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AUSTRALIAN


SOCIAL SCIENCE


ABSTRACTS


THE ARMY L UiLa"
WASHINGTON, 0. -
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4


September,


1947


AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
Committee on Research in the Social Sciences
Regmsered in Australia for transmisson by polt 4 a perodical


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EDITORIAL COMMITTEE
Dr. K. S. Cunningham (Chairman)
Professor R. M. Crawford, Professor G. L. Wood, Mr. G. P. James,
Mr. H. L. White, Mr. A. G. L. Shaw
GENERAL EDITOR
Mr. S. J. Lengyel, School of Commerce, University, Carlton, N.3, Melbourne.
Dr. F. Schnierer (Acting).
HONORARY ABSTRACTORS
AccouNTANrv-IMr. L. Goldberg and Miss J. Kerr
AGRICULTURE AND RURAL PROBLEMS-Professor S. M. Wadham and
Mr. I. Molnar
ECONOMIcs-Dr. F. Schnierer. Mr. O. de R. Foenander and Miss
H. Smith
EDUCATION-Dr K. S. Cunningham
GEOGRAPHY--Miss M. Bayne, Messrs. W. S. Cookson and E. J.
Donath, Dr. F. Loewve
HISTORY-Professor R. NI. Crawford, Messrs. C. M. H. Clark, R. F. S.
Ericksen, N. D. Harper, D. F. Mackay and A. G. L. Shaw
LAw-Professor G. W. Paron
PHILOSOPHP-Professor A. Boyce Gibson
POLITICAL ScrENCE-M-r. L. Churchward
PSYCHOLOGY-Dr. D. W. lMcElwain
TERRITORIES AND NATIVE PROBLEMS-Dr L. Adam
All communications should be addressed to the Acting Editor.
Subscription : In the sterling area, 4s.; in other countries, $i per annum,
post free.


CONTENTS
Economics-
Economics and Economic Policy
Industry, Trade and Commerce
Monetary Policy, Banking, Insurance
Public Finance
Accountancy
Transportation and Communication
Labour and Industrial Relations


Agriculture, Land and Rural Pro
Political Science-
Government and Politics
International Relations
Social Conditions-


rousing
Social Security a
Social Surveys
Population and I
Education
Geography ..
History
Law
Philosophy
Psychology
Territories and Na


,7
blems .. .. .. 402

S410
..... 416


423
ndl Public Health .. 427
igration .. .. .. .. .. 43

439
.. 449
.. .. .. 467
.. 476
.. 485
.. .. 487
native Problems .. .. .. 491


Australian Public Affairs Information Service, or A-.P.A.I.S., indexes books,
magazine articles and government documents on Australian political, economic
and social affairs. It is published monthly by the Commonwealth National
Library, and will be sent free upon request to the Librarian.


. - - I








AUSTRALIAN SOCIAL SCIENCE ABSTRACTS

A publication of the Committee on Research in the Social Sciences, Australian
National Research Council, subsidized by the Commonwealth Government.

All communications should be addressed to the Editor, Faculty of Economics
and Commerce, University of Melbourne, Carlton, N.3, Victoria, Australia.



No. 4 September 1947 4s. per annum



ABSTRACTS
Where the size of a Government publication or Parliamentary Paper (P.P.) is not given, it is 81 ins. x 13r ins.


ECONOMICS

(A) Economics and Economic Policy
332. Proposal for a World Food Board. J. G.
Crawford. Australian Quarterly, pp. 5-18,
December 1946.
The World Food and Agricultural Organisation
(F.A.O.) has mainly technical and advisory functions,
but exerts pressure on member governments and agencies
to agree on action. In May 1946 the F.A.O. induced
the U.N. to set up an International Emergency Food
Council. At the second session of F.A.O. (Copenhagen,
September 1946) proposals to create a World Food
Board were the principal feature. Earlier F.A.O. had
undertaken a World Food Survey and a mission to
Greece to study the country's agriculture and fisheries.
Proposals for a World Food Board were referred to a
preparatory committee in Washington, on which govern-
ments and governmental agencies are represented. This
committee should devise international machinery to be
submitted to the social and economic council of U.N.,
to develop production, distribution and utilisation of
basic foods to provide a healthy diet; and to stabilise
agricultural prices fair to consumers and producers.
These proposals imply three assumptions : that the world
had not enough food for good health even before the
war; that this was not caused by inability to produce,
but by inadequate income and ignorance of food values ;
that consumers' and producers' interests are identical.
The world food survey set targets for 1960 for coun-
tries in which pre-war supplies yielded less than 2,600
calories per head per day by raising this level to 2,600.
Not only the quantity of food has to be raised but also
the composition of the diet has to be changed. Under-
developed countries must reach higher levels of income
and employment which requires industrialisation with
the help of international credits. Excess supplies should
be allotted to needy countries and classes.
To reach stabilised prices Sir John Orr has proposed
buffer stocks which raises difficult problems of prices,
stocks, finance, surpluses and escape clauses.
To reach the objectives of the World Food Board,
consumers and producers must be represented on the
board. To increase food consumption permanently is
outside the power of the Board ; it must co-operate with
specialised agencies. Commodity arrangements must
be made and their operation delegated to commodity
committees.


333. International Price Stabilisation and Com-
modity Policy. C. P. Dowsett. Farm
Front, pp. 59-67, May 1947.
This article deals mainly with chapter V of the F.A.O.
preparatory commission on world food proposals
(February 1947). Prices regulations, subsidies, pro-
duction and trade control is the rule in agriculture. The
commission wants international co-ordination in such a
way that consumption is expanded and resources move
from overcrowded industries to new occupations, and
that price fluctuations are moderated. The commission
wants special attention to (a) the relationship between
total production and total consumption in order to com-
bat the tendency for the supply of certain products to
outrun demand mainly by expansion of consumption,
shifts in production and special prices for people in
need ; (b) price determination and stability. Producers
could then confidently expand production; but prices
influenced by scarcity and inflation should not be
stabilised; (c) stabilisation measures of four different
types: reserve stocks (working stocks, famine reserve
stocks, price stabilisation or buffer stocks); quotas,
which should be flexible and adjustable so as not to
impede desirable production shifts (they could include
price regulations); long-term contracts which should
not direct the total exportable surplus of a producing to
one importing country or be discriminatory between
countries; (d) special price sales to improve nutrition.
The burden of specially low prices should not be passed
on to commercial markets.

334. An Index of Engineering Unemployment,
1852-1943. N. G. Butlin. Economic
Record, pp. 241-260, December I946.
The author deals with unemployment in the Amal-
gamated Society of Engineers, formed 1852, which
became in 1920 the Amalgamated Engineering Union.
The English union since 1853 and the Australian union
since 1889 published monthly reports referring to
Australian members. Since 1892 relatively unskilled
workmen were admitted, and there were various mem-
bership groups. Since 1905 there is information about
full members, trade members, arbitration and trade
protection members and apprentices, since 1913
information about members out of work in various
occupational categories of the union. Because of the
changes in the nature of the data in union records







indexes were computed in three tables: 1852-1904,
1905-12 and 1913-43. For all periods Index II shows
involuntary unemployment not including sickness, acci-
dents and disputes, and Index I shows unemployment
due to lack of work and sickness. Figures are given of
all members, monthly averages of members on donation
(unemployment) benefit, sick benefit, contingent, later
called supplementary (disputes) benefits. Classification
of members with various entitlements, recorded since
1905, necessitates adjustments. A graph aggregates
Indexes I and II for the whole period.
For 1913-43 the Commonwealth statistician's index
of unemployment including sickness in the industrial
group 'Engineering, metal trades etc.', based on trade
union returns, is compared with the author's Index I.
The latter is substantially below official engineering
unemployment figures for 1929-37 and 1939-40 and
above during 1938 and 1942-43.
Tentative conclusions by the author are : Unemploy-
ment peaks in the A.E.U. closely correspond with general
fluctuations, but a number of unemployment peaks, par-
ticularly 1871, do not coincide with general economic
fluctuations. Engineering until the i88o's fluctuated
separately or some fluctuations in Australia are undis-
covered. The 1860-90 expansion in Australia was a time
of high unemployment in engineering. No long-run
trend to increasing unemployment can be seen, but
unemployment during depression has strongly tended
upward.

335. Brown, George Hay. The International
Economic Position of New Zealand. Uni-
versity of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1946,
pp. 195.
New Zealand, 1920-38, seemed a promising field for
inductive study because, after 1930, export values fell
sharply owing to declining overseas demand which
caused a very serious disturbance in N.Z. economy.
The first part is factual background-geography,
population, form of government; money and banking;
public finance; tariff and trade agreements; inter-
national trade; balance of payments.
Part II deals with the mechanism of adjustment to
decline of export income. National income multiplier
theory, a restated classical theory, and other theories are
discussed, and verification is attempted for 1931-35
period. The national income fell less than the export
income. Lower prices of exports was a stronger influ-
ence than the income effect and tended to increase the
home consumption of export goods. Details are given
of bank action, changes in price and wage rates and the
allocation of resources. Contrary to expectations, a
slight increase in the proportion of resources devoted to
export production and a decrease of 'domestic' goods
and services production occurred. Classical rather than
the national income multiplier theory was verified.
Sterling funds diminished, and money in circulation fell.
Export prices fell relatively to import prices, prices of
domestic goods took an intermediate course. Prices of
N.Z. productive factors also sank and goods formerly
imported were largely home produced. The consump-
tion of durable consumption goods greatly contracted.
Part III analyses anti-cycle policy. The coalition
(1931-35) policy was to reduce costs and balance the
budget. Part-time relief work at low wages was pro-
vided. From this essentially deflationary trend there
was one main exception: the depreciation of the cur-
rency (NZ 125 = stg roo) in 1933. Deflation proved
inadequate because prices did not fall as much as incomes.
Labour government policy since 1935 was one of insula-
tion. Public works at standard rates and hours, financed


by public credit, was main instrument of remedy.
Working week was reduced to 40 hours. Domestic
industry was encouraged, dairy product prices were
guaranteed, agricultural debts adjusted, control of bank-
ing was established, price control started 1936, import
licensing and finally exchange control was introduced.
The success of this inflationary policy was partly due to
rising export prices and the improvement of the N.Z.
terms of trade.

336. Rural Credit. Fifth Report of the Rural
Reconstruction Commission, dated 28
February 1945, pp. 86.
The productive capacity of a farm and not its market
value limits its capacity to meet credit commitments.
The peculiarities of agricultural credit and the various
forms the demand for this credit takes, are set forth and
the relation of net return to capital value is explained.
Chapter II deals with the desirable features of a rural
credit system : elasticity of credit in accordance with
the fluctuating conditions of agriculture ; the need for
control by the central bank and the price of credit and
confidence between lender and borrower.
Chapter III describes the existing rural credit system
in Australia : private lenders, insurance and trust com-
panies, traders and agents in association with their main
business, such as wool selling, store keeping; co-opera-
tive organizations ; trading banks (overdraft system) and
government agencies (sale or allotment of Crown land on
credit, special purposes advances, relief credit for
necessitous farmers and debt adjustment).
Chapter IV contains recommendations for future
government policy. Commonwealth and state govern-
ments should sponsor specialised rural banks on the
branch system to provide loans of all types to primary
producers, administered by a corporate body, respon-
sible to Parliament but free in its management. Special
development and reconstruction services supplying loans
at concession rates should be administered by the bank
as a government agency. Existing government credit
systems should be transferred to the administration of the
bank. These services should be set up by the states, the
Commonwealth should be confined to supervision,
co-ordination, the provision of finance through the
Commonwealth Bank and research. State rural banks
and the central bank should form a consultative council.
The Commonwealth Bank's mortgage department should
enter into marginal competition only with rural banks.
Special purpose advances are to be discouraged. If
necessary direct grants are preferable. Debt adjustment
and reconstruction should be handled by rural banks.
Prohibition of private credit transactions is not recom-
mended.

337. A Preliminary Study of Some Social Aspects
of Australian Business Cycles. Kenneth F.
Walker. Sociological Review (Malvern,
Worcestershire), pp. 50-59, January-Octo-
ber 1944 (appeared 1946).
The author uses official Australian statistics and an
index of fluctuations in general economic activities
worked out by Dr. R. Wilson (Economic Record 1930)
and carried forward to 1935 with consideration of prices,
exports, imports, bank credit and unemployment and
with a nine-year moving average indicating trend.
Co-efficients of correlation are computed between the
Wilson index and indices concerned with various social
phenomena: (a) as representative of marriage and
family life, marriage rates, birth rates, ex-nuptial birth







rates, the percentage of births within seven months of
marriage, divorces and separations are chosen ; (b) as
representative of industrial relations appear working
days lost through industrial disputes, trade union mem-
bership as per cent of total employees, members of
employers organizations ; (c) as representative of social
welfare expenditure per head on education, hospital
admissions per ioo population, general mortality, infant
mortality and maternal mortality; (d) as representative
of aspects of social pathology convictions for serious
crime and for drunkenness per io,ooo population.
In many cases significant-i.e., o-30 and more for a
small, 0-2o and more for a large sample-short-term
positive and negative correlations between social phe-
nomena and business cycles are ascertained. Compari-
sons are made with similar correlations calculated for
Britain and U.S.A.

338. The Future of World and New Zealand
Trade. C. G. F. Simkin. New Zealand
Geographer, pp. 315-328, October 1946.
The author points out how the unequal distribution
of resources among six major regions is the basis of
imports and exports of primary and manufactured pro-
ducts from and into these regions. The inter-war
experience showed two main reasons for instability:
(a) refusal of U.S.A. to make the adjustments required
by her new creditor position and to accept an import
surplus ; (b) the rigidity of the gold standard, of wages
and prices which, as soon as loans from U.S. dried up,
caused deflation and depression. The remedies
attempted led to shrinking world trade.
The American crusade to restore world trade before
the war involved attempts to maintain exchange stability
with Britain and France and many bilateral trade agree-
ments ; during the war the Atlantic Charter, lend-lease,
the Hot Springs conference on world food problems
with the objective of a freer trade ; the Bretton Woods
agreement and the establishment of the international
monetary fund with the aim of a flexible exchange
equilibrium; finally in December 1945 the publication
of the Anglo-U.S. proposals for an international
conference on trade and employment and plans for
setting up an international trade organisation to reduce
tariffs and eliminate preferences. International com-
modity agreements were envisaged to deal with unbal-
anced primary production. An important defect of all
these projects is the lack of strong provisions for ensuring
U.S.A.'s acceptance of a large import surplus.
Possible future developments in the six regions of
world trade are discussed. In the regions of recent
settlement (incl. Australia and N.Z.) a basic change in
their main exports, i.e., certain primary products, is
unlikely and their further industrialisation implies a
steady change in their imports. Every region depends
on a large expansion of world trade and would be
harmed by economic nationalism.
N.Z. more than any other country depends on inter-
national trade. She should not exclusively rely on her
agricultural exports to Britain, but explore other mar-
kets, such as the tropics and U.S.A.

