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 Index to Nos. 4 and 5
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Title: Australian social sciences abstracts
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Title: Australian social sciences abstracts
Physical Description: 18 no. : ;
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Creator: Australian National Research Council -- Committee on Research in the Social Sciences
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Publication Date: March 1948
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Dates or Sequential Designation: no. 1-18; Mar. 1946-Nov. 1954.
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Half Title
        Half Title 1
        Half Title 2
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Main
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
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        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
    Index to Nos. 4 and 5
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
    Back Cover
        Page 153
        Page 154
Full Text







AUSTRALIAN


SOCIAL SCIEN


ABSTRACTS


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March, 1948


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,AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
Committee on Research in the Social Sciences

Registered in Australia for ansmission by post as a penodical


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EDITORIAL COMMITTEE
Dr. K. S. Cunningham (Chairman)
Professor R. M. Crawford, Professor O. A. Oeser, Professor G. L. Wood,
Mr. H. L. White
GENERAL EDITOR
Mr. S. J. Lengyel, School of Commerce, University, Carlton, N.3, Melbourne
(on leave), Dr. F. Schnierer (Acting).
HONORARY ABSTRACTORS
AccoutmNANcv-Mr. L. Goldberg and Miss J. Kerr
AGRICULTURE AND RURAL PROBLEMS-Professor S. M. Wadham and
Mr. 1. Molnar
EcoNoMIcs-Professor G. L. Wood, Dr. F. Schnierer, Mr. C. P.
Haddon-Cave and Miss H. Smith
EDUCATION-Dr. K. S. Cunningham
GEOGRaPHY-Miss M. Bayne, Messrs. W. S. Cookson and E. J.
Donath, and Dr. F. Loewe
H HISroRY-Professor R. M. Crawford, Messrs. L. E. Baragwanath,
L. G. Churchward, C. M. H. Clark, F. K. Crowley, N. D. Harper
and J. A. Miles, Misses J. Mills and J. Rowley
LAw-Professor G. W. Paton
PmILosoPHi-Professor A. Boyce Gibson
POLricAL SCIENcs-Mr. L. G. Churchward
PsycHOLocv-Dr. D. W. McElwain
TERRITORrES AND NATrIE PROBLEMS-Dr. L. Adam
All communications should be addressed to the Acting Editor.
Subscription : 5s. per annum in Australian currency; 4s. sterling, post free.

CONTENTS
Economics-
Economics and Economic Policy .. 498
Industry, Trade and Commerce-
(a) General .. . .. .. .. .. 509
(b) Individual Industries .. .. .. .. .. 520
Monetary Policy, Banking, Insurance .. .. 54
Public Finance .. .. .. .. .. .. 546
Accountancy .. .. .. .. .. 552
Transportation and Communication .. .. 563
Labour and Industrial Relations .. .. .. .. 569
Agriculture, Land and Rural Problems .. .. .. .. 58
Political Science-
Government and Politics .. .. .. .. .. 596
International Relations .. .. .. .. .. 605
Social Conditions-
Housing .. .. .. .. .. .. 6r
Social Security and Public Health .. .. .. .. 6rz
Social Surveys .. .. .. .. .... -
Population and Migration .. .. .. .. .. 614


Education
Geography ..
History
Law
Philosophy
Psychology
Territories and Na


62z
.. 639
.. 646
.. 654
.66o
.662
native Problems .. .. .. 665


Australian Public Affairs Information Service, or A.P.A.I.S., indexes books,
magazine articles and government documents on Australian political, economic
and social affairs. It is published monthly by the Commonwealth National
Library, and will be sent free upon request to the Librarian.









AUSTRALIAN SOCIAL SCIENCE ABSTRACTS







AUSTRALIAN
SOCIAL SCIENCE
ABSTRACTS















AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
Committee on Research in the Social Sciences









AUSTRALIAN SOCIAL SCIENCE ABSTRACTS

A publication of the Committee on Research in the Social Sciences, Australian
National Research Council, subsidized by the Commonwealth Government.

All communications should be addressed to the Editor, Faculty of Economics
and Commerce, University of Melbourne, Carlton, N.3, Victoria, Australia.



No. 5 March 1948 5s. per annum



ABSTRACTS
Where the size of a Government publication or Parliamentary Paper (P.P.) is not given, it is 81 ins. x 131 ins.


ECONOMICS

(A) Economics and Economic Policy
498. The Regulation and Expansion of World
Trade and Employment. C. P. Haddon-
Cave and N. G. Crowley. Economic
Record, pp. 32-48, June 1947.
International trade before the recent conflict became
characterized by discriminatory and restrictive measures
developed to a high degree during the depression and
strengthened by security needs during the immediate
pre-war years. This circumscribed pattern of world
trade was both a resultant and contributing cause of
general under-consumption and under-employment.
The United States, both in its original proposals
for the expansion of world trade and employment of
November 1945, and in the draft charter for an Inter-
national Trade Organisation published in September
1946, appeared to be setting out to initiate the re-
construction of post-war international trade on the
basis of the economics of Adam Smith and the classical
school.
However, some members of the Preparatory Com-
mittee of the U.N. Conference on Trade and Em-
ployment considered that the pressing problem of
building up an efficient and stable system of multi-
lateral trade needs interpretation in terms of the
Keynesian interdependent aggregates of income, em-
ployment, consumption and investment. The London
draft of the charter for I.T.O. reveals that much progress
was made away from the American postulates and
towards an integration of trade policy with the new
political economy of the General Theory.
The Charter does embody the main conditions for
a positive policy of world prosperity, namely the
maintenance of a high level of domestic employment,
the economic development of world resources and the
obligation to spend accruing external balances. The
I.T.O. would not, however, be in a position to dictate
commercial policy, and if countries fail to meet these
requirements influence can then only be exerted in
the international sphere. In such circumstances,
the London meeting proposed that members should
be authorised to place quantitative restrictions on
imports from offending countries. This would safe-
guard the local employment situation, but only assist
countries with vital export interests (such as Australia)


insofar as it led to an expansionist policy in the de-
pressed country. Exchange rate variation under the
appropriate I.M.F. articles might be allowed to assist
in rectifying the situation. The interest of all in a
world policy of full employment is obvious; if this
fails the Charter can minimise the effects on others
of a breakdown in a particular economy, but it cannot
obviate them.-C.P.H.C.

499. Food and Agricultural Association of the
United Nations. Second Session, held
at Copenhagen, Denmark, 2--13 Septem-
ber 1946. Report of the Australian
Delegation. ,P.P. No. 18. Government
Printer, Canberra, 1947, pp. 34. Price
Is. 8d.
Previous F.A.O. conferences dealt with short-term
problems only, the Copenhagen conference with a
long-range plan for F.A.O. activities. It was decided
at Copenhagen to set up a special committee to explore
the possibility of establishing a World Food Board.
A commission of the conference discussed world food
supplies, particularly with reference to bread grain
and to the financing of food needs in U.N.R.R.A.
countries in view of the termination of this organisa-
tion. Other committees were concerned with economics
and marketing, statistics, nutrition, forestry-forest
products should be included in the scope of the World
Food Board-agriculture and fertilisers, fisheries,
constitution and organisation, finance. Special com-
ments are made on the F.A.O. mission to Greece.

500. Wilson, Roland. Facts and Fancies of Prod-
uctivity. The Economic Society of
Australia and N.Z., Melbourne, 1947,
pp. 48. Presidential address read before
Section G of the Australian and N.Z.
Association for the Advancement of
Science, Adelaide, August 1946.
This is a discussion of the concept of productivity
and the methods to measure it. Productivity usually
means capacity to produce by work rather than the
product of actual work. Usual standard is a com-
posite unit of quantity of production per person engaged
or the result of a division of total market values by
index numbers of prices. Economic quantity is








measured in terms of numbers, weight or physical
volume (standard dimensions). The lecturer outlines
the difficulties of comparison in time of quantities
and of value of money and the limitations of quantity
index numbers which he regards as a rough tool of
the economic historian, a summarisation with a con-
siderable margin of error.
Real wages have hardly risen during the last thirty
or forty years while the well-being of the average
worker has much improved. A productivity index is
not a complete index of 'well being.' It has become
easier to take advantage of free goods; man-made
free goods tend to accumulate in time. Besides, the
constituent goods and services making up the national
product change in relative proportions, old ones dis-
appear, new ones come into being, while the device
of the chained index is inadequate. Part of the product
is socially provided for the needs of people of non-
working age groups whose proportion in the whole
population is changing. The fruits of increased pro-
ductivity go only partly to labour under the present
system. From inventions, apart from patents, the
community at large should profit, not only a section.
Australian statistics supply data for measuring pro-
ductivity in the primary and manufacturing industries,
but more than half of the national product is produced
by 'tertiary' industries, i.e. building, construction of
roads, railways, etc., transport and communication,
service industries including commerce. For this
'unrecorded' field there are only indirect methods of
estimating value of products, quantities and prices.
The lecturer doubts that there is a tendency of tertiary
industries to expand when communities age and become
richer, except perhaps in some personal services.
In an appendix seven tables with relevant Australian
data are presented.

501. National Income and Expenditure 1946-47
P.P. Government Printer, Canberra, 1947,
pp. 12. Price 9d.
This estimate accompanied the 1947-48 budget.
In an introduction movements in the main aggregates-
national income, personal income of residents, personal
savings, gross national product, personal consumption,
and war expenditure on goods and services, are shown
over the whole period 1938-39 to 1946-47. The
national income has remained fairly stable at about
55 per cent above 1938-39 since 1942-43.
The main body of the paper presents figures only
for 1938-39 and 1946-47. These figures concern:
(i) National income and expenditure. Of the former
the largest items are wages and salaries, incomes
of unincorporated businesses, farms, professions, etc. ;
of the latter personal consumption expenditure,
gross private investment, public authority expendi-
ture on goods and services. (2) The four sectors of
the economy, viz. income and expenditure of business
undertakings, public authority income and expendi-
ture, balance of international payments, personal
income and expenditure. (3) Capital account in which
are included various items representing forms of
saving and investment.
An appendix contains tables for national income
and expenditure, capital account and other items for
every year from 1938-39 to 1946-47.

502. The Re-division of the National Product.
Review. Institute of Public Affairs, Vic-
toria, pp. 14. 19 October 1947.
The lower income groups are now taking a higher


share of the Australian national product than in 1939
because of higher progressive taxes, larger govern-
ment expenditure on social services and relatively
greater increases of prices of goods consumed by the
higher income groups. In the middle and higher
income groups, salary earners and rentiers have suffered
most. Salary earners are the best educated section of
the community, the main source of administrative and
professional talent and the stronghold of individualism.
Differential rewards are narrowed with a tendency to
levelling down by cutting the incomes at the top. This
means less incentive for hard work and for acquiring
skill, to the detriment of production, so that there is
a risk of a diminishing national income. Incentive
is an indispensable part of private enterprise.

503. Britain's Foreign Trade Problem and Its
Effect on British Food Imports. F. H.
Gruen. Review of Marketing and Agri-
cultural Economics, pp. 278-288, August
1947-
Britain's adverse balance of payments is the result
of a long-term trend since World War I. It has
become acute owing to the loss of income from in-
vestments abroad, loss of net shipping income and
decline of exports because of World War II. Between
the two wars British production of milk, eggs, vege-
tables and fruit expanded at the expense of cereals,
root crops and cheaper meats. During World War II
the main consideration was the saving of shipping
space by increasing the yield of land, i.e. largely by
ploughing up grassland, and by stepping up the pro-
portion of crops available for human consumption.
This meant reversing the pre-war trend, augmenting
the acreage under grain and the number of cattle to
obtain more milk, while the number of sheep and
lambs, pigs and poultry declined. After the war
saving of foreign exchange was the principal concern
which implies a return to the pre-war trend. How-
ever, the world-wide grain shortage in 1946 and the
destruction of wheat, potatoes, sheep, lambs and
store cattle by floods and frost early in 1947 delays
this development temporarily.
The contribution of British agriculture to the saving
of foreign exchange is the subject of a White Paper
presented in March 1947 ; under certain conditions
it assumes a possible net increase in British agricultural
output by stg.79m. at pre-war prices up to 1950-51,
i.e. at present world prices a saving of foreign exchange
of stg.178im. With a successful export drive and
full employment, food consumption levels and ex-
penditure on food would rise. The importance of
British events for Australia whose best customer is U.K.
is obvious.

504. Economic Planning and the N.Z. Ministry
of Works. C. G. F. Simkin. Economic
Record, pp. 103-107, June 1947.
This note deals with the last annual report of the
N.Z. Ministry of Works which now has five divisions-
engineering, architectural, housing, administrative and
planning. Immediate needs are 160,000 houses to
be built over fifteen years, in addition arrears have to
be caught up in educational, industrial and business
buildings, hotel accommodation and in all kinds of
public works including railways, roads and hydro-
electric power. Building allocations have been fixed
for the next year, but ten years' works plans are pre-
pared in collaboration with local authorities and regional








councils. The present stage 'involves only interim
measures to meet critical shortages,' but in future
changes in industrialisation, land utilisation, transport,
power, will require physical planning to be based on
social and economic planning. In the past depart-
mental programmes were insufficiently co-ordinated
and annual appropriations discouraged long-term
planning. In future three main factors will have to
be considered-finance, manpower as basis for budget-
ing, and materials. This raises the problem of social
priorities guided by certain economic principles in-
cluding the need for government to offset variations
in private construction and to secure balance between
savings and investments.
The author recognizes the great progress in co-
ordination of public work schemes, but doubts whether
a ministry of works is the appropriate authority to
decide on the scope of State investment expenditure
and the allocation of priorities. For this a general
economic staff organisation is needed.

505. Recent Economic Developments in New
Zealand. J. W. Williams. Pacific Affairs
(New York), pp. 141-151, June 1947.
Owing to continuing wartime shortages of con-
sumption goods, manpower and raw materials, and
to the scarcity of housing, rationing, permits and
priorities are still indispensable. Farmlands and
capital equipment in transport have deteriorated.
Manufacturing industries, however, are better equipped
than before the war. Re-conversion is easy, because
the occupational pattern has little changed. Nearly
all ex-service personnel could be placed. Full em-
ployment encourages workers to press for higher
wages, but wages have probably risen less than retail
prices. In primary production there are guaranteed
prices for meat and dairy products, for whose export
long-term contracts with U.K. have been concluded.
All war-debts are now held internally. Large
liquid resources may have an inflationary effect unless
people are willing to hold cash, more consumer goods
are imported, prices are controlled and taxes kept
high. The policy of a controlled economy could
hardly be changed if the anti-Labour opposition came
to power. N.Z. largely depends on the British market
for its primary produce exports and on imperial pre-
ference ; both may now be threatened. N.Z. has not
accepted the Bretton Woods proposals: she suspects
that these and the plans for an international trade
organisation are devices to make U.S. tendencies to
dominate world trade easier. She is reluctant to
drop import controls.

506. The Release of Import and Exchange
Control. Bulletin of the Canterbury
Chamber of Commerce (Christchurch,
N.Z.), pp. 2, July 1947.
These controls were imposed in N.Z. in 1938 when
exchange funds were very low. Continued controls
retard recovery; competition would provide in-
centives to economy and efficiency. Some exchange
control might be necessary as long as exchange funds
are short, but this does not mean direct import control.
The Reserve Bank might estimate periodically the
exchange funds to be made available for the ensuing
period. From this amount the government should
first take the sum required for its own payments abroad,
then provide for specified licensed imports and dis-
tribute the remainder on an agreed basis among the
trading banks, which could ration them among their


branches and customers. Protection of local pro-
ducers is to be effected by legal tariffs rather than by
import licensing.
N.Z.'s large accumulations of Sterling funds must,
at least partially, be frozen. Free convertibility would
lead to dollar shortages. Available exchange funds
would not be sufficient for the demand, as the N.Z.
currency is heavily inflated, mainly on government
account. Total available funds have increased from
16im. in 1938 to 387 in 1947. Of the increase of
226m. about 73m. is due to larger receipts than
expenditure abroad, 75m. is absorbed by higher
prices, 8om. represents real surplus money and is
the cause of most of the objectionable regimentation;
but there is hardly any attempt in N.Z. to deal with
this urgent problem.

507. The Life and Work of Lord Keynes.
Economic Papers, No.6. The Economic
Society of Australia and N.Z., N.S.W.
Branch, Sydney, 1946, pp. 40. Papers
read before the N.S.W. Branch.
S. J. Butlin gives a biographical sketch of Keynes
and an appraisal of his work. Keynes always con-
centrated on monetary theory. He considers the
Treatise on Money as the greatest of Keynes's books.
Like the Tract on Monetary Reform it starts with the
explanation of price levels, but is dominated by a
discussion of the volume of output, consumption and
new capital formation. The Treatise and even more
the General Theory are disconnected, untidy books,
similar to Ricardo's Principles. Keynes did not shrink
from inconsistencies and from changing his opinions.
His theory is specialised upon depression rather than
'general,' but his concepts of effective demand, marginal
efficiency of capital, propensity to consume, of interest
as a monetary phenomenon are permanent contribu-
tions to theory. Critics of Keynes are as much in-
fluenced by him as his disciples and 'full employment'
is generally seen through Keynesian eyes. He ad-
vocated purposive direction of the economy, but not
detailed controls.
J. S. G. Wilson discusses Keynes's three main
economic books. In his view the Keynesian revolu-
tion was proclaimed in the General Theory, not in the
Treatise. Determinants of employment and income
which should be socially controlled, are the propensity
to consume, the marginal efficiency of capital and the
rate of interest which depends on liquidity preference
and the quantity of money available. The marginal
efficiency of capital in a wealthy community can rapidly
fall to a minimum. This has given rise to the stagna-
tion thesis (Hansen) and to the optimistic 'planning'
doctrine. Keynes's main contributions to theory were
the savings-investment approach to 'effective demand'
and employment, the multiplier and the monetary
supply and demand doctrine of the rate of interest.
Keynes was aware of the dynamic character of the
economic problem, but his interest lay mainly in short-
term considerations.
E. P. Haslam points out that the rapidity with which
Keynes's ideas were accepted was largely due to the
war. Keynes's practical conclusions were that the
State should have a guiding influence on the pro-
pensity to consume through taxation and fixing the
rate of interest. Socialisation of investment would be
the only means of securing full employment. Keynes
dealt with measures to ensure steady demand for total
output, but neglected rigidities inherent in monopolies
and sectional wage bargaining.








508. 'That Fatal, that Mischievous Passage.'
Henry Parkes and Protection, 1859-1866.
J. A. La Nauze. Australian Quarterly,
pp. 52-61, June 1947.
Henry Parkes, the protagonist of free trade in N.S.W.,
at one stage in his career, approved of certain pro-
tectionist measures. In 1859 he was chairman of
a Select Committee of the N.S.W. Assembly upon
the social conditions of the working classes in Sydney.
This committee, following the ideas of the English
economist Richard Jones who held that England did
not develop her resources, advocated duties to stimulate
manufactures. In a speech in the Assembly on 8 May
186o Parkes moved the adoption of the report and
quoted John Stuart Mill on the justification of pro-
tection for the establishment of those industries for
which a country was suited. The report was rejected.
After a stay in England from 1861-63, where Parkes
was influenced by R. Cobden, and his re-election to
the Assembly in 1864, Parkes constantly advocated
free trade, and 30 years later stated that he had been
misled 'by that fatal, that mischievous passage in J. S.
Mill's book,' containing the infant industry argument
for protection.

(B) Industry, Trade and Commerce
(a) General Works
509. Productivity in Major Industry Groups.
Economic News, pp. 1-6, October-Decem-
ber 1946.
This is an account of statistical work undertaken
mainly for the Commonwealth Arbitration Court as
evidence in the 40-hour case. In addition to the
industries recorded by volume there are many manu-
factures and most services not capable of physical
measurement. In these 'non-volume' industries a
price correction was applied to the value of output.
For purposes of international comparisons Australian
figures were converted to international units (I.U.),
which represent the quantity of goods and services
exchanged for $i in U.S. over the average of the
years 1925-34.
Real national income for industry as a whole was
obtained by re-valuing imports and exports separately
from the value of home consumption and investment.
In a table the net produced Australian national income
for every year from 1913-14 to 1945-46, numbers in
work, real product per man-year, average hours per
year and real product per man-hour are presented,
besides some data are given for years prior to 1913
since 1886. For the war years separate figures are
worked out with munitions re-valued. Similar figures
are calculated in I.U. for 1913, 1921-22, 1924-25 and
for all years from 1926-27 to 1940-41 for primary
industry, for manufacturing industries separated for
those processing industries whose volume is precisely
known, similar industries and 'non-volume' industries,
for which price indexes had to be applied to the value
of output of finished goods free of duplication-for
depreciation and miscellaneous expenses 30 per cent
were deducted-finally for tertiary production.
The real product per man-hour in I.U. for the
whole of the Australian economy was in 1913-14
-448, 1921-22 "469, 1928-29 '584, 1938-39 -61i, 1940-41
'568. The corresponding figures per year are in primary
industries: 1o68, 1005, 1140, 1190, 1246; in manu-
facturing industry: 481, 515, 804, 743, 789; in
tertiary production: 938, 887, 1177, 121o, 1027.


510. Longfield, C. M. The Past, Present and
Future of Australian Power Supplies.
Economic Society of Australia and N.Z.,
Melbourne, 1947, pp. 1-30.
The Australian electricity industry was originally
largely run by private enterprise in an uncoordinated
way, but has increasingly become nationalised and is
now organised on the basis of State electricity com-
missions under State electric light and power acts.
These commissions, except in Victoria and Tasmania,
operate through regional boards. Only Sydney,
Melbourne and Brisbane have municipal supply systems.
Tables give data on the generating capacity and pro-
duction of electricity in Australia and other English-
speaking countries and on the principal Australian
power stations.
Only about to per cent of generating plant in Australia
is represented by hydro-electric generators and more
than half of this hydro-electricity is generated in
Tasmania whose small population prevents large-scale
industrial exploitation. In potential solid fuel re-
sources: black coal and brown coal-which is used
raw or in briquette form-Australia is also poorer than
any other continent.
Finally the author discusses technological trends,
particularly three developments which may con-
tribute to increased efficiency or lower capital invest-
ment. (1) District heating, using a combination of
electricity generation with a supply by means of steam
exhausted of low-grade heat for industry and heating
of buildings. This is more suitable for countries with
a long cold winter and dense population, less for
Australia. (2) The gas turbine, providing rotary
motion from the latent energy of a fuel without inter-
position of steam boilers. (3) Atomic energy-the
author considers that its use for generating power at
reasonable cost and thermal efficiency superior to
methods hitherto known is not within sight.

511. Tariff Board. Annual Report for the
year ended 30 June 1947. Government
Printer, Canberra, 1947, pp. 44.
The most important part of this report is chapter IV,
dealing with production costs. In the past comparisons
of costs of production in manufacturing industries in
Australia were made with U.K. only, now they are
extended to U.S. and Canada. Statistical data (tables
in appendices) and comments given in this chapter
concern: (1) the age and sex composition of the
labour force, hours of labour, wages and earnings,
wages costs per unit of production; (2) materials
costs, specialised as to prices of metals, chemicals,
paper pulp, fabricated parts; (3) 'other costs,' i.e.
interest rates, the costs of coal and freights. All
these various kinds of costs are compared for the four
countries mentioned.
The Board comes to the conclusion that in 1946-47
production cost in the four countries has continued
to rise, but the different rates of increase have raised
rather than diminished Australia's competitive ad-
vantage. 'Since the end of the war Australian manu-
facturing industry has been operating under almost
completely sheltered conditions in a seller's market.'
But this is certainly only temporary. In future the
problem of cost reduction will be to the fore. In
addition to tariff revision, payment by results, elimina-
tion of waste, new machinery and construction, im-
proved supplies of coal, iron, steel and other raw
materials, and improved transport may contribute to
this aim.








512. Councilfor Scientific and Industrial Research.
Twentieth Annual Report for year ended
30 June 1946. P.P. Government Printer,
Canberra, 1946, pp. 127. Price 5s. 4d.
In the period under review the work of the C.S.I.R.
was changed from war to peace. An extensive wool
and textile research and the setting up of a Division
for Textile Research is contemplated. During the
year a Building Materials Research Section and a
Flax Research Laboratory were established. The
Council will again send scientific officers overseas for
training and has taken part in overseas conferences.
The report surveys the C.S.I.R.'s activities includ-
ing plant investigations (henceforth called i.); ento-
mological i. ; animal health and production i.; bio-
chemistry and general nutrition; soil i. ; irrigation
settlement i. ; forest products i. ; food preservation i.
fisheries i. ; metrology ; electrotechnology ; physics
aeronautical i. ; industrial chemistry ; radiophysics
tribophysics (formerly lubricants and bearings) ; build-
ing materials research ; flax research ; other i. Finally
reference is made to the information service and library
and to financial matters, staff and publications.

513. Australia's Food Exports. C. P. Dowsett.
Farm Front, pp. 105-113, August 1947.
In the first chart the author shows the values of
Australian exports of food and other merchandise for
the average of the last three pre-war years 1936-39
and for every year from 1939-40 to 1946-47. Before
the war the value of food exports was over two-fifths of
the total export values, during the war it fell to less than
one-third in the years 1941-43, while the value of other
exports was maintained. Since then exports of both
categories rose sharply. The Australan foodstuff export
values are presented for the same years in a table dis-
tributed between agricultural and livestock industries.
The value of the former was below pre-war level during
all the war years, while the value of the latter was
higher in most war years ; 1946-47 the value of ex-
ported vegetable foodstuffs was 59 per cent, of animal
foodstuffs 83 per cent, higher than pre-war.
As further charts show, the main changes in animal
foodstuffs were decreases in the relative importance of
butter, beef, mutton and lamb and increases in milk
and cream, eggs and canned meat; among vegetable
foodstuffs there were relative decreases in wheat,
sugar, fresh and dried fruits, increases in flour, other
grain products, and other (processed) vegetable food-
stuffs; among dairy products butter shipments de-
clined, those of processed milk and cream rose ; among
meats, beef exports fell, mutton and lamb exports
fluctuated, canned meat exports are now ten times as
high as pre-war; among vegetable foodstuff exports
wheat and sugar declined relatively, flour increased;
among fruit exports fresh and canned fruits fell con-
siderably, citrus fruits less, export of dried fruit was
well maintained, jam and fruit jelly exports rose
sharply after the war. The export prices of foodstuffs
rose substantially, particularly in later years.

