. Local custom pro-
vides for real estate passing exclusively to men but in
the female line : so to-day each set of areas is the
property of a matrilineal joint family. The average
membership is six men, all related to one another either
as brothers, real or classificatory, or as mother's brother's
and sister's sons. The village of Busama then provides
a classical example of a primitive community with a
well-known history covering a considerable time. The
author discusses the natives' religious and magical
practices in their interaction with social and economic
factors. The inheritance law for magic is the same as
for land, and the joint family also owns the various spells
of its founder. As Busama has been subjected to the
influence of a mission for over forty years, and only three
or four of the oldest of the six hundred odd inhabitants
have ever seen any of the ancient rites performed, Dr.
Hogbin concludes that primitive religion as a whole has
disappeared : 'even the magic has disappeared, leaving
not so much as a mangled spell'. Still, the author has
been able to record the considerable material presented
in this article. . my concern here is less with
what the past actually was than with what it is believed
to have been. This latter is of greater importance for
an understanding of the present'. Dr. Hogbin also
gives a bibliography on primitive religion in New Guinea
generally (p. 2zo, footnote 2). The present paper has
the following chapters : Social Organisation; Sky
Spirits; Spirits of the Land; Spirits of the Dead ;
Lonely Female Spirits; Spooks; the Male Cult;
Initiation ; Social Consequences of Initiation ; Women's
Ceremonies ; Sorcery ; Magic and Leadership ; Village
880. Mission Work in Micronesia. J. Leslie
Dunstan. Far Eastern Survey (New York),
pp. 247-250, 17 December 1947.
American Protestant missionaries now returning to
Micronesia will be faced with rather clear tasks, princi-
pally in the sphere of religious faith and life. While in
the Marshall Islands and the eastern Carolines, mission-
aries will work through the existing church organizations,
which are already integral parts of native life, they will
not find equally organised groups in the western Carol-
ines. There, the task of the missionaries, generally
speaking, will be the introduction of Christianity. To
this purpose, they will have to choose between two dif-
ferent courses of action : they may adopt the technique
employed by missionaries in the past in various parts
of the world, i.e. introduce a behaviour pattern which
to them would constitute an expression of Christianity
and by direct instruction and challenge try to get the
natives to adopt that pattern. This method would
imply the natives' break with their present mode of life,
and the result would be a division among the population.
Although this method 'has behind it the support of a
considerable body of successful practice', the author
prefers the other course, namely, to live quietly with
the native people, learning their ways and traditions,
until the missionary has gained an understanding of the
forces operating in native life. Then he can seek to
effect a gradual change in the total pattern of native
existence, through teaching and the evidence of his own
Christian behaviour. However, one general principle
should apply to all missionary work in Micronesia: the
westernised forms of Christianity are not suitable for
the natives, as they have evolved in a specifically western
economic, political and intellectual setting. Therefore,
Christianity in Micronesia will have to develop its own
881. Human Resources of Micronesia. John
Useem. Far Eastern Survey, (New York),
pp. 1-4, 14 January 1948.
While the physiography of Micronesia is to a large
extent homogeneous, ethnic and social conditions on
the various islands are anything but uniform. This
article refers to conditions in Yap and Palau to illustrate
cultural changes ; but these islands are unique and
cannot be taken as typical patterns, so some other
Micronesian areas are quoted for comparison.
Of the three major Micronesian regions-the Mariana,
Caroline, and Marshall Islands-the first has approxi-
mately 28,ooo, the second 35,000, and the third Io,ooo
natives. Since the arrival of the Europeans, native
populations have declined. The Marshall Islanders
lost 50 per cent of their number, the Caroline Islanders
were reduced to one fourth of their former population
figure, and a series of other groups have become virtually
extinct. However, recently a moderate increase has taken
place among the natives of Micronesia as a whole,
although some sections are still losing numbers. Thus in
the past forty years the number of the inhabitants of Guam
has doubled, Palau and Ponape have increased slightly,
while Yap and Truk have continued to decline. Mortality
rates are very high, especially in the first years of life.