339. World Trade and Employment. L. C.
Webb. Journal of Public Administration
(Wellington), pp. 35-47, September 1946.
Most countries now believe in government economic
controls, but Americans prefer that foreign trade should
be left to private initiative. They object less to tariffs
which interfere least with private entrepreneurs than to
quantitative regulations and exchange control which


tend to concentrate trade in the hands of state-fostered
monopolies. According to the U.S. proposals put for-
ward 1945, tariffs are to be reduced by bilateral bar-
gaining combined with the most-favoured nation clause,
while quantitative regulations and exchange controls
are to be eliminated after a transitional period. How-
ever, the I.T.O. proposals admit that the attainment of
full employment by the major nations is essential for
expanded international trade.
It is doubtful whether the theory of full employment
is compatible with the doctrine of liberal trade. Even
the rather conservative British White Paper asserts that
government action to maintain expenditure as a pre-
requisite to full employment depends on wages and
prices being kept stable. Apart from deflation and
raising the exchange rate, this is possible by means of
quantitative and foreign exchange regulation. In prac-
tice full employment and liberal trade policies are not
compatible. The U.S. attempt to revive liberal trade
by gradual elimination of quantitative regulation and
exchange control will not succeed. It is difficult, but
not impossible, to co-ordinate quantitative trade regula-
tions internationally, and diversity of national economic
systems calls for an international trade organisation.

340. The Western Australian Economy, 1944-45
and 1945-46. A Survey prepared by
F. R. E. Mauldon and G. B. Lancaster.
W.A. Industrial Expansion Commission,
pp. 2o and pp. ii statistics.
The net national income of the civilian sector in
Australia generally in 1944-45 was 1-33 per cent higher
than 1938-39, in W.A. 16-75 per cent lower, as W.A.
contributed the highest proportion of its population
to the forces. In 1945-46 demobilisation caused the
community income of the W.A. civilian sector to rise,
but it was still lower than 1938-39. Increasing pro-
duced income came from manufacturing, agriculture and
building, but not from mining, dairying and pastoral
production. Chapter II discusses the sources of the
community income. The total cropped area for wheat
was less than 6o per cent of pre-war, 1945-46 it increased
greatly. The flax industry was newly established
during the war, vegetable growing expanded, pastoral
industry was maintained, dairying contracted. Prices
and total rural income were much higher than pre-war in
all branches. Forestry output was only two-thirds of
the pre-war level. Mining rehabilitation takes longer
than other industries' recovery. The output of local
building materials improved, but labour shortages were
more acute. In manufacturing, an increase of 25 per
cent in persons employed took place. The greatest
wartime production gains occurred in industrial metals,
textiles, clothing, skin and leather, food, drink and
tobacco, wood-working and sawmilling.
Chapter II deals with the utilisation of labour
resources. With the demobilisation in 1946 the number of
male workers greatly increased, that of female workers
fell. General business indicators are presented.

341. Wood, G. L. Disequilibrium between Fixed
Incomes and Rising Prices. Address deliv-
ered before Institute of Industrial Manage-
ment, Melbourne, on 6 March 1947, pp.
12. Price is. 6d.
Disequilibrium is caused by inflationary war finance.
After World War I without effective price control the
rapid relaxation of economic checks resulted in a steep







rise in prices. When prices subsequently fell, there was
widespread liquidation and unemployment. In World
War II rigid controls were imposed to divert resources
to war purposes. This makes reconversion more
difficult and there are dangers in speedy de-control due
to excess purchasing power faced with a shortage of
consumer-goods. Pegging procedures involve economic
penalties: contrasts between fixed incomes and rising
costs of living; between high national income in money
and falling output per head ; between maximum federal
income and high taxation; between pegged and black
market prices. An escape for excess purchasing power
into higher imports or foreign investment conflicts with
the necessity of maintaining sterling balances as basis of
bank credit.
Real incentives would be provided by more equitable
division of the national income among all productive
factors. A social publicity service should make people
aware of the position. Fixed income receivers are to be
assured that the national plan aims at preserving and
raising pre-war living standards; the powers and
activities of the Commonwealth statistician ought to be
extended to help the Arbitration Court in investigating
economic facts. The dangers of devaluing money could
be minimised by improving managerial efficiency,
higher productivity per head and elimination of stop-
pages.


342. Price Control in Australia, September 1939
to May 1947. Commonwealth Prices
Branch, Canberra, pp. 28, June 1947.
(Not for general circulation.)
A review of the development of price control in the
last eight years. The National Security Act passed on
9 September 1939 was the constitutional basis of federal
price control. On 28 September 1939 the National
Security (Prices) Regulations were gazetted, setting up
a prices branch of the department of trade and customs.
Before shortages became widespread, that is up to April
1942, price control was confined to commodities declared
by the minister. Prices regulation No. 1oo of 20
February 1940 provided maximum prices of declared
goods on the basis of cost plus a pegged percentage
margin of gross profit. Instead of replacement cost
averaging of cost of old and new stocks was prescribed.
When shortages became widespread (from April 1942
to April 1943) price control extended to nearly all goods
and services. On 15 April 1942 all commodities and
services were declared. Instead of the percentage mar-
gin, the actual amount of gross profit on 15 April 1942
was pegged and numerous other steps taken to support
price control, e.g., wage-pegging, restrictions on transfer
of land, rationing, etc.
Finally a comprehensive price stabilisation plan was
enacted pegging all maximum prices at the level of
12 April 1943. Increased costs were met by import
subsidies, subsidies on primary products and on wages.
Special adjustments were made for the prices of sea-
sonal products and of new goods. The difficult consti-
tutional aspect of price control after cessation of hos-
tilities is discussed. In the present transitional period
price stabilisation is menaced by pressure of export and
import prices and of wage increases. The process of
de-control is slow and should avoid the grave conse-
quences the U.S.A. has experienced with rapid de-con-
trol.
In conclusion the enforcement of the prices orders
and the trend of retail prices under control is briefly
summarised.


343. Reconstruction in Australia. C. Hartley
Grattan. Current History (Philadelphia),
pp. 128-136, February 1947.
The difficulties of maintaining full employment in a
country dependent on exports was the reason for
Australia's insistence upon a reference to full employ-
ment in Art. 55 of the U.N. Charter. Australia con-
siders success in full employment a pre-requisite to
reducing trade barriers. Empire preference and inter-
national commodity agreements are aspects of a full
employment policy. The expansion of Australian
agriculture is limited and existing resources have to be
improved by research and irrigation. There is more
scope, restricted by high costs of production, for the
expansion of secondary industry for which new markets
are needed in S.E. Asia. Secondary industry will
remain a field for private enterprise.
The author then discusses the unification of railway
gauges, the development of shipping, shipbuilding and
docking facilities and of air transport. The importance
of keeping up a high level of public outlay is stressed.
The Commonwealth Bank has full control of the rate of
interest and the trading banks' credit policy and will be
used to maintain high employment. Private consump-
tion expenditure is influenced by wage fixation through
Arbitration Courts and the expansion of social services.
Reconstruction in Australia is a compromise between
socialist and private enterprise, probably with less
socialist tendencies than in Great Britain.

344. Australia after the Elections. Round Table
(London), pp. 188-195, March 1947.
This is a survey of events after the last federal elec-
tions on 28 September 1946 whose most significant
feature is seen in the loss of two seats to Labour inde-
pendents. Soon afterwards serious labour trouble
occurred, the most important in transport, metal work-
ing and gas production in Victoria, which the writer
attributes to wage-pegging, and prices rising more than
the retail price index reveals on which changes in the
basic wage depend. Various amendments of the wage-
pegging regulations, the 40-hour case proceedings, the
interim increase of the basic wage by 7s. a week and the
latest relaxation of wage-pegging on 13 December 1946,
permitting increases in margins and additional payments
for shift and weekend work, are mentioned. Subse-
quently the author deals with the federal budget and the
opposition within the Labour party to the P.M.'s
financial policy, led by Mr. Ward who wants public
works to be financed by Commonwealth Bank credit.
The budget provides for a reduction in borrowing but
not much in taxation. Finally the conflict within the
Labour party on the problem of Australia accepting the
Bretton Woods agreement, which prevented her from
joining the International Monetary Fund before 31
December 1946, is discussed.

345. Australia's New Role as Lender. Bankers'
Magazine of Australasia, pp. 123-125,
January-February 1947.
Recently the Commonwealth Bank has granted 7-5m.
credit to the Netherlands East Indies government and
two other foreign countries have sought loans in Aus-
tralia. At current exchange rates the Australian
governments had on 30 June 1946 foreign loans of
A67im., but between 1941 and 1946 Australia's over-
seas debts were reduced by 9om. and the interest
rates were cut, too. Creditor countries must either
accept import goods or grant further loans, otherwise







their export markets must dry up, as it happened in the
1930's. Australia, still being a debtor country on bal-
ance, will not have the same import problems as U.S.A.,
but there might be in future pressure to prefer goods
from a country wanting to repay its debts, such as N.E.I.
Other possible effects of international lending are : that
the borrower may be encouraged to buy in a market
where he can obtain credit, even if it is not the cheapest
market; or that the borrowing country subsidies
exports or the production of goods to be exported to the
creditor country. Normally there is a special 'transition
period' demand for goods of the lending country. The
repayment of a loan forces the creditor country to accept
additional imports from somewhere.

346. Recent Trends in Farm Employment, Out-
put, Prices and Incomes in Australia.
C. P. Dowsett. Farm Front, pp. 43-46,
April 1947.
This is a summary of estimates based on official
statistics. The number of employers and workers on
own account on farms fell from an index of 1oo in July
1939 to a minimum of 85 in June 1942 and rose again to
96 in June 1945, the number of wage and salary earners
fell to a minimum of 72 in June 1943 and rose to 74 in
June 1945 ; total farm employment was lowest 1943
with 81 and rose 1945 to 87. As percentage of total
employment farm employment was 22-7 1933, 19'1 1939,
16-4 (minimum) 1942, and 17.2 1945.
Farm output was better maintained; indices of farm
production, prices and gross income on an average
1936-37 to 1938-39 taken as Loo, quantity production
was io9 1941-42, io8 1942-43, 88 1944-45 (adverse
season). Prices on principal markets were 92 1938-39
and 145 1945-46; gross farm income 92 1938-39 and
133 1944-45. Output per farm worker, as shown by a
chart, was over 30 per cent above pre-war average in
1941-43. Net farm income rose from xoo 1939 to 153
1945 and net farm income per employer from 1oo 1939
to 175 1943, 1945 it fell to 159 for seasonal reasons, and
1945-46 and 1946-47 farm income was possibly above
the previous record level of 1943-44.

347. The Political Economy of David Syme.
J. A. La Nauze. Royal Australian His-
torical Society, Journal and Proceedings,
Vol. XXXII., Part VI., pp. 273-315, 1946.
Best known for his journalistic work in the Melbourne
Age, Syme also wrote four books, among them Outlines
of an Industrial Science 1876 on economics. He formed
his opinions on economic policy first and later those on
economic theory to justify his policy. In an article in
the Westminster Review 1871 and later in the Outlines,
he attacked the deductive a priori method of classical
political economy with their assumption that man was
exclusively motivated by self-interest, and favoured an
inductive method, proceeding by observation and experi-
ments. His arguments were those of the German
historical school and of Cliff Leslie in England. His
views on method were ignored in England while the
Outlines soon appeared in an American edition and were
translated into German.
Free competition, by the classics considered bene-
ficent, for Syme tended to produce monopoly and
fraudulent trade practices. Syme's reputation was won
by his fight for protection in Victoria. Protection
seemed the obvious remedy for a society faced with
sudden cessation of prosperity. Syme used some of
List's arguments and may have known Carey's and other


U.S.A. protectionists' works. His campaign in the Age
was directed against British 'oligarchy' whose doctrine
of free trade was 'cant'. Protection was to provide for
ex-diggers and the rising generation and to prevent the
dumping of 'inferior' British goods. In his land policy
Syme advocated the unlocking of the land against the
monopoly of the squatters with similar reasoning as in
Henry George's Progress and Poverty.
As to environmental factors influencing Syme's
opinion the author thinks it was Australian nationalist
rather than class feeling which affected his ideas.


(B) Industry, Trade and Commerce
(a) General Works
348. Lengyel, S. J. and Beecroft, R. M. The
Cost of Distribution of Consumer Goods,
Research Study No. 2 in Problems of
Distribution. Department of Commerce,
University of Melbourne, 1947, pp. 00oo.
Limited roneoed edition.
A preliminary report presenting the first garnering
and classification of the facts of distribution in Australia,
1946. It is an attempt to appraise the cost of distri-
bution in Australia of consumer goods only; first, on
the basis of individual commodities, and, secondly, on
the basis of industries. Cost is confined to the cost of
the distributive trade per se; and the objective was to
find the difference between the value of output and the
price paid by the consumer. In other words, the scope
of the survey was to determine the cost of moving con-
sumption goods from the place where production was
completed to the final user. This includes wholesaling,
warehousing, agents' activities, transport and retailing.
No census of distribution has been attempted in Aus-
tralia and no trade statistics suitable for the inquiry
existed. The survey was, therefore, based upon the
records and experience of the Prices Commissioner's
office, and upon official and private information. Price
control accepted the price relations between the different
levels of trade, and use of experience in Prices Branch
was therefore both accurate and relevant.
The structure and conditions of the marketing organ-
isation for eight groups, and suitable subdivisions of
commodities, complete a valuable report upon distribu-
tive functions and costs. The impact of the war upon
the marketing structure, and an informative summary of
the findings complete the research.