514. Relations between Farm Incomes and
Costs Expressed in Equations. Sheila
Rowley. Economic Record, pp. 58-65, June
1947.
This article deals with the methods of analysis to
which figures collected in cost of farm production
enquiries are subjected. By establishing a set of


equations showing the inter-relationships between
concepts investigated in farm studies, alternative types
of analysis in addition to the analysis of production
costs are suggested. To factors not receiving a market
valuation assumed values have to be imputed. Some
over-simplifications occur: (i) in treating capital
assets as a stock, changes in which during a period are
disregarded; (2) in not clearly distinguishing between
"family" and "operator" returns; (3) in treating the
farm business in mixed farming as a whole without
allocating costs to various enterprises.
The author works out additive equations: (i) to
express the equality of total farm return and total
cost; (2) equality of net return and net cost. Further
equations of this type are calculated for net farm
income, interest earned on operator's equity and opera-
tor's labour earnings. Of another type are-quotient
or ratio equations developed by expressing the un-
knowns in the additive equations as rates per acre,
per unit of capital, labour and product. In this way
equations are worked out for the productive value of
the farm, rate of interest earned, optimum number
of man-years per farm, annual labour return per man,
level of output of specialist product and cost per unit
of specialist product.
515. Empire Unity. S. F. Ferguson. Paper
read before Section G of the Australian
and N.Z. Association for the Advance-
ment of Science conference in Perth,
26 August 1947, pp. 14.
The paper examines the inter-dependence of Britain
and the Dominions. Among the advantages of
economic unity in the British Empire would be the
possibility of applying large-scale productive methods,
the avoidance of the waste of growing tariff barriers
and a better balance between primary and secondary
industries.
Short-term aid could be provided by pooling the
Empire's resources of food and raw materials and
their equitable distribution among the constituents.
The scale of consumption would go up in U.K. and
fall in the Dominions. The Dominions' Sterling
balances would rise; this might be a useful reserve
when the terms of trade move against the Dominions
and disequilibria in price levels of primary and manu-
factured goods would be ironed out.
A long-term precaution against recurrence of present
happenings would be the appointment of an advisory
body to consider the establishment of any new industry
in the Empire which requires Government assistance,
guided by productive capacity and new opportunities
in the Empire as a whole. A further step would be
an Empire customs union. The I.T.O. aims at
elimination of Empire preferences but can not prevent
a customs union. Most Australian manufacturers
would rather compete with duty-free British imports
than see goods from all foreign countries brought
down to the present British preferential tariff level.

516. Pamphlets on Trade with India. Public
Relations Directorate, Department of
Commerce and Agriculture (Export Div-
ision), Melbourne.
(a) The Indian Market. Pp. 43, 1945.
(b) Trade with India. Pp. 16.
(c) Marketing Australian Dairy Pro-
duce in India. Pp. 18, 6 appendices, 1946.








(d) The Indian Market for Australian
Fresh Fruits. Pp. 32, 1946.
(a) A summary of points for the consideration of
Australian exporters to India. (i) 'Administration
and people' deals among other details with wages as
a help for judging purchasing power: the average
daily wage of skilled workers is Is. iid., peasants live
on less than 4d. a day. (2) 'Chief industries' include
industrial and other controls. Chapter (3) describes
the main provinces ; (4) Indian trade: direction,
trade with U.S., lend-lease, chief products exported
and imported. Chapter (5) 'Australian trade with
India' presents data, graphs and tables on our imports
from and exports to India and refers to India's require-
ments from Australia. (6) Gives information on
import licensing controls, (7) on export procedure
for Australian exporters including market research,
distribution, packaging, packing and advertising.
(b) Contains information and suggestions from a
report by H. R. Gollan, Australian Government Trade
Commissioner in India. Wartime influences have
created new 'westernised' demands in India. Indian
demand for Australian goods will outlast shortages,
if they are popularised by good quality, competitive
prices and publicity. Indian industrialisation and
the capital re-equipment of her industries will provide
great opportunities for our export. Various methods
of developing trade with India, such as establishment
of branches, sales through resident agents or firms,
indent houses and travelling representatives, are
discussed. Additional subjects dealt with are : exist-
ing channels of trade with India, the peculiarites of
advertising in India, packing and packaging, prospects
for exporting canned Australian foods to India. Finally
the history and functions of the Australian Trade Com-
missioner service are outlined.
(c) and (d) are surveys made by the Australian Trade
Commissioner in India.
(c) Dairy produce imports into India were gradually
expanding before the war. Australia had a substantial
share in imports of butter and of dried or powdered
full cream milk; during the war Australia was the
main source of most imported dairy products. The
Indian cattle population is very large, but the average
milk yield per head is very low, so is the consumption
of dairy products. 58 per cent of locally-produced
milk is used for manufacturing ghee, i.e. cooking fat
from butter. Future demand might improve with
higher per capital income, government subsidies and
better domestic production. Present and prospective
general and Australian imports of butter, ghee, cheese,
etc., advertising, storage, prices and market investiga-
tion are discussed. Appendices present statistical
data on imports of various dairy products into India.
(d) Indian production of western fruits is limited by
the climate. Local orcharding, transport and storage
are inadequate. Before the war Australia was the
main importer next to U.S. The quality of imported
fruit is generally superior to that of local fruit. Various
channels of trade, the principal markets, shipping and
cold storage facilities, customs and similar charges are
discussed. Further points concern marketing policy
and the question of branding. It is suggested that
Australian exporters should co-operate and set up their
own sales organisation in India which would have to
establish better storage accommodation. Price will
be the main consideration for the size of the market.

517. (a) Factors in Australian Trade with
Malaya. Pp.8.


(b) Factors in Australian Trade with
N.E. Indies. Pp. 13.
Both published by Public Relations
Directorate, Department of Commerce
and Agriculture, without date.
Both reports were prepared by H. A.
Peterson, who was Australian Government
Representative in N.E.I. before the Pacific
war.
(a) A survey made before the Japanese war for the
information of actual or potential exporters to Malaya,
British North Borneo and dependencies. The native
and Indian population has little purchasing power,
the numerous Chinese are more prosperous. Malaya
relies mostly on imported foodstuffs. 1937 only 2-1
per cent of imports came from Australia as against
I5-6 from U.K., 32-4 from N.E.I., 13-6 from Siam.
1938-39 rubber and latex (value 1,o05,ooo) ranked
highest among Australian imports from Malaya
(i,128,ooo). Australian exports to Malaya were
x,91x,ooo. The largest export items were: wheaten
flour (438,000, 90 per cent of Malayan imports),
milk and cream-385,ooo; iron and steel--zz,ooo ;
butter-1o6,ooo; beef, brandy, fresh fruit. Apart
from these there are good post-war prospects for
canned meats, wine and beer, cheese, dried and canned
fruit, sheep, etc.
(b) Another survey of the pre-war trade. Post-war
reconstruction needs will create a great demand for
capital goods for some time to come. 1939 N.E.I.
exports were valued at C2om., her imports at 8om.
Of the imports in the last quarter of 1940 Australia had
a share of 5.65 per cent as against Japan 31.84, U.S.A.
29.98, U.K. 7.22. Of Australia's imports from N.E.I.
in 1938-39, valued at 7,120,000 the main items were:
petroleum, kerosene, etc., 4,700,000 ; tea-
1,623,000; kapok-27,ooo00; rubber--137,ooo.
Australia's exports 1939 were 1,38o,ooo.
Since the 1930's depression there were import re-
strictions by means of quotas and licences. The
main N.E.I. market for Australian foodstuffs is pro-
vided by the small European and Chinese communities.
The most important commodities exported 1938 from
Australia to N.E.I. were: flour, butter, metals,
metal manufactures and machinery, hams, etc.
Among goods offering the best post-war prospects
are Australian cheese, condensed milk, biscuits, fruits,
jams, wine and brandy, medicines, various metal
products, chemicals, etc. In flour and ham Australia
holds practically the whole market. Advertising is
essential.

518. Management Training in Country Centres.
Alan G. Langton. Manufacturing and
Management, pp. 47-49, August 1947.
Decentralisation of industry creates new problems
in management training. The South Australian School
of Mines and Industries, Adelaide, provides such
training in country centres, where demand arises.
1947 about 6oo men are being trained in management in
Adelaide itself. Last year 84 students, all personnel
of the B.H.P., attended a management training course
in Whyalla, staffed by the same Adelaide school. An
industrial management study group in Whyalla, formed
in 1944, now receives tuition through the Adelaide
school. In the fruit and wine producing S.A. areas
of Renmark and Nuriootpa where there are distilleries,








packing houses and other secondary industries, there
are also training and supervision classes, staffed by
the Adelaide school and by the Roseworthy Agricultural
College. Classes in other S.A. country centres are
contemplated.
To acquaint the students with City conditions
annual visits to Adelaide are organised for the country
classes.

519. Quality Control in Action. W. N. W.
Wallace. Manufacturing and Manage-
.ment, pp. 43-46, August 1947.
The author who is quality control engineer of
Philips Electrical Industries of Australia, discusses
the division of responsibility between quality control,
the design, production and 'consumer' departments.
The latter include the department that uses a purchased
component or raw material, or an article made or partly
processed by another department, and the sales de-
partment. Among the objects of quality control is
the aim to ensure that all materials purchased or pro-
cessed, also the finished products, conform to a specified
standard. The methods to achieve these ends are
explained and some practical examples presented
concerning the radio industry, such as dry joint (i.e.
poorly-soldered joints) control charts, charts for quality
assurance, etc.

(b) Individual Industries.
520. Queensland. Annual Reports of the Under
Secretary for Mines, including the Reports
of the Wardens, Inspectors of Mines,
Government Geologists and other Officers
for 1942-1945. P.P., pp. 262. Govern-
ment Printer, Brisbane, 1947.
The publication of these reports was suspended for
security reasons during the war period. 1942 was
marked by a drive for production of strategic minerals,
a decline in gold production and increased metal prices.
Coal production, controlled by the Coal Committee
for Queensland, constituted a record (1,637,000 tons),
but was insufficient for the greatly increased wartime
demand. Tin, copper and silver lead production fell
compared with 1941.
1943 coal output rose to 1,700,000 tons, gold pro-
duction decreased, copper production greatly increased
-from 6331 tons in 1941 to 10,758 tons-tin pro-
duction also rose, while silver lead and zinc mining
was temporarily abandoned in order to exploit the
copper deposits.
1944 the production of gold again decreased, coal
output fell slightly, while the production of tin and
copper continued to rise. The production of zircon-
rutile-monazite mineral concentrated around South-
port reached considerable proportions (14,162 tons).
1945 the need for minerals vital to war needs passed,
gold production rose slightly, while the output of
'strategic' minerals-copper, tin, wolfram, began to
fall. The production of rutile-zircon-ilmenite and of
coal was sustained.
Statistical material is presented in tables and dia-
grams.

521. Mining Industry in W.A. Under-
Secretary's Survey. West Australian
Mining and Commercial Review, pp. 13-18,
July 1947.


In 1946 the gross value of the W.A. mineral output
was 7,694,000, of which 6,640,000, i.e. 86.3 per
cent was gold, 730,000 coal. Quantities and values
of these and most other minerals with the exception
of arsenic, asbestos and some minor minerals increased
compared with 1945. The quantity of gold received
at the Royal Mint in Perth totalled 617,000 fine ounces,
i.e. 148,000 more than in 1945. Only one goldfield,
East Murchison-the second largest in the State-was
in decline. However, goldfield labour and machinery
are still scarce.
New developments in progress are iron deposits at
Cockatoo Island and asbestos deposits in the Hamersley
Ranges. Coal output was 642,000 or 99,000 tons
higher than 1945.
Other parts of the report deal with the activities of
the Mines Department such as: aluminium therapy,
state batteries, geological survey-particularly of the
Collie coalfield, the Coolgardie and Yalgoo goldfields-,
inspection of machinery, laboratories, school of mines.

522. Mauldon, F.R.E. The Changing Status
of Coal in the Australian Economy.
Economic Society of Australia and N.Z.,
Melbourne, 1947, pp. 33-46.
An address given at the A.N.Z.A.A.S. meeting in
Adelaide 1946, which had been published in the W.A.
Mining and Commercial Review, October 1946, and
abstracted as No. 240 in No. 3 of these Abstracts, now
reprinted in a slightly enlarged form by the Economic
Society.

523. Aluminium. Second Annual Report of
the Australian Aluminium Production
Commission for Period I July 1946 to
30 June 1947. P.P. Government Printer,
Canberra, pp. 16. Price 9d.
The first annual report of the commission was ab-
stracted in No. 4 of the 'Abstracts,' No. 353. In the
year under review further progress has been made in
locating bauxite deposits. The quantities of economic
grade bauxite within the commission's control are
estimated to be sufficient for over 30 years' production
at full capacity. The Minister for Munitions and the
Tasmanian Premier came to an agreement that the
cost of electric power to be supplied to the aluminium
industry should be the actual cost of production of the
special power scheme to be developed.
The commission decided on the chemical processes
to be adopted for the production of alumina from bauxite
and the reduction of alumina to aluminium. A site
on the Tamar River near Launceston was selected for
integrated operations-ore treatment and reduction-
and negotiations about wharfage facilities are con-
ducted. The funds of 3m. at the commission's
disposal are considered sufficient to establish the in-
dustry. When operating at full capacity (1o,ooo tons)
the plant is hoped to deliver ingot at prices competitive
with present landed prices of imported ingot. Acquisi-
tion of a suitable plant available from reparations from
Japan might be possible.
The commission is administering imported aluminium
stocks in Australia. In an appendix statements of
financial transactions of the commission are presented.

524. Marketing of Australian Butter and Cheese
in the United Kingdom. Dairying Indus-
try Trends in Countries Overseas. Brisbane,
1946, pp. 77.


119








This is a report, submitted by G. C. Howey and
C. Sheehy to the Commonwealth Government,
Australian Dairy Produce Board and Commonwealth
Dairy Produce Equalisation Committee after a visit
in 1946 to U.S.A., Canada, the British Isles and various
European countries. The authors took part in negotiat-
ing the Australian-British contract on the sale of
Australian export surpluses of butter and cheese for
1946-47. Part a deals with the normal (pre-war),
wartime and prospective post-war position of supply
of butter and cheese in U.K. with forecasts of the
British butter imports for 1946-48 from N.Z., Denmark,
Australia, Netherlands, Eire, Russia and the Baltic
states including Sweden and Argentina and with the
influence of margarine on butter supply. In addition
marketing control and practices in U.K. before, during
and after the war are discussed, the role of import
agents, the channels of distribution, the packeting and
the identity of butter and the practices of Denmark
and N.Z. with reference to export to U.K. Among
recommendations made a substantial reduction of the
numbers of import agents and the manner of allocation
of supplies to them are the most important.
Part 3 examines trends of milk production and usage
in U.K. and various exporting countries. Subject
of part 4 is the dairying organisation in different
countries and Part 5 is concerned with farm economics
and contains recommendations affecting the fight
against cattle tuberculosis and other diseases, herd
recording, artificial insemination, fodder conservation,
etc. Part 6 describes continuous butter-making pro-
cesses and recommends to arrange for tests in Australia
and N.Z. of machines designed for these processes.
Finally steps are suggested to increase liquid milk
consumption in Australia.

525. N.S.W. Milk Board. Annual Report for
Year ended 30 June 1946. Pp. 43,
Government Printer, Sydney.
A statement of milk prices ruling at 30 June 1946
within the metropolitan and Newcastle areas and
details of subsidies granted to milk producers by the
Commonwealth Government are given.
Sales of milk by the board show a record amount
and an increase of 25 per cent on 1944-45.
The Milk Act 1931-42 defines districts. Within
each distributing district established under the Act
the board controls supply and distribution of milk
while all dairymen within the distributing areas must
register with the board. Both the milk zone and the
distributing area have been extended and proposals
for the establishment of new districts under the Act
have been made to the State Government.
The report gives details of research and improve-
ments undertaken during the year.-H.S.

526. Antarctic Whaling. William J. Dakin.
Australian Quarterly, pp. 9-20, September
1947.
The author outlines the history of whaling generally,
and in the Antarctic in particular. When Norway,
Britain, Japan, Germany and other countries had
taken up large-scale Antarctic whaling the number of
whales caught in the Antarctic increased from 8ooo
in 1920-21 to 46,000 in 1937-38 and the oil production
from 391,000 to 3,340,000 barrels. Serious depletion
of the stocks of whales threatened. Since the 1920's
research into whaling problems was conducted by
Norwegian and British scientists, and 1930 the first
League of Nations convention on whaling was con-


eluded. By scientific methods the age of whales can
be estimated and the age at which their sexual maturity
is reached has been found. The basis of the con-
ventions was to forbid the catching of immature, i.e.
small-length whales. International conferences were held
in 1937 and 1938 and a sterner code of regulations was
agreed upon, which was accepted by all nations con-
cerned except Japan. Minimum legal sizes were
fixed, a close season for whales during nine months
and certain sectors of the sea were proclaimed where
whaling was permanently or temporarily prohibited.
In January 1944 another whaling conference was
held in London, which led to an agreement combining
the emergency need for food with the necessity of
conserving stocks. Such an emergency certainly
exists in Japan, but General MacArthur should have
consulted international experts before permitting the
resumption of Antarctic whaling by the Japanese.
Australia's participation in Antarctic whaling would
have the advantage of closer proximity to the whaling
grounds, but the drawback is her distance from the
main world markets of whale products.

527. Ferguson Wood, E. J. Agar in Australia.
C.S.I.R., Bulletin No. 203, Melbourne,
1946, PP. 43, roneoed.
Before the war Japan produced nearly 95 per cent
of the world's agar, while China, Russia and U.S.
produced smaller quantities. During the war a sea-
weed Gracillaria confervoides was discovered in
Australia which proved a suitable raw material of good
quality agar. Present manufacture of agar in Australia
is two tons a month, but at least 1oo tons per annum
could be won from known sources in Australia, i.e.
more than pre-war requirements. Agar is com-
mercially used for meat preserving, confectionery,
spices and condiments, to improve the keeping qual-
ities of bread, in the textile, leather, paper and other
industries. Among scientific uses are the uses as
bacteriological media, dental impression materials,
laxatives, surgical dressings.
The author discusses the physical and chemical
properties of agar, the methods of testing agar and its
sources overseas and in Australia. Here seaweeds are
found in many estuaries at the east coast and in W.A.,
on sandy bottom which lowers the cost of obtaining
raw materials. Details are presented of manufacturing
processes in Australia : the treatment of the weed
prior to extraction, the extraction of agar from the
weed, filtration, purification, drying, etc. As to the
possibilities of the agar industry in this country Aus-
tralian-made agar has proved suitable for meat canning,
confectionery, cordial making and for dental use.
Finally some costing data are given.

528. The Dollar Crisis and Australian Tobacco
Supplies. W. A. Cunningham. Farm
Front, pp. 121-126, September 1947.
After a brief reference to the causes of the dollar
shortage in Britain and Australia and to the decision
of the Commonwealth Government to cut American
tobacco imports by zo per cent, the author discusses
the problem whether the resulting gap can be bridged
by expanding Australian tobacco production. 1945-46
local tobacco leaf used in Australian tobacco factories
was 4.68m. lbs., i.e. zo per cent of the requirements.
The quantity of Australian leaf thus used was fairly
constant since 1938-39, but the actual production of
the leaf was rather spasmodic, ranging from 7.o4m.
lbs. in 1941-42 to 2-8om. lbs. in 1945-46. In the
120








192o's only about 2400 acres a year were sown with
tobacco ; but, after the duty for imported unstemmed
leaf had been considerably raised in 1930, the acreage
increased up to 23,ooo acres in 1932-33. The pro-
duction rose to I2.2m. lbs. 1931-32, but much of this
leaf was inferior, grown on unsuitable soil by inex-
perienced growers. After the duty had been reduced
again, the acreage fell below 9ooo acres in 1934-35
and did not much recover afterwards, but growers
became more experienced and efficient.
The industry could expand so as to make up for the
import reduction, provided a higher degree of crop
specialisation and an improvement in quality and
greater stability in production and marketing are
achieved.

529. Wool, 1946-7. Prepared and published
by Birt and Company Pty. Ltd., Sydney,
1947, PP. 32.
A summary of events relevant to Australian wool
interests in 1946-47. Among various subjects dis-
cussed are: Resumption of wool auctions, the U.S.
bill imposing a 50 per cent ad valorem levy on imported
wool and President Truman's veto, the resumption
of wool buying by Japan, the record quantities and
prices of wool sold by auction during the period under
review, the ban on merino sheep exports, the Labelling
Act, woollen mill activities in Australia, Continental
countries, Palestine and the Far East, present and
future working of the Joint Organisation and the wide
distribution of wool shipments. Further sections of
the booklet deal with wool during the war, accumulated
stocks and prospects.

530. The Menace of Synthetic Fibres to the
Wool Industry of Australia. Alfred M.
Bloch. Textile Journal of Australia, pp.
490-493, 560, September 1947; pp. 598-
599, 612-613, October 1947.
Australia's share in world wool production was
24-6 per cent in 1938-39 and is even larger now.
Rayon output has grown tremendously in the last 50
years, it is still small relative to wool and cotton, but
practically limited only by demand. Its increasing
consumption is partly due to the fact that rayon prices
have declined compared with wool and cotton prices.
Peak prices are dangerous to wool consumption because
they provide a stimulus for using substitutes. The
fear of substitutes has produced technical improve-
ments : woollen textiles of finer and lighter weight,
more varied textures, colours and designs have been
manufactured and enabled competition with rayon
fabrics. Rising demand for finer wools is an advantage
to merino-type wools which constitute the bulk of
Australian wool.
Increasingly rayon is used, pure or blended with wool,
in competition with woollen goods. Wool still has
qualities not possessed by its competitors, but scientific
research, generously supported by large rayon pro-
ducers, may in future provide synthetic fibres with
better qualities, and these fibres are not subject to
climatic influences like wool.
Among remedial measures to be adopted by the wool
industry the author mentions reduction of marketing
costs, better presentation of wool inningn, packing,
elimination of loose fibres), standardisation of wool
classing, rationalisation of transport: 45 per cent
of the greasy wool is dirt, dust, sand, etc., and enormous
transport charges are wasted, when greasy wool is


transported to distant appraisement centres and
shipped overseas instead of being scoured here. Pub-
licity campaigns and research should be backed by
adequate funds. Investigations are needed to achieve
scientific feeding. Additional steps are branding and
labelling of wool and woollen goods and the intro-
duction of future markets for Australian wool to secure
price stabilisation and minimise risk.

531. Australia's Case for Reduction of Wool
Duties in the U.S.A. Presented at Gen-
eva in July 1947 by the Leader of the
Australian Delegation, John J. Dedman,
PP- 15-
Arguments in this statement are based on pre-war
experience, as the present demand for wool is abnormally
high, U.S. wool production which has declined during
the war will rise again, and a fall in wool prices, although
not quite to the pre-war level, is to be expected. The
main reasons are indicated why wool is the most
important item for Australia in her trade negotiations
with U.S. (a) Australia provides 41 per cent of all
wool and 70 per cent of all merino wool entering into
international trade. Over an average of pre-war
years wool represented 43 per cent of Australia's total
export to U.S. (b) There is scope for increased wool
consumption in U.S. which before the war was the
first country in real income per head, but tenth in
wool consumption per head. Raw material costs are
only a low proportion of the final costs in luxury
clothing, but a high proportion in simpler garments,
knitted goods and blankets. Wool consumption in
U.S. was much higher when wool entered duty free
(1914-20) than under the duties of 34 and 31 cents.
(c) Wool is threatened by synthetic fibre competition.
Prices play a most relevant part in countering the com-
petition of substitutes.
In conclusion the statement discusses the alleged
fiscal losses which the U.S. government would have to
experience if wool duties were reduced. Increased
consumption would reduce these losses. If the loss
of duties is offset by taxes to support the U.S. wool
producers and part of the subsidy to the wool producer
previously received by him from the consumer is made
up from taxes, the real burden to the community would
not rise, only its distribution would be altered.

532. The Symposium on Australia's Native
Tanning Material. Australasian Leather
Trades Review.
(a) A Comparison of the Properties of
Various Tanneries with Special Reference
to Eucalyptus Sieberiana and Callitris
Calcarata. A. Purss and H. Anderson,
pp. 177-184, May 1947.
(b) Improving Results from Mimosa
and 'Myrtan' Extracts, pp. 214-218,
June 1947.
(c) The Use of Mangrove Bark. L. A.
Coombs and H. Anderson, pp. 270-274,
July 1947.
(d) Further Notes on Australian Tan-
ning Materials. H. Anderson, pp. 305-
306, August 1947.








An abstract of part of the symposium held on
30 November 1946 was published as abstract No. 361
in No. 4 of this periodical (September 1947).
(a) E. sieberiana (black cypress pine) gives a highly
acid tan, suitable for blending with mimosa to increase
the acidity of the liquors and to improve the colour of
the leather. C. calcarata (silver-top) is a tan of
abnormally high acidity, whose natural colour is very
red.
(b) G. Birdsall and H. Anderson, paper on sulphiting
of mimosa extract. Sulphited extract is hardly known
in Australia. It yields a paler leather than ordinary
mimosa extract. Experiments are discussed to work
out a method of sulphiting which can be readily carried
out in Australian tanneries.
L. A. Coombs and H. Anderson deal with the influence
of synthetic tannin on the dispersion of 'Myrtan.'
Myrtan yields a heavy, solid, waterproof leather, but
deposits sludge in the pits. This can be prevented by
a special synthetic tannin.
(c) Mangrove bark is plentiful in Australia, but
difficult to collect. It yields a harsh leather of undesir-
able colour. Improvements have been made by treat-
ing mangrove tannin with sulphites and metallic salts
to produce a mellower leather of lighter colour.
(d) The tannin of C. calcarata is very red in colour,
and even with improved colour, remains redder than
mimosa. C. glauca, of which sufficient quantities are
available to produce 1000 tons a year of solid extract,
seems to compare favourably with mimosa in colour.
Its output can be increased by Eucalyptus creba which
is milled in the same area as C.glauca. Production
of extract from C. glauca for sole leather tanning.
supplemented by extracts of C. calcarata and E. creba
for belting leather tannage might be practicable,
E. sieberiana and related species can be profitably
recovered as tanning materials.