Prior to the war, the Japanese succeeded in cutting
mortality rates in some areas, but these gains were wiped
out during the war because of the breakdown of medical
facilities and sanitary controls and for lack of sufficient
food. Even during the past year, Yap has had nearly
twice as many deaths as births.
Among the islands there are greater variations in birth
than in death rates. Infertility, too, plays an important
role. More than half of the married women in the
reproductive ages of life on Yap, and one out of every
five on Palau are without children, owing to an inability
to have offspring, the causes of which have never been
adequately studied. The percentage of aged people
in most islands is high.
There are two existing ethnic stocks, viz., the Cham-
orro and the Kanakas. The former represent the bulk
of the population in the Marianas, whereas the Kanaka
group lives primarily in the Carolines and Marshall
Islands. The Chamorro have higher birth rates, lower
death rates, and a greater life expectancy for females.
Another related factor is the extent to which modern
medical and sanitary practices have been made available
to and have been accepted by the two groups. During
the Japanese period of control, the most extensive
services have been concentrated on a few islands princi-
pally occupied by Chamorro, and these now have the
lowest mortality rates. On the other hand, the
Kanakas generally have been less receptive to the intro-
duction of foreign practices.
In all the many native societies with declining popula-
tion figures there exists a real under-population problem.
Population shrinkage has disrupted the social structure
through lack of persons to perform the traditional
functions of society.
882. Institutions of Micronesia. John Useem.
Far Eastern Survey (New York), pp.
22-24, 28 January 1948.
This article is divided into three sections : the first
deals with the numbers and sizes of villages and districts
in the various parts of Micronesia. The population of
Palau districts varies from under one hundred in the
smallest to more than eight hundred on Yap. Theoreti-
cally, every Palau village must have ten major clans in
order to function, but in reality the average village has
only seven clans, and one third of the villages have half
or less of the required minimum number of clans. The
second section discusses 'relations among Native
Groups'. Micronesia as an administrative unit is
merely the product of foreign control. The term
'Micronesia' itself is used by foreigners only. However,
there has been interaction between native groups from
times immemorial, and there is also inter-island kinship.
The largest entities of social organisation are the con-
stellations of island groups such as greater Truk, Palau,
and the two chains of the Marshall Islands. A descrip-
tion of the 'native state' of Palau is given.
The chiefs now wield comparatively little power in
the Marshalls and yet retain considerable power in the
western Carolines. Foreign governors, native political
factions, and the personality of the office holder himself
profoundly affect the actual r6le played by a chief. The
institutional patterns of Micronesia are a mixture of
ancestral Spanish, German, Japanese, and American
An illustration of the dynamic process of cultural
integration of indigenous and foreign elements are the
religious institutions of Palau. Among the Palau
natives in 1946 were : Catholics, 1,830 ; Protestants,
1,469; Seventh Day Adventists, 98; Modekngei, 922 ;
and no religious affiliation, 1,363. There have been
missions in Palau since Spanish times, but conversion
has not meant the abandonment of native beliefs : both
are held concomitantly. Modekngei is 'a nativistic relig-
ious movement' which has won widespread support in
reaction to the crisis of war and its aftermath Most of
the people turned Modekngei about the time of the
surrender of the Japanese. The sect had been outlawed
by the Japanese. The movement is not anti-foreign,
it is an attempt to find a way of incorporating the old
with the new, a fusion of ancient native religion with
Christianity. Ancient gods and the Trinity are sup-
posed to be just different forms of the same supernatural
Finally, the author discusses the different economic
functions of the two entirely different systems of cur-
rency in Palau, viz., indigenous and foreign (modern)
currencies. Native money alone can buy social
privileges and prestige within the society. When
native money is involved, the negotiation may take
weeks to arrange and several days to complete. The
foreign trader is naturally unable to engage in such
transactions, so his money is of lesser value here. At
some points the two monetary systems interlink. E.g.,
foreign currency can be used to purchase certain types of
native money which in turn may be used to raise the
status of a family. The young people nowadays feel that
that all the money should be individually owned and that
the exchange rates of native money should be depreci-
ated. They have difficulty to acquire native money,
while they can easily acquire foreign money through
work. The older generation, however, own most of
the native money and maintain much of their power
through it; and, consequently, they wish to retain the
existing scale of values and to restrict the use of foreign
883. Effects of the Pacific War in the Markham
Valley, New Guinea. K. E. Read.