349. (a) Manufacturing in New Zealand: Its Out-
standing Characteristics. J. L. Hewland.
New Zealand Geographer, pp. 207-222,
April 1946.
(b) Manufacturing in New Zealand:
A Specific Example. H. O. Pappe. New
Zealand Geographer, pp. 329-344, October
1946.
(a) In the past, N.Z. depended on pastoralism and her
main manufacturing industries were those processing
pastoral products. Apart from foundries and railway
workshops there is little heavy industry because of the
lack of iron deposits and good coking coal. Prior to the
war small factories were predominant, 82 per cent of
the factories employing less than 21 persons. The small
factory is based on the small electric motor, most electric
power generated by water power. Small factories are
economical for a small market, characteristic of many of







them is lack of specialisation. Manufacturing is con-
centrated in the four biggest cities, which offer port
facilities, labour supply and markets. Some specialisa-
tion and decentralisation in industries processing pastoral
products and those serving the farms or using local raw
materials, such as grain or timber.
N.Z. largely depends on imports among which raw
materials and partly processed goods for processing,
petrol, products of tropical agriculture and tobacco
occupy the first place. Some finished goods which
might also be produced in N.Z. are imported from
Britain, Australia and U.S. Labour in N.Z. has
initiative, adaptability, and mobility, but lacks traditional
skill. Most capital has been built up locally, but
increasingly overseas firms establish factories in N.Z.
The absence of imports during the recent war drew
greater attention to the use of local raw materials and
waste, also promoted development of local manufacture
from imported raw materials.
(b) This is an account of an experiment to prove that
N.Z. manufacturing can be economical in adverse con-
ditions. The owner of a large high sheep-run, forty miles
from the nearest railhead, set up on his property a
factory producing highly specialised earth-moving and
hydraulic equipment (bulldozers, cranes) and agricul-
tural machinery. With little capital, local inexperienced
labour mostly drawn from pastoral occupations, he built
up first the factory at Irishman Creek, to-day more an
experimental workshop, and recently a factory in
Christchurch, the former with forty, the latter with
thirty-six workmen. Engineers were trained on the spot,
accommodation, recreation were created locally; bonuses
are paid to employees who are eager collaborators.
Labour relations are excellent.

350. Atomic Energy for Power Purposes. N. A.
Whiffer. Journal of the Institutions of
Engineers, Australia, p. 212, September
1946.
The first power plant using atomic energy will be
built at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, as a pilot plant at a cost
of $2-5m. Costs of power production from this small
plant will be higher than from a modern, high-pressure
steam-power station. Generally, atomic energy will
only remove the necessity for fuel which is no more than
20-25 per cent of total costs in a modern power plant.
Therefore the advantages of winning atomic energy will
be mainly in areas without coal or hydro-storage. As
the first costs of an uranium power plant will be very
high, the supply of cheap power from uranium piles will
depend on financing on a long-term, low-interest basis.
The author outlines power production in a chain-
reacting pile. One ton of uranium is equivalent to
3,000,000 U.S. tons of coal. One lb. of uranium (before
the war $2) is, therefore, to be valued at $4,000. Piles
are dangerous to human life and must be shielded by
lead, concrete, water or a combination of these. The
necessity for shielding means restriction to certain pro-
jectiles or to uses where heavy concrete shielding may
be provided. Major uses will probably be large land
power stations in areas not suitable for steam or hydro
generation, and marine propulsion. Reference is made
to the mechanics of the use of heat produced from
nuclear fission energy and to possible methods of
utilising the power. It might take another ten or
twenty years, until problems can be solved so far as to
permit general use. In Australia there are areas where
power supplies can be economically developed and such
supplies for artesian water, light, heat, power, refrigera-
tion might considerably affect the future of the interior,
the South and West.


(b) Individual Industries

351. Mining in Queensland. Review for the
Year 1946. Report of the Under Secretary
for Mines. Queensland Government Mining
Journal, pp. 105-114, April 1947.
In 1946, the first complete year of peace, the urgent
need for some minerals, such as wolfram and molyb-
denite, ceased and their prices fell. For other mining
products, such as rutile and zircon, produced from
beach-sands, new peace-time uses were found. The
gold production of Q. 1946 remained almost unchanged.
The most important mining event was the cessation of
copper mining by Mount Isa Mines Ltd. in April 1947
and their resumption of silver lead and zinc operations.
Coal mining produced somewhat less in 1946 than 1945.
Data are given of state mining operations, accidents
and inspection of mines, geological survey activities, the
production of gold, copper (fell from 15,007 tons 1945
to 6,481 tons 1946), tin, wolfram, silver lead and zinc,
zircon-rutile-ilmerite, fluorspar, limestone, other min-
erals, coal, petroleum (explorations in the Roma dis-
trict), gems.

352. The Future of Silver. Mining and Commer-
cial Journal, pp. 13-16, April 1947.
Before the war, over-production of silver threatened
to cause a collapse in price, but the war itself greatly
increased its industrial use, while new usages were
developed.
As many of these uses will be permanent, the outlook
for silver is now reasonably good. Some authorities
believe there may even be a prolonged world shortage.
Production, however, is likely to be determined by the
extent to which silver is used in the monetary system,
and the price of copper, lead and zinc.-H.S.

353. Aluminium. First Annual Report of the Aus-
tralian Aluminium Production Commis-
sion. P.P. Government Printer, Can-
berra, pp. 12. Price 9d.
The Australian Aluminium Industry Act of I944
gave parliamentary sanction to plans for the manufacture
of aluminium ingot in Australia, for defence purposes.
The aim of the aluminium production commission has
been to obtain and sift all relevant technical and eco-
nomic data affecting the development of the industry.
Deposits of bauxite exist in four states. The Tas-
manian deposits are most important as they are necessary
for transforming alumina to aluminium metal.
The commission hopes to establish this essential
defence project on as favourable an economic basis as
possible.-H.S.

354. Public Control of Town Milk Supply in
New Zealand. H. R. Rodwell. Economic
Record, pp. 261-271, December 1946.
Milk supply in New Zealand has been under local
control since 1919 in Wellington and since 1933 in
Auckland, national control has been introduced under
the Milk Act of 1944.
In Wellington 80 per cent of the milk supply is handled
by the City Council's Milk Department. Economies
have been effected through zoning and through bottling
of all milk handled by the department. The department
is actually a monopoly, but prices paid by it for milk are
not unduly low, because the suppliers' association, too,
has monopolistic character.







In Auckland a Milk Council was set up. Dairymen
and vendors were licensed who could supply milk to
five 'pools' associated with 'treating' houses, minimum
conditions were laid down and prices were fixed.
The Milk Act 1944 provided for a Central Milk
Council, district milk authorities and district supply
.associations. The Central Council decides on matters
of broad policy and settles disputes between local milk
authorities. The latter may be elected metropolitan
milk boards or borough councils acting as milk authori-
ties. The local milk authority replaces the former
Auckland Milk Council. Besides, it has the power to
buy, treat and sell milk and to raise funds by special
loans, but not the power to fix prices. This power was
transferred to the Prices Stabilisation Commission which,
however, has determined maximum prices and not fixed
prices.
Some local milk authorities refused to treat and distri-
bute milk. For this purpose the Central Council in
March 1946 set up public corporations in eight milk
districts, of which so far two have begun to function.
The author considers the supply of milk an essentially
local problem and criticises centralisation which is
implied in the Central Council as unnecessary and tend-
ing to under-estimate local differences.


355. Meat Consumption in Australia. C. P.
Dowsett. Farm Front, pp. 80-86, June
1947.
Australian meat consumption per head is among the
highest in the world; before World War II it was about
240 lb. a year. From 1921-22 to 1938-39 it was slightly
increasing, but fell considerably during the depression
years. In the three years ending 1938-39 61 per cent
of the meat consumed in Australia was beef, 25 per cent
mutton, 6 per cent lamb, 8 per cent pigmeats. In the
three depression years 1930-33 beef was only 49 per cent
of the meat consumption, mutton and lamb 42 per cent.
Supplies of beef fluctuated in the same way as numbers
of cattle, prices fell when supplies increased and vice
versa, although changes in relationship of returns for
meat and dairying also influenced beef prices. Pig-
meat consumption is fairly stable, while mutton supplies
and prices roughly moved in the opposite direction as
beef supplies and prices. Beef was in most years dearer
than mutton. The adjustment of beef supplies to a
changing market is a lengthy process, while the sheep
farmer has the alternatives of producing wool and lamb.
Lamb consumption rose from 3 per cent of total con-
sumption 1921-24 to 6 per cent 1936-39. Consumption
of lamb as of meat generally moves in the same direction
as the consumers' purchasing power.
The article is provided with five charts.

356. Meat Export. Eleventh Annual Report of
the Australian Meat Board. Year ended
30 June 1946 (and incl. period up to 4
September 1946), pp. 30.
Two Acts of Parliament in August 1946 reconstituted
and extended the powers of the Meat Board and
amended the Meat Export Control Act 1935-38. In
the period under review adverse seasonal conditions
caused a fall in the lamb production. Beef production
in Queensland was affected by industrial trouble, but
Victoria produced an unusually large surplus of beef.
The long-term meat contract with U.K. is running until
30 September 1948 and from 29 October 1945 additional
classes of meat were purchased on account of the British
Ministry of Food. Reports on scientific research refer


to fat lamb breeding experiments and to meat preserva-
tion investigations. In an appendix statistical data are
given on meat and meat product exports. From 1944-45
to 1945-46 the export in thousands of tons rose of beef
and veal from 21 to 45, fell of mutton from 16 to 7, lamb
from 48 to 18, pigmeat from 18 to 15 ; canned meat
exports rose from 15 to 29, dehydrated meat exports fell
from 2'3 to -2.


357. The Australian Textile Industry. Institute
of Industrial Management, Melbourne,
1947, pp. 118. Price los.
This is a series of six lectures arranged by the editing
institute.
L. S. Gough gives an account of the scope of our tex-
tile trade which employs about 25 per cent of the women
and Io per cent of the men in industry, of desirable
improvement in technical knowledge and instruction
and of research and development. Based on personal
observations he reports on present-day problems in
U.S.A., Japan and various European countries and on
shortages and difficulties of raw materials and manu-
factured textiles in these countries in relation to Aus-
tralian exports and imports.
George Wright deals with planning production in the
wool industry. The requirements of production con-
trol are: (i) specification, i.e., basic work data;
(2) workloads and time tables ; (3) initiating and policing
work flow; (4) keeping control records. These prin-
ciples are applied to the production of woven woollen
cloth as an example.
S. M. Hosking discusses management problems in the
flax industry. Details are given of the types and
by-products of flax, quality variations, the Australian
system of purchasing and delivering flax to spinners, and
of various stages of processing. Problems are the
training of personnel, the elimination of dust from mills
and humidification.
L. G. Smith speaks on wage incentives in the knitting
industry which is suitable for this wage system because
of the standardized character of the work. After a
technical account of the raw materials and types of
knitting and its development he stresses the need for
time study to analyse method and equipment in doing a
piece of work. Different kinds of wage incentives in
the industry are: piece-work, task bonus, the unit
system, the determination of wage classes in four grades,
group incentives and incentives for supervisors and
indirect labour.
F. H. Clayton's subject is quality control in the silk
throwing industry. There are laboratory control
methods to test the nature, size and other qualities of
imported raw silk. Quality control has to ensure the
satisfactory quality of articles or material made on a
repetitive basis between certain limits. Common con-
trol measures are the average of observed values and a
measure of dispersion, the standard deviation or range.
An example of a quality control report is presented.
R. J. Vicars is concerned with the future of our textile
industry, which has greatly expanded during the war.
Woollen manufacture can produce 40 per cent and
worsted manufacture 15 per cent more than the local
market wants. Assuming a I21 per cent rise in net
post-war national income available for consumer goods
above 1938, worsted manufacture could do without
exports; woollen manufacture would have to export
about 24 per cent of its output. The local cotton goods
industry did not satisfy more than 2-3 per cent of our
pre-war consumption, but could produce 40 per cent
of the need.







Synthetic fibre production in Australia requires
experience ; the establishment of overseas firms here is
welcome. The knitting industry has excess capacity;
there is room for expansion in knitted outerwear. With
expanded home-building, more felts, carpets and fur-
nishings could be made. In clothing more rational
summer dress and better ready-made suits are needed.
Shortages of machinery, buildings, coal and female
labour-partly to be overcome by decentralisation-
hinder expansion.

358. Goldsbrough, Mort and Coy. Ltd. Wool
and the Nation. A Sketch of the Wool
Industry in Australia. Melbourne, 1946,
PP- 75-
This booklet, prepared by members of the staff of the
editing firm, gives in a concise form comprehensive data
about the wool industry in Australia. After a historical
sketch, starting with Macarthur and the importation of
merinos, the principal breeds of Australian sheep and
some statistics about sheep numbers are quoted. The
nature of wool, its chemical properties and character-
istics are explained, the art of shearing, the treatment of
the wool clip (skirting and woolclassing) is described,
details of the disposal of the wool clips are given, terms
like 'type,' 'yield,' 'brand' are set forth, the operations
of the woolbrokers depicted. Further chapters deal
with fellmongering, preparing for manufacture (wool
sorting, scouring, carbonising), the manufacturing pro-
cess (carding, combing, spinning, weaving, finishing,
dyeing, knitting, felting, etc.), by-products of the sheep
industry. Finally the history of the editing firm is
outlined.


359. Post-War Problems of the Sugar Industry.
Australian Sugar Journal, pp. 487-491,
February 1947.
Despite the opposition expressed in a statement of the
sugar industry's organizations on 7 September 1945, the
Commonwealth sugar agreement expiring in August 1946
was renewed without amendments with currency until
1951. Most of the contingencies mentioned in that
statement may now occur while the sugar agreement is
not subject to interim variations.
The factors mentioned are:-
(a) As to export value : (i) the conditions of the sugar
industry in liberated countries; probably demand will
outrun supply for a considerable time. The U.K.
government has agreed to pay an extra 4 I5s. per ton
exported after i January 1947 ; (2) the effects of the
cessation of lend-lease; (3) the future of Empire
preference. The end of lend-lease and the U.S. loan
might force Britain to abandon or reduce preference;
(4) possible readjustment of the Australian-British
exchange-rate; (5) the possible revival or revision of
the international sugar agreement.
(b) On the home consumption market: (i) the effect
on consumption of the return of peace time conditions ;
(2) the continuation of sugar rationing in Australia.
(c) Cost factors : (I) price stabilisation ; (2) the trend
of wages. The demand for a 40-hour week, the rise of
the basic wage by 7s. and the relaxation of wage-pegging,
while employers are not subsidized to offset rising wages,
will lead to price rises in many industries.