533. Australian Optical Industry (including oph-
thalmic goods). Tariff Board Report.
P.P. 1947. Government Printer, Can-
berra, pp. 45.
The board heard witnesses from the groups of
manufacturers, wholesalers, importers and overseas
suppliers, and retailers. The manufacturers re-
quested: (i) That the home market for all ophthalmic
and precision optical goods should be reserved to the
local manufacturer by tariff protection or subsidies;
(2) that the importation of complete spectacles with
powered lenses and of edged lenses with powers should
be prohibited.
Before the war there was no Australian precision
optical manufacturing, while of ophthalmic goods only
fused bifocal lenses from imported blanks and spectacle
cases of the wallet type were locally made. During
the war a precision optical industry started here,
plastic and metal frames and the grinding of single
vision lenses were developed. Now these new branches
of production have to compete with imports. There
were great differences of opinion about the quality
of the newly-produced goods, and the requests for
government assistance were opposed by witnesses
from the ranks of importers, wholesalers and retailers.
The board came to the conclusion that a decision
on the manufacturers' suggestions could not be reached
without further enquiries into the divisions of the
industry. If justified at all, only such rates of bounty
or duty should be recommended that a price advantage
over the landed duty paid cost of imports is obtained


by an efficiently-conducted industry. Probably neither
the manufacture of precision instruments nor of
spectacle frames and mounts will conform to this
principle.

534. Brass and Steel Precision Rules. Tariff
Board Report, pp. 9, Government Printer,
Canberra, May 1947.
The Australian manufacturer is making rules of a
different quality from that demanded by Australian
users, and the methods used here seem to be con-
siderably more expensive than those used in the U.K.
The applicant company failed to convince the board
that even if assured of the whole Australian market
it could reduce costs to a level that would not impose
an unjustifiable burden upon the industries using
them.-H.S.

535. Aluminium and Aluminium Alloys. Tariff
Board Report, pp. 17, Government
Printer, Canberra, June 1947.
The Commonwealth Government has decided to
manufacture aluminium ingot in Australia and is now
committed to the continuance of rolling and extrusion,
since without these the greater part of ingot produced
would have no market in Australia.
A wide difference in cost of the aluminium products
under review is shown between U.K. and Australia.
However, relative prices are at the moment unstable,
and if the Australian market could be extended costs,
and thus prices, could be lowered.
The Tariff Board recommends that the by-laws
under reference should be cancelled, and that the
relevant goods be made dutiable under appropriate
existing tariff items. The Government should also
formulate a policy whereby the establishment and
development of industries as a whole is assisted.-
H.S.

536. Wire Netting. Tariff Board Report, pp. 4,
Government Printer, Canberra. Septem-
ber 1947.
The manufacture of wire netting in Australia has
in the past needed governmental assistance which has
been rendered by means of bounty rather than pro-
tective duties, in order to avoid increased prices of an
important requirement of Australian primary industry.
In 1939 the Board's recommendation for the dis-
continuance of the bounty was not adopted. The
industry was investigated again in 1944 when only
one company was receiving assistance. The same
conclusion was reached, but the Wire Netting Bounty
Act 1939-40 was extended till 24 October 1947.
As a result of the present inquiry the Board re-
affirmed its previous recommendation that the pay-
ment of bounty be discontinued on the ground that
assistance is no longer needed to Australian manu-
facturers as overseas competition is negligible.-H.S.

537. Calcium Carbide. Tariff Revision. Tariff
Board's Report. Government Printer,
Canberra, 1947, pp. 12.
The Tariff Board enquired into (a) the possibility
of a reduction of the cost of calcium carbide as a raw
material for the plastics and acetylene black manu-
facturing industries; (b) government action to be
taken about it. Witnesses were heard:







(1) The Australian Commonwealth Carbide Company
in Hobart as the sole Australian producer of calcium
carbide. This company at present operates far below
capacity, because the shortage of shipping prevents
sufficient supplies of coke from the mainland, and
anthracite from Wales, imported prior to the war, is
not now available. The company urged that adequate
stocks of coke should be made available to it and the
primage duty on imported anthracite should be re-
moved. Then the works could operate at full capacity
and provide further calcium carbide for the plastics
and acetylene black industries.
(2) Various users of calcium carbide. These asked
for supplies of calcium carbide from abroad supple-
mentary to those from the Tasmanian plant, free of
duty or primage.
The factor limiting output of carbide in the board's
view is not plant capacity, but the shortage of carbon.
Total demand is estimated at 14,ooo tons p.a. for
welding and lighting and 3000 tons for chemical
industries. The present capacity of the Tasmanian
plant of 9800o tons p.a. could be extended. The current
price of Australian carbide is below the duty-free
landed costs of imported carbide, but this may not
last when freights will be reduced and with greater
world output dumping might be resumed. The
board concludes that with ample supplies of carbon
and with production of a larger quantity of carbide
in Australia the price could be reduced for all purposes.
The government should help the Tasmanian plant to
obtain carbon and abolish the primage duty on anthra-
cite. Users of carbide should be enabled to import
at concessional rates of duty carbide in excess of what
the Tasmanian company can supply. These rates
were already granted for imports from U.K. and Canada;
they should be extended to South Africa.

538. Hog Casings. Tariff Board's Report, pp.
46, 15 October 1947, mimeographed.
Before the war Australian fresh sausages were mostly
supplied in hog casings, most of which had to be
imported, chiefly from U.S.A. At present the local
output has fallen considerably, imports are available
only from U.S.A. and total supplies fall far short of
demand. Since the end of 1939 imports have been
subject to licences, issued to importers in the same
proportion as in the base year 1938-39. The im-
porters are required to distribute imported casings to
users in proportion to their base year purchases.
There were many complaints about inequities in the
distribution and investigations revealed anomalies.
All non-government witnesses requested more
licences, the Meat and Allied Trades Federation a
special allowance to itself for distribution among the
retail butchers. The Tariff Board had to consider
the dollar shortage, but there would be a necessity
for higher imports if otherwise edible meats were
diverted to boiling down. Higher imports would
release sheep casings, now an inadequate substitute
for hog casings, for export to U.S.A. where they fetch
higher prices and could earn dollars for Australia.
There might be a strong case for some change in the
system for allocating licences.

539. Spun Synthetic Fibre Piece Goods. Tariff
Board's Report, pp. 12. Government
Printer, Canberra, 3 October 1945 (re-
leased 1947).
At present artificial silk imported to Australia is
subject to a lower rate of duty under item io5(D)(i)
of the customs tariff; woollen piece goods for outer-


wear, weighing more than three ounces per square
yard to a higher rate under (F)(I) of the same item.
Substitute Notice No. I, issued 1938, directed that
piece goods wholly of synthetic fibres or in admixture
with other fibres (except wool) resembling piece goods
of wool, used for outer wearing and of the same higher
weight, should be liable to the higher rate under
(F)(I). The determination whether such materials
resemble woollen piece goods has proved very difficult.
A request by the Australian Association of British
Manufacturers for withdrawal of the Notice caused
the present inquiry.
The Association wanted to limit the withdrawal of
the Notice to materials from cellulosic fibres, and
denied the competition of synthetic fibres with wool.
The withdrawal was opposed by representatives of
Australian woollen manufacturers who stressed the
menace of synthetics to wool. As an alternative to
the Notice the application of the same rate of duty
to all synthetic fibre piece goods was suggested, i.e.
of the lower rate under (D)(i) by the witnesses repre-
senting British exporters, of the higher rate (F)(I)
by those representing Australian manufacturers.
The board considered that the spinning and weaving
of synthetics in Australia would probably start soon.
To meet the menace of synthetics the best that Aus-
tralia could do was to develop woollen materials,
improve qualities and reduce costs. The majority
of the Tariff Board recommended to withdraw the
Substitute Notice. For its retention in respect of
piece goods from non-cellulosic fibres there was no
need. If future developments should require it, a
suitable Substitute Notice could be issued forthwith.
A minority report, submitted by H. E. Guy, member
of the Tariff Board, recommended continued operation
of the Substitute Notice.

540. Fuel Injection Equipment. Tariff Board's
Report. Tariff Revision, pp. 12, Govern-
ment Printer, Canberra, 27 June 1947.
Fuel injection equipment, such as nozzles, pumps,
filters, for use in ignition machines, is imported under
Tariff By-Law Item I74(Y), i.e. exempt from duty
and primage. Pyrox Pty. Ltd. in Melbourne, which
during the war started local manufacture of this equip-
ment, requested that By-law I74(Y) should be can-
celled regarding fuel injection equipment, and this
should be dutiable under Item I78(E), i.e. 331 per
cent under British Preferential and 65 per cent under
General Tariff plus 5 and Io per cent primage. Repre-
sentatives of manufacturers of diesel engines and of
U.K. manufacturers of fuel injection equipment
opposed this request because of the quality and prices
of the Pyrox material. However, future prices of
imported C.A.V. English material will probably be
higher than present Pyrox prices.
The Tariff Board held that two of three Australian
manufacturers of diesel engines supplied with Pyrox
equipment were satisfied with it, and that Pyrox is now
in no need of protection. The board recommended
that fuel injection equipment should not be removed
from the provisions of the by-law.
A minority report, submitted by W. G. Duffy,
suggested rates of 20 per cent (British Preferential
Tariff) and 40 per cent (General Tariff) under a new
tariff item.

(C) Monetary Policy, Banking, Insurance
541. Bretton Woods. R. H. Scott. Economic
Record, pp. 49-57, June 1947.








To objections raised that Bretton Woods implies
the return to the pre-i9i4 gold standard the author
retorts that the rigidity and harshness of the gold
standard is removed by provisions for changing the
exchange rate in certain contingencies, also by the
possibility to declare a member's currency scarce, so
that exchange restrictions in transactions with this
member are permitted. Important will be the attitude
of member nations, pursuance of limited national
interests might wreck the scheme.
Three tables set forth the Australian balance of
payments from 1930-39, the international funds of
Australia from 1939-1946 and retail price indices
1939-46 for Australia, U.K. and U.S.A. The balance
of payment figures probably support the view that
Australia's annual drawing rights on the I.M.F.
(AI5-6m.) are insufficient. The figures for our
international funds and prices hardly warrant the
suggested change in our exchange rate.

542. Bretton Woods. H. W. Arndt. Public
Administration, pp. 321-328, June 1947.
This is an account of the progress to date of the
International Monetary Fund (I.M.F.) and the Inter-
national Bank for Reconstruction and Development
(I.B.). Washington was chosen as seat of I.M.F. and
power vested in a board of five executive directors.
The first annual meeting of the board of governors
in September 1946 admitted Italy and three additional
members, granted applications by France and Paraguay
for upward revision of their quotas and decided on the
interpretation of the clause about depreciation of
currencies beyond Io per cent. The notification of
par values of members' currencies has been requested
and the beginning of operations announced for i March
1947. Probable difficulties are the concentration of
demand on U.S. currency and the problem whether
the right of members to draw on I.M.F. resources to
meet balance of payment deficits is automatic. The
answer is clearly no, and the fund has to lay down
broad principles how to solve this problem.
The I.B. opened operations on 25 June 1946. The
replacement of the first president E. Meyer by J.
McCloy in February 1947 and other personnel changes
are a victory of Wall Street bankers over the U.S.
treasury. Difficulties arose in placing the I.B.'s
securities-on which its lending operations largely
depend-on the U.S. market. There are two main
problems in lending: (i) That the I.B. has to lend
with a reasonable prospect of repayment, while loans
are applied for which cannot be obtained in the ordinary
market. (2) The growing entanglement of the bank
with the foreign policy of U.S. directed against Russian
expansion. Of nine pending applications for loans
only two, by France and Denmark, have so far been
considered. The exclusion of certain countries from
loans retards economic recovery and places an ex-
cessive burden on short-term lending facilities of I.M.F.

543. The Education and Training of Actuarial
Students. L. S. Polden. Paper read
before the Actuarial Society of Australia,
5ist session, 1947, pp. 41-59.
A discussion of British and U.S. plans for reforming
the system of actuarial training. In both countries
the average time of 11 years to complete the fellowship
is regarded as too long and should be reduced to six
or seven years. The emphasis on mathematics seems
to have been overdone and students' education should
have a broader basis. Details are set forth of the


scheme of the British Institute of Actuaries with its
new syllabus providing for a preliminary examination
and four subsequent parts; and of the new syllabus
of joint examinations of the Actuarial Society of
America and of the American Institute of Actuaries
introduced in 1945, providing for five parts to be passed
for associateship and three additional parts for fellow-
ship. Main differences are the insistence of the British
plan on a basic examination in every subject in the
syllabus, while the American plan makes certain whole
subjects optional. In the British, as distinct from the
American, syllabus law and book-keeping are not
included. Selection of risks is almost ignored in the
British syllabus.

544. Some Remarks on the N.S.W. Legislative
Members' Pension Act, 1946. A. T.
Traversi. Paper read before the Actu-
arial Society of Australasia, 5Ist session,
1947, pp. 61-68.
The Act provides for a contribution of 30/- per
week and a life pension of 6 per week to a former
M.L.A. and 3 to his widow, after he has been a
member in any three Parliaments for no less than 15
years. If he has been a member in three Parliaments
for less than 15 years, the pension is 5. The author
comes to the conclusion that the plan is actuarially
unsound. As for past services no contributions are
payable, the accumulated fund will in 195o represent
only II per cent of the liability. Even if future
members will have contributed for the whole period
of their service, funds will be totally inadequate to
provide full pension values. For this purpose the
contribution would have to be 215 p.a. instead of
78.

545. Financial Problems. A. M. Parker. Paper
read before the Actuarial Society of
Australasia, 5ist session, November 1947,
pp. 69-88.
The author discusses the fluctuation of the prices
of ordinary shares over the trade cycle and the effect
of a reduced rate of interest on the encouragement of
private investment.
A substantial part of life office investments are 31 per
cent Commonwealth Government loans which have a
very short currency. This infringes the principle
that the time when assets mature should have some
relation to the time when policies become claims.
Investment of insurance funds in shares much depends
on the view taken of the share price and their future
yields. Some Australian life offices operate in U.K.
and in the Dominions, and currency assets should be
balanced against liabilities, apart from the importance
to Australia of export prices and the terms of trade.
Another important aspect is the taxation basis of life
offices. Management expenses are allowed as a de-
duction from gross investment income, in addition
a deduction is allowed based on actuarial valuation which
varies according to the valuation rate of interest. An
investment switch from one taxation class to another
alters the apportionment of allowable deductions.

(D) Public Finance

546. The High Cost of Government. Colin
Clark and A. F. Trueman. Economic
News, pp. 1-4, April-May 1947.








The authors have examined the main items in the
Commonwealth budget and have made estimates of
probable future expenditure required for implementing
legislation and policies on which the government has
already embarked, for each fifth year up to 1961-62.
These items are : social services under two assumptions
-that the means test will disappear progressively by
1961-62 and that it will be abolished by 1951-52-
administration, new works from revenue, war 1914-18,
war 1939-45 (debt charges, pensions, etc.) and current
defence, railways, post office, territories, payments
to States, miscellaneous. The estimated totals are:
394'5, 429 and 471-5m. in 1951-52, 1956-57 and
1961-62 under the first and 424.5, 444 and 471'5m.
under the second assumption regarding the means
test. The post-war defence expenditure will be 31
to 4 per cent of the net national income. As to ad-
ministration it has been-rather doubtfully-assumed
that the growth of the Australian public services will
be very small in the next 15 years. For new works
nothing is provided, as it is anticipated that this ex-
penditure will be met from the Loan Fund.
Further estimates indicate the sources from which
revenue to meet this expenditure will be obtained.
Borrowing will not be feasible in times of full employ-
ment without creating inflation. Most of the revenue
will have to come from taxation which has to be
between 28 and 32 per cent of the expected net national
income. There is no hope that this programme can be
carried out as it stands, because the critical level
of taxation is about 25 per cent of the national income.
This has been shown by the experience of many
countries. Otherwise inflation and a tendency to
devaluation of money would set in. The heavy burden
of social services could be eased by the introduction
of a contributory scheme for national insurance and
health.

547. Uniform Taxation. G. T. Clarke. Aus-
tralian Quarterly, pp. 83-89, September
1947.
Uniform taxation has the advantage of simplicity,
but this is offset by greater disadvantages. State
governments under uniform taxation have no incentive
to conduct their affairs economically. After having
imposed the system 'for the duration' the Common-
wealth now refuses to discontinue it. Virtually no
taxing field is left to the States and their financial
stability is beyond their control. Federation as a
partnership of self-governing States has lost its meaning,
as the 'essence of responsible government is some
direct and substantial relationship between the govern-
ment which spends the taxes and the taxpayers who
provide the money.' The lack of fiscal flexibility,
implied in the arbitrary method of reimbursing the
States, prevents the States from determining their
standards of social services and planning developmental
programmes.
The remedy suggested by the author is not complete
restoration to the States of the right to pass separate
assessment acts, but the right to impose their own
rates of taxation with the Commonwealth act as a
'yardstick' for measuring assessable income. In this
way concessional rebates or deductions can also be
made flexible. One assessment would be issued to
the taxpayer with separate items of Federal and State
tax.

548. Private Company Tax. Its Incidence,
Anomalies and Remedies. A. V. Ander-


son. Federal Accountant. pp. 346-350,
September 1947 ; pp. 386-390, October
1947.
The author shows the amounts of income above
which the incidence falls heavier on individuals than
on private companies operating under Division 7
(Sections 104 and 107) of the Income Tax Assessment
Act 1936. The tax payable on certain incomes is
lower for private companies than even personal exertion
rates, let alone property rates for individuals. There
are several methods how the incidence of private
company tax can be reduced considerably in a legitimate
way.
The author discusses remedies by proposing certain
amendments to Sections o04 and 107.

549. Taxation Notes. Double Taxation Relief
-United Kingdom and Australia. C. W.
Neill. Chartered Accountant in Australia,
pp. 36-42, July 1947.
A survey of the provisions of the agreement between
the governments of U.K. and Australia, signed on
29 October 1946 and incorporated in the Income Tax
Assessment Act, 1947, by the Federal Parliament.
Double taxation can arise if income is taxed on the
basis of 'origin' and 'residence.' When both countries
tax the income the problem is solved by the country
of residence giving a credit against its tax of the tax
imposed by the country of origin. Details are pre-
sented of cases of profits made by U.K. taxpayers from
transactions connected with Australia and vice versa,
of shipping and aircraft profits, dividends, undistributed
income of private and non-private companies, royalties,
rent and interest.


550. Broadcasting. Fifteenth Report of the
Parliamentary Standing Committee on
Broadcasting relating to the Financing
of the National Broadcasting System.
P.P. No. 23 of 1946-47. Government
Printer, Canberra, pp. 41. Price 2s.
The P.M.G. referred to the Standing Committee's
investigations into the financing of the national broad-
casting system. Three alternative proposals: (i) To
increase the licence fee to an extent necessary to meet
the deficit. (2) To allow sponsored programmes in
the national service to supplement the income from
licence fees. (3) To finance the deficit by grants
from Consolidated Revenue. The deficit for 1946-47
was estimated at 73,000 in the programme service,
at 289,ooo in the technical service for which the Post
Office is responsible. Evidence was tendered on
behalf of the A.B.C., the Treasury, the Post Office,
the Federation of Commercial Stations, of radio manu-
facturers and of listeners.
The Standing Committee recommends that sponsored
sessions (advertisements) should not be included in the
A.B.C. programme, that listeners' fees should not be
increased. The committee is opposed to the suggested
radio advertising taxes or radio receivers' tax, also to in-
creasingthe licence fees to be paid by commercial stations.
The deficit should be covered by grants from Con-
solidated Revenue, not as hitherto on an annual
basis, but for a period of three years in view of the
need to plan ahead in broadcasting. Steps should be
taken to co-ordinate the programmes of various stations.


I








551. Subsidies in New Zealand. W. Rosenberg.
Accountant's Journal (Wellington), pp.
25-27, July 1947.
Of a total of 13,750,000 spent on subsidies (year
not stated) about 3,750,00ooo are recoverable from
stabilisation accounts. The three main stabilisation
accounts are :
(I) The Meat Pool Account, established at the
beginning of the 1941-42 season when by agreement
with the Meat Producers' Board the government under-
took to purchase the normal exportable meat surplus
irrespective of shipping available. The account was
to be debited with subsidies paid to producers to
maintain the price of ewe mutton and bull beef and
with the capital spent on emergency cannery plant,
buildings and cool stores, while the Meat Board agreed
to forgo increased prices to be granted by U.K.
(2) The Meat Stabilisation Account, set up in
pursuance of the economic stabilisation plan (15 Decem-
ber 1942). Increases in U.K. prices before this date
were credited to the Meat Pool Account, those after
this date to the Meat Stabilisation Account, while the
latter account was to be debited with part of various
subsidies including those on fertilisers, stock food,
freezing works, etc.
(3) The Dairy Industry Stabilisation Account, also
established on 15 December 1942 and credited with
U.K. price increases since that date, debited with part
of the subsidies on fertilisers and wire supplies and
with the entire subsidies on butter boxes, etc.
Of non-recoverable subsidies paid out of the Con-
solidated Fund about two-thirds are due to inter-
national causes, i.e. they are paid because of the costs
of imported commodities such as wheat, tea, sugar,
or to exporters of N.Z. produce (butter, cheese, milk,
meat) sold on the local market below overseas prices.
About im. are paid to primary producers due to
internal causes, i.e. subsidies on local wheat, apples
and pears, and eggs. About 2zm. is paid to other
than primary producers : to the coal, gas, shipping,
transport and other industries.
The author concludes that there is very little scope
for reduction of subsidies within the framework of
economic stabilisation. U.S. experience shows how
much prices may rise with de-control and abandonment
of subsidies.

(E) Accountancy
552. Goldberg, L. A Philosophy of Accounting,
2nd Edition. Accountants Publishing
Company Limited, Melbourne, 1947,
pp. 172. Price 7s. 6d.
This is a revised edition of a book first published
in 1939. Part I deals with the scope and nature of
accounting, and tests its claims to be regarded as a
science. Next the basic principles upon which
accounting procedure is founded are discussed, and
the method by which these principles are applied to
the practical exigencies of everyday financial trans-
actions is explained. In Part IV the characteristics
of an accounting system, in which the principles of
accounting procedure are applied, are considered.
Extra topics dealt with in the second edition include
the analysis and interpretation of accounting reports,
the voucher register, the funds statement, and the
entity theory of accounting.--.K.

553. Form of Public Accounts. A. A. Fitz-
gerald. Commonwealth Institute of Accoun-


tants, Diamond Jubilee Convention, Octo-
ber 1947, pp. 14.
Significant aspects of recent and prospective im-
provements in company financial statements are the
abandonment of the vindication of secret reserves,
recognition of the need to clarify accounting terminology,
an increasing tendency to experiment with uncon-
ventional forms of statement, increasing emphasis on
the concept of matching costs and income as the major
accounting process and the distinction between ac-
counting and financial policy. Despite prima facie
similarities between public and private accounting,
important differences arising out of methods of finan-
cing activities, tests of successful operation, responsi-
bility for financial control and legal controls raise the
question whether methods applied to private industry
are appropriate in public accounts, which comprise
two classes, viz. those relating to general State finance
and those for State-owned undertakings. Existing
defects in the latter are similar to those which existed
until recently in most company statements and means
of improvement in terminology, depreciation account-
ing, arrangement of items and consistent presentation
are suggested. Different problems arise in connection
with general finances ; these cannot be solved by
reference to private accounting standards, since they
are based primarily on the cash statement, but uni-
formity, disclosure and improved classifications would
greatly enhance the usefulness of these statements.
-L.G.

554. The Evolution of Corporate Accounting.
R. A. Irish. Commonwealth Institute of
Accountants, Diamond Jubilee Convention,
pp. 22, October 1947.
The evolution of accounting has been concomitant
with the growth of corporate enterprise. The in-
dustrial revolution produced new situations calling for
new accounting methods but accounting progress was
rather stultified until the Companies Act of 1844.
Modern accounting theory took a more definite form
after the introduction of limited liability, when safety
and preservation of capital, the distinction between
capital and income and the requirement of periodical
financial reports became significant in accounting
practice. The personality of proprietorship has given
way to the impersonality of the corporation and the
proprietorship theory of accounting has been largely
replaced by the entity theory; this has had a marked
effect on the form and substance of financial reports
and has resulted ultimately in a shift of emphasis from
the balance sheet to the profit and loss account. The
development of holding companies has also created
problems of financial reporting.
There is a challenge in these developments to establish
proper standards for full and fair publicity in corporate
accounts and much attention is now being directed
to the formulation of these standards and to the
clarification of the conventional and doctrinal influences
which g< vern accounting practice. Disclosure in-
volves o her questions, such as stock valuation, the
treatment of non-recurring items, and secret reserves.
Further, managerial and cost accounting, 'economic'
accounting and the social aspects and responsibilities
of accounting also give rise to many problems which
still have to be settled.--L.G.

555. Symposium on Depreciation. E. A.
Peverill, E. A. Reddel and L. A. Schumer.








Commonwealth Institute of Accountants,
Diamond Jubilee Convention, pp. 26,
October 1947.
Three papers were submitted dealing with deprecia-
tion from the point of view of the government ac-
countant, the financial accountant and the cost ac-
countant.
The three usual methods of dealing with depreciation
in the books of government departments are discussed
under the headings of (i) replacement on retirement,
(2) contributions to a replacement fund and (3) debt
redemption.
Depreciation in financial accounting is dealt with
from the following points of view: balance sheet,
income account, cash, dividends and investors, legal
requirements of Company and Taxation Acts, effect
on future industrial development. There is also a
section on the problem of replacement values. It is
suggested that amounts set aside for possible increases
in the costs of replacement are matters of financial
prudence, and are, therefore, in the nature of reserves
and should be treated as such in the accounts.
From the cost accountant's viewpoint, if the price
policy operating is one under which the purchaser is
required to pay the full economic sacrifice for the pro-
duction of the goods purchased, depreciation charges
should be based on the actual cost of the durable
assets. On the other hand, if future production is
being priced, it may be advisable to alter the basis on
which depreciation charges are calculated. The
selection of actual or replacement cost as- a basis of
depreciation charges is dictated solely by the nature
of the problem to be solved.--.K.

556. Accounting for Stock in Trade. W. M.
Scott. Commonwealth Institute of Accoun-
tants, Diamond Jubilee Convention, pp. 16,
October 1947.
Businesses may be divided into two main categories:
(a) manufacturing, (b) warehouses and retail establish-
ments.
In any manufacturing concern materials should be
controlled through the use of purchase requisitions,
purchase orders, goods received dockets, and requisi-
tion forms, together with proper storage and physical
control of the stock. Control must also be maintained
over manufactured parts, and finished goods.
In wholesale warehouses a system of control by stock
cards is usually practicable, but where relatively cheap
lines are sold in small quantities sales could be made
from an open stock and card records be kept only for
bulk stocks and larger type sales.
It is usually impracticable to keep detailed stock
records in retail establishments, except for some
expensive items, and actual physical control of stock
is generally a matter of adequate supervision. Aggre-
gate control of stock is best effected by some system
of retail inventory accounts.
Among the recognized methods of valuing stocks
on hand are : (i) average cost, (2) first-in-first-out,
(3) actual unit cost, (4) standard cost, (5) adjusted
selling price, (6) last-in-first-out, (7) base stock method,
(8) replacement cost, (9) market value. In regard to
the valuation of stock for income-tax purposes, the
Commonwealth Income Tax Act provides that trading
stock (not being live stock) may be valued, at the
option of the taxpayer, at its cost price or market
selling value or the price at which it can be replaced.
--.K.