Oceania, pp. 95-116, Vol. XVIII, No. 2,
The paper deals with the attitude during and after
the war of one particular tribe, the Ngarawapum, and
the author points out that his experiences among these
natives should not be generalised. The Ngarawapum
have been credited with loyalty to the Allied cause
during the Japanese occupation and military operations,
but it is emphasised that it was not loyalty which
influenced the attitude of the people. The personal
experience of the Japanese invaders led the natives
to prefer their European masters and that eventually
their contact with the liberating forces produced, by
contrast, an even stronger preference for the new arrivals.
The Japanese were judged by the degree to which their
occupation affected village life. Native labour had been
employed by the Europeans before and, on the other
hand, the Japanese did not introduce any new adminis-
trative machinery and made no efforts to supervise and
control the everyday affairs of the natives. It was the
conduct of the Japanese troops and, above all, their
treatment of native food supplies which was resented
by the villagers. During the early months of the occu-
pation, Japanese foraging parties turned up in the
villages from time to time and demanded food. Pay-
ment was offered in invasion currency, with the explana-
tion that trade stores would be erected at Lae where
goods would be available. These promises failed to
materialise and after a while the token payments ceased.
Bananas were hacked from the plants and coconuts shot
to the ground; most objectionable was the comman-
deering of the natives' most treasured possession, their
pigs. This created a real hardship, for pigs are the
principal source of meat in the diet and, in addition,
complex ceremonial and social values are attached to
them. Hostility towards the invaders grew out of
these depredations. Besides, the meagre resources of
the Japanese and the fact that they were compelled to
call on native supplies reacted against them. Other
features of the Japanese which the natives resented were
their table manners and their habit of performing their
bodily functions in the neighbourhood of the places
where they had their meals. The one characteristic
noted in their favour was the equality of treatment given
to supporters. The natives insist on a sharp distinction
between English and Australians. This again is a
development confined to the Ngarawapum, the inhabi-
tants of an inland group of villages which had had less
contact with Europeans than the areas nearer the coast.
The Ngarawapum prefer the Australians to the 'English'.
The majority of ANGAU personnel were classified as
'English'. The last chapter deals with 'Social Life after
the Departure of the Missionaries'. The Lutheran
missionaries had baptised over half of the inhabitants,
yet the author came to the conclusion that the villages
did not contain one practising Christian. Magical
practices and ancestor worship were always regarded
as essential to welfare, and they can now be practised
again more or less openly. 'When the mission closed
the result can only be described as a rebirth of social
and religious life.' However, the loss of educational
facilities was nevertheless universally regretted.
884. Development in New Guinea. James
McAuley and H. Ian Hogbin. Far
Eastern Survey (New York), pp. 48-51,
25 February 1948.
The article deals with the problems of the economic
development of New Guinea from both the Australian
and the natives' points of view.
The Pacific war has made it clear that at least two
factors are essential, viz., the energetic development of
the resources of the island, with complementary exten-
sions of transport, communications, and other basic
facilities ; and the acquisition by the natives of such
economic, social, and political skills as will enable them
to make a larger contribution to their own security and
thus to that of Australia.
The fact that Papua could not pay for its wholly
inadequate administrative services without an annual
grant of 40,ooo from the Australian treasury proves
that the old colonial method, with Europeans retaining
the monopoly of technique and capital and the natives
contributing only unskilled labor, is impracticable.
New economic methods are imperative. There are
definite limits to the expansion of white settlement, if
native land rights are to be respected as in the past. Of
the suitable land, only a small amount more could be
taken over without endangering the natives. It would be
impossible to obtain sufficient native labour to run plan-
tations on a profitable scale; European enterprise thus
cannot satisfy the strategic need to develop the resources
of New Guinea. Still less can it give the natives the
economic, social, and political equipment of citizenship.