360. Wine Export Bounty. Tariff Board's Report,
1946. Government Printer, Canberra,
pp. 16. Price 9d.


A bounty on wine exported from Australia was first
granted in 1924, for the purpose of inducing wine-
makers to develop an export trade, and proved success-
ful.
The Wine Export Bounty Act of 1939-44 provided
for the payment of a bounty at the rate of is. per gallon
on fortified wine.
The Tariff Board denied the justification of continu-
ance of the bounty on exports after 28 February 1947.
It is admitted that the industry could dispense with
the bounty at present, but its continuance is requested
to protect the industry against developments within and
without Australia which may in the future operate to
its detriment; also to assist Australian wine exports
to compete with British and South African wines.
The Board, in reply, sees no justification for paying a
bounty in years when it is not needed to safeguard the
wine-makers against possible future disasters. The
Board is also satisfied that it would be most unwise, and
probably useless, for the Australian Government to enter
into competition with other governments in the manner
suggested, as retaliatory measures could easily be taken
by the U.K. and South African governments.-H.S.

361. The Symposium on Australia's Native
Tanning Material. Australasian Leather
Trades Review, pp. 121-123, 138-141,
April 1947.
A symposium was held on 30 November 1946 by the
Australian branch of the International Society of
Leather Trade Chemists. In an introduction Dr. H. V.
Anderson points out that the development of a tanning
extract industry is a matter of comparative costs.
Wattle tannin production in Australia can, be justified
only when it is cheaper than imported South African
wattle extract. Although acacias do not yield pulp
comparable with that from hardwoods, they are used for
Australian paper production at the annual rate of
zo,ooo tons of timber, which would permit production
in extract form of one-sixth of the present wattle tannin
imports. The rate of timber production could easily
be doubled.
Two species of cypress pines have a high tannin con-
tent and extraction from these could be developed.
Most local hardwoods have only a small percentage of
tannin, but extract from Eucalyptus redunca has proved
economically recoverable. E. sieberiana and E. baxterii
have a lower tannin content than E. redunca, but as they
are used in making paper pulp, tannin extraction could
be done economically.
In addition, foreign tannin-bearing trees or shrubs
could be planted in N.S.W. In another paper, Mr.
F. H. Bailey discusses possibilities of introducing mallet
(wandoo, E. astringens) from W.A., Quebracho from
Argentine and Sumach from Mediterranean coun-
tries.

362. Vacuum Cleaners. Domestic-Local Pro-
duction in Relation to the Current
Demand. Tariff Board's Report, 1946.
Government Printer, Canberra, pp. 14.
Price 9d.
The importation of domestic vacuum cleaners into
Australia, and their local manufacture, were virtually
prohibited early in the war. During the five years in
which the local market was denied vacuum cleaners, a
large demand accumulated.
Importation will depend on the extent to which the
estimated average annual demand, plus this accumulated







demand, can be supplied by local production. Aus-
tralian manufacturers are opposed to imports on the
ground that their production targets can be achieved
and local production will soon be sufficient to meet
current demand. Importers, and representatives of
overseas manufacturers, are in favour of importation
mainly because local output cannot even approach
present requirements and has no prospect of doing so
for a long time.
The Tariff Board found it could only submit the
information obtained, without drawing any conclusions
therefrom. It has no doubt that local manufacturers
could produce domestic vacuum cleaners to the extent
of estimates submitted. The estimates of demand,
however, range from 8o,ooo (to end 1947) to 385,000 (to
30 June 1947) and all that can be said is that the demand
lies somewhere between the two extremes.-H.S.

363. The Australian Market for Tinplate. J.
Weeks. Farm Front, pp. 77-80, June 1947.
Before the war and up to 1941-42 Australia imported
most of her tinplate requirements from U.K. Under
imperial preference British tinplate was duty-free in
Australia and Australian canned fruit duty-free in
Britain. Since 1942 U.S.A. has replaced U.K. as source
of tinplate imports to Australia; 1945-46 Australia
imported of a total of 72,000 tons of tinplate, 6,000 tons
from U.K. and 64,000 (89 per cent) from U.S.A. Before
the war U.K. was the largest, U.S.A. the second largest
tinplate exporter in the world. Within a few years the
exportable surplus of the Australian canned fruit pro-
duction will reach 75 per cent, and the cost of containers
represents 20 per cent of the cost of canned fruit f.o.b.
port of loading. The demand for tinplate is rising because
of increasing exports of canned meat and vegetables.
An Australian Tariff Board enquiry in 1939 favoured
assistance to a proposed local tinplate industry by a
duty so as to ensure that the c.i.f. and e. and duty paid
cost of imports should not be less than 32 per ton,
when the cost of metallic tin is A28o per ton. This
would mean an excess cost to Australian users of tin-
plate of 2 ios. per ton. In U.K. the establishment of
an Australian tinplate industry might lead to retaliation
by permitting the duty-free import of non-Australian
canned fruit.

364. Publishing Industry. Tariff Board Report,
pp. 43, 7 November 1946. Price 2s.
This is an account of a public enquiry held before the
Tariff Board from November 1945 to February 1946, in
which witnesses were heard on the disabilities of the
Australian publishing industry and methods of assisting
its development. Wartime has caused considerable
expansion of the industry and an improvement of the
position of writers and artists which the return of over-
seas competition might endanger. As disabilities of
writers and artists were mentioned: use by Australian
publishers of cheap syndicated material, local reprinting
of overseas books, an attitude of publishers antagonistic
to Australian authors-representatives of publishing and
newspaper interests denied these allegations. Disa-
bilities of publishers were mainly inability of printers
and bookbinders to cope with the demand. Disabilities
common to both groups were unfair competition from
overseas books ('dumping'), inadequate distribution,
readers' prejudices against Australian works, com-
petition of cheap, back-dated overseas magazines.
Here again British publishers dissented. Disabilities of
printers and bookbinders were : shortage of plant,
labour and material, high cost of production and duties
on machinery and material.


Among remedial suggestions made falling within the
scope of the Trade and Customs Department were
protection against importation of books, syndicated
matter, current and back-dated or second-hand period-
icals and relief from imposts on machinery and
material. Many witnesses, however, opposed any
restrictions in the free importation of books and period-
icals except dumping duties. Among suggestions
falling outside the department's scope were : imposition
of quotas (25 per cent Australian books and periodicals)
on booksellers (many witnesses dissented), printing in
Australia of overseas books, labour supply, extension of
the Commonwealth Literary Fund, development of
demand, the setting up of a Parliamentary select com-
mittee to enquire more fully into the problem.
The Tariff Board confirmed its earlier (1930) conclu-
sions that duties on books and periodicals would be
against the best interests of Australia. The removal of
duties and burdens from imports of machinery and
material required by local production is worth con-
sideration. The expenditure of funds is desirable to
assist publishing, and all steps should be taken to provide
greater demand for Australian literature, to increase
literary production in Australia, and to improve distri-
bution. To further these ends, a special authority
should be created.


(C) Monetary Policy, Banking, Insurance

365. The Nationalisation of the Bank of New
Zealand. C. G. F. Simkin. Economic
Record, pp. 228-240, December 1946.
The Bank of N.Z. was founded in 1861 as a trading
bank. 1894 the bank had to be supported by the state
guaranteeing a preference issue. An Act of 1895 pro-
vided for subscription of preference shares by the state
and for the use of the bank as the state's sole banker.
Since 1898 the majority of the directors was state-
appointed. After 1895 the bank's financial position
improved, all preference shares were owned by the state,
the ordinary shares privately. 1933 the Reserve Bank
was established with a monopoly of the note issue; it
also took over the state's banking business.
Moves in Parliament for nationalisation of the bank
were defeated 1895 and 1913. After the depression a
monetary committee was set up in 1934, but only a
minority advocated nationalisation. 1935 the Labour
Party gained office and made the Reserve Bank a state
concern. Control over exchange and foreign trade,
introduced 1938, seemed to make nationalisation
unnecessary. However, despite much counter-propa-
ganda, a nationalisation bill became law on I November
1945. The government had owned all preference shares
before and now bought the ordinary shares for cash or
government stock. The bank board now consists of
5-7 members appointed by the minister of finance.
The first report since 1945 showed a slight increase of
net profits, while deposits and advances rose.
The author thinks that after the Reserve Bank had
become state-owned, doctrinaire views rather than short-
comings of the bank caused its nationalisation; but this
does not mean that nationalisation was undesirable.
There are two main dangers of nationalisation : political
influences on lending operations and domination of a
small political group in case the ministry of finance were
controlled by inexpert monetary reformers. There
should be institutional safeguards against this risk after
the model of the Swedish Riksbank which is semi-
autonomous and subject only to general directive laid
down by the banking committee of Parliament.








366. How Low can Interest Go? Bankers'
Magazine of Australasia, pp. 128-130,
January-February 1947.
The expected productivity of money to the borrower
sets the upper limit to interest while the lower limit is
largely set by convention. About twenty years ago the
conventional minimum in Australia was 5 per cent;
after the Premiers' Plan 4 per cent, and most economists
now follow Keynes's opinion that the rate of interest has
not much influence on men's decision to save. There
are three factors on which the further reduction of
interest rates depends: (I) how far the government
wishes to go in restraining the competition for money by
potential suitors for productive credits. Capital issues
are government controlled and the Commonwealth Bank
has power to ration credit generally ; (2) how far people
will tend to increase current expenditure in preference
to saving if the interest rate falls to zero ; (3) the level of
national income whose increase by greater production
would mean a higher amount available for saving. As
long as there are many unsatisfied needs the rate of
interest on a 'natural' market would rise and not
fall.

367. The Working of Bretton Woods Inter-
national Monetary Fund. W. Rosenberg.
Accountants Journal (Wellington), pp. 237-
240, February 1947.
The author wants to supply some technical insight
into the working of the Bretton Woods fund. The fund
intends to supplement the foreign exchange resources of
a member when his own exchange resources are inade-
quate; the fund is concerned with making payments
only, not with trade policy.
As examples of transactions as they would appear
in the fund's books and in the books of the Reserve
Bank of N.Z., are assumed: subscriptions by N.Z.,
U.S.A., Iran and South Africa; payment through the
fund for import of machinery to N.Z. from U.S.A., for
wool exports from N.Z. to Iran, for the import to South
Africa of goods from Iran and of wool from N.Z., and
for U.S. imports of butter from N.Z. The demand for
N.Z. currency was excessive and the 'scarce currency'
clause can be invoked. For these transactions the
journal entries in the books of the fund and the Reserve
Bank of N.Z. are given and commented upon; then the
entries in the accounts of the fund and the balance
sheet of the fund ; the entries in the accounts of the
Reserve Bank and its balance sheet.
The author concludes that of the three purposes of
the fund: to assist in maintaining exchange rate sta-
bility ; to encourage the removal of exchange restric-
tions ; and to tide over temporary shortages in the work-
ing balances of foreign exchanges, the last named is the
least important.

368. Sterling Exchange Problems. (a) The Settle-
ment of Sterling Exchanges. Bulletin of
the Canterbury Chamber of Commerce No.
265, January 1947.
(b) The Adjustment of Sterling Funds.
Same Bulletin No. 269, May 1947.
The Anglo-American loan agreement suggested three
lines of approach to meet Britain's present exchange
troubles : (i) part of the London funds held by creditor
countries to be released at once ; (2) part to be blocked
for a period and then released by instalments ; (3) part
to be written off by holders as contribution to Britain's


war losses. The first settlement was concluded with
Argentina. Most of the 130 m. London funds of that
country were blocked for four years. Similar agree-
ments have since been completed with Portugal and
Canada, but the greatest problem are the London funds
held by countries of the sterling area to the amount of
3,500 m., 1,2oo m. of which by India and 470 m. by
Egypt. Here the third line of approach will have to
provide a partial solution. The difficulties are aggra-
vated by the demand for dollars not only by Britain, but
also by the countries of the sterling area to import from
other countries. This necessitates imports and exchange
control. Finally the special exchange problems of N.Z.
and the lack of information about N.Z.'s policy are
discussed.

369. Fire and Accident Insurance as applied to
Gas Industry. J. N. Mitchell. National
Gas Bulletin, pp. 15-21, January-Febru-
ary 1947.
The author, accountant of the Australian GasLight
Company, sets out various clauses of the uniform pro-
posal form and policy drawn up by the Fire and Accident
Underwriters' Association. Clause 14 gives the insur-
ance company the option to reinstate damaged property
or to pay the amount of damage. This compels gas
companies to check their insurance policies at every
renewal according to costs at the time. The Australian
Gas Light Company has insured each of thirty-one
sections of its works under separate policies, e.g., section
i (gas holders) against fire, explosion and concussion ;
section 28 (powerhouse area) boilers covered by explosion
policy, but not against fire risk.
The reinstatement after a fire takes time and mean-
while certain fixed charges have to be met. This is
covered by a loss of profit and consequential insurance
policy which also covers loss of profit during business
interruptions. A public liability insurance covers claims
arising in public portions of offices and showrooms and
in connection with mains, services and meters.


(D) Public Finance

370. The Australian Social Services Contribution
and Income Tax Acts, 1946. H. S.
Carslaw. Economic Record, pp. 219-227,
December 1946.
In the financial proposals for the year ending 30 June
1947 a new scale of social services contributions was
devised, reducing the contributions from lower income
ranges and leaving the maximum of is. 6d. in
unchanged. A basic rate was introduced starting at
3d. in and increasing by one-eighth of id. for every
of income over 1oo, and a concessional rate for persons
with concessions for dependants, life insurance, medical
expenses, etc., in the same proportion to the basic rate
as the amount by which the contributable income
exceeds the rebatable amount bears to the contributable
income or to 180, whichever is the lesser. The new
income tax and social services contribution represents
an overall reduction of 22 per cent compared with war-
time rates, ranging from 47 per cent on lowest incomes
to less than 20 per cent on highest incomes. On incomes
from personal exertion five, on those from property four,
arithmetical progressions are paid, until the flat rate of
14s. 6d. in is reached at 5,ooo. Including is. 6d. for
social services contribution the maximum is i6s. in .
The tax-free income from personal exertion is raised to







200, but persons on lower incomes exceeding 104 a
year are liable to social services contribution.
Detailed tax schedules and formulae are provided.

371. Amendments to the Income Tax Assess-
ment Act, 1936-45. J. W. Hughes.
Chartered Accountant in Australia, pp.
196-212, October 1946.
This is the report of an address delivered on 17 Sep-
tember 1946 at a meeting of the N.S.W. Research
Society commenting on relevant sections of the Act.
Sections 5 (I) (a) and 18 liberalise the exemption
allowed to visiting industrial experts and extend the tax-
free period from six to twelve, or even twenty-four
months. Sections 5, sub-s. (i) (d) to (k), 6 and 13 set
time limits for exemptions for members of the defence
forces and exempt from taxes allowances under the
Re-establishment and Employment Act 1945 and the
Repatriation Act. Sections 7-10 deal with depreciation.
Plant for which depreciation is allowed now includes
plumbing fixtures and fittings provided for use of
employees (toilet and washing facilities). The rate of
depreciation on plant used for employees' amenities
(cafeteria, lockers, etc.) is fixed at 33 per cent. A
special initial depreciation of 20 per cent is allowed for
plant acquired from I July 1945-30 June 1950.
Section Ii enlarges deductions allowed for expendi-
ture on scientific research: for payments to approved
research institutes; capital expenditure on scientific
research ; over three years for expenditure on buildings
used for research. 33) per cent depreciation is allowed
on plant used for research only. Sections 12 and 17
allow deductions for gifts to research institutes. Section
19 provides a credit of income tax for expenditure made
1945-46 and 1946-47 in reconverting plant and machin-
ery from war to peace purposes and for losses suffered
on the disposal, loss or destruction of property sub-
jected to excessive wear and tear in connection with the
war. Details of the calculation of this tax credit are
given.