557. Valuation of Livestock. O. G. Unkenstein.
The Federal Accountant, pp. 260-263,
July 1947.
In the books of account of primary producers one of
the three following methods of valuing livestock is
usually adopted, viz. :-
I. Standard or fixed values.
2. Average cost.
3. Market values.
Examples are given illustrating each method, and
notice taken of their effect on the profit for income-tax
purposes.-J.K.

558. Post-war 'Standards' Cost Installation.
J. Simon. The Federal Accountant, pp.
265-270, July 1947.
In installing a 'standards' cost system at the present
time in a concern manufacturing flat glass, the author
found that he could not rely on past records to help in
setting standards. The main reasons for this were :-
(i) In the case of labour the rates have fluctuated widely,
and there is no certainty that loadings will be retained
in the rates. (2) Production value per labour hour
has fallen to between 75 per cent and 50 per cent of
pre-war values. (3) As regards materials, the prices
and supplies are uncertain, and variances also occur
in quantities used to compensate for varying moisture
contents and degrees of purity.
For these reasons the system was based on 'moveable'
standards.
The working of the system is given in some detail.
The financial year is divided into quarters of 4-4-5
weeks, and so it was necessary to devise a fast method
of making all inter-sectional transfers.-f.K.

559. Differential Costs-as an Aid to Manage-
ment. Commonwealth Institute of Ac-
countants Research Lecture. W. D.
Scott. Australian Accountant, pp. 360-
381, September 1947.
Most definitions of differential costs are limited to
changes in total costs due to variations in volume of
production but the definition adopted in this lecture is
that differential costs are costs which set forth differences
in price or income resulting from alternative policies.
There are many types of differential cost statements,
among them being: (i) the arithmetical comparison,
(2) the graphic differential cost statement, such as the
profit graph, (3) the flexible budget.
The executive most likely to gain maximum advantage
from differential cost statements is the managing direc-
tor, or general manager, but they are also of use to the
factory manager, purchasing agent, distribution manager,
sales manager, and to the board of directors. Examples
are given of the type of problems each of these executives
has to consider, and in the solution of which differential
cost statements can assist.
Some text books by their definition of cost accounting
definitely exclude differential costs, but the lecturer
contends that they are part of the wider technique of the
cost accountant. He adds that in his opinion there is a
great deal to be said for keeping the term 'cost accoun-
ting' for the more systematic forms of cost finding, and
using the term 'managerial accounting' for the wider
conception which embraces the various forms of cost
accounting, budgetary control through the use of flexible
budgets, the interplay and effect of the degree of varia-
bility in expense, and differential cost statements.-J.K.








560. Prospective Improvements in Financial
Statements of Companies. (Paper read
at Perth Conference of A.N.Z.A.A.S.,
1947.) A. A. Fitzgerald, Australian Ac-
countant, pp. 456-463, November 1947.
From a series of ten recommendations on accounting
principles issued by the Council of the Institutes of
Chartered Accountants in England and Wales, the
following are discussed in this paper :
(i) The distinction between 'resources' and 'pro-
visions' and the purpose of such a distinction. (2) The
'valuation' of stock-in-trade for balance sheet and profit
and loss statement purposes. (3) The disclosure of
reserves.
The term 'reserve' should be used to denote amounts
set aside out of profits and other surpluses, which are
not designed to meet any liability, contingency commit-
ment, or diminution in value of assets known to exist
at the date of the balance sheet. The term 'provision'
should be used to denote amounts charged against or
set aside out of profits or other surpluses to meet: (i)
specific requirements the amounts whereof can be esti-
mated closely; and (2) specific commitments, known
contingencies and diminution in values of assets where
the amounts involved cannot be determined with sub-
stantial accuracy. The term 'reserve fund' should only
be used where a reserve is specifically represented by
readily realisable and earmarked assets.
Although it is difficult to defend the 'golden rule' of
valuing stock-in-hand at 'cost or market, whichever is
the lower', there is a little prospect that theoretical
arguments will shake the faith in it of the great majority
of practical accountants.
If the recommendations of the institutes, regarding
the valuation of stock-in-trade, depreciation of fixed
assets, and the contents of published accounts are carried
out, it will be more difficult to create, or dispose of
secret reserves.-J.K.

561. Managerial Aids to Lower Costs. A. D.
Richmond. Australasian Institute of
Cost Accountants, Cost Bulletin No. 9.
pp. zo, October 1947.
Cost accounting is an aid to management rather than a
system and the demands of management for better aids
require reports indicating future trends and probable
results. In preparing budgets one should begin with a
profit plan, i.e. commencing with the expected or re-
quired net profit or return on funds, then showing the
sales and gross profit margins and including any operat-
ing profit or loss in production. By applying this plan to
each section and checking actual results in brief and
simple executive reports, an aid for management is pro-
vided which gives the greatest benefit from cost accoun-
ting. Specimens of reports are given and cost commit-
tees, formed of senior executives with power to act and
meeting regularly, are suggested.-L.G.

562. Cost Allocation in the Gas Industry.
M. II. Rout. National Gas Bulletin,
pp. 6-Io, May-June 1947.
Under the best system of cost analysis in the gas
industry the fixed and variable costs are divided into
(a) production demand costs, (b) distribution demand
costs, (c) commodity costs, (d) customer costs, (e) by-
products costs, and (f) unallocated costs.
Fixed costs generally consist of (a) Interest, (b)
Dividend, (c) Depreciation, (d) Special purposes


Account. The reason for the inclusion of interest and
dividend in cost is that the object of the costs is the
fixing of selling prices for the commodity.
The fixed and variable costs are allocated according
to the purpose which they serve. However, no part of
the fixed costs is allocatable to Commodity Costs
because it is assumed that fixed costs continue whether
the plant is operating to full production or is shut down
altogether.
Illustrations of the allocation of costs, and the compila-
tion of unit costs are given, and also of the significance
of the unit costs when obtained.-J.K.

(F) Transportation and Communication
563. Some Problems of Australian Transport
Development. T. Hytten. Economic
Record, pp. 5-19, June 1947. Paper read
before Section G of the Australian and
N.Z. Association for the Advancement
of Science, Adelaide, August 1946.
New transport problems are the proposals to unify
railway gauges, proposals concerning coastal shipping
and decentralisation of industry. The standardisation
of gauges on the basis of the N.S.W. 4 ft. 8J in. was
decided upon by the Commonwealth government in
January 1946 in modification of the Clapp plan at an esti-
mated cost of 224m. over thirty-three years. Apart
from defence aspects two economic advantages may be
expected from the unification : saving of the work of
transshipment at present break-gauge points and greater
convenience and consequently increased numbers of
interstate passengers (who, however, form only a neg-
ligible part of all railway passengers). For N.S.W. this
would involve about 8oo,ooo more expenditure on
interest a year against Ioo,ooo more income. Norm-
ally the interstate freight traffic goes mainly by sea, while
interstate passenger traffic is increasingly subject to air
and road competition.
Present shipping freights are based on pre-war rates
plus 35 per cent while the author estimates the rise in
costs up to 150 per cent. The world market cost of new
ships is now between 70 and 80 per cent above pre-war
level. In April 1946 Mr. Dedman announced legisla-
tion limiting coastal shipping to Australian-built vessels
and to replace ships after 25 years' service. This age
limit seems to be too rigid and Australian shipbuilding
costs are much higher than those in U.K. and Europe,
possibly even in U.S.A. Besides standardised ships are
unsuitable for coastal trade.
As to decentralisation the present Australian railway
rate policy to charge finished products higher than raw
products has assisted the tendency of industry to gravi-
tate to the big cities and so has the creation of 'free zones'
of motor traffic around big cities and its restriction in
the country. In railway transport the overhead costs
are at least 80 per cent of total expenditure and the
ability of the railways to discriminate between distances
and classes of goods could aid decentralisation. The
railways could gain from the new traffic created in this
way.

564. Australia's Place in World Telecommuni-
cations. P. C. Greenland. Australian
Outlook, pp. 32-38, June 1947.
The impact of radio on cable systems whose capital
costs were much higher, would have forced the cable
companies into liquidation, had not both systems been
integrated. A plan was devised by Australia and N.Z.








for complete integration and nationalisation of the cable
and wireless services on an Empire-wide basis. The
project was accepted by the U.K. and the Dominions
governments in 1945 and 1946. The U.K. government
was to buy out the private cable and wireless interests
in Britain which controlled the greater part of the Empire
systems as well, the Dominion governments were to buy
out the private interests in their countries. Inter-
regional co-ordination will be carried out through the
Commonwealth Telecommunications Board in U.K.,
on which all governments are represented; research
will be among its functions. Within the territorial
limits of each Dominion there will be an operating
authority, in Australia the Overseas Telecommunications
Commission, which is already operating the wireless
services and is negotiating about the acquisition of the
cable equipment in Australia.

565. Report on Civil Aviation in Australia and
New Guinea 1941-44. Department for
Civil Aviation, Melbourne (no date),
pp. 88.
A summary of three annual reports from July 1941 to
June I944 which had not been published previously for
security reasons. In the section on organisation, ad-
ministration and staffing stress is laid on the large
extension of the aeradio arrangements which met with
particularly serious staffing difficulties. Most impor-
tant is part IV, dealing with air transport and mails,
divided into internal air services, Empire, Trans-
Tasman, Indian Ocean and other services. Conveyance
of mail by air expanded considerably and special pro-
visions were made for air mail letters to and from
Empire Forces abroad, lettercards from Australian
troops in the Middle East, secret 'safehand despatches',
etc. Other parts of this section discuss air transport in
New Guinea including evacuation, priority to travel on
air services, use of civil aircraft by allied forces and
Commonwealth departments, operation of civil aircraft
by civil airlines companies, etc.
In addition the report gives data on a great variety of
matters which concern civil aviation in Australia.
Of statistical material presented in appendices the
statistics of operations of Australian regular air transport
services is the most notable part.

566. Transport. Annual Report of Transport
Department, N.Z. Year ended 30 March
1947. Government Printer, Wellington,
PP- 31.
A detailed account of road transport regulations and
development in N.Z. The number of motor vehicles
licensed has increased by almost 5 per cent during the
year, while petrol consumption has risen by 26 per cent.
The extension of motor transport has been accompanied
by a considerable rise in road accidents, and despite road
safety instruction in schools, there was a marked increase
in the number of children of pre-school and school ages
injured in road accidents.
Passenger volumes on public motor-passenger services
have been maintained at very high levels, and public
road freight carriers continue to meet the demands of
widening trade efficiently and smoothly.-H.S.

567. Aviation. Report of Air Department, New
Zealand. Year ended 31 March 1947.
Government Printer, Wellington, pp. 34.
This report embraces the activities of the Royal N.Z.
Air Force, the Civil Aviation Branch and the Meteoro-
logical Office.


The report of the Chief of Air Staff gives an account
of the planning and formation of the post-war Air Force.
operations at present include maintenance of one squad-
ron in Japan, provision of air transport services within
N.Z. and the South Pacific.
The Director of Civil Aviation gives details of the
rehabilitation of civil aviation including the development
of air transport operations, aerodromes and aircraft
available.
The meteorological branch provides detailed fore-
casts and weather information for both service and civil
aircraft. It is responsible for weather reporting organi-
sation within the Dominions and for many British
islands in the Pacific.-H.S.

568. The Melbourne and Essendon Railway
Company-1858 to 1864. L. J. Harrigan.
Victorian Historical Magazine, pp. 1-15,
December 1946.
A paper read before the Historical Society of Victoria
on 27 March 1944.
The company was formed in 1858 to build a railway
from Essendon Junction (on the government railway
from Melbourne to Bendigo) to Essendon, a distance of
less than 3 miles. The railway was opened on 22
October 1860, but the company did not possess any
engines or carriages and had, therefore, to hire govern-
ment rolling stock. In February 1861 a branch was
opened to Flemington Racecourse. The company was
soon compelled to raise a loan of 27,ooo by way of
mortgage. In December 1861 two, and in February
1863 a third locomotive, built for the company in Eng-
land arrived, of which only one was used by the company
and two were sold. As the traffic was inadequate to
meet expenses, and negotiations with the government
for a purchase were unsuccessful, the line was closed
down on I July 1864. Not before 1867 the government
purchased the railway for 22,500 and after extensive
repairs re-opened a portion from the junction to New-
market, while the remaining section Newmarket-
Essendon opened only in 1871.
The failure of the company was 'another instance of
the inability of private enterprise to profitably compete
against the difficulties with which the early settlers of
the Australian Colonies had to contend'. Lack of
experience 'caused the promoters to accept unsound
proposals'. The shareholders never received any divi-
dend.

(G) Labour and Industrial Relations
569. How Can Australia Meet Its Labour
Shortage ? Papers before the Top
Management Conference of the Insti-
tute of Industrial Management, Mel-
bourne, on ii September 1947, pp. 109.
Price 5s.
This is a report of the following papers:
(i) Statistical Survey of the Australian Labour Situa-
tion, by J. F. Nimmo, Principal Research Officer, Com-
monwealth Bureau of Statistics. Nimmo shows that
the movements in working population from 1939 to 1947
were males 2,371,000 to 2,526,000; females 2,585,000
to 3,003,000. Males in civilian work increased from
2,094,000 to 2,452,000, and females from 644,000 to
760,000. Tables show the declining importance of
rural industries and the increasing significance of manu-
facturing, transport, and public administration as
competitors for available labour. He estimates that the


129








population will rise to 8,350,000 persons by 1952, of
whom 2,628,ooo males and 817,000 females will be
available for civilian work. The demand for labour,
however, will be such that there will be in general more
jobs available than persons to fill them, and the unfilled
vacancies will be found in a wide range of occupations
and in most industries.
(2) The Economic Implications of Labour Shortage,
by G. L. Wood, Professor of Commerce, University of
Melbourne. The labour shortage was, in reality, over-
employment and the economic effects were : (a) a dis-
turbance in the training of skilled workers; (b) high
labour turnover; (c) lack of incentive among workers ;
(d) agitation for a return to direction of labour; (e)
disturbed distribution of industrial power ; (f) declining
industrial output per worker ; (g) greater employment of
machinery; (h) worsening of industrial relations.
(3) Making the Best Use of Available Labour, by the
Hon. A. G. Warner, Chairman of Directors, Electronic
Industries Ltd. Government is playing an increasing
part in the management of the national economy. The
division of labour resources is approximately equal for
transport, tertiary industries, primary production, and
manufactures. Ifa higher proportion of available labour
is drawn to one of these groups the other groups suffer.
Managerial efficiency can offset difficulties by : (a)
development of design; (b) production design and
planning; (c) control of production; (d) acquiring and
using productive time efficiently; (e) improving equip-
ment, accounting, and amenities.

570. Personnel Procedures in Australia. The
Institute of Industrial Management, Vic-
toria, Research Report No. i, Melbourne,
1947, pp. Ioo.
This is a survey of personnel policies and practices
carried out by a research group of ten members of the
editing institute. Methods applied were questionnaires,
personal contact with executives in industry and personal
experience of group members. The information
covered 70 Melbourne and interstate organizations.
Among activities surveyed were the functions and organi-
sation of personnel departments including personnel
libraries. Personnel departments are responsible for the
remuneration and conditions of employment of factory
operatives and salaried staff. Job description and analy-
sis is investigated. General employment procedures are
described, such as sources of labour supply, aids to selec-
tion of personnel, promotions and transfers and termina-
tion.
Of the enterprises covered 65 per cent had a personnel
department or personnel officer, 30 per cent made use
of aptitude tests, 30 per cent had incentive schemes, 80
per cent superannuation schemes, 67 per cent facilities
for hot meals, 48 per cent medical services, 62 per cent
employee committees.

571. Australian Secondary Industry. The Demand
for Female Labour. A Brief Study.
Secondary Industries Division, Ministry
of Post-war Reconstruction, Melbourne,
1947, pp. 42, roneoed.
This report deals with the shortage of female labour
which threatens the development of Australian secondary
industry. Major changes from 1901 to 1943 were the
movement away from personal and domestic service and
increases in most other groups of industry; the data
for manufacture are inconclusive. The percentage of
female breadwinners fluctuates from state to state and


from one industrial group to the other; it is highest in
Victoria and lowest in Tasmania; next is Queens-
land. It tended to decline from 1901 to 1921 and in-
creased in 1933 (depression). In manufacture the
relative importance of clothing as a female industry
declined. In commerce a great expansion of female
labour occurred, mainly owing to the growth of large-
scale retailing and the mechanisation of office-work.
Future labour demand was worked out by preparing
graphs for each year from 1910, showing the total num-
bers of males and females in factories suggesting the
long-term tendency employment. Thus future demand
is estimated for six years from 1948 to 1953 separate for
states and industrial groups. The 'normal' demand for
these years is compared with the estimated number of
persons reaching 15 in any year. A surplus of supply
over demand is likely only in Tasmania, in Queensland
from 1951.

572. The Foreman and his Problems. G. H.
Alexander. Address delivered at Insti-
tute of Industrial Management, Mel-
bourne, 5 August 1947, pp. 16. Price
is. 6d.
Recent changes such as : a higher level of education of
workers and managers ; increasing rate of production;
changes in awards; fast working and complicated
machinery-call for more administrative skill and execu-
tive ability of the foreman. To the workers the attitude
of the foreman is that of the management and human
relations are the most important phase of management
to the foreman, next to it come production control and
company policies. There is need to decrease the 'irri-
tating powers' of the executive, among them direct
interference with the foreman's team.
The foreman's greatest problem can be his own doubt
and uncertainty. Service departments and specialists
should avoid friction and apply their special knowledge
through the foreman. Further problems are the fore-
man's association with his former workmates, his attitude
in times of labour trouble, the disappearing differential
in pay between workers and foreman, doubts as to the
actual extent of his authority.

573. Seeking the Causes of Labour Conflict.
R. S. Maynard. Address delivered at
Institute of Industrial Management, Mel-
bourne, on 6 May 1947, pp. 15. Price
is. 6d.
The author advocates fact-finding surveys to ascertain
what employees think about their work. Elton Mayo's
research has led to the conclusion that men work and
act as a group rather than as individuals, while present
management methods aim at efficiency only, not at
maintenance of co-operation. The worker's loyalty to
the union is due to this group feeling.
Concrete policies and objective conditions are proba-
bly the causes of most labour conflicts in U.S. Joint
management-workers' committees in every mill and in
the central industry to handle appeals, meeting regularly
and trying to settle grievances immediately, negotiating
in small teams from each side, but in the presence of
large numbers of employers' and workers' delegates,
proved a success.

574. Guaranteed Annual Employment and Wage
Plans. J. G. Robertson. Bulletin of
Industrial Psychology and Personnel Prac-
tice, pp. 3-17, September 1947.








An account of plans to provide employees of an enter-
prise with a guaranteed specified amount of income or
employment for a certain period. Main types are:
(I) Annual wage plans, i.e. within limits overtime is set
off against short time. Two U.S. examples are dis-
cussed : the Hormel plan, guaranteeing 52 regular
minimum payments a year to nearly all employees, and
the Nunn Bush plan providing for a share production
fund which is drawn upon to make up for abnormally
low pay of employees. (2) Guaranteed annual employ-
ment plans which guarantee a number of hours a week
or a number of weeks a year. One Australian (Mc-
Pherson's Ltd.) and two U.S. examples are presented.
(3) Wage advance plans resembling guaranteed wage
plans. Under these plans employees obtain advances in
slack times. Tables show the scope and distribution of
existing plans in U.S.A. and the eligibility of employees.
Guarantee plans so far are few in numbers, more fre-
quent in non-manufacturing than in manufacturing
industries.
Main safeguards for the enterprises are annual re-
newal clauses. A pre-requisite for introducing such
plans is stability of the undertaking.

575. The Trial of Arbitration. E. W. Easton.
Economic News, pp. 1-2, January 1947.
A table showing the days lost through industrial dis-
putes in various countries per worker per year from
1903-42 suggests that most disputes occurred in coun-
tries with an educated, socially advanced population
and strong trade unionism, such as Australia and
Scandinavia. Industrial disputes are most frequent
in periods of rapidly rising prices (1908-12 and 1918-22),
they are rarer in times of depression (1933-37). Aus-
tralia's figures of days lost are higher than those of most
non-arbitration countries, but comparison is fair only
with countries which are socially similar, such as New
Zealand and Scandinavia.
N.Z. which has had extensive arbitration since the
189o's, has a particularly good record, so has Queens-
land which relies more on arbitration than other Aus-
tralian states. Details are given of the reasons and
duration of Australian labour disputes. In judging
arbitration it has to be remembered that since the incep-
tion of arbitration in N.Z. 50 years ago there were two
world wars and the great depression.

576. Employee Representation on Australian
Public Service Boards and Tribunals.
R. S. Parker. Journal of Public Adminis-
tration (Wellington), pp. 33-48, March
1947.
The author presents a survey of the great variety of
staff representation on different public service boards in
the Commonwealth and in the states of Australia, since
the first representative Reclassification Board was set up
in 1916 in South Australia, culminating in the Joint
Council established by an amending Commonwealth
Public Service Act in 1945 'on matters of general interest
in relation to the Commonwealth public service.' Sub-
jects entrusted to these representative committees are :
the grading or classification of officers, fixing of salary,
promotions and discipline. They operate in a prelim-
inary advisory, in an executive capacity or as appeal
courts against executive decisions. There is in these
representative boards every conceivable combination of
status and subject. From some boards there is no
appeal, others are independent appeal boards on classi-
fication and discipline only, or on promotion. Various
criticisms raised against the boards are discussed, such


as that they complicate administration and are too ex-
pensive, that they are too much concerned with seniority,
are not impartial, etc. Methods of selecting represen-
tatives are by election, nomination of individuals or of
a panel from which the administration may choose.

577. The Industrial Arbitration System in
Western Australia. E. A. Dunphy.
Public Administration, pp. 382-385, Sep-
tember 1947.
This is an address to the Regional Group of the Insti-
tute of Public Administration in Perth.
Judging from the record of industrial peace the W.A.
arbitration system is the best in Australia. The State
Arbitration Court has a permanent president with the
status of a Supreme Court Judge and two members
representing the employers and workers respectively,
elected for terms of three years. Recently a Concilia-
tion Officer has been appointed. The court handles
awards, industrial agreements, questions of interpreta-
tion and prosecutions for breaches. The court can
delegate its powers to various bodies, constituted on a
similar basis as the court. Such bodies are : boards of
reference, dealing with matters arising under an award ;
industrial boards which can make awards and settle
disputes ; demarcation boards ; conciliation committees
which try to obtain agreements on contentious matters.
Decisions of the boards mentioned are subject to appeal
to the court.
The object of these organizations is de-centralisation
in view of the large area of W.A.
Amendments of industrial legislation have not been
required for many years. An important function of the
court is the annual determination and quarterly adjust-
ment of the state basic wage. Often settlement without
reference to the court is reached in compulsory confer-
ences called by the court's president. The court is
mobile and often sits outside Perth.

578. Bonus Payment Plan for Safe Working.
Australian Paper Manufacturers Ltd.,
Maryvale, Victoria. Manufacturing and
Management, pp. 20-22, July 1947.
In the Maryvale mill which employs about 1ooo
persons, a safety officer is responsible for safety. The
employees in each department elect a member to a
safety committee, in which the management is represen-
ted by appointees. The committee considers safety
matters. The employees are divided into 15 groups and
each group is given a bogey number of days which are to
be completed free of 'lost time' accidents, i.e. accidents
involving loss of a day or a shift from work, before a
safety bonus is awarded. After completion of an acci-
dent-free bogey period, each member of the group
receives a bonus of is. 6d. ; after another bogey period
without accident the bonus rises to 3s. In case of an
accident of a group member within a period, the group
has to start its bogey period again from the beginning.
A notice board shows the stage reached by each group
on a particular day. The record so far held is 902 days
without accident in the technical services group.

579. Analysis of Age Groupings of Industrial
Workers. A. W. Turner. Farm Front,
pp. 141-145, October 1947.
This analysis, confined to male workers, is based on
the Occupation Survey, taken by the Commonwealth on
i June 1945 when demobilisation had not yet begun,
which somewhat distorts the figures. A comparison








with the 1933 census shows that the average age of
workers has increased from 40o18 years in 1933 to 41-43
in 1945 in other than primary industries and to a greater
extent in primary industries from 37-25 to 40-82. Among
the primary industries wheat-growing had in 1945 the
lowest average age of workers engaged, followed by
dairying, sheep-grazing and cattle grazing. The highest
percentage of workers over 59 years occurred in 'pastoral
composite,' i.e. grazing mixed with agriculture, with 22-9
per cent. Over 65 years were 9 per cent in primary and
only 5-9 per cent in other industries.

AGRICULTURE, LAND AND RURAL
PROBLEMS

580. Tenth Report of the Rural Reconstruction
Commission, August 1946. Government
Printer, Canberra, pp. 238, and pp. 124
appendices.
This report consists of nine chapters each dealing
with a group of problems :-
I. Constitutional position in regard to production and
marketing.
II. Principles of marketing and marketing organisa-
tion in Australia.
III. External commercial policy. A historical review
and its implications for Australia.
IV. Formation of Australia's future external commer-
cial policy.
V. International commodity agreements, and their
place in commercial policy.
VI. Australia's principal farming industries in rela-
tion to external commercial policy.
VII and VIII. Past attempts at achieving reasonable
and stable incomes for Australian farmers, and principles
which can lead to more fruitful results in the future.
IX. The future organisation of agriculture.
Recommendations are given for an external commer-
cial policy with special reference to wool, wheat, dairy
products, meat, fruit, wine, and eggs. Recommenda-
tions concerning domestic commercial policy, price
stabilisation, and an independent tribunal for agricul-
tural industries are also made. Increased research in
agricultural economics and the better organisation of
agriculture are recommended.
The five appendices deal with the following subjects:
I. Australian marketing organisation. 2. Financial
assistance to primary producers, 1920-1945. 3. History
of wheat stabilisation in Australia. 4. Potato marketing
5. Some methods for dealing with the problem of gluts.
-I.M.
581. Five Technical Reports on Food and Agri-
culture submitted to the United Nations
Interim Commission on Food and Agri-
culture. Washington, 20 August 1945,
pp. 1-313-
A volume of five reports :
I. Nutrition and Food Management. The problems
of malnutrition; a better nutrition through organised
approach; nutritional problems and development;
situation before, during and after the war in U.S.,
Canada, and U.K.; research and investigations. Inter-
national and national surveys and research are recom-
mended. Appendix shows the available nutrients before
and during the war with agricultural production and
consumption in U.S., Canada and U.K.
II. Agricultural Production. The inter-war period
in several countries ; effects of war and post-war pros-


pects. Short term and continuous programmes are
given with recommendations on several agricultural
industries and problems.
III. Fisheries. A survey of fishing industries, produc-
tion and marketing in various countries.
IV. Forestry and Primary Forest Products discusses
the need and opportunities for a world forest policy with
policies, plans and recommendations for immediate
activities.
V. Statistics. The need for statistical information
regarding problems under I-IV above. Recommenda-
tions are given for conducting statistical work by F.A.O.
-I.M.