The fundamental factor here is low income. The major
source of native cash income is contract labour, a few
communities being able to acquire small sums from
selling vegetables. A head-tax of ten shillings was
levied on able-bodied males, exemptions were frequently
granted where hardship was likely. The result was an
annual sum of zo,ooo collected throughout the Terri-
tory of New Guinea, and 16,ooo in Papua. The two
dependencies together had a maximum of about 60,000ooo
labourers earning an average of slightly more than just
fifteen shillings per month. Such an income cannot
diffuse a sufficient taxable income over the whole popu-
lation. Low taxability meant low standards of health
and education; consequently continued low produc-
tivity, which in turn perpetuated low taxability. The
low purchasing power also meant that there was no
market for Australian goods. If the basic works and
services necessary for the social and economic develop-
ment of the natives cannot be provided from internal
sources, the Australian Government must advance sums.
The main lines of policy emerge from a recent state-
ment made by E. J. Ward, Minister for External
Territories, as follows: '(i) The use of experienced
tropical agriculturists will assist the natives in improving
their methods of production. They will also be advised
regarding the cultivation of crops not grown in Australia
for which there would be a ready sale in this country.
(2) The native culture will be preserved and an educa-
tional plan provided, the advantages of which will
eventually be available to all residents in the Territories.
(3) The health of the inhabitants is to receive earnest
consideration, and a comprehensive scheme for the
provision of health services is now being prepared,
including the instruction of the natives in modern
hygiene, and the provision of a well-balanced diet. (4)
In developing the Territories, placing the welfare of
the native inhabitants as the first consideration.'
885. (I) Slow Moving in the Solomons;
(2) The Solomons and New Hebrides.
Some Proposals. Cyril Belshaw. Empire,
Journal of the Fabian Colonial Bureau
(London), pp. 6-7, February 1948; pp.
4-5 and p. 9, April 1948.
(I) There is a widespread belief in the Solomons that
the U.S. are more concerned in their development than
Britain, and among Europeans that Australia and New
Zealand would provide a better-informed and quicker-
acting administration. The author states that in both
areas there is deplorable maladministration. Of the
9o,ooo natives in the Solomons only fifty have received
secondary education. Economically, the islands have not
yet recovered from the war. The main crop is copra, its
production has sunk to almost nothing. Planters are
not returning, despite interest-free loans. Many officials
do not want to see co-operative enterprises, but would
rather have the plantations split for individual produc-
tion irrespective of the dangers of creating debtor-
creditor relations and a wealthier upper class among the
The author emphasises that the Solomons can produce
nearly all the tropical fruits, yet it has not been investi-
gated which fruits, how they should be treated for
transport overseas, and what are the costs involved.
No steps have yet been taken to abolish indentured or
contract labour, but the High Commissioner is now
examining the possibility of introducing another system
involving the settlement of married labourers in villages.
(2) The resources of the Solomon Islands and those of
the New Hebrides are so similar that the same general
principles of development apply to both areas; but
the New Hebrides are more backward socially and
politically. Britain has now a vested interest in the
administration of the New Hebrides, whereas economic
interests are rather bound up with Australia and N.Z.
The British motif for entering the Condominium was
to prevent French expansion which was then held to
threaten Australia. It is now impossible for either
Britain or France to withdraw from the condominium.
However, it should be simple to create a unified civil
service, open to qualified members of any nationality,
and if there were a single internationally appointed
Resident Commissioner, the responsibility for his actions
could be taken by the permanent British and French
members of the South Pacific Commission.
Economically, the principal consideration at the
moment for both the Solomons and the New Hebrides
is: how to ensure production for an income now. In
the New Hebrides the natives have an income, which is
due to the very lively European commercial activities
there. For new development in the Solomons it is
unlikely that we can look for private enterprise; the
bulk of new efforts will have to be made by the Govern-
ment. There should be a Production Department to
aid European planters and native village production
alike with funds, technical advice, and transport. The
Native Councils could be given the responsibility for
the collection of copra at the ports of embarkation.
They could be encouraged by enabling them to have
their own rice mills, copra driers, whaleboats, experi-
mental farms, schools, etc. Where Europeans have not
returned to their plantations, groups of natives might
take them over experimentally.
THIS publication of abstracts in the social sciences is intended to provide a survey
of important material, published in, or related to Australia, New Zealand and their
territories, dealing with the various social sciences. The field of the survey dealt with
in these Abstracts is indicated by the classification of the subjects on the inside cover.