372. Taxation of Companies and Dividends.
(Commonwealth Institute of Accountants'
Research Lecture delivered in the Uni-
versity of W.A., 29 October 1946.) J. A. L.
Gunn. Australian Accountant, pp. 16-27,
January 1947.
A company and its shareholders may be regarded as
a group and should pay the same amount of income tax
as a partnership and its members. The rebate granted
to a shareholder under the 1936 Act when assessing his
dividends, at either his own rate or the rate payable by
the company, whichever was lower, had two flaws:
(i) that all shareholders should have received the same
rebate at the company rate, even if it meant a refund to
shareholders; (2) in granting the rebate the dividend
should be 'grossed up,' i.e., by adding to the dividend
received the tax borne by the company. Now, after the
1936 rebate has been withdrawn, the company group
could still be placed on the same footing as a sole trader
or a partnership by grossing up the dividend and granting
a rebate on the gross dividend. This is similar to the
U.K. system and the rebate soon to be granted in
Australia under the double taxation agreement. A
private company not distributing its distributable income
within a period and paying private company tax on the
undistributed amount which subsequently distributes
that amount as a dividend subject to rebate, is better off


than a corresponding partnership group. The lec-
turer proposes how to remove this anomaly.
The recommendations are equitable without much
sacrifice of simplicity. Further suggestions deal with
companies holding shares of other companies and deriv-
ing income or profits not assessable in its hands, the
removal of the wartime company tax and the super tax
of is. in , while the lecturer favours the retention of
the flat rate of 2s. in on undistributed income of a
public company.

373. Some Aspects of New Zealand Taxation.
C. R. Richardson. Accountants' Journal
(Wellington), pp. 154-159, December
1946.
The author discusses various anomalies of the N.Z.
income tax. National security charge payments being
often the source of future superannuation, should
entitle the taxpayer to the same exemption allowance as
superannuation contributions or life insurance pre-
miums. Payments from husband to wife or vice versa
do not constitute any right to deductions. Such pay-
ments made for services rendered in relation to produc-
tion of income or as interest on capital borrowed for use
in business should be allowable as deductions. Annui-
ties are treated as unearned income and consequently
bear the additional 331 per cent tax. When the annuity
is purchased in consideration of a capital payment, only
the portion paid as interest should be treated as income,
while the balance is actually a return of capital-this is
practised in Australia.
The 33) per cent special super tax on unearned income
is in fact higher, because it is applied to the 15 per cent
war tax as well. In the case of mixed income the basic
amount of tax on which the super tax is computed is
increased. Pensions are taxed as earned income and
there is no reason for discrimination between pensions
paid from a superannuation fund and the income of a
person who has provided for his retirement by investing
on mortgages, in government securities, property or
buying an annuity.

374. Liquidating the War Surpluses. A Further
Note. P. C. Greenland. Australian Quar-
terly, pp. 63-72, March 1947.
In the July 1946 issue of the Australian Quarterly the
author published an article dealing with the machinery of
the Commonwealth Disposals Commissionwhich has been
abstracted in No. 3 of these Abstracts, No. 253. The
present article deals with the work done during one and a
half years of the Commission's activities.
Up to 31 December 1946 about 90 m. was realized
by disposals sales ; of these 43-6 m. in the financial
year 1945-46 compared with 378 m. expenditure on the
war and 49- m. revenue from excise in the same
period. Relatively not much combat material, but
great quantities of goods and machinery with ordinary
civilian utility were released. The most important
groups in the Commission's second annual report in
November 1946 were 12 m. for the sale of motor
vehicles and spare parts, 14'- m. for textiles and textile
products, 8-5 m. for machine tools, 9'8 m. for minerals
and mineral products, incl. metals. 83,000 motor
vehicles, 27,000 motor cycles and 2o,ooo machine tools
were released.
Surpluses in New Guinea and the Pacific islands had
to be disposed of on the spot and quickly because of
deterioration. This job has been completed by now,
to the great benefit of the rehabilitation of New Guinea,







but for some material at Rabaul. The realisation has
now reached two-thirds to three-quarters of what the total
will be. According to a report of October 1946 in U.S.A.,
two-thirds of the liquidation has still to be done. In no
other English-speaking country the liquidation has so
far advanced as in Australia.


(E) Accountancy
375. Goldberg, L. and Hill, V. R. The Elements
of Accounting. Accountants' Publishing
Co. Ltd., Melbourne, 1947, pp. 215.
Price 7s. 6d.
This is an elementary text book in accountancy
designed for first-year students, and adopts the 'balance-
sheet' introduction to the subject. After introductory
chapters on the extent of application of accounting
methods and the distinctive characteristics of accounting
and book-keeping, the presentation of accounting tech-
nique is dealt with from the point of view of the entity
theory. The balance sheet is presented as a statement
showing on the one hand sources of funds and on the
other the manner in which funds are invested. The
ledger accounts are treated as means of maintaining a
recorded expression of the accounting equation and the
books of originating entry (the journal and its sub-
divisions) as sources of information for ledger entries.
The book-keeping procedure is followed through to the
preparation of the trial balance and the final accounting
reports after adjusting and closing entries have been
raised and posted. Topics also covered are bank recon-
ciliation statements, bills of exchange, bad debts, simple
consignment accounts and club reports. The book
contains a considerable number of graded practice
exercises.-L.G.

376. Lengyel, S. J. Insurance Companies'
Accounts. F. W. Cheshire Pty. Ltd., Mel-
bourne and London, 1947, pp. 159.
This book sets out to interpret the accounts of insur-
ance companies against an economic background.
After indicating the peculiar characteristics which
differentiate the accounts and financial statements of
insurance companies from those of other kinds of busi-
ness enterprise, the author discusses briefly some of the
general considerations and statutory requirements (par-
ticularly in Great Britain and the United States) which
govern the presentation of these statements. He then
outlines the principles governing investment of resources
by insurance companies before dealing in some detail
with the accounting, actuarial and economic character-
istics of each of the main items usually found in the
balance sheets and income statements presented by such
companies. This treatment of the nature and signifi-
cance of the individual components of the accounting
reports is a pre-requisite to a discussion of their analysis
and interpretation, which covers the statements of a Fire,
Marine and General Insurance Company in some detail
and those of Life Assurance companies in more general
terms.-L.G.

377. Modern Cost Accounting Techniques and
Industrial Efficiency. A. A. Fitzgerald.
Australian Accountant, pp. 430-438, Octo-
ber 1946.
A study of the history of cost accounting prior to the
war shows that, although there are no supporting statis-
tical data, the great majority of industrial concerns, at


least in Australia, used no systematic method of collecting
information as to costs. Of those concerns who used
cost accounting at all, retrospective cost-finding methods,
although expensive to install and operate and of doubtful
value, were the most commonly used, although standard
cost systems were growing in popularity.
During the war period, the major concern of the
government departments was to ensure that prices
charged by contractors were based upon costs of those
contracts and reasonable profit margins. Contractors.
were required to allocate a job number for the work to
be performed under the contract, and to keep an account
for each job, which resulted in the installation of or
reversion to systems of the type which had been shown
to be unnecessarily expensive, and lacking in usefulness
for cost control purposes.
The problems which remain to be solved in the future
are : (i) the problem of the relationship of cost account-
ing to financial accounting ; (2) the problem of the status
of the cost accountant vis-a-vis the production manager
and the financial accountant ; (3) the problem of recon-
ciliation of the two main purposes of cost analysis-
cost control and study of marginal costs.-J.K.

378. Valuation of Goodwill and Its Treatment
in Accounts. Norman S. Young. Aus-
tralian Accountant, pp. 473-486, Novem-
ber 1946, pp. 530-534, December 1946.
After stating various definitions of the term 'goodwill,'
the author adopts the view that without the reasonable
probability of the earning of future super-profit there
can be no present value in the form of goodwill.
The methods of valuing commercial goodwill are dis-
cussed, illustrated and criticized. These methods are :
(1) selected number of years' purchase of past annual net
profits ; (2) capitalisation of estimated future main-
tainable profits ; (3) selected number of years' purchase
of estimated future super-profits; (4) the annuity
method.
Only under the annuity method of valuing goodwill is
the incidence of income tax on the estimated profit taken
into account.
Personal goodwill is usually valued at so many years'
purchase of the takings, once again no regard being taken
of the income tax payable on this income.
Goodwill should appear in the books of account only
if acquired by bona-fide purchase on a cash or equivalent
basis, and then only at the amount actually paid. There
is disagreement among the authorities as to whether
goodwill should be amortised out of subsequent profits
or not, but the author inclines to the view that generally
it should be.-Y.K.

379. Budgetary Control. R. D. Greenwood.
Australian Accountant, pp. 512-529,
December 1946.
The purpose of budgetary control is to assist manage-
ment to produce the maximum profit. The plans
drawn up must be followed by action, and the budget
scheme must not be so elaborate as to be uneconomical.
To detect variations from the budget, regular com-
parisons of actual with intended results are necessary.
Budgets may be classified as either fixed or variable,
while variable budgets may further be divided into
Multiple Budgets, Flexible Budgets and Functional
Budgets.
Attention must also be given to the determination
of the budget period.
The author describes and illustrates the main budgets
required by a manufacturing concern.-J.K.







380. The Question of Staff Training. R. C.
Ankers. Chartered Accountant in Aus-
tralia, pp. 396-406, January 1947.
This article is reprinted from The Accounting Review
(New York), and discusses the merits and defects of the
training received by aspirants to the profession in the
schools and colleges. Because of insufficient training in
some branches of accountancy, especially auditing,
public accounting firms have to further train their staff
before assigning them to tasks. If students could
receive practical experience in their final year, staff
training will exist only to initiate beginners into the
particular procedures and methods of their employers.
-J.K.

381. Retail Shop Accounting. D. de P. Taylor.
Accountants' Journal (Wellington), pp.
233-237, February 1947.
This article outlines the basic features of a relatively
simple but very effective system of accounting for small
retail establishments. It explains how control can be
maintained over cash receipts, and stock, and provides
for the presentation of frequent operating statements,
and is supported by illustrations of the books and records
required.-J.K.

382. Materials Control. H. Jackson. Australian
Accountant, pp. 82-92, February-March
1947.
Although methods will vary, some form of control
over raw materials must be in existence to allow the
factory, irrespective of its size, to be run at its utmost
efficiency. The basic aims of any control should be to
have the materials available when required, to restrict
waste, to abolish misuse and theft, and to provide data
for accounting and costing. Periodical financial state-
ments can be prepared at shorter intervals than would be
possible if value of stocks on hand can only be accurately
ascertained by physical stocktaking.
Any system of control must embrace four main func-
tions. These are : (I) buying; (2) receiving and stor-
age; (3) issue; (4) accounting.
A method of control is described, attention being paid
to these four functions, and supported by specimen forms
of the subsidiary records required.-J.K.

383. The Balance Sheet Audit and the Form and
Content of Published Accounts. R. A.
Irish. Australian Accountant, pp. 129-142,
April 1947.
In Australia the balance sheet is usually verified at the
conclusion of a detailed audit, whereas American
auditors rely far more on internal control to check fraud
and clerical errors, and concentrate on errors of prin-
ciple.
The procedure of the balance sheet audit is : (i) verifi-
cation of existence, ownership and value of all assets ;
(2) similar verification for all liabilities; (3) compre-
hensive test checks of detailed transactions for from one
to three months in each year; (4) careful analysis of
certain accounts, such as repairs and plant, which
inherently hold dangers of errors of principle ; (5) any
undue movement on profit-loss items with previous
years is examined in detail.
'Form' in a balance sheet or profit and loss account
refers to the physical appearance, arrangement and
classification of the items, while 'content' refers to the
actual individual items in the accounts.


The profit and loss account should be presented in
such a form as to give a clear disclosure of the results
of the period and the amount available for distribution.
In a balance sheet, information must be given to permit
judgment of the financial status of an enterprise.--J.K.

384. Can Divisible Profits be created by Writing
Up Fixed Assets ? A. E. Barton. Char-
tered Accountant in Australia, pp. 594-
61o, April 1947.
There is no legal decision to show whether or not a
dividend can legally be declared from a surplus derived
from writing up fixed assets. The author puts forward
his views, namely: (i) divisible profits cannot be
created by writing up fixed assets; (2) dividends can
be declared from surplus resulting from writing back
excessive depreciation; (3) dividends can be declared
from a realized surplus on the sale of fixed assets.-J.K.

385. Cost Allocation in the Gas Industry for
Purposes of Tariff Design. M. H. Rout.
National Gas Bulletin, pp. 4-6, March-
April, 1947.
As a gas industry supplies a variety of goods and ser-
vices, it is advisable to analyse its receipts and expendi-
ture in such a way as to enable the most accurate estimate
to be made of expenses incurred and profit resulting from
each activity. Cost allocation is analysis of fixed and
variable costs under specified headings.
Three methods commonly used for allocation of total
costs are : (i) increment cost analysis, i.e., the addi-
tional expense incurred in producing any additional
quantity of gas is the actual cost of supplying that quan-
tity ; (2) two-part cost analysis, i.e., division of costs into
'customer' costs and 'all other costs' ; (3) four-part cost
analysis, i.e., operating and capital charges are divided
into (a) production demand costs, (b) distribution demand
costs, (c) commodity costs, (d) customer costs.
In practice two further headings are often used:
(e) by-products costs, (f) unallocated costs.
An illustration is given of the allocation of all costs
under the four-part system of cost analysis.-J.K.