582. Report on World Food Proposals by the
F.A.O. Preparatory Commission, Wash-
ington, D.C., 28 October 1946-24 Janu-
ary 1947, pp. 1-84.
A discussion of the international problems affecting
agricultural and nutritional programmes, industry and
agriculture, financing of development, price stabilisation,
and commodity policy. Recommendations are made
regarding the production and stabilisation of prices of
twelve commodities (including wheat). Organisation
of F.A.O. is also dealt with.-I.M.

583. Second Annual Report of the Director-
General to the F.A.O. Conference, Wash-
ington, July 1947, pp. 33-
A summary statement of the F.A.O. activities inclu-
ding investigation projects in a wide range of fields.
-I.M.

584. Wheat, F.A.O. Commodity Series No. i,
Washington, D.C., March 1947, pp. 63
and tables.
Information is given, with conclusions, regarding the
wheat situation before 1939, with special reference to the
four major exporting countries, and the U.S.S.R. as a
potential wheat exporter. The European wheat market,
and the position in Latin American wheat importing
countries and in the Orient are discussed.-I.M.

584a. World Fibre Survey, F.A.O. (Washington),
pp. 165 and appendices, August 1947.
Part I deals with fibres in general and consists of
three chapters.
I. The importance of natural fibres, their geo-
graphical distribution and their production trends are
discussed. High labour requirements characterise
agricultural fibre production, e.g. cotton in U.S.A.,
jute in India, silk in Japan.
2. Expenditure on clothing and household goods is
examined in eleven countries by means of budget studies.
Changes in income do not greatly affect the quantity of
textiles consumed. The consumption of clothing fibres
and real income levels are compared in various countries.
3. Clothing and industrial fibre shortages and im-
balances in the different parts of the world are analysed.
Fibre prices and foreign exchange problems and the
prospective prosperity levels are also discussed.
An account is given of world fibre resources, inter-
fibre competition, and world fibre markets. The threat
to wool lies in the possibility of blending it, in, say, one-
quarter to one-third proportion, with substitute fibres.
This practice could reduce the retail price without
giving a sufficient increase in sales to compensate for the
decreased wool content of the finished product. In








addition, rayon production is better controlled than that
of the natural fibres and rayon prices are more stable.
On the other hand, 'it is estimated that the cost of raw
wool contained in a man's suit merely represents from
7 to 15 per cent of its retail price.'
In Part IIA cotton, wool, silk, flax, true hemp (Can-
nabis sativa), jute, hard fibre (Abaca-Sisal-Henequen)
are discussed.
Part IIB deals with the historical development, utili-
sation, and the production difficulties of the following
'man-made' fibres: rayon filament, yarn and staple
fibre, protein fibres, synthesised polymers, and others.
-I.M.

585. Modern Methods of Breeding Better Dairy
Cattle. A. H. Ward. Australian Veterin-
ary Journal, pp. 114-121, May 1947.
The aim of dairy cattle breeding is to produce animals
better than the existing ones ; i.e. cows of high fertility
and resistance to disease, which are also high milk,
butterfat, and other solid producers with the least feed
and labour cost over a long working life time. 'A
careful assessment of the value of adding an extra year
to the working life of the average dairy cow in N.Z.
indicates that this would mean an increased production
valued at im. per annum.'
The present methods of dairy cattle selection are dis-
cussed. Among them, selection on the basis of progeny
test (i.e. milk and butterfat production of the daughters
of a given bull), is superior to any other selection.
However, it proved to be difficult to establish an Arti-
ficial Insemination Centre in N.Z. on the basis of prog-
eny test when bulls were required whose daughters had
averaged at least 380 lb. of butterfat.
An Artificial Insemination Centre even when estab-
lished with progeny-tested bulls may mean the artificial
propagation of animals with lethal or other undesirable
factors (e.g. lack of fertility), unless steps are taken to
note the development of the progeny of each sire.
More recent developments such as blood grouping of
cattle for inherited characteristics, multi-ovulation by
hormone treatment with the transfer of fertilized eggs to
brood cows are briefly described.-I.M.

586. Economic Outlook for the Fat Lamb
Industry. Bulletin No. 3, Bureau of
Agricultural Economics, Department of
Commerce and Agriculture, Canberra,
1947, pp. 40 and pp. 49 statistical tables.
A study of the industry based largely on available
literature.
Australian sheep population, lamb and mutton pro-
duction and export-statistics are given. Correspon-
ding figures for N.Z., Argentina and other South Ameri-
can countries, and for the U.S.A. are analysed in relation
to their part in the meat imports of the U.K.
Schedule of the 'Weight and Grade Treatment' rates,
announced in November 1944, is quoted and various
treatment practices described. Quality and grading
problems are discussed in the light of N.Z. competition
on U.K. markets. Carcase trends in N.Z., Argentina
and Great Britain are briefly stated and the Australian
market prices, marketing methods and activities of the
Australian Meat Board analysed.
Shipping freights are given for various kinds of meat
from N.Z., Argentina, South Africa to the U.K., and
the effects on the meat trade of the Ottawa Agreement,
Anglo-Argentina Agreement-1936, Empire Meat Coun-
cil, War-time Council and the Commonwealth Govern-
ment Meat Purchase Plan described.


Some calculations are made to estimate production
and consumption by considering increased local con-
sumption and the U.K., and possibly U.S.A., as poten-
tial markets. The conclusion is reached 'that, on
economic grounds, fat lamb production should not be
expanded by more than io per cent of the 1942-43
production level. Expansion of this order could be
achieved by existing producers.'-I.M.

587. A Statistical Survey of the Pig Industry
in Australia. E. Murray Pullar. Aus-
tralian Veterinary Journal, No. 7, pp.167-
177, July 1947; pp. 231-246, September
1947-
Part I. The annual average value of the output of the
pig industry during the period 1931-2/1940-I was
5,589,900. This represented 2-5 per cent of the total
value of production in the Agricultural, Pastoral, and
Farmyard and Dairying industries.
Various types of pig husbandry practised in Australia
are described. Among these 'pigs subsidiary to dairy-
ing' and 'pigs subsidiary to cereal growing' are the most
important. The former could be improved by the
inclusion of carbohydrate meal, such as crushed barley
and/or wheat in the animal's diet; by better storage of
dairy factory residues and by low-priced dry milk or
dry butter-milk production for feeding purposes. It is
an important type of pig husbandry because only a small
proportion of skim milk can be used in the preparation
of dried milk, casein, and other by-products. A 'pigs
subsidiary to cereal growing' husbandry is predominant
in the states of W.A. and S.A. In it the inclusion of
some protein supplement, e.g. meat meal, in the diet
would be advantageous. However 'in recent years in
Australia the cereal industry lacked the financial stability
of other types of primary production and many farmers
have been unable to afford the additional outlay to
purchase protein supplements.'
Part II deals with the history of the pig population
in each State.
Part III discusses by States the following subjects:
breeds of pigs, age groups, proportion of registered stud
pigs in the population, sex ratio, and litter size for
various breeds.
Parts II and III are illustrated with detailed diagrams
and graphs.-I.M.

588. Lang, J. D. Australian Water Resources.
R.A.A.F. Educational Services publica-
tion, pp. 55.
Part I deals briefly with Australian physiography,
soils, vegetation, climate, and rainfall, and gives rainfall
data for several regions of the continent. Main rivers
of the world are compared with the relatively poor
Australian river systems and flows. The bulk of the
Australian lakes are salty, hence of no value for water
supply. Artesian basins and bores are discussed
and the diminishing flow of the Queensland bores
emphasised. The hydrology of the main regions of
Australia is described with several maps and tables.
Part II discusses the water problems of Central Aus-
tralia in greater detail. Drainage systems, the unreliable
water holes and springs of the range country, and some
surface water conservation proposals are discussed.
Shallow underground water supplies are rare and gener-
ally salty, while bores are extremely variable with regard
to quantity and quality of water. Water supply prob-
lems of some towns in the dry Inland are also mentioned.
The conclusion is, that any development of Central
Australia must occur on a very limited scale.-I.M.








589. Some Administrative Aspects of Irrigation.
A. F. Bell. Cane Growers Quarterly
Bulletin, pp. 16-24, July 1947.
In Queensland, sub-surface water supplies have many
advantages over surface storage for irrigation. Unlike
the latter it can be used at the source of supply ; 'no
costly headworks and reticulation channels are necessary ;
there is no loss of water from storage by evaporation;
and pumping from the wells facilitates the use of sprays
which bring about economy in water usage.' These
advantages are shown in the Lockyer Valley where
zo,ooo acres are irrigated from underground water, with
good prospects for further increase in acreage. How-
ever, sub-surface water is inferior to surface water and
requires more care in its use.
The difficulties of large-scale surface irrigation
schemes in Queensland are the relatively poor rainfall
in the suitable catchment areas, the lack of good storage
sites, and the high evaporation rate. The conclusion
is that Queensland will never be able to irrigate a great
proportion of its agricultural lands.
The paper also discusses problems associated with
distribution and control of surface and sub-surface water,
e.g. control of catchments, minor storage and the
economic and social effects of irrigation.-I.M.

590. Report on Proposals to Divert the Snowy
River into the Murrumbidgee and the
Murray Rivers. Commonwealth Depart-
ments of Works and Housing and Post-
War Reconstruction, June 1947, pp.
1-58, mimeographed.
Engineering and agricultural aspects of the proposed
diversion are discussed by the Department of Works
and Housing and by the Economic Investigation Com-
mittee respectively.
The probable cost of the Murray diversion would be
44,540,ooo exclusive of the cost of development of high
level power schemes, and 65,880,ooo inclusive of that
cost. Corresponding figures of the Murrumbidgee
diversion are 14,400,000 and 34,300,000. Under the
former scheme 668,ooo k.w. would be developed at the
power stations, and under the latter 256,000 k.w., while
the Murray storage would yield 1,045,000 acre feet of
water and the Murrumbidgee 1,015,000 acre feet.
Irrigation problems of these alternative diversions
with regard to the type of production and areas are
discussed in detail. The Economic Committee con-
cluded that, from the irrigation point of view, rather
greater benefits would accrue if the diversion of the
Murrumbidgee were adopted, but that the water could
be effectively used under either plan.-I.M.

591. Some Problems of Wool Production. G.
R. Moule. Australian Veterinary Journal,
pp. 188-198, December, 1946.
A survey of twenty-five sheep properties in central-
western Queensland in typical wool-growing areas where
no market exists for sheep, only for wool. Average
cost of production over a number of years was 13"5d.
per lb. of wool, sometimes 25d. Most items of produc-
tion cost were 'fixed,' not varying with the quantity of
wool produced.-I.M.

592. The Soyabean Industry, Report of the
Commonwealth Mission of Investigation
into the industry in U.S.A. and on its


possible establishment in Australia. By
F. W. Bulcock, H. A. Mullett, C. J.
McKeon, and H. A. Grantham (Mel-
bourne), pp. 54 and Appendix, June 1947.
Many varieties of soyabeans are grown in the U.S.A.
Leading varieties contain 40'58 to 46-42 per cent of
protein and 17'07 to 19"40 per cent of oil. In recent
years 140 million bushels were crushed annually. 92-8
per cent of the oil is used in the manufacture of human
food (mainly as lard substitute and margarine). Soap,
paints and varnish, linoleum, printing and other indus-
tries utilise the remainder. Although some whole beans
are used as stock food it is more economical to feed
protein meal residue. 'During 1943-4 approximately
3'5 million tons of soyabean oil-meal and cake were
manufactured in the U.S.A. and in that year it com-
prised 50 per cent of the total tonnage of oil-meals fed
to live-stock'.
Soyabean producing areas in the U.S.A. are discussed
in relation to their soils and climate. These are com-
pared with some Australian maize-growing localities,
because soyabean areas are also the main maize pro-
ducers in the U.S.A.
'It costs approximately twice as much per bushel to
grow soyabeans as maize in U.S.A. ; which means that,
in U.S.A., it does not pay to grow soyabeans unless the
price of that crop is double the price received for maize.'
For Australia, 6,000 to lo,ooo acres of soyabeans
would be ample, utilised primarily by the ply-wood
veneer industry and some for stock feed. This would
provide only a small proportion of the stock food require-
ments, but without greater profitable use of oil than at
the present, greater acreage would not be advisable.
-I.M.

593. Reid, P. A. and Geddes, H. J. While the
Sun Shines, A Handbook on Haymaking,
Bank of New South Wales, pp. 52, July
1947.
The importance of good conserved fodder in main-
taining animals under practical conditions is emphasized.
The available methods of conserving various kinds of
hay are described in detail and analysed economically,
comparative costs for 1938-9 and 1946-7 being given.
-I.M.

594. Forestry and Forest Resources, Western
Australia. Statement prepared for the
Fifth British Empire Forestry Conference
(London), 1947, by T. N. Stoate. Govern-
ment Printer, Perth, 1947, pp. 57.
Before the war the sawmilling industry employed
about 20,000 people out of a total population of
400,000 in W.A. Since 1928, due to the Working Plan
Control, the continuity of cutting operations is ensured
and the annual quantity of timber for general sawmilling
is approximately 30 million cubic feet. A separate
Working Plan for sleeper mills provides an additional
6 million cubic feet per year. Jarrah (E. marginata)
and Karri (E. diversicolor) are the principal hardwoods
which have proved suitable for a wide range of uses for
which softwoods are considered necessary in other
countries ; in consequence the per capital consumption
of softwoods in W.A. is very much below the average
for the Eastern States of Australia. Sandalwood (San-
talum spicatum) and Wandoo (E. redunca var. elata) are
also important. The former is used mainly in China
and other Eastern countries, the latter locally for tanning.








Detailed statistical information of the forest industry
of W.A. with a brief outline of its forest policy, forest
management, and manpower are provided. War-time
effects on forest conditions, forest policy and timber
utilisation, with war-time experiences and their applica-
tion to future policy, are also discussed.-I.M.

595. New Zealand Department of Agriculture
Annual Report for 1946-7, Government
Printer, New Zealand, pp. 76.
This report sets out in summary form the activities of
the various Divisions of the Department, especially in
regard to research. The intensity and broad scope of
the investigations into animal problems such as fertility
rates, artificial insemination, inheritance studies, photo-
sensitivity due to various feeds and weeds, are indicated.
-S.M.W.

POLITICAL SCIENCE
(A) Government and Politics
596. The Field of Political Science. Ian Milner.
Australian Quarterly, pp. 57-68, Septem-
ber 1947.
The author lists a number of approaches to Political
Science, the 'institutional' approach, the 'struggle for
power' approach, the 'sociological' approach and the
'normative' approach. Political Science should be con-
cerned with the relationship of events to the structure of
social power which the state maintains. The progress
of Political Science will not be helped by so broadening
its field as to obscure its fundamental purpose.

597. The Power of the Commonwealth Parlia-
ment over Invalid and Old-age Pensions.
T. H. Kewley. Public Administration,
pp. 290-297, June 1947.
An account of the circumstances which led to the
granting of power to the Commonwealth Parliament to
legislate for invalid and old-age pensions, the finanical
difficulties which delayed the exercise of this power, and
the inauguration of these payments following the Surplus
Revenue Act, 1908.

598. Regional Development Committees, What
Statutory Powers should they have ?
'Planner.' Public Administration, pp. 304-
312, June 1947.
An examination of the circumstances surrounding the
establishment of Regional Development Committees in
N.S.W. and the suggestions recently made in various
quarters that these committees should be placed on a
statutory basis and should assume multi-purpose County
Council functions.

599. Australia-Revival of the Powers of the
States. Anon. Round Table (London),
pp. 397-402, September 1947.
'The purpose of the above sketch is to correct two
false impressions which are commonly entertained about
Australia. The first is that the State governments have
ceased to have much significance in the Australian
political system. The second is that Australian govern-
ments always represent electoral majorities.'


600. Port Administration. S. Kershaw. Public
Administration, pp. 350-361, September
1947.
A discussion of the main types of bodies controlling
ports, and the merits of each, with particular reference
to Australian experience.

601. Public Service Staff Associations and
Politics. J. D. B. Miller. Public Adminis-
tration, pp. 341-349, September 1947.
A division is made of the political activities of public
service unions into: (i) those concerned with the
organisation and management of the public service itself,
and (2) those concerned with 'all other public questions' ;
and it is recommended that activities of the second sort
should be discontinued.

602. Australia's Post-War Defence Policy. A
Melbourne Study Group. Australian
Outlook, pp. 3-6, September 1947.
A factual statement of the Labour Government's
defence programme together with a summary of news-
paper comment on that policy. The writers accept the
Age evaluation, that, 'so far as it goes, the new defence
policy represents a stage in realistic transition.'

603. The Australian Political Scene. Gordon
Greenwood. Pacific Affairs (New York),
pp. 276-289, September 1947.
A sketch of the main political issues in Australian
(Federal) politics from the election of the ,8th Parlia-
ment to June 1947.

604. New Zealand. Conclaves of Labour.
Round Table (London), pp. 403-408,
September 1947.
A review of Labour policy as expressed at the recent
conferences of the N.Z. Federation of Labour and the
N.Z. Labour Party, and of the legislation of the Labour
Government during the first session of the 28th Parlia-
ment.

(B) International Relations
605. The Asian Relations Conference. J.
A. McCallum. Australian Quarterly,
pp. 13-17, June 1947.
The Asian Relations Conference.
Gerald Parker. The Australian Outlook,
PP. 3-7, June 1947-
Two reports by Australian observers at the Asian Con-
ference. The reports cover the scope of the Conference.
the procedure followed in the debate, and contain a
summary of some of the views forwarded at the Round
Table Groups.


606. The South Pacific Commission.
James. Pacific Affairs (New
pp. 193-198, June 1947.


Roy E.
York),


A summary of the Canberra Agreement on the estab-
lishment of the South Pacific Commission. No criti-
cism of the agreement is given.








607. A New Constitution for Japan. I. M.
Ward. Australian Outlook, pp. 7-16,
September 1947.
The author reviews the circumstances of the Japanese
surrender of 4 September 1945 and the hasty preparation
of a 'democratic' constitution. The constitution is the
work of the American administrative authorities rather
than of the Japanese. It differs from the Meiji Consti-
tution in two fundamental matters-sovereignty is trans-
ferred from the Emperor to the people, and Japan is
made to renounce war for all time. The author con-
tinues with a short analysis of the new constitution and
a comparison with the old. His conclusion is that in
terms of legal change the new constitution represents a
major revolution in the political structure of Japan.
Given a fair trial the constitution has an even chance of
proving successful.

608. A Socialist on Democracy. Lloyd Ross.
Australian Quarterly, pp. 69-82,
September 1947.
Dr. Ross accepts the challenge of the Liberals that
liberty needs re-emphasising, but as a socialist he con-
siders that liberty today cannot be defended by the
monopolistic free enterprise in a period of declining
capitalism. Both Eastman and state socialists are wrong
in thinking that freedom will arise automatically from
any economic system. The fact that the Russian Revo-
lution, under Bolshevik leadership in a backward agri-
cultural country, produced Stalinism is not proof that a
democratic social revolution, accompanied by gradual
and peaceful reforms, will necessarily destroy individual
freedom.

609. The Stratford Conference. Shirley Jenkins.
Far Eastern Survey (New York), pp. 209-
213, 15 October 1947.
A review of the tenth conference of the Institute of
Pacific Relations, held at Stratford-on-Avon, September
1947. The conference included delegates from all the
main Pacific countries and guest members from Burma,
India, Korea, the Netherlands and Siam. Discussion
at the conference centred on the problems of Japan and
the development of South East Asia.

61o. New Zealand's Security. Willis Airey.
Far Eastern Survey (New York), pp. 193-
197, September 1947.
N.Z. has an intense interest in peace and therefore in
in the United Nations. But N.Z. cannot look wholly
to the United Nations for her security. For that N.Z.
must work in close conjunction with other Pacific powers,
in particular with Australia, Canada and the U.S.
N.Z. also requires guarantees against a revival of Jap-
anese militarism.

SOCIAL CONDITIONS
(A) Housing
611. South Australian Housing Trust. Eleventh
Annual Report for Year ended 30 June
1947. Pp. 19, Government Printer,
Adelaide, 1947.
In the year under review the trust provided accom-
modation for 586 families, of which 302 houses were for
rental, 151 for sale, 133 temporary dwellings in military


camps. Eighteen contractors work for the trust, 2860
houses are in course of erection or have been contracted
for. The standard house for rental in the metropolitan
area is the semi-detached, double-unit cottage of five
rooms, while separate detached houses are built for sale.
A survey is given of building in country towns, advances
to the trust, temporary housing-conversion huts in the
R.A.A.F. camp Springbank where 168, and at Warradale
military camp where io6, temporary dwellings will be
supplied-on 30 June 1947 133 such dwellings were
occupied-building of shops, land for future building
areas, rents, applications for houses etc. Much progress
has been made in programmes of farmhouses for soldier
settlers, of which 500 will be built in the S.E. district
and 300 in the Loxton irrigation area.
Financial statements are presented in appendices.

(B) Social Security and Public Health
612. Occupational Dermatitis. Dr. John Gow-
land. Manufacturing and Management,
pp. 14-19, July 1947.
After an outline of the structure and functions of the
skin various kinds of direct and indirect contact between
skin and irritant are discussed. The onset of most cases of
dermatitis is mainly determined by three factors:
specific industrial agents; on the individual's side
constitutional factors and personal cleanliness ; on the
employer's side non-specific factors such as lack of venti-
lation or of washing facilities. Types of the disease are
trade ulcers and nasal ulceration, producing a local or
general reaction. Preventive measures are dealt with
under seven headings : (i) Safe plant process, design and
ventilation ; (2) periodic testing of working atmosphere
for irritant substances; (3) medical selection of em-
ployees, re-examination and immediate treatment; (4)
washing facilities and plant cleanliness ; provision of:
(5) safety clothing; (6) creams, skin-cleansers; (7)
breathing apparatus.
Appendices present notes on skin applications and an
example of a printed leaflet to be handed to employees
for their information.

613. Injury Rates in N.S.W. Manufacturing
Industries. A. C. Clarke. Bulletin of
Industrial Psychology and Personnel Prac-
tice, pp. 24-32, September 1947.
An attempt to calculate frequency rates and severity
rates, i.e. the number of injuries and of man-hours lost
respectively per ioo,ooo man-hours worked for the seven
years from 1936-.7 to 1942-43. Sources were the
injury data of the annual reports of the Workers Com-
pensation Commission of N.S.W., and the employment
data in the Production Bulletin, issued by the Common-
wealth Bureau of Census and Statistics. 'Compensated'
were injuries which necessitated absence from work for
at least seven days up to 1941-42 and three days in
1942-43. Of the industries listed in the Compensation
Commission's schedule io classes cover manufacturing,
and the Production Bulletin's 16 industrial classes had to
be fitted into the Commission's classification. Table i
shows the frequency and severity rates for injuries to
male employees in the years mentioned. The frequency
rate is fairly consistent from year to year, the severity rate
less so because of the effect on the rate of deaths and
permanent injuries. Table a compares male employ-
ment with the frequency rate for male employees. The
correlation coefficient between these two magnitudes is
very high, o'92. This enables the computation of an
expected frequency rate for a given employment figure.








One industry-stone and clay products, shows a drop in
its frequency rate in 1942-43 and at the same time a loss
in the number of workers.

(C) Social Surveys

(D) Population and Migration
614. Aspects of the Gold Rushes. J. Mackie.
Economic Record, pp. 75-89, June 1947.
This article deals with the problem 'what became of
the Victorian gold miners who left the industry in the
late i85o's and the 186o's.' 1851-57 was the building
up stage, 1856-58 the peak period of Victorian gold
mining, followed by alluvial exhaustion. Sources were
estimates compiled by the Registrar-General's depart-
ment, annual statistical registers and for mining details
R. Brough Smyth 'Goldfields and Mineral Districts of
Victoria' (1869). The author estimates that between
1861-65 the Victorian mining population fell by about
25,000, of whom x5-18,ooo were permanently attracted
to the N.Z. goldfields. Besides miners migrated to
other states-according to Smyth's estimate less than
5,ooo to Queensland and N.S.W.
The Victorian gold rushes caused a rise in the male
population of 260,000oo 1851-86, as against 18,ooo in
the previous decade. From 1857 many goldminers
drifted to other occupations. About 5,000 were ab-
sorbed by railway construction. In 1861 the number
of men engaged in agriculture had increased by 12,ooo
over 1857, probably to a large extent former miners.
From 1861 to 1871 the number of miners fell by 52,000
of whom about 20-25,ooo have been drawn by the N.Z.
and Gympie gold rushes. Many of the ex-miners
staying in Victoria were absorbed by transport, manu-
facture of machinery, carriages and ships ; by textile,
clothing and footwear manufacture (increase from 4 to
1o,ooo), or became 'undefined' labourers (increase about
7,000). Many were absorbed by agriculture and kin-
dred classes (increase 16,ooo); there was much agri-
cultural expansion just in goldmining areas, aided by the
liberalisation of the land laws in 1865.
615. Some Leading Aspects of Foreign Immig-
ration to the Goldfields (New South
Wales and Victoria, (1851-61). N. O.
Pyke. Royal Australian Historical Society,
Journal and Proceedings, pp. 1-25, Vol.
XXXIII, Part I, Sydney, 1947.
A paper read before the Historical Society on 30 July
1946. From 1851-53 the emphasis was on immigration,
from 1854-61 on assimilation of the immigrants. The
most decisive contribution of Americans was in the
field of transport to the goldfields, the setting up of Cobb
and Company by Freeman Cobb from Massachusetts
and three other Americans. This organisation gradu-
ally established a network of coach communications.
Another aspect discussed is the part played by foreign
immigrants in the Eureka Stockade incident in 1854.
The rest of the paper deals with immigration of
Chinese whose segregation, low living standard and
patent success on the goldfields aroused great antag-
onism. When in 1855 more than 1I,ooo Chinese came
to Victoria, restrictive legislation was passed which led
to complete cessation of Chinese immigration in Sep-
tember 1855. The Chinese soon learnt to enter
Victoria overland which caused the Buckland River riots
in 1857 when a group of white miners forced Chinese
miners to leave. Now special taxation was imposed on
Chinese residents.