The aim is to help the specialist in any particular field to decide what works he
should read, and what he may omit ; and to indicate to other workers in allied fields
what is being done. For these purposes it has been decided that the abstracts shall be
genuine precis of the works covered.
At present it is intended to publish the Abstracts half yearly ; but if, in the future,
a larger volume of original work is produced, it is intended to publish the Abstracts
more frequently so that all deserving work may be covered as soon after publication
Copies of this and subsequent issues of the Abstracts will be sent on application
(enclosing subscription of 5s. in Australian currency, 4s. sterling, per annum) to the
Editor, Department of Commerce, University of Melbourne, Carlton, N.3.
AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
COMMITTEE ON RESEARCH IN THE SOCIAL SCIENCES
The Committee on Research in the Social Sciences is a special
committee of the A.N.R.C. charged with the duty of reporting upon
the main investigations which appear to be required in the social
field, of considering the best machinery for conducting these enquiries,
and of arranging for finance.
The Committee is also making a detailed examination of the
position in Australia with regard to training in the social sciences at
the various universities, with special attention to the provision of
research workers. The scope of the committee's work includes the
sociological aspects of such studies as anthropology, economics,
education, history, human geography, jurisprudence, medicine,
philosophy, political science, psychology, public administration and
An outline of the history and functions of the committee by the
chairman, Dr. K. S. Cunningham, was recently published; and
may be obtained free of charge on application to the Australian
Council for Educational Research, T. & G. Building, Russell St.,
IMember, of the Committee:
ALEXANDER, Prof. F., Universiry of Western Australia.
BAILEY, Prof. K. H., Solicitor-General, Canberra.
BLAND. Prof. F. A., University of Sydney.
BURTON, Assoc. Prof. H.. Universin of Melbourne.
DUTLIN, Prof. S. J., University of Sydney.
CONLON, Mr. A. A., Sydney.
CRAWFORD, Mr. J. G., Department ofPost-War Reconstruction, Canberra.
CRLAWFORD, Prof. R. NI., Uni'.vrsiry of Melbourne.
CUNNINGHAM, Dr. K. S., Director, Australian Council for Educational
Research, Melbourne (Chairmani.
CURTIN, Dr. P. W. E., Public Service Board, Canberra.
ELKIN, Prof. A. P., ULmver.iry of Sydney.
FIRTH, Prof. G., University of Tasmania.
FRIEDINLNN, Prof. \. G., Uni ersnly of Melbourne.
GIBLIN, Prof. L. F., Hobart.
GIBSON, Prof. A. Bo:ce, University of Milbourne.
GIFFORD, Prof. J. K., University of Queensland.
HASLUCK, Mr. P., University of Western Astralia.
HIGGINS, Prof. B., Uriversiry of Melbourne.
LA NAUZE, Mr. J. A., Uninersirv of S!dnev.
McRAE. Prof. C. R., Uniersity of Sydney.
MAULLDON, Prof. F. R. E., Unirerity of \Wetern .ustralia.
MAZE, Mr. W. H., University of Sydney.
OESER, Prof. 0. A., Univerlrit of Melbourne tSecretair).
O'NEIL, Prof W. M., Unimersir, of S;dne).
PARTRIDGE, Prof. P. H., Un,.ersiit of Sydney.
PASSMORE. Mr. John, U'nversity of Sydney. "
PREST, Prof. W., Universirt of Melbourne.
SHATTWELL. Prof. K. 0., Univer-ity of Sydney.
STONE, Prol. Julius, Lirnersi!\ of Sydney.
STOUT, Prof. A. K., Univeriir of Sydney.
TEWV, Prof. J. H. B., Umnerry o-,f Adelaide.
\\ADHAM. Prof. S. I Unisersiry of Melbourne.
\WHITE, Mr. H. L., Commoiweilth Ntr!onal Libran, Canberra.
WOOD, Prof. G. L., Unier-iry, of lMelbourne.
W\'RIGHT, Prof. R. D., Univcr-irv ot Melbourne.
Fi niti in A. istralia bi
lNellourin UnLi.ersint Press
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