(F) Transportation and Communication
386. Travelling to Work. D. Cochrane. Economic
Record, pp. 199-218, December 1946.
This study is based on a sample of 9,930 breadwinners
from 5,189 households visited in the course of the Mel-
bourne University social survey, for whom information
concerning their places of employment was available.
The metropolitan area is divided into eleven districts
according to the proportion of earners working in each
district, 71 per cent of the earners working in four inner
divisions while the homes of the earners in the sample are
fairly evenly distributed. Tables show the relation of
the place of work to the place of residence, the percentage
of earners travelling various mileages to work and the
time spent in travelling by train and tram. The costs of
transport are computed for fare paying households and
for all households and brought into relation with house-
hold rent and household income. For some selected
areas a distinction is also made according to different
classes of train travel and their relation to income.
Town planning in Melbourne is conditioned by the
location of industry in the central and western suburbs,
while housing extends to the southern and eastern
suburbs. The survey showed that most households







were satisfied with their present position, only in what
may be called the inner slum areas a substantial number
of people desired to live further away from work.
Housing should be planned so as to provide better
residential facilities in the inner areas, while reduction or
subsidising of fares for larger distances should be con-
sidered. So far the main consideration in determining
train fares seems to be the presence or absence of tram
competition, while there is need for a general co-ordi-
nated transport policy and balanced fares.

387. Report on Civil Aviation in Australia and
New Guinea, 1945-46. Department of
Civil Aviation, Melbourne, pp. 71.
The most notable events of the period were the forma-
tion of the British Commonwealth Pacific Airlines,
registered in June 1946, owned by the governments of
Australia, N.Z. and U.K., for the operation of a trans-
Pacific air service, and the passing of the Australian
National Airways Act in August 1945 whose provisions
for the nationalisation of interstate air services were
subsequently declared invalid by the High Court. The
report deals with the administration of the department,
its participation in international arrangements : the first
PICAO assembly meeting in Montreal 1946, agreements
and negotiations with N.Z., Canada, U.K. and U.S.A.,
the meeting of the Commonwealth Air Transport
Council in London in July 1945, the inter-Empire
Pacific conference in Wellington, the London session of
the international commission for air navigation in
August 1945. Data are given on civil aviation funds in
Australia, internal air services and airmail, the Indian
Ocean, England-Australia, Trans-Tasman, Sydney-New
Guinea, Trans-Pacific air services and various regional
air services in the south-west Pacific. Additional sub-
jects are: the acquisition of aircraft from various
sources, aero clubs and flying training schools, flying
doctor services, airway engineering facilities, airways
operational organisation, ground organisation, air navi-
gation and aeronautical engineering including licensing
of personnel, accidents.

388. Report on the Working of the W.A. Govern-
ment Railways, Tramways, Ferries and
Electricity Supply for the Year ended 30
June 1946. Government Printer, Perth,
pp. 71.
The decrease in defence traffic caused a fall in pas-
senger journeys and in earnings in the year under
review. Rising working expenses and pegged charges
under the price stabilisation plan still left a surplus of
earnings over working expenses, but after payment of
interest a deficit of 960,ooo resulted. For the regen-
eration of rolling stock deteriorated during the war, a
construction plan over ten years has been proposed,
for rehabilitation of track, buildings, etc., a five-year plan.
Twenty-five Australian Standard Garrett locomotives
have been placed in service in W.A., but owing to the
opposition of engine-drivers to their use a Royal Com-
missioner was appointed on alterations or discontinuance
of their service. The Commissioner recommended some
alterations, but the union is still antagonistic and pre-
vents their use. As to the standardisation of gauges,
no agreement has yet been reached on financing the W.A.
section, but a survey of a route for a new standard-gauge
line between North Fremantle and Kalgoorlie is in pro-
gress.
The State Electricity Act proclaimed on 20 March
1946 removed government electricity supply from the


administration of the Railway Commissioner and placed
it in the hands of a newly constituted state electricity
commission from I July 1946.

389. The Marlborough Coast Route of the South
Island Main Trunk Railway. George
Jobberns. New Zealand Geographer, pp.
235-246, April 1946.
This railway was opened for traffic on 15 December
1945, after the project of a trunk railway from Bluff to
Picton had been discussed for seventy years. In 1914
there was still a gap between Parnassus and Wharanui,
which has been closed only now. The scattered settle-
ments are separated by topographical barriers and it is
the main function of the new railway to link these settle-
ments closely together; furthermore, it will give the
farmers of the Marlborough area access to the livestock
market of Christchurch, provide an alternative route
from Christchurch to Wellington and bring the holiday
resorts in Marlborough within easy reach. It was a
formidable task to build the railway which clings closely
to the shoreline, because of the rugged terrain. The
mountain ranges are giant crust blocks of hard rocks,
separated from one another by faults. Construction was
particularly difficult where the steep mountain spur ends
had to be crossed. The author gives geological and
scenic details of various sections of the route.


(G) Labour and Industrial Relations

390. Foenander, O. de R. Industrial Regulation
in Australia. Melbourne University Press,
Melbourne, 1947, pp. 248. Price i7s. 6d.
The book is constituted of four parts. Part I deals
with arbitral awards-their purpose and character,
process of making, usual provisions, coverage, duration,
method of variation, interpretation, enforcement, etc.
Part II is a comparative examination of the Common-
wealth and State basic wages in their many phases and
aspects. Part III is a study of the method of the fixation
* of the various other forms of remuneration-particularly
the extra rates for semi-skilled workers and tradesmen,
rates prescribed for juniors, rates for casual work, incen-
tive payments, allowances for special circumstances
governing the occupation, rates payable for other than
ordinary time. Part IV is a study of the changed status
of the trade union as the result of the introduction of
industrial regulation in Australia; it also includes a
study of the position of the employer organisation
registered under the industrial law.

391. Lord Keynes's Theory of Wages. R. H,
Fields. Economic Record, pp. 284-289.
December 1946.
In Keynes's opinion labour resists a reduction of
money wages, but not of real wages. Falling employ-
ment is likely to be accompanied by lower money wages
and higher real wages, as diminishing output means
increasing marginal returns to a given capital equipment.
If this argument is correct, the Australian system of
varying money wages with a varying price index, that is
of guaranteeing real wages, would make the raising of
employment difficult. A similar theory is propounded
by L. A. Hahn, who adds that labour now understands
price indexes and, therefore, detects and opposes falling
real wages. Even when there are idle resources, an
increase in spending should go into raising'prices and not
employment.







Both arguments assume a rising marginal cost curve
in the short run. The author, however, quotes several
investigations purporting to show that normally mar-
ginal costs in industry in the short run are constant or
even falling, except when plant is operating near capacity.
These conclusions hold in Australia, too, in pre-war con-
ditions. When employment rises, less efficient workers
have soon to be called upon which supports the view that
marginal costs will rise as practical capacity is reached.
In Australia only the 'needs' portion of the wage, that is
about half of the aggregate wages bill, varies with the
price index. Besides, Keynes did not take into account
price and profit control which can be used to re-distri-
bute income. During twenty years before the war the
Australian wages system has raised real wages at about
the rate of increased productivity. Under full employ-
ment unreasonable sectional demands for wage rises and
real wage increases not justified as labour's share in
increased productivity should be avoided; otherwise
they would lead to price increases favouring monopolies
at the expense of fixed incomes and of export indus-
try.

392. Wage Incentives.
(i) Notes on Time Study. W. C. Bourke.
Manufacturing and Management, pp.
S164-172, October 1946.
(2) Notes on Wage Incentive Plans. W.
C. Bourke. Manufacturing and Man-
agement, pp. 274-277, January 1947.
(3) Application of Wage Incentives. C. A.
Morris. Manufacturing and Manage-
ment, pp. 389-392, April 1947.
(4) Production Incentive Plans. Proceed-
ings of First Australian Top-Man-
agement Conference held by the
Institute of Industrial Management
on 4 December 1946, pp. III.
(1) Time study is the established practice to find a
basis for calculating time standards instead of guessing,
estimating or using records of past performances. The
author gives details of four systems used in Australia :
Bedeaux, Taylor, Merrick and Mode. He discusses the
equipment required, the method of making and analysing
time studies so as to arrive at the time an average operator
can maintain all day allowing for fatigue and personal
requirements.
(2) and (3) W. C. Bourke and C. A. Morris stress the
importance of accurate job analysis and time study as
pre-requisites to a successful wage incentive plan. For
this purpose a trained time study staff has to be kept.
Both authors give examples of wage incentive schemes,
how the award task, the minute award rate and a 'high
task' is computed. Incentives for small groups of six
or more people are preferable to individual ones.
Quality should not be sacrificed to quantity. Finally,
Bourke discusses incentives for indirect workers.
Morris emphasises the necessity to reduce real costs
by increasing productivity per man-hour which partly
depends on the workers' skill and effort. Incentive
systems can be installed at any time, preferably gradually,
section by section. Standards should not be set by
averaging the time observed or by disregarding incon-
sistent readings.
(4) The speakers in the conference were men with
practical experience in incentive plans. A. D. J.
Forster's subject was : Are incentive plans conducive to


increased production and industrial harmony ? His own
firm, manufacturing agricultural implements, pays its
workers on incentive wages 40 per cent above award
rates without detriment to quality. Rural industry,
industries producing farmers' equipment and its raw
materials-steel and iron-the mercantile marine, ship-
building, work under incentive systems. Larger earn-
ings by labour are achieved not by greater physical effort,
rather by greater dexterity, concentration on work and
co-operation. In Australia incentive workers are pro-
tected by minimum basic or award wages.
H. P. Clarey discussed the question why unions oppose
incentive payments. This opposition is caused by bad
experience in the past. The incentive system is used
as a speed-up device, irrespective of the worker's health
and his relations to his fellow-workers. Speeding up
decreases industrial efficiency which can be kept up only
by modern production methods. No possible reform
could make incentive wages acceptable to the unions.
A. J. Burgess gave an account of an incentive system
operated by a textile firm. He stressed that mistrust of
the workers had to be overcome and that quality must
be maintained. The system has lead to higher produc-
tion and higher workers' earnings.
F. L. Fitzpatrick reported on nine years' experience
of his firm engaged in making concrete products. Pro-
duction and workers' earnings increased greatly, over-
head costs and selling prices fell. The system has not
led to more exhaustion, rather to less, because interest
replaced boredom, nor to discarding older workers, as
two grandfathers earned 20 per cent above the award
rate. Incentive arrangements are discussed with
workers' representatives.
W. J. Miskoe reported on experience with incentives
made by his firm manufacturing electrical equipment.
Shareholders, management, workers and consumers
share in the success of incentive plans. The rates are
decided by advisory boards, elected with one member
from each department.
The appendix to the volume presents a report of the
wage incentive conference group headed by Mr. Fitz-
patrick (also printed in Manufacturing and Management,
pp. 417-421, May 1947); to achieve the objects of
incentive plans each employee is to be rewarded accord-
ing to the value of his contribution. Workers on
incentive averaged 20-25 per cent above ordinary rates.
The accident rate decreased, quality was not lowered.
Reasons for the unions' opposition are given. Principles
for a sound incentive plan are discussed, among them
participation of workers through committees in setting
up a framework. Payments to be based on individual or
small groups' performance. Standards to be revised at
set intervals. Profit sharing is less effective because
profits have little connection with workers' efforts.
Special incentives required for indirect workers. Plans
to be first established in one section and gradually
extended.

393. Industrial Relations in Australia. Proceed-
ings of the second Australian one-day
Top-Management Conference held by the
Institute of Industrial Management at
Melbourne on 28 May 1947, pp. o06.
This is an account of four addresses delivered at the
conference.
E. Rodriquez speaks on 'The Foreman and Leading
Man.' The foreman is part of the supervisory manage-
ment responsible to the higher management and to the
workmen to whom he represents the firm. He is a major
factor in shaping employees' attitudes and should take







part in discussions on changes in policy which affect his
activities. He must have leadership qualities and should
be instructed in leadership methods.
E. P. Charrett's subject is 'The Factory Manager's
Task in Industry.' Surveys have shown that to
employees not the question of pay, but steady employ-
ment and opportunity of advancement are the foremost
problems. A firm's industrial relations policy should be
specified in writing, flexible and enforceable. These
relations include employee welfare, amenities, training
and education, upgrading. The manager is responsible
for this, even if there is a special welfare officer. Also
matters for the manager are the method of induction of
new workers and the control of hiring and firing. Fore-
men should be included in the management team.
The manager has to keep contact with unions in a spirit
of confidence.
Harold Rabling deals with 'The Managing Director
and Board of Directors.' In big nation-wide business
organizations decentralisation and joint consultation is
required. Members of the industrial relations staff
have to assist directors in formulating policies on indus-
trial relations and to give advice on negotiations with
unions, as they are largely responsible for selection,
placement, induction, training, transfer and promotion
of employees, also for employee benefit plans.
H. P. Higginson discusses 'Employers' Organisations,'
whose function is to serve managements in preparing
cases for industrial tribunals and generally in informing
them of changing industrial conditions. Business
reports should be for the use of employees as well.
Employers' organizations should pay special attention
to public relations, as the Australian Council of Employ-
ers' federations has done by issuing a memorandum
(appendix C) on a full production programme for Aus-
tralia.

394. Profit-Sharing. A Study of the Results of
Overseas Experience. Industrial Welfare
Division, Department of Labour and
National Service, pp. 34, March 1947.
This study confines the term 'profit-sharing' to
schemes providing for the distribution of profits not
only among the managerial staff, but among participants
employed in the business concerned in a proportion
definitely fixed in advance. Objects of profit-sharing
are : the achievement of greater output and efficiency ;
the elimination of industrial unrest; greater economic
security for employees and the reduction of labour
turnover. The system was concentrated mainly in
France, U.K. and U.S.A. Many of the schemes started
have been discontinued and various causes of discon-
tinuance are stated. Most schemes restrict eligibility
to a specified length of service with the firm. The
proportion of profits allocated for distribution can be a
fixed percentage (usually 5-15 per cent) or a fixed
proportion of profits remaining after payment of interest
on debentures and dividend on preference shares.
The distribution is made annually, sometimes at intervals
of three or six months. Individual distribution is
usually in proportion to wages or salaries, in cash, shares
or contributions to provident funds. Important is
participation of employees in the administration of the
scheme and the right of an employee to a share in case
of his leaving the firm.
The study discusses the-mostly indifferent or
antagonistic-attitude of unions to profit-sharing, the
attitude of employers and governments. The effective-
ness of the system is assessed in relation to the objectives
mentioned. Usually the amounts distributed are too


small to induce greater effort ; the effects on industrial
unrest normally are small; the economic security of
employees benefits through schemes in which provident
and superannuation funds are built up from distributed
profits. Schemes are likely to be successful where
steady profits are usual as in the British gas industry,
and if there were good relations between management
and labour prior to the introduction of the scheme.