Somewhat different were the anti-Chinese Lambing
Flat riots on the N.S.W. goldfields in 1861. By that
time there were about 21,000 Chinese in N.S.W. and
restrictive legislation on the entry of Chinese was passed
there too.

616. Immigration Policy. W. D. Borrie and
others. A White Australia. Australasian
Publishing Co. (Sydney), in conjunction
with the Institute, 1947, pp. vi, 257.
This book contains the papers and discussions of the
Institute of Political Science Summer School.
W. D. Borrie's paper relates Australia's population
problem with world demographic trends. The sug-
gested solution to the problem of establishing equilib-
rium between East and West is to assist Eastern peoples
through the stage of industrialisation (with its corres-
ponding eradication of Malthusian checks) to the stage
where families will be voluntarily limited, as quickly as
possible.
G. L. Wood shows by means of statistics Australia's
declining birth rate and suggests that the problem is
psychological rather than physiological. Grace Cuth-
bert goes further into this question and stresses the need
for society to provide suitable conditions for larger
families and for a change in the attitude towards families.
The status of women and its effect on the question is
also dealt with. These two papers suggest that if things
go on as at present there is no hope of any increase in
the birth rate.
H. L. Harris deals with immigration and shows that
Australia can no longer hope to have her empty spaces
filled by migrants from European countries because they
are faced with the same problems as we are. He doubts
the efficacy of immigration as a solution to the problem
and cites Canada's experience. However if we are to
have immigration it must be carefully planned and con-
trolled by experts.
A. P. Elkin summarises the discussion and relates the
main points brought out by the previous speakers to the
White Australia Policy. He points to the dangers and
difficulties involved in maintaining such an attitude and
suggests some modification. This is further elaborated
in the attached paper 'Re-thinking the White Australia
Policy.'--.A.M. q
617. Some Population Maladjustments in New
Zealand. E. P. Neale. Economic Record,
pp. 66-74, June 1947.
The percentage of females to males in the non-Maori
population of N.Z. rose from 62 in i86i-when she
was dependent for population increase on immigration-
to 97 in 1936-when she was dependent on natural
increase-and 105 in 1945, when many males were
absent on war service. There is still an excess of males
in outlying areas where pioneering conditions remain
and in towns dependent on exclusively male-employing
industries (ports, mining etc.). The majority of the
non-Maori population has shifted from the South Island
(63-45 per cent in 1867) to the North Island (67-3 per
cent in 1945), mainly owing to the decline in gold mining.
In future the South Island will have better population
prospects because of its hydro-electric resources.
A committee of the N.Z. House of Representatives
on immigration reported 1946 that there is little scope
for the absorption of workers in primary industries
which are mechanised and show a greater output per
head than previously. Land suitable for settlement
would have to be developed at great expense. Im-
mediate immigration is only suggested of single women








for hospitals and domestic service. The author thinks
that this would also assist in remedying maladjustments
owing to the male surplus in parts of N.Z. and the
depletion of males in war-devastated European coun-
tries. Otherwise no immediate immigration of workers
is suggested, although they could be absorbed in secon-
dary industry, mining and sawmilling, because of the
housing shortage. The committee finally recommends
the establishment of an Economic Secretariat attached
to the Cabinet for continuous study of the population
problem.

618. New Zealand's Population Prospects.
G. N. Calvert. New Zealand Geographer,
pp. 1-18, April 1947.
After a brief account of world population trends, the
author discusses optimum population figures for N.Z.,
the scope for a larger rural population through more
intensive forms of cultivation, and for the relative
growth of manufacturing. He considers a rate of popu-
lation growth of 2 per cent per annum as possible
without economic disruption. Diagrams show the age
and sex distribution of the Maori and non-Maori N.Z.
population, the former with its high and stable birth
rate more regular than the latter with a heavy fall in the
birth rate during the depression. The Maoris have
rapidly increased since 19oo and are now growing rela-
tively to the white population. The future growth of
the non-Maori population-apart from immigration-
is calculated on the assumption of a high, medium, low
and finally of the most probable gross reproduction
rate (under 1946 conditions). The distribution of
population between North and South Island in changing
economic and transport conditions, urbanisation and
location of industry is discussed. Among the trends in
forecasting the superior hydro-electric resources of the
South Island, government policy to decentralise fac-
tories and the increase in rural population owing to its
higher birth rate is dealt with in detail. Some public
control of the location of factories is recommended.

619. National and International Significance of
Immigration. H. E. Strakosch. Australian
Quarterly, pp. 45-56, September 1947.
The centre of political gravity is now shifting from
the British mother country to the dominions. For four
centuries western civilisation has spread over the entire
globe and has 'loosened up' a hitherto closed oriental
world in Asia and Africa. In the past there were many
unattractive features of colonial exploitation which
cannot be kept up. The reaction to these may sweep
away all achievements of the relations between Orient
and Occident and leave as only western trait the western
spirit of nationalistic aggressiveness spreading to Asia.
There is a dangerous possibility of Asiatic peoples
establishing a totalitarian form of government, whose
alliance with U.S.S.R. is likely.
U.S.A. and the dominions could restore the balance
of power. Australia and N.Z. allied with U.S.A. would
assume the responsibility of modernising the oriental
world and thus lead to a new comity of eastern and
western nations. Such a policy could help in solving
the pressing problem of the displaced persons in Europe.
Additional millions of Europeans do not fit into the new
totalitarian pattern of their homeland and are potential
emigrants. An open-door immigration policy of U.S.A.
and the British dominions would strengthen the demo-
cratic case. The nation is a democratic form of modern
political organisation, but nation is not to be confused
with race. Hostility towards foreigners in Australia


from the angle of racial purity is emotional and reac-
tionary. The only rational argument against foreign
immigration into Australia could be the fear of divided
loyalties, but this is unfounded.

EDUCATION
620. Cunningham, K. S. and Morey, E. Child-
ren Need Teachers. Melbourne Uni-
versity Press for Australian Council for
Educational Research, 1947, pp. 185.
In this study of the problem of teacher supply and
demand, the situation in Australia is discussed in the
light of a preceding analysis of the supply, recruitment
and training of teachers in other countries, particularly
in England, Scotland and the United States. The
authors point out that the difficulties of obtaining
suitable recruits and the need for improved teacher-
training programmes are world-wide barriers in the way
of ensuring adequate supply of teachers, and that the
war is not entirely responsible for the shortages now
being experienced.
The Australian material presents statistics estimating
the number of teachers employed at the time of writing
and the requirements of each State. In a chapter on
the facilities for specialisation in Australia the authors
survey the extent to which the services of three types of
specialist teachers (teachers of special subjects, teachers
of atypical groups of children and teachers with special
duties) are employed. An evaluation of teachers' atti-
tudes to various aspects of their work has been made on
the results obtained from replies to a questionnaire.
Finally the authors make recommendations, derived from
the foregoing chapters, for improving the present posi-
tion in Australia.

621. Mackenzie, Isabel (Senior Lecturer in
Art Method at Sydney Teachers' College).
Art for Children, William Brook, Sydney,
pp. 127.
This book is dedicated to and meant for children from
6 to 16 years of age, but in the introductory paragraphs
teachers are reminded of the fact that schools generally
neglect picture making, not only the oldest form of
expression, but also one of the most crucial for retaining
the power of seeing vivid mental pictures and developing
creative thought and expression. Freeing the creative
urge in children comes first, improving technique second.
There is a brief exposition of the function of picture
making, written on the child's level of understanding
and amply illustrated by primitive, historic and present-
day children's drawings. Everything that the child
needs to know about making a picture, from preparing
the materials to finding and treating a subject, is des-
cribed in non-technical language and with a great num-
ber of explanatory models in black and white and colours.
How to make things from clay, to carve things from
wood, soap etc., to make masks from paper, how to
print, to make pictures from patches etc. is all explained
in language the child can easily understand. Suitable
advice so that parents and teachers can easily guide the
children's creative exertions is given at the beginning
and end of the booklet.

622. Scott, W. J. Reading, Film and Radio
Tastes of High School Boys and Girls.
New Zealand Council for Educational
Research, 1947, pp. 207.








This book reports the replies of 3972 N.Z. children
(2141 boys and 1831 girls) between 13 and 18 to a
questionnaire on their leisure interests applied in 1942.
The 19 schools involved gave a representative selection
of State post-primary schools in the country as a whole
and included high schools, technical schools and district
high schools. The questionnaire covered books, fiction
magazines, periodicals such as digests and picture papers
and newspapers. Children were asked to name books
and authors read during the preceding month. Other
questions dealt with film attendance and radio listening.
Novels represent the most popular form of literature.
Novels of adventure are the most popular choice for
boys, novels of sentiment that of girls. Some of the
classics continue to appeal, particularly the novels by
Dickens. Fiction magazines such as the Champion and
the Crystal were read by two fifths of the boys at 13+
and more than half of the girls at that age.
In the matter of film attendance 39 per cent of the
N.Z. children went once a week or more frequently, and
61 per cent reported attendance of less than once a week.
This is less than in England or U.S.A.
The questions on radio listening showed that 22 per
cent of boys and 14 per cent of girls did not listen to
serials but the balance listened to one or more. Thirteen
per :ent of boys and 25 per cent of girls listened to 4 or
more serials.
The author makes a detailed analysis of the educational
and social significance of these commercialised agencies
in the child's cultural environment. He maintains that
the school cannot neglect them and gives hints as to how
the teacher can improve standards of selection and
appreciation. The book is a companion volume to that
of I. A. Gordon entitled The Teaching of English.

623. Gordon, I. A. The Teaching of English.
Whitcombe and Tombs Pty Ltd., N.Z.,
for the N.Z. Council for Educational
Research, 1947, pp. 135.
In its introductory chapters this book traces the
history of the teaching of English in England and N.Z.
from its emergence as a school subject to the modern
acceptance of English as the centre of the curriculum.
It proceeds to a discussion of the aims of teaching English
and a critical appraisal of the extent to which these aims
are being fulfilled in N.Z. secondary schools. Emphasis
is given to the functional purposes of English teaching-
to writing and speaking rather than literary appreciation.
The author's central thesis is that English should be
taught with the aim of developing the ability to com-
municate by writing or speaking plainly and with
clarity and that secondary school work has tended on
the contrary to produce verbosity and loose writing. A
bibliography for further reading is appended.

624. Australian Councilfor Educational Research.
Seventeenth Annual Report 1946-7
(Melbourne), pp. 40, November 1947-
This report includes (i) a statement by the Director
covering the activities of the Council for the past year,
current activities in progress, publications, grants made
to investigators etc. ; (ii) a report on the Test Division
of the Council; (iii) Librarian's Report; (iv) Financial
statements showing receipts and expenditure for the 12
months ending 3oth June; (v) Brief reports by the
separate State Institutes of Educational Research which
give the names of office bearers and brief statements of
the work done by the Institute during the preceding
year.


625. New Zealand Council for Educational Re-
search 1946-7. Twelfth Annual Report,
PP- 35-
This report includes an historical note on the develop-
ment of the Council, a report by the chairman on the
general activities of the Council particularly as they are
affected by the new Act under which the Council was
given statutory recognition, a more detailed report by
the Director on the programme of the Council, its publi-
cations, work in progress, etc., and synopses of the annual
reports for 1946 of the four Institutes for Educational
Research.

626. Addresses Delivered at the 29th Annual
Conference, 1946. The Technical Schools'
Association of Victoria. Pp. 27.
Contains addresses by (i) the President, in which
reference is made to the need for improvement of
libraries in technical schools, to the Association's opposi-
tion to the Education Department's multi-purpose
schools, to the need for a Council of Technical Education
and to income tax on donations to technical schools.
(2) R. H. Street, Chief Technical Officer, Shell Com-
pany, on 'Technical School Graduates as Raw Material,'
'an effort to indicate something of the training required
by the man who has just obtained his academic technical
qualifications and has just entered industry.'
(3) L. W. Rogers, A.M.Inst.C.E., on 'Education and
Training for Industry'-an outline of the Staff Training
Scheme of the Broken Hill Pty. Co. Ltd. and associated
companies. The scheme includes university graduates,
holders of technical college diplomas, trade apprentices,
commercial trainees, foremen etc.

627. Free Kindergarten Union of Victoria.
Thirty-eighth Annual Report 1946-47
(Melbourne), 1947, pp, 43.
This report contains (i) the annual report by the secre-
tary of the activities of the Free Kindergarten Union of
Victoria for 1946-7; (ii) the reports of the Medical
Officer, Director of Pre-School Activities, and Social
Worker; (iii) Financial statements and statistics of
enrolments and staff at the 41 Free Kindergartens listed.
(iv) The report of the principal of the Melbourne
Kindergarten Training College for 1946-7. Statistics,
activities, types of programmes, buildings etc. are
reported on.

628. Pre-School Education. Report of the
Consultative Committee on Pre-School
Educational Services, Wellington, N.Z.,
1947, pp- 48.
This is the report of a committee appointed early in
1945 by the N.Z. Minister of Education to consider and
report on educational services for children below school
age: The committee recommends that a programme of
developing and extending pre-school educational services
be pressed forward as rapidly as possible, that attendance
be voluntary, that such a service be an integral and
specially administered part of the national school system,
that the existing kindergartens and play centres be
absorbed in the State system and that a short term
policy be adopted immediately to run for a develop-
mental period of five years. These and other recom-
mendations are elaborated in detail in the body of the
report under the following headings: The Case for a
National System, Types of Pre-School Services Needed,
Immediate Policy, Long Term Policy for a State System,








Organisation of State Kindergarten Systems, Recruit-
ment and Training of Teachers, Parent Education. An
appendix deals with Pre-School Education in Com-
munity Centres.

629. McColvin, L. R. (City Librarian of
Westminster, England). Public Lib-
raries in Australia : Present Conditions and
Future Possibilities. Melbourne Univer-
sity Press for Australian Council for
Educational Research, pp. 120, October
1947. Price 5s.
This report, based on the information gathered by
the author during his visit from 1946 until February
1947, contains both a survey of the present position of
Australian library services and a series of recommenda-
tions for future library development.
Although in most of the districts visited there were
to be found improvements attributable to the Munn-Pitt
report, progress in general was neither as impressive nor
as widespread as expected. The greatest progress has
occurred in N.S.W. and Tasmania; in other States
progress has been less rapid.
It is suggested that a sound nation-wide public
library service should be based on central libraries with
the necessary service points in all parts of the country,
the co-ordination and grouping of local services necessary
for economical operation, and staffing of all libraries
with a sufficient number of qualified librarians.

630. Riverina Regional Library Conference:
Proceedings, pp. 90.
This conference of over 90 delegates (including rep-
resentatives from Great Britain, the U.S., Common-
wealth Departments and other States as well as the
chief librarians of other districts of N.S.W.) assembled
to explore the possibilities of regional co-operation as a
means to better library service in country areas. Reso-
lutions stressed the need for increased assistance, both
in money and in kind, from State and Commonwealth
governments, defined the functions of regional libraries
and made specific recommendations for the Riverina
district. In addition, the report includes a brief state-
ment of the progress of the library system in N.S.W.
and a discussion of current problems in that State.

631. Illiteracy in Australia. Education News.
Commonwealth Office of Education, pp.
14-16, August 1947.
Illiteracy is accepted for this study as competence in
reading and writing at a level lower than that of the nine
year old child. On the basis of a random sample of 500
medically fit Australan Army personnel who had, if
below the median score on a verbal test of intelligence,
been given a special literacy test, percentages falling
below the educational level of 6-o years up to 9-6
years are given. Notes are given on the adequacy of
the sample, and suggestions are made of the causes of
illiteracy.

632. Report of the Minister of Public Instruction,
Victoria, pp. 34, Government Printer,
Melbourne, 1947.
This report contains statements on grounds and
buildings, on special activities, and statistical information
-giving the number of schools of various types, and


their enrolments and attendances, broad age classifica-
tion of all pupils with age-grade tables for post-primary
schools, destination of pupils leaving post-primary
schools, details of expenditure, numbers and qualifica-
tions of teachers, and comparative enrolment and
destination figures over the last ten years.
The report of the minister is followed by the reports of
the Chief Inspectors of Primary, Secondary and Tech-
nical Education and the report of the Inspector of Art
and Applied Art. These provide more details on points
mentioned in the Minister's report.

633. Report of the Minister for Education,
Tasmania, pp. 33. Government Printer,
Tasmania.
This report is divided into five parts, consisting of
reports from the Director of Education, Superintendent
of Technical Education, Principal of the Teachers'
College, the Psychologist, together with a number of
Statistical Tables. There is a general description of the
activities in 1946, with emphasis on changes during that
year. The most significant change reported was the
appointment of a minister with full portfolio to this
department, a convincing demonstration of a growing
recognition of the importance of education.
The upper age-limit for compulsory attendance has
been raised to 16 years and the numerous problems
arising from this change, and the steps taken to deal
with them are mentioned in a number of places in the
report. These steps include the drawing up of a special
curriculum, the investigation of appropriate methods of
instruction, new buildings and equipment, and addi-
tional staff. Experimental nuclear modern schools are
being conducted as a working model to be examined and
improved upon. Besides, there is an increasing demand
for educational facilities for children under six-con-
siderable progress has been made towards providing
these facilities. Local committees have been very active
in this connection.
There is also information on the more routine activi-
ties of the department, e.g. the application each year of
a programme of tests in all primary schools, and their
use in educational and vocational guidance, the training
of teachers, transport provided for children, etc. Tables
of statistics are contained in appendices.

634. Report of the Minister of Education, New
Zealand, for the year ending 31 December
1946, pp. 31. Government Printer,
Wellington, 1947.
A brief summary is given of principal developments
in many aspects of education-Buildings, Finance, Post-
Primary, Primary and Native Schools, Teacher Training,
Rural, Pre-School and Higher Education, Child Welfare
and Vocational Guidance.
Statistical tables cover the numbers on the rolls in
various kinds of schools both public and private; full
time pupils in various grades (i) by types of school, (ii)
by ages ; size of classes; ages of commencing primary
education; probable destination of primary and post-
primary pupils; length of post-primary courses; the
number of registered schools ; kindergarten schools and
the number of teachers in these types of schools;
university education; manual instruction; and the
number of children under supervision of the Child
Welfare Branch. An appendix gives a statement of
expenditure and recoveries for various subdivisions
(Administration, Primary, Post-Primary, Higher Educa-
tion etc.) for the year ending 31 March 1947.








635. Report on Primary and Post-Primary Educa-
tion, New Zealand, pp. 46. Government
Printer, Wellington, 1947.
This contains (i) The reports to the Director of
Education of the Chief Inspector of Primary and Post-
Primary Schools for 1946, which give in greater detail
many of the points made by the Minister of Education
in his annual report.
(ii) Statistics giving the number of Public Primary
Schools, by grade, in each of the Education Districts ;
attendances at these schools by age and by grade,
separately ; age and attainment of pupils leaving primary
schools during 1946; the number of registered private
primary schools with pupils and teachers in the several
educational districts ; enrolments by sex and standard
of pupils in the Correspondence Schools; rolls and
classification of pupils and staffs of Intermediate Schools
and Departments as at i July 1946 ; average attendance,
roll and staff of post-primary schools, the secondary
departments of District High Schools and of endowed
and registered private Secondary and Technical Schools,
and part-time pupils in Public Post-Primary Schools;
years of attendance of full-time post-primary pupils, the
courses of instruction followed (in each school), and the
number of pupils boarding away from home to attend
public post-primary schools.

636. Report on Higher Education. New Zealand
Government Printer, Wellington, 1947,
PP- 4-
Tables are given for 1946 of the number of students
attending the four universities and two agricultural
colleges, the numbers taking different subjects, and the
numbers of candidates successful in completing degrees
and portions of degrees.

637. Report on Child Welfare, State Care of
Children, Special Schools and Infant-Life
Protections. New Zealand Government
Printer, pp. 12, 1947.
This report covers briefly questions of staffing, educa-
tion, placement etc. in the Child Welfare Branch of the
Department of Education, and gives some details of the
various institutions it controls, and activities it under-
takes. Statistics are given of the number of children
under control and supervision of the branch at 31 March
1947, the number of children appearing before children's
courts in each of the last 3 years (an appreciable drop
in these is shown) and the action taken in respect of
those children, children placed under the care of Child
Welfare Officers in 1945-6, and 1946-7, and the causes
of committal and admission of children to institutions in
1945-6 and 1946-7.

638. Report on Education of Native Children.
New Zealand Government Printer, Wel-
lington, pp. 10, 1947.
This contains a five-page report by the Senior Inspec-
tor of Native (Maori) schools, outlining inter alia
developments during 1946 in the provision of schools
and staffing, certain defects in primary education and
remedies for them, and developments in the provision
of post-primary education. Statistical tables show the
number of Maori schools, by grade, with average atten-
dances and number of teachers ; the number of Maori
pupils attending Maori secondary schools ; the number
of Maori children attending Public schools, with their


grades and ages ; the ages of and standards reached by
Maori children in the Maori schools, and the class
of certificate held by the teachers in the latter schools.

GEOGRAPHY
639. Handbook of South Australia. Prepared
for the Australian and N.Z. Association
for the Advancement of Science, 25th
Meeting, Adelaide, August 1946, pp. 121.
One article in this handbook 'The Aborigines and
their Culture and the Half-caste Problem' by T. D.
Campbell and J. B. Cleland has been abstracted in No.
4 of these Abstracts, No. 491.
Other articles in the handbook are : 'The Geological
Background' by D. Mawson; 'The Geographical Back-
ground' by A. Grenfell Price and F. Clarence Martin;
'Central Australia' by C. T. Madigan. W. Oldham
gives a 'Population Survey', J. G. Wood describes 'Dis-
tribution of Vegetation'. T. Harvey Johnston and
Patricia M. Mawson present 'A Zoological Survey of
Adelaide Beaches'. H. C. Trumble's subject is
'Pastures and the Pastoral Industries'. A. G. Strickland
deals with 'The Fruit and Vine Industries', J. Thomas
with 'Forestry in S.A.'. W. J. Spafford and J. A. Pres-
cott discuss 'Agricultural Education and Research' ; F.
W. Moorhouse and H. M. Hale 'Marine Products of
Commerce'; L. K. Ward 'Mineral Resources and their
Utilisation'. J. H. 0. Eaton gives an account of 'Con-
trol of the Murray Waters' ; J. R. Dridan of 'Water
Conservation' ; R. H. Chapman of 'Railway Transport'.
In further papers D. V. Fleming deals with 'Road
Transport' ; E. V. Clark with 'Power and its Distribu-
tion', J. W. Wainright with 'Development of Secondary
Industry'. Subjects. of the last three papers are:
'Medical Advances in the Last Twenty Years' by F. S.
Hone; 'Scientific Research' by R. J. Best and 'Tenden-
cies in Education' by C. Fenner.-M.B. and E.J.D.
640. Foley, J. C. Frost in the Australian Region.
Commonwealth Meteorological Bureau,
Bulletin No. 32, Melbourne, pp. 142,
1945.
Frost damage to agricultural products although of
relatively small importance compared with other parts of
the world, is not a negligible factor in Australian
economy. The publication gives a comprehensive re-
view of the incidence and distribution of frosts. After
a definition of frosts of different severity the physical
processes leading to low temperatures, particularly heat
loss by outgoing radiation, are discussed. An extensive
table shows the distributions of simultaneous grass and
screen minimum temperatures at 29 stations throughout
Australia. The critical temperatures for different crops
at different stages of their development are discussed;
this leads to the explanation of methods, particularly
that of heating, by which frost damage can be prevented
or at least minimised. Data illustrated by tables are
presented on the frequency of damaging frosts in dif-
ferent regions of Australia taking into account the
topography and the crops grown. Tables give the
extreme and average dates for the first and last mild
and full frost (screen minima 360 and 320), the lowest
minima recorded and the average number of days per
month of minimum screen temperature of 320 or lower
at 500 stations. A comprehensive survey is made of the
weather situations connected with strong frosts in
1918-43, with a novel classification of pressure types by
letter sequences as a special feature. The statistical
data are illustrated by a set of charts with isolines for








the dates of the average and extreme occurrence of the
first and last mild and full frost.-F.L.

641. The Climatology of the Introduction of
Pines of the Mediterranean Environment
to Australia. J. A. Prescott and C. E.
Lane-Poole. Reprinted from Transac-
tions, Royal Society of South Australia
(Adelaide), pp. 67-90, 25 July 1947.
'Apart from its native grasslands and forests, the con-
tinent of Australia originally offered so little in the way
of plants of economic value to man that plant introduc-
tion has always been of great importance in the develop-
ment of the country.' The purpose of this article is to
review the climatic needs of some species of pines which
thrive in the Mediterranean region or California and to
show how far such climates exist in southern Australia.
The species chosen are the Monterey pine from Cali-
fornia, the Canary Island pine, the cluster pine of
southern France, Portugal and Corsica, the black or
Corsican pine of the Mediterranean and the Aleppo pine
of the eastern Mediterranean. In addition to the text
are eleven tables and nine figures showing climatic
factors in the countries of origin and of selected areas in
southern Australia. From the data thus available is
given a choice of appropriate species for the southern
parts of Australia.-W.S.C.

642. Coal in Victoria. Mining and Geological
Journal, pp. 14-20, September 1947.
(a) Brown Coal at Bacchus Marsh, pp. 14-16.
In No. 4 of these Abstracts, No. 465, the brown coal
deposits of the Latrobe Valley were discussed and the
study under review gives an account of the brown coal
mining activity of the four private companies at present
working open-cuts at Bacchus Marsh. The early dis-
coveries from 189o are described and conditions are
brought down to date. From January to July 1947, the
total production from these brown coal mines was
approximately 76,000 tons, with an average moisture
content of about 6o per cent.
(b) Brown Coal Deposits at Bacchus Marsh.
D. E. Thomas, pp. 17-18.
The general geology of the area is outlined and the
allotments under consideration are defined. It is
believed that, under present conditions, the mining of
this coal would be profitable. But mining operations
would destroy good agricultural land, making it impera-
tive to consider measures for the rehabilitation of the
land mined.
(c) Results of Boring for Brown Coal at Parwan.
J. L. Knight, pp. 19-20.
'In 1947 eleven bores were put down on the land
known as Parwan Park. In all but one bore, brown
coal having a maximum thickness of 84 ft. 6 in. was
located at depths ranging from 22 feet to 40 feet from
the surface.' The particulars available from the borings
are given along with the details of the analyses from the
coal seams of Bore io.-W.S.C.

643. Lake Coleridge Catchment: A Geographic
Survey of Its Problems. W. P. Packard.
New Zealand Geographer. (Christchurch),
pp. 19-40, April 1947.


'Some sixty miles west of Christchurch lies the Lake
Coleridge hydro-electric power station, second producer
of power in the South Island. Waitaki, the largest
single unit, generates half of the South Island total ;
Lake Coleridge, a fifth. The Waitaki scheme is depen-
dent, however, upon a snow-fed river having a natural
decrease in water supply, and consequently in power
production, at the season of greatest demand. Lake
Coleridge station, with its effective natural reservoir,
the lake, suffers no such decline in winter water supply.'
Broad simplicity of structure and of relief characterise
the Lake Coleridge catchment area. The soils and
primitive vegetation of the catchment areas reveal wide-
spread immaturity of soil. The present conditions are
chiefly of tussock grassland. Two fundamental reasons
are the burning and overgrazing of the plant cover.
Apart from a few level or undulating areas which are
well covered with English grasses, and extensively
grazed and manured, the condition of the surface cover
in the tussock grasslands is only fair. On many slopes
accelerated soil removal has been taking place. A most
significant factor in the present-day problems of soil
erosion is the extensive depletion of vegetation at the
altitude of 4000 feet or more. Even more destructive
than fire or sheep may have been the grazing of deer,
chamois and hares. 'The Lake Coleridge catchment is
a problem area. This problem appears to demand a
detailed investigation of the economics of high country
farming.'-W.S.C.

644. The Maniototo Basin, Central Otago:
From Natural to Cultural Landscape.
M. Aitken. New Zealand Geographer,
April 1947, pp. 59-75.
The transformation of this basin from natural to
cultural landscape is dealt with under the following
headings : The primitive landscape, a semi-arid climate,
indigenous soils and vegetation, earliest settlement, gold-
mining population, permanent occupation, the railway,
and the contemporary scene. Attention is drawn to the
'continental' climate, the Waipiata Sanatorium (above
the fog line), the tussock or bunch grass as the dominant
grass, the introduction of merino sheep, the arrival of
the rabbit, some gold diggings at an elevation of 3,500 ft.,
and arable agriculture up to 2,000 ft. (White Sow
Valley). 'On the plains human occupance has brought
about the greatest changes . Central Otago still retains
something of its original monotonous character. This
monotony is not so complete as it formerly was, for
settlement has created a diversity in the vegetation cover
which was absent when the indigenous tussock covered
the whole area.' Poplars and pinus radiata have been
introduced into this practically treeless basin and wide-
spread soil erosion is changing its appearance. 'Mixed'
farming, greater use of irrigation and hydroelectricity
and shelter belts will 'involve greater changes in the
landscape and so further tend to destroy the once all-
pervading monotony of this outer rim of the Otago
"plateau." '-E.J.D.

645. Geography and Social Studies. J. L.
Hewland. New Zealand Geographer
(Christchurch), pp. 83-89, April 1947.
It is three years since the publication of the Thomas
Report and the inclusion of the new title, 'Social Studies'
in the curriculum of the post-primary school syllabus.
'As a method of indicating that perhaps the wrong kind
of geography and history were being taught, the use of
the term 'Social Studies' must be welcomed. However,
it is open to doubt whether the desire to improve the








teaching of geography can best be attained by attemp-
ting a fusion with history and the creation of a third,
and hybrid, subject which can only find a place on the
timetable at the expense of either history or geography,
or both.' It is suggested that the attempted fusion of
geography and history is leading to confusion of aim.
Particular references are made and the types of instruc-
tion in geography are considered from several points of
view.-W.S.C.

HISTORY
646. Greenop, F. S. Periodicals. History of
magazine publishing in Australia. Sydney,
K. G. Murray Pub. Co. (1947), pp. XII,
300, inc. facsimiles.
This book gives an account of the magazines pub-
lished in Australia from 1803-1947. It gives the titles
of such magazines, a description of their contents, and
policy, the years in which they were published, and, in
most cases, the reasons for their collapse. The author
describes in considerable detail the history of such maga-
zines as The Bulletin, The Lone Hand, The Triad, Art
in Australia, Man and The Woman's Weekly.-
C.M.H.C.

647. Levi, Werner. American-Australian Rela-
tions. University of Minnesota Press,
Minneapolis, 1947, pp. 184.
This volume covers the history of American-Austra-
lian Relations from the first contacts in the last decade
of the eighteenth century to the recent Pacific War.
The main relationship between the two nations has been
that of trade. This is covered in four chapters, the
First Contacts, Whaling and Sealing, The Gold Rushes
and American-Australian Economics. The remainder
of the chapters deal with American Precedents in Aus-
tralian Politics and with the diplomatic contacts of the
two powers, especially those arising out of their relations
to Japan. The book is based on American sources and
such Australian official and press sources as the author
could secure in U.S.A.-L.G.C.

648. The Australian Army at War, 1939-1945.
The Public Relations Directorate, Mel-
bourne (1947), pp. 99, illustrated, inc.
maps.
Originally produced to acquaint Empire servicemen
with the part played by the Australian Army in the
1939-45 conflict, this booklet briefly summarises cam-
paigns in many theatres of war. A short general intro-
duction precedes descriptions of Australian military
operations in North Africa, Greece, Crete, Syria,
Malaya, Timor, New Britain and New Guinea. The
New Guinea campaign is treated in greater detail,
separate sections being devoted to the operations at
Milne Bay, Owen Stanleys and Wau. The amphibious
and airborne offensive for Finschhafen, and the Mark-
ham and Ramu valleys are described in the chapter
'Combined Operations'. These terse factual descrip-
tions of battles, actions and engagements contain general
information about troop movements and dispositions,
equipment, terrain and strategy and tactics employed
by both sides. A special section is devoted to the record
of Australian Independent Companies and Commando
Squadrons. Other sections are concerned with 'Main-
land Defence,' the V.D.C. and the Australian Army
Women's Services, while in the chapter on the Services


emphasis is mainly on road-building in New Guinea,
and the adaptation of equipment and supplies for tropical
warfare.-L.E.B.

649. Sharkey, L. L. Australian Communists
and Soviet Russia. Sydney, Current Book
Distributors, 1947, pp. 20, illustrated.
This pamphlet is designed to make clear the attitude
of the Australian Communist Party to Russia and to
rebut the charge that it is an 'agent of a foreign power.'
After examining the role of national Communist parties
in opposing fascism during the war, the author points
to the German origin of Communism and the universal
nature of Marxist philosophy. The anti-war policy of
the Soviet Union is fully supported by the Australian
Communist Party which is fighting for the kind of
Socialism which has been achieved in Russia, but a
Socialism which will not necessarily take a Russian form
when established in Australia. Mr. Sharkey claims that
socialisation of industry in Eastern Europe has been
accompanied by a strengthening of all forms of personal
freedom and points to the communist goal as not the
establishment of a totalitarian state but rather the
withering away of the state. The foreign policy of the
Australian Communist Party is one of opposition to
aggressive militarism, full support for the United
Nations, freedom for colonial peoples and opposition to
any form of imperialism. An examination of American
policy convinces him that American imperialism consti-
tutes the major threat to world peace ; America aimns at
the subordination of the British empire to American
finance. Accordingly the author is strongly opposed
to the Bevin policy of Anglo-American collaboration
which is directed specifically against a Russia that has
no imperialist designs.-N.D.H.

650. Cumberland County Council: History,
Structure and Methods. Public Adminis-
tration, pp. 240-45, March 1947.
This article, based upon material contained in an
address given by J. P. Tate, Chairman of the Cumber-
land County Council to the New South Wales Regional
Group, September, 1946, gives a short account of the
creation of the C.C.C. in April 1945, and the powers
conferred on it by the Local Government Amendment
Act, 1945. It then proceeds to outline the plans of the
Council for town planning, educational and health
services within its area. The article contains an urgent
appeal to the citizens of Sydney to support the plans
and activities of the Council.-C.M.H.C.

651. Victorian Historical Magazine, June 1947.
(a) Early Pioneers in the Mallee. Mrs. G. Knox
Chapman, pp. 1-9.
Fragments of the early history of settlement in the
Mallee, chiefly concerned with Swan Hill in the fifties
and sixties.
(b) The Early Defences of Melbourne. C. Daley,
pp. 10-22.
Until 1870 detachments of British troops were sent
out on Colonial Service 'to enforce authority and to
preserve order and peace as well as for defensive action
if need arose.' After 1854 they were assisted by several
local Volunteer Regiments which comprised the perman-
ent defence force until Federation. This article also traces
the history of the naval defences of Melbourne from the
acquisition of the 'Victoria' in 1856.









(c) The History of Melbourne's Water Supply-
Part II. R. C. Seegar, pp. 23-47.
This paper deals with the period between 1853 and
1891, during which years Melbourne's water supply was
under Government control. Beginning with the construc-
tion of the Yan Yean Reservoir in 1853 it surveys the
initial obstacles which delayed the provision of water
for Melbourne until December 1857. The water, when
supplied, was found to be contaminated, and unsuitable
pipes gave rise to lead poisoning. By the end of 1859
the cost was found to be almost double the original
estimate, due to maladministrationn, corruption and
bribery.' In 1872 the main from Yan Yean was found
to be inadequate to supply the population and steps were
taken to construct further aqueducts and pipes. By
1880 the Yan Yean itself was found to be too small and
further water was diverted into it. At the same time
the Watts River Scheme was initiated, and 'the com-
mencement of the nineties saw Melbourne's Water
Supply in a very good condition from both engineering
and financial standpoints.'-F.K.C.

652. Daniel Deniehy. B. T. Dowd. Royal
Aust. Historical Society, Journal and
Proceedings, Vol. XXXIII, Part II, pp.
57-95, 1947-
Biographical detail of the 'gifted Australian orator,
scholar and literary critic,' Daniel Deniehy (1828-65).
It includes original material mainly in the form of
letters, and presents a balanced study of his political
and literary work.
The virtues and failings of this Irish-Australian
barrister are sketched and his brilliance as an orator and
writer are indicated. A keen liberal, he was for three
years a member of the newly formed Legislative As-
sembly in New South Wales, but his liberal emphasis
involved the condemnation of his Catholic authorities
and from active political life he moved on to journalism,
returning to New South Wales after two years as editor
of the 'Victorian' to die in poverty in 1865.
This article gives a survey of his activities and gifts
and valuable source material for political development
in New South Wales in the 'fifties.-J.M.

653. Westward the River Rolls-the Story of
the Murray. George Farwell. Walkabout,
pp. 8-28, September 1947.
The plains of the Murray Basin derive from the
silting up of an arm of an inland sea in Miocene times
-this explains the westward flow. The real pioneer of
the Murray was Charles Sturt but 'navigation' by paddle
steamers did not begin until 1851. However State
jealousies hindered the development of the area-e.g.
the introduction of tariffs along the river and disputes
as to the control and use of the river waters. Unity of
action was not achieved until the River Murray Agree-
ment of 1914, which set up the River Murray Com-
mission, on which all States interested were represented
under a Federal Chairman. This was followed by much
constructive work along the whole length of the river.
Weirs and locks for water conservation and irrigation
were built.
As a result of this development the productive power
of the Murray has risen from 2 million to 18 million,
and the Murray Basin now contributes one-third of the
nation's export trade. But there is still room for much
expansion. Plans have been made for this and some


new works are already under way. But a further large-
scale development of the area depends on some type of
regional planning and decentralisation of secondary
industries.--.R.

LAW
(A) Constitutional Law
654. Australian Aspects of Government Cor-
porations. R. Else Mitchell. Public
Administration, pp. 277-289, June 1947.
A study of Australian constitutional law relating to
government corporations. The author believes that the
technique of the government corporation will be used
more and more. In England, parliament has unlimited
powers in creating institutions, but the Commonwealth
Parliament is bound by the limitations and restrictions
of the constitution. The decisions in the Airline Case
and the Pharmaceutical Benefits Case, however, pave the
way for a freer resort to the technique of the 'govern-
ment corporation.'

655. Australian Contributions to the Evolution
of Parliamentary Government. T. P.
Fry. University of Queensland Papers :
Faculty of Law, Vol. I, No. i, pp. 21.
The results of constitutional experiments conducted in
the parliamentary laboratories of Australia have some-
times been used to good effect in the U.K. This should
not blind us to the numerous and important lessons that
our Australian Parliaments have learnt and can continue
to learn from the Mother of Parliaments.
The more highly-organised nature of political parties
in Australia, Federation in Australia, the legalism (intro-
duced by Federation) which has almost succeeded in the
twentieth century in banishing from Australian consti-
tutional and political thought the halo of sanctity which
in nineteenth century Australia surrounded the Doctrine
of the Supremacy of Parliaments, the local historical
causes which have resulted in one unicameral legislature
and a variety of bicameral legislatures in Australia to-day,
are a few of the more important factors which give to
Australian Parliaments a character, or more correctly,
characters which differentiate them from the Mother of
Parliaments. However, there is no substantial political
demand either in U.K. or anywhere in Australia for any
institutional changes which would destroy the essential
nature of the modern system of parliamentary govern-
ment. In its essentials that system is the same in the
U.K. and in Australia and it keeps alive the democratic
governmental institutions.
Enough has probably been said to indicate that the
Australian Parliaments are rich mines which will yield
great rewards to any delving that may be done by
political scientists, constitutional historians and consti-
tutional lawyers.

656. The International and Natural Competence
of Australian Parliaments to Legislate in
respect of Extra-territorial Crime T. P.
Fry. University of Queensland Papers:
Faculty of Law, Vol. I, No. 2, 1947.
This paper deals with the international basis of the
law relating to the trial of war criminals and considers
in particular the problems arising in Australia when it
is desired to legislate for the conduct of such trials.







657. The Legislative Council of Western Aus-
tralia. F. R. Beasley. Res Judicatae
(Melbourne), pp. 149-154, October 1947.
A short study of the history of the Legislative Council
in Western Australia.

(B) International Law
658. The Legal and Constitutional Position of
Germany under Allied Military Govern-
ment. W. Friedmann. Res Judicatae,
pp. 133-143, October 1947.
This is a chapter of a work on Allied Military Govern-
ment and shows the theoretical and practical difficulties
which have arisen in the present occupation of Germany.

659. The War Trials and International Law.
G. W. Paton. ResJudicatae, pp. 122-132,
October 1947.
A survey of the legal issues underlying the trial of war
criminals. The unsatisfactory nature of the present
rules of international law is emphasised.

PHILOSOPHY
660. Purposivism. W. M. O'Neil. Australasian
Journal of Philosophy, pp. 152-173, Dec-
ember 1947.
Cautiously defining 'purposivism' as 'behaviour which
is determined by the pursuit of ends,' the writer proceeds
to examine its usefulness in psychology, proceeding from
standard accounts such as Watson's and McDougall to
his test case in Hull's Principles of Behaviour. The
main question is whether purposivism is to be taken
merely in a descriptive sense (we all of us normally
describe our activities purposively) or, further, in an
explanatory sense ; which many modern psychologists
would deny. The interest of Hull's treatment for the
writer is that he starts with the assumptions that purpos-
iveness is only descriptive, but in the end implicitly com-
mits himself to the view that it is also explanatory.
661. The Formation of Japanese Ethics. K.
Singer. Australasian Journal of Philo-
sophy, pp. 34-52, August 1947.
An outline of the main historical tendencies of Japan-
ese Ethics, containing brief accounts of the main tenden-
cies and personalities. The conclusion which emerges
is 'the Japanese have so far put their trust in bold
generalizations and in proud self-sufficing thought,' and
have been 'concerned more with the effort to make
truth livable and to keep it close to feeling.'

PSYCHOLOGY
662. Oeser, 0. A. What Use Can Industry
Make of Psychology ? Institute of Indus-
trial Management, Melbourne, 1947, pp.
1-20. Price is. 6d.
This address stresses the need for co-operation
between psychologists and the community, especially in
the industrial field. It broadly outlines the scope of
psychology and emphasises the practical applications of
modern developments in social psychology. In connec-
tion with the problems of public relations, the role of
the psychiatrist in industry is briefly discussed, especi-
ally in relation to policy-making.


663. A Technique for the Selection of Instruc-
tors in Industry. K. F. Walker and M. N.
Oxlade. Bulletin of Industrial Psychology
and Personnel Practice, pp. 18-23, Septem-
ber 1947.
Report of an experiment carried out in a cotton spin-
ning mill to select instructors for various operations
within the mill.
The technique used was developed largely from the new
methods used for officer selection in the Armed Forces.
Ratings were made for (a) Intelligence, by means of a
standard group test; (b) Ability to teach, based on the
candidate's performance in teaching a specific task to a
beginner ; (c) Sociability, measured by means of Cattell's
Fluency Test and a rating scale ; (d) Leadership assessed
from performance in a leaderless discussion session;
(e) Quality of production, from foremen's ratings; (f)
Age and absence of physical handicap. The ratings
showed a measure of agreement.
This sort of research programme seemed to have
value besides its selection efficiency. (a) It is fair to all
candidates. (b) It demonstrates the serious interest of
management in instructors and job training. (c) The
job-instruction test reveals a range of job methods and
instruction methods from which the most effective can
be chosen for future practice. (d) It reveals that workers
have a fund of ideas about their work which is not being
expressed or developed to the best advantage.

664. Aptitude Tests for Better Utilisation of
Labour. An Editorial Staff Report.
Manufacturing and Management, pp. 160-
162, November 1947.
This is a short report describing the purpose and
methods of the Vocational Guidance Section of the
Commonwealth Employment Service. The value of
this work to the community generally, to industry, to
management and to the individual is stressed. The
batteries of aptitude tests and the main content of the
interview are briefly described. An illustrative case is
given.

TERRITORIES AND NATIVE
PROBLEMS
665. Some Features of New Zealand's Racial
Problem. Ronald L. Meek. New Zealand
Geographer, pp. 75-82, April 1947.
This article deals with the vital statistics and social
position of the Maori population. Figures are based on
the statistics for 1936,e the figures of the census of 945
not yet being available. There are 97,263 Maoris in
N.Z., 94,488 in the North Island. From 1926-36,
Maoris (full-bloods and half-castes) increased by 22,
Europeans by only 6 per cent. With the possible excep-
tion of Chinese and Ind Iians the Maoris have the largest
rate of natural increase in the world, which has shown
no signs of decreasing during the last ten years. There is
a tendency to a higher rate of increase among the mixed
population : between 1926 and 1936, the proportion of
full-blood Maoris dropped from 71 to 68 per cent, while
full-bloods increased by 23 and those of part Maori
blood by 57 per cent. Preliminary figures of the latest
census (1945) indicate that the increase in Maori popu-
lation totalled 18"7 per cent. On the other hand,
whereas N.Z. as a whole has nearly the lowest death rate
in the world, the Maoris have a death rate exceeded by







only two or three peoples in the world. Significant are
two special groups of figures, viz., (i) deaths from tuber-
cular diseases: N.Z. as a whole has one of the lowest fig-
ures, but the Maori rate is about twice as high as that of
any other country which publishes statistics. (2) Infant
mortality : N.Z. has the lowest rate in the world, but the
Maori people were, in 1938, only 4 from the bottom of
the list. Other features of the problem are economic :
In 1936, it could be said that the Maori was either an
agricultural labourer, or an unskilled labourer. Since
1936, however, the proportion engaged in industry has
become very much greater. There is also a marked
drift of the Maoris to the cities, e.g. in the Auckland
urban area, the increase in resident Maoris exceeded
244 per cent during 1926-36. The number and strength
of Maori organizations has increased to an amazing
extent. The white New Zealanders, on their part, tend
to force the Maori race into occupations and environ-
ments which may turn imaginary bad qualities into real
ones. Maoris live in appalling slums, and the refusal of
white landlords to take Maoris as boarders is largely
responsible for these conditions. The author proposes
a number of concrete measures, which must be taken
if the problems are to be satisfactorily solved. But 'the
best elements among the Maori people themselves must
be mobilised to fight for such improvements.'

666. Native Policies in the Solomon Islands.
Cyril Belshaw. Pacific Affairs (New
York), pp. 187-193, June 1947.
During the war the presence of American troops and
the introduction of technical devices greatly stimulated
the natives to independent thought. The Solomon
Islanders are not a unified people. Between 1890 and
1920 inter-tribal warfare gave way to a peaceful develop-
ment under the influence of missionaries and the British
administration. The introduction of Pidgin English
enabled natives to contact one another and to exchange
ideas. Working on plantations caused natives to work
together, thus making for greater understanding. In
the 193o's discontent started at Gela, the capital. There
were demands for higher wages and for a voice in the
Advisory Council. This movement constituted no
danger to the government; had it been handled by
enlightened administrators, its results might have been
beneficial. Its repression left Gela in muddled dis-
satisfaction when Japanese invasion threatened. Law
books were burnt and houses looted after the evacuation
of Europeans in 1942.
Before the war the Gela district had been badly
administered by police officials. However, an able
administrator, appointed to the district prior to the war,
initiated reforms including native courts and councils.
Another movement, far more widespread and hard to
control, is that known as 'Masinga ('Mercy' or 'March-
ing') rule.' Only recently the government became aware
of this movement, which spread from Guadalcanal to
other islands. Basically it was economic : the natives,
having become used to high money incomes from the
sale of curios and fruit, demand a monthly wage of from
12 to 16 as against the prevailing wage of 1 5s. to
2 los. plus keep. Politically the movement seeks
concentration of power in the hands of a strong native
leader, and already such a would-be leader exerts strong
influence. There is envy and hatred of the white man
and violent demonstrations occurred at Auki on Malaita.
However, the movement rests on a foundation of sound
reasoning and welcome ambitions for a higher economic
and political status. For a new constructive programme
research into native economics and social structure is
needed.


667. Territory of Western Samoa. Report on
the Administration of the Territory for
the year ended 31 March 1947, P.P.
Government Printer, Wellington, pp. 27.
Chapter II deals with the 'Status of the Territory.' In
January, 1946, N.Z. accepted the Charter of the U.N.
in its application to Western Samoa. A draft trustee-
ship agreement was submitted by the N.Z. government
to the Secretary General of the U.N. in October 1946.
A Fono of all Samoa, including the Faipule and delegates
from all political districts in the country, met and dis-
cussed the terms of the agreement with the Adminis-
trator and a representative of the N.Z. government. A
petition was presented by the Samoan leaders praying
for self-government under N.Z. protection. This peti-
tion was to come before the first session of the U.N.
Trusteeship Council on the 26 March 1947. Chapter
III (Status of the Population) mentions that all persons
of one quarter or more non-Polynesian blood have the
racial status of Europeans, but changes may be made
voluntarily by registration. Chapter IV (International
Relations). In addition to international conventions
that have been applied to Western Samoa, published in
last year's report, the present report gives an additional
list of seven agreements. In a paragraph on
'Economic Equality' protection is afforded to Native
Samoans in the legal inalienability of Native Land, and
Samoans are not liable to estate, succession, or gift
duties, but otherwise there are no derogations from the
principle of economic equality as regards concessions,
direct or indirect taxation. A chapter on Native Affairs
shows how the autochthonous family and tribal organisa-
tion is still amalgamated with the modern administrative
apparatus, very much in the same way as it had developed
spontaneously in the former German part of Samoa
before 1914. Chapter XIV (Education) is a record of
educational achievements during the last few years,
and the proposed new general scheme of education is
discussed at length.

668. Cook Islands. Report of the Administration
for the year ended 31 March 1947. P.P.
Government Printer, Wellington, pp. 23.
The Cook Islands include fifteen small islands situated
between 1670 and 156 west longitude. Certain archipela-
goes and islands of the group are better known under their
own name, such as Rarotonga, the Hervey Islands and
Mangaia. A special report on Niue is included in the
report, the island having its own administration. Special
chapters deal with 'General Administration,' and the
various public services, and statistical tables are attached
to each chapter. There are (as per 31 March 1947)
q7,598 male and 6,972 female natives, 152 male and 99
female Europeans, but the following figures seem to be
confined to the islanders: the number of births was
574 in 1946-47, and the death-rate of infants was 141 -
per 1,ooo births. A comparison with Niue, which has
only 4,303 natives and 25 Europeans, shows that, there,
the infant mortality was only 84-8 per I,ooo births, and
the report says : 'The excess of births over deaths is
notable when compared with more recent years. The
infant-mortality rate also shows decided improvement.'
In Niue, all medical and dental treatment, including
hospitalisation, is provided free of charge to natives.
While, in the Cook Islands, 'tuberculosis continues to
be the main medical problem,' it has obviously been on
the decline on Niue. On Niue, the principal diseases
are yaws and ringworm. Other important chapters are
those on education ; there are government schools,








schools of the London Missionary Society and (in the
Cook Islands) also Roman Catholic Mission Schools.