395. International Labour Organization. 28th
(Maritime) Session, held at Seattle, June
1946. Reports of the Australian Govern-
ment and Workers' Delegates. Common-
wealth Government Printer, Canberra,
27 November 1946, pp. 44.
The conference in Seattle was preceded by a prepara-
tory conference held in Copenhagen in November 1945.
There were eleven items on the agenda, all concerning
the conditions of seafarers. Conventions were drafted
dealing with: (i) social security for seafarers (medical .
benefits, benefits in case of incapacity, unemployment,
old age, etc.) ; (2) seafarers' pensions ; (3) crew accom-
modation on board ship ; (4) food and catering for crews
on board ship ; (5) certification of ships' cooks ; (6) med-
ical examination of seafarers ; (7) certification of able
seamen; (8) vacation holidays with pay to seafarers;
(9) wages (basic wage of stg. 16 or $64 a month), hours
(not exceeding 12 in two consecutive weeks) and man-
ning. Various recommendations were made. Agree-
ment on wages and hours proved most difficult, the U.S.
delegation proposed a maximum week of 48 hours in
six days. This particular convention will not come into
force until ratified by nine countries, five of which have
at least I m. gross tons of shipping each. Arguments
arose when members of the Joint Maritime Commission
were elected, whether it should have a tripartite structure
including government representatives, as the workers'
delegates wanted, while the shipowners' delegates were
opposed to it.

396. The Forty-Hour Week and its Application
to the Retail Trade. J. B. Griffin. The
Journal of the Retail Traders' Association
of N.S.W., pp. 4, 8, Io, March 1947.
The 40-hour week in distributive trades will not
adversely affect wages costs. With a higher unit cost of
goods there will be an improved margin of gross profit
provided the existing system of mark-ups remains.
The sales potential of the employee being flexible, the
same number of transactions can be carried out in a
shorter time. The object of the 40-hour week is to
provide workers with more useful leisure time. Closing
of retail shops on Saturday is impracticable, particularly
in Sydney. They are staffed to meet normal peak
shopping periods. Every morning except Saturday a
large section of the staff could be dispensed with. The
author suggests to divide the staff into five groups and to
allow each group in succession a free morning one day
of the week. Thus the present shopping hours would
continue with the absence of only zo per cent of total
staff during slacker trading periods.

397. Works Canteen Controlled by Employees.
N. Shaw. Manufacturing and Manage-
ment, pp. 424-429, May 1947.
This is an account of the factory canteen of the
Australian Paper Manufacturers Ltd. in Fairfield, the
only one in Australia managed by the employees without







participation of management or an outside caterer. The
company provides premises and original capital equip-
ment, light, power, gas and insurance free of charge, all
other costs including canteen staff wages are paid from
the canteen's revenue. The canteen is managed by the
works committee with a subordinated elected canteen
operating committee. The dining room can accommo-
date 224 persons, 50 per cent of the day workers and 75
per cent of the staff take meals in the canteen. Shift
workers are supplied with meals from the canteen, which
they eat in mess rooms near their work. There is also a
canteen shop selling sandwiches, fruit, cigarettes, etc.
Payment is by cash. The canteen is a social centre and a
charge is made to outside bodies for use of the building.
Main problem is the increase of the patronage to the
optimum capacity.

398. A Group Personnel and Welfare Service.
D. M. Delaney. Bulletin of Industrial
Psychology and Personnel Practice, pp.
3-13, June 1947.
Increasingly, large firms provide and workers demand
welfare services and amenities which isolated smaller
firms cannot supply. To meet this situation group
welfare schemes covering a number of smaller firms have
been suggested. The writer gives an account of such a
system which has now been operating for three years in
Lancashire House in Melbourne, whose twenty-six
tenants are all clothing manufacturers employing a total
of 500oo people. Originally twenty-two of these firms
agreed to set up an experimental project for six months.
A trained personnel and welfare officer was appointed,
responsible for the general direction was a committee of
seven employers. Finance was provided by the firms
paying 6d., later gd. per week an employee. The
welfare officer had to win the confidence of manage-
ments and employees, to effect improvements in ameni-
ties in the building and in the working conditions of some
firms and to build up a community spirit. In the first
six months he had some success in these objectives. He
also had to handle problems of absenteeism, late-coming,
training, etc. A social club was formed among the
employees.
At present only thirteen firms with 75 per cent of the
employees participate. The welfare officer has good
contact with management and employees. He is respon-
sible for recruitment of labour and their allocation to
workrooms and is consulted by some firms on training
problems. Workroom conditions have improved, as far
as the limited space permitted. The social club arranges
dances, theatre nights, sporting activities, etc. Absent-
eeism and labour turnover compare favourably with the
industry's average. Difficulties were the diversity of the
needs of individual firms, lack of space for improve-
ments, lack of uniform personnel records and of easy
communication with member firms and employees.
Quick and easy results cannot be expected.

399. Industrial Disputes in Australia and Over-
seas. Institute of Public Affairs (Victoria)
Review, pp. 11-17, March 1947.
This article claims that statistics show Australia to
have a poor record as compared with other countries in
working time wasted through industrial disputes.
This indicates a deficiency in conduct of industrial
relations in this country, and casts doubt on the effective-
ness of compulsory arbitration.
Although the level of industrial disputes has fallen
over the last thirty years, they have increased in severity
since 1931.


With decreasing unemployment, industrial disputes
have tended to increase. Thus the economy of full
employment has given rise to the problem of maintaining
respect for authority in industrial relationship.-H.S.

400. Trade Unionism and the Future. (Anon.)
Institute of Public Affairs (Victoria) Review,
pp. 2-9, June 1947.
The article surveys the growth of trade unionism
during the war and argues the responsibility of the trade
unions for the maintenance of good relations with
employers and in increasing industrial production in the
future.-L.C.

401. The American Labour Movement To-day.
Ralph H. Gabriel. Australian Quarterly,
pp. 87-98, December 1946.
This article is based on an address given to the
Economic Society of Australia and N.Z., N.S.W. Branch,
on 19 October 1946. Craft unions of skilled workmen,
organised in the American Federation of Labour (A.F.L.)
dominated the U.S.A. labour world until about 1930.
Unions of the industrial type including skilled and
unskilled workers seceded from the A.F.L. at that time
to create a rival federation, the Congress of Industrial
Organizations (C.I.O.).
In the 1930's the National Labour Relations Board
was set up to ensure the enforcement of the right to
collective bargaining. 1944, 65 per cent of all employed
in manufacturing industries worked under collective
agreements. In the C.I.O. the prevalent opinion is that
economic stability is best safeguarded by a high con-
sumers' purchasing power, that is by raising the wages
of unskilled labour.
Educational facilities organised by unions are partly
vocational, partly their aims are those of adult education.
There is a huge labour press.
There is no organised labour party in U.S. Both
major political parties represent all three of the most
important economic interests : business and industry,
agriculture and labour. The A.F.L. refuses to engage in
political activities, believes in free enterprise and wants
elimination of unnecessary government controls. The
C.I.O., however, desires to preserve and extend the
policies of the New Deal, and demands economic plan-
ning for full employment and public ownership of
monopolies and of essential industries. A Political
Action Committee set up by the C.I.O. in the presi-
dential campaign of 1944 is still carrying on.


AGRICULTURE, LAND AND RURAL
PROBLEMS
402. Sixth Report of the Rural Reconstruction
Commission, pp. 208, April 1945.
This report consists of nine chapters, each dealing with
a group of problems:
I. The evolutionary sequence in agricultural develop-
ment, instances of efficiency in land use with special
reference to soil fertility.
II. Sources of power, mechanisation, cost of mach-
inery and spare parts, effect of mechanisation on educa-
tion.
III. Technical education at various levels in relation
to agriculture.
IV. Co-operation of different types, co-operative
legislation in the different states.







V. Co-ordination of general agricultural administra-
tive policy, controls and their administration, co-ordina-
tion of extension and research work.
VI. Fertilisers and their importance in agriculture,
price of fertilisers and some other materials used in
farming; costs of distribution.
VII. Types of rural labour, reasons for low wages and
lack of wage regulation, wage fixation for agricultural
work.
VIII. Problems of transport of all types.
IX. Income tax, types of land tax, fire risks, indirect
taxes.
Four appendices deal with: Control of rabbits,
Large-scale machinery for clearing land in W.A., History
of wage regulation in Australian rural industries, Regula-
tion of agricultural wages in England and Wales.-I.M.

403. Empire Forests and the War. Statement pre-
pared by the Forests Commission of Vic-
toria for the British Empire Forestry Con-
ference, London, 1947. Government
Printer, Melbourne, pp. 93, plus maps and
graphs.
A publication of eight chapters:
I. Description and economic structure of forest
industry in the years 1934-8 ; overseas and inter-state
trade.
II. Effects of war on forest produce; supply and
demand.
III. War-time forest problems.
IV. Manpower.
V. Forestry corps, companies and special logging
units.
VI. Effect of war on present conditions.
VII. Effect of war-time developments on forest policy,
management and wood utilisation.
VIII. Future policy.-I.M.

404. Galbraith, A. V. The Place of Forestry in
Australia with Special Reference to Soil
and Water Conservation. Government
Printer, Melbourne, 1947, pp. II.
Meagre water catchment areas of Australia and the
increased demand for water and soil conservation
increase the foresters' responsibility because effective
ground cover control in the watershed areas means
effective soil and water conservation. The value of pure
grass cover is a matter of controversy. Crown lands are
controlled by Lands Department and/or the forest
authority, alienated land by neither. This complex
situation makes conservation schemes difficult. An
increased role for the forest authority in conservation
matters combined with a broader training in forestry is
advocated.-I.M.

405. World Fertiliser Production and Consumption,
and Targets for the Future. Staff of F.A.O.
Food and Agriculture Organisation of the
United Nations, Washington, pp. 21 and
XXI, July 1946.
A discussion of the main artificial fertilisers in the
different parts of the world. International fertilizer
cartels are also dealt with.-I.M.

406. Report on the Citrus Industry Survey, 1945.
Bulletin i, Bureau of Agricultural Eco-
nomics, Commonwealth Department of


Commerce and Agriculture, pp. 27 and
appendices.
A description of the results of the Citrus Industry
Survey 1945 and an analysis of some features are given.
Data were collected by questionnaires submitted through
State Departments of Agriculture to 'district horticul-
tural officers who were advised to use as a starting point
statistics compiled by State Statisticians and by marketing
organizations,' but it was not possible in all cases to
gather information on a farm-to-farm basis.
Production for the years 1946-48 is expected to
average 6-9 million bushels per year and the production
-based on this average-is expected to reach 7-8 million
bushels by 1956, representing an increase of 12-8 per
cent. In this calculation no net additional plantings
were considered. The increase expected in the various
States is as follows :-
New South Wales .. 8-9 per cent
Victoria . I44
Queensland . 163
South Australia .. .194
Western Australia 23-2 ,
Greatest increase in grapefruit and Valencias is fore-
casted, an increase of 63-3 per cent and 3I"2 per cent
respectively, while a decrease is predicted in Washington
Navels, Seville and Poormans, less than I per cent for
each variety.-I.M.

407. Dairy Farming as a Business. A Review of
the financial position of thirty-two dairy
farms for the year ended 30 June 1945.
W. F. Owen. Review of Marketing and
Agricultural Economics, Department of
Agriculture, N.S.W., pp. 123-146, April
1947.
The Agricultural Department of N.S.W. supplied
books to dairy farmers for keeping financial and pro-
duction records. Thirty-two dairy farmers (including
five tenant farmers) on the Coastal Divisions-the chief
dairying areas of N.S.W.-returned books suitable for
analysis. These farmers were the more progressive
types, hence the results obtained do not reflect the
general position of dairying in the areas concerned.
Brief description is given of the soils and of climatic
conditions on these areas. Herds depend largely on
Paspalum dilatatum pastures, sometimes improved by rye
grass, clovers and supplementary crops. Some farms
include considerable uncleared and/or waste land.
Main features of the individual farms are:-
Total area . 40-914 acres
Area cultivated . .. 31- 50 acres
Number of cows per farm 13-124
Number of cows to acres i1- 7
Twenty-five farms had milking machines and five had
tractors.
Tables are presented showing analyses of receipts,
capital and debt structure, farm costs. Capital invested
was largely based on farmers' valuations. 'True net
income,' 'Net farm income,' 'Operator's earnings,'
'Managerial return,' 'Total fixed costs,' and 'Total
variable costs' were also calculated.-I.M.

408. Fry, T. P. Freehold and Leasehold Tenancies
of Queensland Land. Mimeographed, Uni-
versity of Queensland, 1946, pp. 351.
A textbook for Real Property Law and Conveyancing
in Queensland. The subject is approached by a short







survey of the evolution of tenures in England. The
various Crown tenures in Queensland are classified, and
their legal aspects discussed. The relationship of
tenures to developmental conditions-timber, water
rights, easements, and other amenities are set out.
Chapters are also devoted to distress, forfeiture, com-
pensation for improvements, and many other matters
concerning the holding of land.-I.M.

409. Tasmanian War Service Land Settlement.
Progress Report as at April 1947. P.P.,
Hobart, 1947, pp. 8.
Up to the above date about 860,000 acres have been
considered for war service land settlement by the Post-
War Land Development Committee; 563,124 rejected
as unsuitable and 163,673 recommended to provide land
for 320 settlers. The selected lands are in the Midlands
and on King and Flinders Islands. The remaining land
is under investigation.
Where necessary, approved areas are cleared by con-
tract or by the Board. Calf-rearing schemes on King
Island and Lawrenny provide a reserve of young dairy
stock for settlers. Aerial, contour and soil surveys
are being made and houses will have similar amenities
to houses under urban schemes.
Up to 31 March, 599 men applied for land settle-
ment, and 432 for re-establishment loans. Of those
who have been selected for settlement, both with and
without training, 135 have applied for dairy farms; 164
for fat lamb raising and cropping; 50 for wool-growing ;
22 for orcharding; Io for small fruits, and 76 for mixed
farming. In addition to the farm training with approved
farmers, 388 applicants were selected for an eight-weeks'
course. The Board has approved 101,274 and the
Agricultural Bank 28,673 as Re-establishment Loan for
161 applicants. In addition 127 received 13,332 as
cash re-establishment allowances.-I.M.

POLITICAL SCIENCE

(A) Government and Politics
410. Australia-The Last Parliament. Round
Table (London), pp. 84-91, December
1946.
A survey of the work of the Labour administration
during the Parliament which lasted 1943-6. Among the
more important Acts passed were the two Banking Con-
trol Bills, the Air Lines Act, and the Coal Industry Bill.
The article concludes with a survey of the Federal Elec-
tions and Federal Referendum, September 1946.