669. Aboriginal Evidence and Justice in North
Australia. A. P. Elkin. Oceania, pp.
173-210, March 1947.
The clash between white and black brings about
conflict ultimately leading to criminal procedure. Some
cases of violence amongst the natives themselves are
legal actions according to tribal law and custom, but
constitute violations of white law and must be prosecuted.
In such cases modern Australian law and legal procedure
is applied, and aborigines are called as witnesses. In
present criminal procedure the evidence of the aborig-
gines in court is 'almost inevitably' unreliable. The
deeper cause of this lies in the 'General Background'
(Chapter I) of conditions in the north : 'In the marginal
regions of settlement in Australia invasion and "con-
quest" are still in process.' The aborigines' 'regular
camping-places, sources of water and food, sacred sites,
secular and ceremonial activities, are almost always
ignored and often directly interfered with by the white
settler, because of his economic interests. He and his
cattle are his prime, and indeed only, consideration.'
But the aborigines are expected to labour for him and
the native women, in many cases, to provide sexual satis-
faction. When the aborigines appear in court, and
already when questioned by the police, their attitude is
largely determined by fear or worry. They tend to
answer any question in the affirmative, as long as they
suspect that a negative answer would get them all the
more into trouble. Partly for this reason the natives'
story before the police, or another official outside the
court, often differs from their evidence given in court.
Then there is the lack of understanding. No member
of a court in the area under observation is familiar with
aboriginal vernaculars, while most of the aborigines do
not know English. Pidgin is absolutely inadequate, full
of ambiguous words and cannot express the motive of
the search for fact and truth.
On the cultural side: The white man is usually
ignorant of native social organisation, religion, etc., the
aboriginal is equally ignorant of what the white man is
interested in. Only trained anthropologists will obtain
a really correct picture of tribal life. The aborigines
have not the slightest knowledge of our criminal pro-
cedure, the idea of cross-examination is completely
beyond their comprehension. A special chapter deals
with the oath and unsworn evidence of native witnesses.
The final chapter (V) contains proposals de lege
ferenda : all cases involving aborigines should be
removed from the jurisdiction of justices of the peace
and from trial by jury. The problems of the establish-
ment of special courts for such cases, and of mitigation
of sentence-when a violation of the law is different from
the native legal point of view-are discussed. The
Ordinance of 24 May 1933 says that, when an aboriginal
is convicted of murder, the court shall, for determining
the penalty, receive and consider any evidence as to any
relevant native law or custom. 'However, there has
been no officer of the court, nor of the Native Affairs
Branch, with an adequate knowledge of aboriginal law,
custom and psychology.' The appointment of an
officer, trained and experienced in anthropology, is,
therefore, desirable. Courts for Native Matters, i.e.
civil and criminal matters arising between native and
native, and between the administration and natives,
were provided for by the Native Administration Ordin-
ance of 21 August 1940, but the necessary regulations
could not yet be issued. Meanwhile one Patrol Officer
and four Cadet Patrol Officers of the Native Affairs


Branch are to be trained in law and anthropology at the
University of Sydney to be available for appointment as
magistrates. The author also deals with Courts of
Native Affairs established in W.A. in 1936, and with the
Queensland experiment of 'Aboriginal Courts.' Finally,
he explains 'Native Courts,' i.e. courts constituted by the
aborigines themselves to deal with anti-social acts within
their community, as they exist on some missions in
Queensland and one in Central Australia. However,
neither the council or 'court' nor the superintendent can
take any disciplinary action except denying offenders
the privileges of the mission. Officers of the Native
Affairs Branch, after examining the council's findings,
should be authorized to pronounce the punishment.

670. Food Supplies of a Desert Tribe. G.
Sweeney. Oceania, pp. 289-299 (with
sketch map), June 1947.
The article deals with the nutrition of the Wailbri
tribe in Central Australia. This tribe has about six
hundred members, about half of whom have emigrated
north to the cattle stations, while the other half still
lives in their old tribal, area, the districts round Mt.
Doreen wolfram field and The Granites gold field. Both
halves have about 30 per cent children, which may be
regarded as evidence of their vitality and the extent to
which they have mastered their environment. The
greater part of this environment is spinifex desert. Yet,
a considerable number of different foods is obtained from
that desert environment by the natives. Descriptions,
and the native names, of all these vegetable and flesh
foods, as well as other miscellaneous foods, are given.
There are eight different bush and tree fruits, four root
fruits, of which the yala, or desert yam, is the most
important; about half a dozen seed foods. The native
method of cooking, i.e. roasting in the ashes, is described.
No foods are boiled. Many vegetable foods are eaten
raw.
671. Native Christianity in a New Guinea
Village. H. Ian Hogbin. Oceania, pp.
1-35, two plates, September 1947.
An account of the faith in Busama, a village in the
Morobe district on the west coast of the Huon Gulf
between Lae and Salamaua. The natives have been
subject to the influence of the German Lutheran mission
for the past four decades. Christian elements are mixed
up with paganism. The Decalogue is regarded as the
ultimate guide, and it is always asserted that those who
keep the Commandments are certain after death of
admission into Heaven. Many Christian notions appear
to be settled in the emotional, social and religious life of
the present-day natives, especially when they correspond
to ancient autochthonous ideas. Thus great significance
is attached to the commandment concerning care for
parents, because filial devotion has been a feature of
Busama culture from times immemorial. A teacher
who after a quarrel threw his mother out of the house
was dismissed, his sin being spoken of by the villagers
with horror.
According to a chapter on 'Conscience' a number of
so-called Christians may still be indifferent to the idea
of Christian ethics, and only very few converts have ab-
sorbed the missionaries' teachings. The majority of the
villagers are between the two extremes. They claim to
be Christians and even salt their conversation freely
with biblical texts but by 'conscience' understand little
more than a transference of maya-the native word to
denote shame or embarrassment felt by a person dis-
covered in irregular behaviour-to a different plane. The
majority of the natives still believe in magic.
I47









INDEX TO Nos. 4 AND 5


A
Aboriginal Evidence and Justice, 669.
Aborigines, 491, 493, 496.
Accountancy, 375, 376, 378, 380, 381, 383-385, 552-554,
556, 56o.
Actuarial Students, 543.
Agar, 527.
Age Grouping of Workers, 579.
Agriculture, 346, 402, 514, 58I, 595.
Airey, W., 61o.
Aitken, M., 644.
Alexander, F., 467.
Alexander, G. H., 572.
Allan, H. H., 463.
Aluminium, 353, 429, 523, 535.
Aluminium Therapy, 429.
American-Australian Relations, 417, 647.
American Labour, 4o0.
Anderson, A. V., 548.
Anderson, H. V., 361, 532.
Andrews, J., 419.
Anglo-American Loan, 368.
Ankers, R. C., 380.
Aptitude Tests, 664.
Arbitration, 575, 577.
Arndt, H. W., 542.
Art for Children, 621.
Ashby, E., 443.
Ashby, T. W. M., 415.
Asian Relations Conference, 6o5.
Atomic Energy, 350.
Auditing, 383.
Australia as Lender, 345.
Australian Army, 648.
Australian Business Cycles, 337.
Australian Catholics, 470.
Australian Food Exports, 513.
Australian Outlook, 413.
Australian People, 469.
Australian Politics, 603.
Australian Resources, 449.
Australian States Power Revival, 599.
Aviation, 387, 565, 567.

B
Bacchus Marsh Coal, 465, 642.
Bailey, F. H., 361.
Bailey, K. H., 477.
Banking, 365.
Barnett, S. T., 415.
Barton, A. E., 384.
Beasley, F. R., 657.
Beecroft, R. M., 348.
Bell, A. F., 589.
Belshaw, C., 666.
Benwerrin Coal, 465.
Birdsall, G., 532.
Bland, F. A., 414.
Bloch, A. M., 530.
Bonus Payment, 578.
Books for Children, 444.
Borrie, W. D., 433, 616.
Bostock, J., 447.
Bourke, J. P., 483.
Bourke, W. C., 392.
Bretton Woods, 367, 541, 542.
Britain and Australia, 472, 503.
Broadcasting, 550.
Brown, G. H., 335.
Brown Coal in Victoria, 465, 642.


Budgetary Control, 379.
Bulcock, F. W., 592.
Burgess, K. J., 392.
Butlin, N. G., 334.
Butlin, S. J., 507.


Calcium Carbide, 537.
Calvert, G. N., 618.
Calwell, A. A., 430.
Campbell, T. O., 491.
Carroll, N. C., 413.
Carslaw, H. S., 370.
Chapman, G. K., 65I(a).
Charrett, E. P., 393.
Child Welfare in N.Z., 637.
Christianity, Native, in New Guinea, 671.
Citrus Industry, 406.
Clarey, H. P., 392.
Clark, Colin, 546.
Clarke, A. C., 613.
Clarke, G. T., 547.
Clayton, F. H., 357.
Cleland, J. B., 491.
Coal, 465, 522, 642.
Cochrane, D., 386.
Coghill, E. H., 482.
Commodity Policy, 333.
Communists, Australian, 649.
Constitution, 476, 479, 480.
Cook, P. H., 488, 489.
Cook Islands, 668.
Coombs, L. A., 532.
Co-operative Housing, 425.
Corporate (Company) Accounting, 554, 560.
Cost Accounting, 377, 558, 559, 561, 562.
Cost of Government, 546.
Council for Educational Research, 624, 625.
Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, 512.
Cranston, H. V., 460.
Crawford, J. G., 332.
Crime, Extra-Territorial, 656.
Crocker, R. L., 451.
Crowley, N. G., 498.
Cultural Facilities, 445(b).
Cumberland County Council, 650.
Cumbrae-Stewart, F. 0., 476.
Cunningham, K. S., 620.
Cunningham, W. A., 528.
Cuthbert, Grace, 616.

D
Dairy Farming and Marketing, 407, 516, 524, 585.
Dakin, W. J., 526.
Daley, C., 651(b).
Davidson, J. W., 466.
Deane, J., 464.
Dedman, J. J., 531.
Defence Policy, Australian Post-War, 602.
Defence Power, 478.
Defences of Melbourne, 65i(b).
Delaney, D. M., 398.
Deniehy, Daniel, 652.
Depreciation, 555.
Dermatitis, 612.
Desert Tribe, Food Supplies, 670.
Differential Costs, 559.
Distributive Trades, 348.
Dollar Crisis, 528.
Dowd, B. T., 652.
Downes, R. G., 452.
149








Dowsett, C. P., 333, 346, 355, 513.
Dunn, S. S., 490.
Dunphy, E. A., 577.
Dyne, R. E., 427, 435.
E
Eastern Sea Power, 468.
Easton, E. W., 575.
Economic Policy, 344, 504, 505.
Education, 415, 442, 443, 448, 628, 632-636, 638.
Education and Public Service, 415.
Eggleston, Sir F., 416.
Eldridge, F. B., 468.
Electricity, 388.
Elkin, A. P., 616, 668.
Empire Forests, 403.
Empire Unity, 575.
Employment, 346.
Engineering Unemployment, 334.
England, P., 494.
English, Teaching of, 623.
Eureka Stockade, 471.
Exchange Control, 506.
F
F.A.O., 332, 405, 499, 581-584, 584(a).
Farm Income and Costs, 514.
Farwell, G., 653.
Fat Lamb Industry, 586.
Female Labour, 571.
Ferguson, S. F., 515.
Ferguson Wood, E. J., 527.
Ferries, 388.
Fertiliser, 405.
Fertility Indices, 438.
Fibres, World Survey, 584(a).
Fields, R. H., 391.
Financial Problems, 545.
Fitzgerald, A. A., 377, 554, 560.
Fitzpatrick, B., 469.
Fitzpatrick, F. L., 342.
Foenander, 0. de R., 390.
Foley, J. C., 640.
Food, 322, 499, 503, 513, 581, 583, 670.
Food Technology, 459.
Fooks, E., 423.
Foreign Policy, 421, 474.
Foreman, 572.
Forestry, 403, 404, 460, 594.
Forster, A. D. J., 392.
Forty-Hour Week, 396.
Foxcroft, E. J. B., 411.
Fresh Fruits, 516.
Friedmann, W., 658.
Frost, 640.
Fry, T. P., 408, 655, 656.
Fuel Injection Equipment, 540.
Full Employment, 339, 498.

G
Gabriel, R. H., 401.
Galbraith, A. V., 404.
Gas Industry, 369, 385, 562.
Geddes, H. J., 593.
Germany, 658.
Geography and Social Studies, 645.
Geography, Teaching of, 457.
Gibb, C., 481.
Gibbs, H. T., 476.
Gibbs, W. J., 453.
Goldberg, L., 375, 552.
Goldfields, 614, 615.
Goldsbrough, Mort & Coy., 358.
Gollan, H. R., 576.


Goodwill, 378.
Gordon, I. A., 623.
Gough, L. S., 357.
Gover, A. T., 432.
Government, 411, 414, 546, 655.
Government Corporations, 654.
Gowland, J., 612.
Grantham, H. A., 592.
Grattan, C. Hartley, 343, 474.
Greenland, P. C., 374, 564.
Greenop, F. S., 646.
Greenwood, G., 421, 693.
Greenwood, R. D., 379.
Griffin, J. B., 396.
Group Personnel and Welfare Service, 398.
Gruen, F. H., 503.
Guaranteed Annual Employment and Wage Plans, 574.
Gunn, J. A. L., 372.

H
Haddon-Cave, C. P., 498.
Hambidge, C. M., 450.
Harrigan, 568.
Harris, H. L., 616.
Harrison, W. N., 480.
Haslan, E. P., 507.
Haymaking, 593.
Hazelwood Coal, 465.
Hewland, G. L., 645.
Hewland, J. L., 349.
Higher Education in N.Z., 636.
Higginson, H. P., 393.
Hill, Edna, 447.
Hill, V. R., 375.
History, 467, 469, 470, 475.
Hogbin, H. I., 671.
Hog Casings, 538.
Holmes, J. M., 458, 461.
Hosking, S. M., 357.
Housing, 425, 6ii.
Howey, G. C., 524.
Hughes, J. W., 371.
Hytten, T., 563.

I
Illiteracy in Australia, 631.
Immigration, 430, 431, 615-617, 619.
Import Controls, 5o6.
Income, 341, 346, 502, 514.
India, 516.
Industrial Disputes, 399, 573.
Industrial Psychology, 489.
Industrial Regulation, 390.
Industrial Relations, 393, 399.
Injury Rates in Manufacturing, 613.
Insanity, Drunkenness, Crime, 483.
Instructors in Industry, Selection of, 663.
Insurance, 369, 378.
Interest, 366.
International Affairs, 332, 333.
International Labour Organisation, 395, 477.
International Monetary Fund, 367.
International Trade, 338, 339, 498, 503, 516, 517.
Irish, R. A., 383, 554.
Irrigation, 454, 455, 589, 590.
Italian Immigration, 431.

J
Jackson, H., 382.
James, R. E., 606.
Japanese Constitution, 607.
Japanese Ethics, 661.
Jenkins, Shirley, 609.







K
Keesing, F. M., 422.
Kenny, J. P. L., 465.
Kershaw, S., 6oo.
Kewley, T. H., 597.
Keynes, Lord J. M., 391, 507.
Kindergartens, 445(a), 627.
Knight, J. L., 642.
L
Labour Conflict, 399, 573.
Labour Policy in N.Z., 604.
Labour Shortage, 569.
Lake Coleridge Catchment, 464.
Lancaster, G. B., 340.
Land Utilisation, 450, 459.
Lane-Poole, C. E., 641.
Lang, J. D., 588.
Langton, A. G., 518.
La Nauze, J. A., 347, 508.
Latrobe Valley Coal, 465.
Law Reform, 482.
Legislative Council of W.A., 657.
Lengyel, S. J., 348, 376.
Levi, W., 417, 418, 647.
Libraries, 629, 630.
Life Insurance Companies, 545.
Livestock Valuation, 557.
Loburn Run, 464.
Lodewyckx, A., 44o.
Longfield, C. M., 510o.
M
McCallum, J. A., 605.
McCarthy, F. D., 497.
McColvin, L. R., 629.
McKeon, C. J., 592.
Mackie, J., 486, 614.
Macquarie, Governor, 473.
Malaya, 517.
Mallee, Pioneers in, 651(a).
Management Training, 518.
Maniototo Basin, 644.
Manufacturing Industry, 349.
Maoris, 638, 665.
Mapping, 458.
Marketing, 479.
Marriage, Early, 435.
Materials Control, 382.
Mauldon, F. R. E., 340, 522.
Maynard, R. S., 573.
Maze, W. H., 457.
Meat, 355, 356.
Medical Service, 427, 428.
Meek, R. L., 655.
Melbourne-Essendon Railway, 568.
Meynard, A. M., 4i4.
Milk, 354, 525.
Miller, J. D. D., 6ox.
Milner, J., 596.
Mines, Minerals, 351-353, 520, 521.
Miskoe, W. J., 392.
Mitchell, J. N., 369.
Mitchell, R. E., 654.
Morals, 486.
Morey, E., 620.
Morris, C. A., 392.
Moule, G. R., 591.
Mountford, C. P., 496.
Moving Frontiers, 467.
Mullett, H. A., 592.
Murray River, 455, 590, 653.
Murrumbidgee River, 590.
Murtagh, J. G., 47o.
N
National Income, 501.
National Product, 502.


Neale, E. P., 617.
Neill, C. W., 549.
N.E. Indies, 517.
New Guinea, 494, 495, 565, 671.
New Zealand, 335, 338, 349, 354, 365, 368, 373, 389,
436, 463, 464, 504-506, 552-554, 566, 567, 595, 604,
61o, 617, 618, 622, 625, 628, 634-638, 665.
Nimmo, J. F., 569.
Northern Territory, 492.


Oeser, O. A., 662.
O'Niel, W. M., 660.
Optical Industry, 533-
Owen, W. F., 407.
Oxlade, M. N., 663.


Pacific Islands, 422, 426.
Packard, W. P., 643.
Pappe, H. O., 349.
Parker, A. M., 545.
Parker, G., 605.
Parker, R. S., 576.
Parkes, Henry, 5o8.
Parliamentary Government, 655.
Parliament, Australian, 410, 412, 597, 655, 656.
Parwan Coal, 465, 642.
Passmore, J. A., 485.
Paton, G. W., 481, 659.
Pensions, 544, 597.
Periodicals, 646.
Personnel Procedures, 570.
Peterson, H. A., 517.
Peverill, E. A., 555.
Physical Welfare, 445(c).
Pig Industry, 587.
Pines, Mediterranean, In Australia, 641.
Planning, Community, Urban, 423, 424.
Polden, L. S., 543.
Political Science, 596.
Pollard, A. H., 438.
Population, 432-434, 436, 437, 617, 618.
Port Administration, 600.
Portus, G. V., 472.
Post-War Economy, 343.
Power Supplies, 51o.
Prediction, 485.
Pre-School Child, 447, 628.
Prescott, J. A., 641.
Price Control, 342.
Prices, 333, 341, 346.
Primary and Post-Primary Schools in N.Z., 634.
Productivity, 500, 509.
Profit Sharing, 394.
Protection, 5o8.
Psychology, Use in Industry, 662.
Public Accounts, 353.
Public Instruction, 632.
Public Service Boards, Employee Representatives, 576.
Public Service Staff Association, 6o0.
Publishing Industry, 364.
Pullor, E. M., 587.
Purposivism, 66o.
Purss, A., 532.
Pyke, N. O. P., 431, 615.


Quality Control, 519.
Queensland, 351, 408, 520.


Rabling, H., 393.
Racial Problems in N.Z., 665.
Railways, 388, 389, 568.
Raffaello, C., 471.
Reading, Film and Radio Tastes of Pupils, 622.







Reddel, E. A., 555.
Regional Development Committees, 598.
Reid, P. A., 593.
Retail Shops, 381, 396.
Richardson, C. R., 373.
Richmond, A. D., 561.
Riverina Regional Libraries, 630.
Robertson, J. G., 574.
Rodriquez, E., 393.
Rodwell, H. R., 354.
Rogers, L. W., 626.
Ronalds, A. F., 455.
Rosenberg, W., 367, 551.
Ross, L., 608.
Rout, M. H., 562.
Rowley, Sheila, 514.
Rural Credit, 336.
Rural Reconstruction, 336, 402, 580.
S
Salvage, 484.
Santamaria, B. A., 434.
Sawer, G., 478.
Schools, 448.
Schumer, L. A., 555.
Schuster, C., 495.
Scott, R. H., 541.
Scott, W. D., 559.
Scott, W. J., 622.
Scott, W. M., 556.
Seegar, R. C., 651(c).
Selection of Staff, 487, 488.
Sharkey, L. L., 649.
Shaw, N., 397.
Sheehy, C., 524.
Silver, 352.
Simkin, C. G. F., 338, 365, 462, 504.
Simon, J., 558.
Simson Desert, 451.
Singer, K., 661.
Smith, L. G., 357.
Smith, T. R., 415.
Snowy River, 456, 590.
Socialist on Democracy, 608.
Social Services Contribution, 370.
Soil Conservation, 403.
Solomon Islands, 666.
South Australia, 448, 450, 61 639.
South Pacific, 418-420, 6o6.
South Pacific Commission, 6o6.
South-West Pacific, 461.
Soviet Legal Theory, 481.
Soyabean Industry, 592.
Staff Training, 380.
Sterling Exchange, 368.
Stoate, N. T., 594.
Stock in Trade, 556.
Stone, F. G. D., 424.
Stone Sculpture Objects, Engravings, 494, 594, 497.
Storey, H. M., 412.
Strakosch, H. E., 619.
Street, R. H., 626.
Subsidies, 551.
Sugar Industry, 359.
Sweeney, G., 670.
Syme, David, 347.
Synthetic Fibres, 530, 539, 584(a).
T
Tanning Material, 361, 532.
Tariff Board, 511.
Tasmania, 409, 633.
Tate, J. P., 650.
Taxation, 370-373, 547-549.
Taylor, D. de P., 381.
Teachers, 620.


Technical Schools' Association, 626.
Telecommunications, 564.
Tenancies, 408.
Textile Industry, 357.
Thomas, D. E., 642.
Thorpdale Coal, 465.
Time Study, 392.
Tinplate, 363.
Tobacco, 508.
Tocker, A. H., 437.
Tonga, 462.
Trade Unions, 400.
Tramways, 388.
Transport, 566.
Transport Development Problems, 563.
Travelling to Work, 386.
Traversi, A. T., 544.
Tredinnick, W. H., 484.
Trueman, A. F., 546.
Tunnelling Erosion, 452.
Turner, A. W., 579.
Tussock Grassland, 463.

U
United Nations, 416, 499.
Universities, Australian, 439, 440.
Unkenstein, O. G., 557.


Vacuum Cleaners, 362.
Vicars, R. J., 357.
Vickery, J. R., 459.
Victoria, 452, 465, 482.
Vocational Guidance, 441.


Wage Incentives, 392.
Wages, 391, 392.
Walker, K. F., 337, 663.
Wallace, W. N. W., 519.
Ward, A. H., 585.
Ward, J. M., 420, 607.
Warner, A. G., 569.
Warragul Coal, 465.
War Service Homes, 426.
War Service Land Settlement, 409.
War Surpluses, 374.
War Trials, 659.
Water Supply and Conservation, 404, 588, 589, 651(c).
Weather Analysis, 453.
Webb, L. C., 339.
Weeks, J., 363.
Wensley Bray Coal, 465.
Western Australia, 340, 388, 429, 521, 577, 594, 657.
Western Samoa, 667.
Whaling, Antarctic, 526.
Wheat, 584.
Whiffer, N. A., 350.
White, D. N., 444.
White Australia, 616.
Williams, J. W., 505.
Wills, N. R., 454, 479.
Wilson, J. S. G., 507.
Wilson, R., 500.
Wine Industry, 360.
Wire Netting, 536.
Wood, G. L., 341, 449, 569, 616.
Wool Duties in U.S.A., 531.
Wool Industry, 358, 529-531, 591.
Work Attitudes, 490.
Works' Canteen, 397.
Worms, E., 493.
Wright, G., 357.


Young, N. S., 378.















































THIS publication of abstracts in the social sciences is intended to provide a survey
of important material, published in. or related to Australia, New Zealand and their
territories, dealing with the various social sciences. The field of the survey dealt with
in these Abstracts is indicated by the classification of the subjects on the inside cover.
The aim is to help the specialist in any particular field to decide what works he
should read, and what he may omit; and to indicate to other workers in allied fields
what is being done. For these purposes it has been decided that the abstracts shall be
genuine precis of the works covered.
At present it is intended to publish the Abstracts half yearly ; but if, in the future,
a larger volume of original work is produced, it is intended to publish the Abstracts
more frequently so that all deserving work may be covered as soon after publication
as possible.
Copies of this and subsequent issues of the Abstracts will be sent on application
(enclosing subscription of 5s. in Australian currency, 4s. sterling, per annum) to the
Editor, Department of Commerce, University of Melbourne, Carlton, N.3.













The Committee on Research in the Social Sciences is a special
committee of the A.N.R.C. charged with the duty of reporting upon
the main investigations which appear to be required in the social
field, of considering the best machinery for conducting these enquiries,
and of arranging for finance.
The Committee is also making a detailed examination of the
position in Australia with regard to training in the social sciences at
the various universities, with special attention to the provision of
research workers. The scope of the committee's work includes the
sociological aspects of such studies as anthropology, economics,
education, history, human geography, jurisprudence, medicine,
philosophy, political science, psychology, public administration and
statistics.
An outline of the history and functions of the committee by the
chairman, Dr. K. S. Cunningham, was recently published; and
may be obtained free of charge on application to the Australian
Council for Educational Research, T. & G. Building, Russell St.,
Melbourne, C.I.

Members of the Committee :
ALCOCK, Prof. H., University of Queensland.
ALEXANDER, Prof. F., University of Western Australa.
BAILEY, Prof. K. H., Solicitor-General, Canberra.
BLAND, Prof. F. A., University of Sydney.
BURTON, Assoc. Prof. H., Unversity of Melbourne.
BUTLIN, Prof. S. J., University of Sydney.
CONLON, Mr. A. A., Sydney.
CRAWFORD, Mr. J. G., Department of Post-War Reconstruction, Canberra.
CRAWFORD, Prof. R. M., University of Melbourne.
CUNNINGHAM, Dr. K. S., Director, Australian Council for Educational
Research, Melbourne (Chairman).
CURTIN, Dr. P. W. E., Public Service Board, Canberra.
ELKIN, Prof. A. P., University of Sydney.
FIRTH, Prof. G., University of Tasmania.
FRIEDMANN, Prof. W. G., University of Melbourne.
GIBLIN, Prof. L. F., Hobart.
GIBSON, Prof. A. Boyce, University of Melbourne.
GIFFORD, Prof. J. R., University of Queensland.
LA NAUZE, Mr. J. A., University of Sydney.
McRAE, Prof. C. R., University of Sydney.
MAULDON, Prof. F. R. E., University of Western Australia.
MAZE, Mr. W. H., University of Syqney.
OESER, Prof. O. A., University of Melbourne (Secretary).
O'NEIL, Prof. W. M., University of Sydney.
PARTRIDGE, Prof. P. H. (from June 9048), University of Sydney.
PASSMORE, Mr. John, University of Sydney.
PORTUS, Prof. G. V., University of Adelaide.
PREST, Prof. W., University of Melbourne.
SHATTWELL, Prof. K. O., University of Sydney.
STONE, Prof. Julius, University of Sydney.
STOUT, Prof: A. K., University of Sydney.
TEW, Prof. J. H. B., Uni'ersity of Adelaide.
WADHAAI, Prof. S. M., University of Melbourne.
WHITE, Mr. H. L., Commonwealth National Library, Canberra.
WOOD, Prof. G. L., University of Melbourne.
WRIGHT, Prof R. D., University of Mielbourne.


Printed.i. As iwralia. by .
Melbourne Uispetsity PPikei
Carlton, N.3. Victoria


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