411. The Changing Balance of Government in
Australia. E. J. B. Foxcroft. Public
Administration, pp. 184-92, December
1946.
A review of the recent administrative developments
which have taken place in Australia, largely as a result of
war-time changes, and a review of some of the problems
which have arisen. Commonwealth Departments
increased from thirteen in 1939 to twenty-five late in
1944. This extension of Commonwealth functions
marks the growth of a new national conception of
government in Australia-a further movement of the
balance of power in Australia from States to Common-
wealth. This change has not as yet been reflected in any
clearly stated re-definition of the relationship of States
to Commonwealth.


412. The Need for a Larger Federal Parliament.
H. M. Storey. Australian Quarterly, pp.
80-88, December 1946.
The author urges that the size of the Federal Parlia-
ment should be increased since the Parliament as at
present constituted was too small to carry out an adequate
supervision of the Executive. A larger Legislature
would also enable a wider choice in the selection of
Executives.

413. The Changed Australian Outlook. N. C.
Carroll. Australian Quarterly, pp. 99-104,
December 1946.
A plea for the rescue of the middle class who are (it is
alleged) being taxed out of idealism into materialism.

414. Is there a Future for Local Government ?
F. A. Bland.
A Comment on Bland's Paper. A. M.
Meynerd.
Public Administration, pp. 212-215,
219-222, December 1946.
Professor Bland suggests that 'a tide is running in the
direction of more centralisation, more control and
direction by remote officials, and further away from the
assumptions of popular government in general and local
government in particular.' This 'tide,' he suggests, is
world-wide and greatly to be deplored.

415. Education for the Public Service. S. T.
Barnett. Pp. 6-16.
Education and Public Administration.
T. R. Smith. Pp. 17-22.
Education for the Local Government
Service. T. W. M. Ashby. Pp. 23-24.
Journal of Public Administration (Wel-
lington), September 1946.
Barnett examines the educational pre-requisites for
admission to the administrative grade of the New
Zealand civil service, and recommends the institution of
a professional course of training in public administra-
tion. Smith discusses the desirable content of a course
of this nature, and Ashby considers the same problems
in-so-far as they affect the New Zealand Local Govern-
ment service.

(B) International Relations
416. The United Nations Charter Critically
Considered. Sir F. Eggleston. Austral-
Asiatic Bulletin (from 1947 The Australian
Outlook).
I. The Powers of the Security Council.
Pp. 17-27, October 1946 ;
II. The Trusteeship Provisions. Pp.
43-52, March 1947.
I. The Charter, in giving to the Security Council the
power to settle all disputes which appear to affect peace,
gives it a greater power than it needs to maintain peace.
The extent of the power encourages the great nations to
insist on the retention of the veto power. The Council
can only properly settle disputes which arise out of legal
questions, not those which arise out of political questions.







II. A comparison between the Mandates system of the
League of Nations and the Trusteeship provisions of
the United Nations, generally to the disadvantage of the
latter.
417. U.S.-Australian Relations To-day. Werner
Levi. Far Eastern Survey (New York),
PP- 1-5, 5 January 1947.
The Australian Government is pursuing a middle
course which, instead of placing the Commonwealth in
the position of having to choose between Great Britain
and the United States, would reconcile the interests of
both and be of great advantage to Australia. In general
this policy seeks to improve the present international
organisation and give the smaller powers more influence.

418. South Pacific Region. Werner Levi. Far
Eastern Survey (New York), pp. Io6-io8,
7 May 1947.
A review by an American expert on Pacific Affairs of
the South Seas Conference (February 1947) and the
Conference of the South Pacific Section of the Provisional
International Aviation Organisation. The article
explains the growth of regionalism in the South West
Pacific and the part Australia has played in this move-
ment. The constitution of the South Seas Regional
Commission is also given.

419. Regionalism in the South Seas. John
Andrews. Australian Outlook, pp. 11-16,
March 1947.
A description of the physical and economic conditions
of the South Pacific area.

420. Collaboration for Welfare in the South-
West Pacific. J. M. Ward. Australian
Outlook, pp. 17-28, March 1947.
Gives an historical sketch of the growth of Australian
and N.Z. interest in the South Pacific area and recounts
the events leading up to the meeting of the South Seas
conference. Refers to some of the problems which will
confront the South Pacific Commission.

421. Australia's Foreign Policy. Gordon Green-
wood. Australian Outlook, pp. 53-62,
March 1947.
A favourable discussion of the foreign policy of the
present Australian government. It is argued that on
some minor points the policy has been over-assertive.

422. Administration in the Pacific Islands.
Felix M. Keesing. Far Eastern Survey
(New York), pp. 61-5, 26 March 1947.
A statement of the problems confronting the United
States Navy in its administration of Pacific islands and
the various views held in the United States about the
most suitable administration for the islands in the
future.
SOCIAL CONDITIONS
(A) Housing
423. Ernest Fooks. X-Ray the City. The Density
Diagram : Basis for Urban Planning.
Distributors : Robertson & Mullens, Mel-
bourne, 1947, pp. o08. Price izs.


Urbanisation increases the importance of population
distribution in urban areas. Spatial nearness is a con-
dition for urban community life. Modern town plan-
ning suggests a hierarchy of social units, e.g., a residen-
tial unit of about zoo families, a neighbourhood unit
made up of five residential units, a borough unit with
about 8,ooo families and a district unit with about
64,000 families, each unit with larger civic, health,
educational, commercial facilities. Functional spotting
of all these communal facilities and their proper co-ordi-
nation in space and time is a task of the town-planner.
The arbitrary nature of urban boundaries is a major
obstacle to planning. Various conceptions of crowding
and density are closely analysed.
The author superimposes on the map of a city area a
distance grid, i.e., a number of concentric circles, each
one mile apart, centred around a 'point of gravity' (in
Melbourne the G.P.O.). Each of these rings is sub-
divided into sections, one dimension of which is always
a mile. By a density diagram thus computed the arbi-
trary character of urban boundaries is overcome. Fur-
ther refinements are obtained by subtraction of areas
used for industrial, commercial and general civic pur-
poses, and by showing the distribution of population in
relation to location of industry, assuming that a worker
should live no farther than a mile from his place of work.
This is just one aspect of town planning research which
should equally comprise other factors in space and time.

424. Community Planning. F. G. D. Stone.
Australasian Engineer, pp. 85-96, 129-139,
March 1947.
This paper deals with co-ordinated planning by local
authorities as a basis for community development. The
initial responsibility is that of the local government
engineer. Basic elements of the community structure:
the living and working places of the people, transport,
communications, power, water and amenities should be
studied and planning for these elements developed after
a social survey of the group. Wider powers are given
to councils in N.S.W. by the Local Government (Town
and Country Planning) Amendment Act No. z2, 1945,
set out in an appendix. To co-ordinate local govern-
ment planning proposals the N.S.W. state government
has established regional development committees, but
without executive power and without power to raise
money, so that they tend to become bottlenecks. The
author makes suggestions for reforming the regional
committees. He then discusses community plans,
referring to English proposals of neighbourhood units
of 5,000 to Io,ooo population, and gives some details on
plans for housing, living places, hotels, open spaces,
playgrounds, sports grounds for adults, parkways and
boulevards, national reservations, industry, community
centres, business areas, aesthetic planning, tourist trade,
communications by rail, road, air, water; electricity,
gas and water supply, sewerage, port development, water
conservation, finance, administration.

425. Co-operative Housing Societies. First Annual
Report of the Registrar for year ended
30 June 1946. P.P., pp. 12.
The Co-operative Housing Societies Act in Victoria
was proclaimed on 21 August 1945 after appointment of
a registrar and an advisory committee and gazettal of
model rules for societies and general regulations. Loans
made by banks, etc., to co-operative housing societies
can be guaranteed by the state treasurer on the advisory
committee's recommendation, provided the society does







not advance a member more than 80 per cent of the
value of the security. For higher loans an indemnity
may be given by the treasurer. The valuation and con-
struction of dwelling houses built with the help of the
societies is supervised by check valuers. Books and
records of societies are inspected by the registrar to
whom each society has to submit returns. The first
advance was approved in March 1946, of sixty-three
societies registered on 30 June 1946 (another seven
awaited registration) with 6,174 members only seven
were outside the metropolitan area. So far thirty-nine
government guarantees were granted with an aggregate
amount of 4,8oo,ooo. Thirty-seven societies had
approved 586 advances with an aggregate amount of
642,00ooo, fourteen dwelling houses were completed,
170 in state of erection.

426. Report of the War Service Homes Commis-
sion for year 1945-46. P.P. (Federal), 1947,
pp. 13. Price9d.
The commission is engaged in the erection of homes
for individual applicants who determine themselves
whether tenders received are acceptable, and in financial
assistance to approved proposals of applicants building
privately. Owing to the beginning of demobilisation
the number of applications during the year under review
rose from 4,749 to 15,839, the maximum of a loan was
increased from 950 to I,250, interest on loans was
reduced to 3j per cent. Because of continuing diffi-
culties, shortages of building materials, fittings and
skilled labour, and high tender prices, the funds appro-
priated could not be fully expended. Loans were
granted : for the erection of homes 389, for the discharge
of onerous mortgages and purchase of properties 311,
for other purposes 149. During the year the erection of
1og homes was completed, 228 houses were under con-
struction, 103 contracts had been let, but work not yet
started, in 150 cases tenders had been called and 418
approved applications were in various stages towards
construction.

(B) Social Security and Public Health
427. Medical Service. R. E. Dyne. Economic
News, pp. 1-4, August-September 1946.
At present the medical profession largely scales fees
according to the patient's income. The total cost in
Queensland of all health services in 1945-46 was 9'3 m.,
of which the state and Commonwealth governments
provide 2L1 m. and 1.4 m. respectively, local authori-
ties o-8 m., payment from patients 3-8 m., friendly
societies o-2 m., and workers' compensation, charities,
etc., 1-o7 m. The state is mainly concerned with
curative medicine (hospitals), the Commonwealth with
compensation, now increasingly with curative medicine.
A comprehensive free national medical system would
cost about 45 m. annually and result in higher taxation.
It should be postponed, but government activities could
develop in the direction of positive and preventive health
at comparatively low cost: elimination of sub-standard
housing, setting up of diagnostic facilities (universal
X-ray examinations and periodic medical checks).
A national medical scheme would be most advantageous
in the form of group clinics working with laboratory
specialists, general hospitals staffed by specialists and
lesser hospitals for convalescent and chronic cases.
For sparsely populated areas in Australia only a salaried
system could provide adequate medical care. The panel
system has proved unsatisfactory in Britain, there is too
much incentive for the doctor to have too large a number


of patients. Panels in conjunction with private, practice
would inevitably lead to differentiation in treatment.
A fee-for-service method is open to abuses and requires
an enormous amount of clerical work.

428. Industrial Medical Services. Details of the
Australian Steel Industry's Organisation
for the Care and Treatment of Injured
Employees. B.H.P. Review, pp. 1-5,
March 1947.
The B.H.P. and its auxiliaries have developed an
organisation of first-aid and medical treatment to injured
employees. In Newcastle there is a full-time medical
officer, an ambulance station with dispensary, laboratory
and separate equipment for eye treatment (this also in
Port Kembla). Spread throughout the works are ambu-
lance outfits and standard dressing cabinets in every
department for the slightly injured. Carefully-kept
records about every accident are analysed by a safety
department. Port Kembla has a medical service, an
ambulance building and an additional ambulance station
in the battery of coke ovens. Special equipment is
provided for the treatment of carbon monoxide poison-
ing (also in Whyalla) and spraying equipment for the
treatment of bums, ulcers, etc. In Whyalla, S.A., first-
aid stations are maintained for the shipyard, blast fur-
nace and the maintenance shop area. Emergency
centres have been set up in all main departments. The
three company doctors in Whyalla are engaged in
private practice as well. The works' ambulance caters
for the district too.

429. Aluminium Therapy. Application in W.A.
W.A. Mining and Commercial Review, p.
20, March 1947.
In 1945 the W.A. Mines Regulation Act was amended
to enable the minister to compel mining companies to
install aluminium therapy for the treatment and pre-
vention of silicosis. By inhalation the miners coat their
lungs with aluminium dust which supposedly retards the
action of silica.
To investigate this problem, Dr. W. E. George, of
Broken Hill, was sent to Canada and U.S.A. and has now
submitted his report. According to him, aluminium
powder in small quantities has protected experimental
animals dusted with silica, but it has not yet been proved
that aluminium powder when inhaled will protect
human beings. The size of the dose to be inhaled and
the best way of administering the dose accurately have
not yet been determined. However, the evidence pro-
duced by experiments is sufficient to justify the use of
aluminium prophylactically in certain cases, provided
the patient agrees to it voluntarily. The curative value
of the method when silicosis is fully developed is not
proved. Use of aluminium should not lead to relaxation
of provisions to eliminate the dust hazard. No imme-
diate steps were taken to apply aluminium therapy in
W.A.

(C) Social Surveys

(D) Population and Migration
430. Immigration-Government Policy. Statement
by the Minister for Immigration, Hon.
A. A. Calwell, in House of Representatives
on 22 November 1946, pp. 10. Price 9d.







Mr. Calwell stressed Australia's need for immigrants
from the defence and economic aspects. At the
Premiers' conference in August 1946 the states agreed to
co-operate in immigration and to share certain costs
with the Commonwealth. It also approved a system of
priorities of free and assisted passages and the procedure
in handling nominations of migrants under this scheme.
Subsequently the states undertook surveys of facilities
for temporary accommodation of migrants and of the
absorptive capacity of each state for 1947. Special
arrangements were made for British, U.S.A. and
Netherlands ex-servicemen wishing to remain in or to
come to Australia. They will obtain re-establishment
benefits, but not preference in employment.
Shipping is the greatest bottleneck. The govern-
ment considers the construction of passenger vessels for
migrants, their purchase or charter in U.S., the use of
aircraft-carriers and of foreign ships to pick up migrants
in Britain. Negotiations with Holland on an assisted
passage scheme and with Switzerland and Malta on
immigration are to be opened. A limited number of
Europe's displaced persons have been admitted who were
nominated by relatives in Australia. Provisions should
be made to facilitate the assimilation of foreign migrants.
An immigration advisory committee has been set up. A
committee was appointed under the chairmanship of
Senator Dorothy Tangney to consider difficulties when
husband and wife have different nationalities. The
minister announced a conference in London of nation-
ality experts of British countries.

431. Some Reflections on Italian Immigration
into Australia. N. 0. P. Pyke. Australian
Quarterly, pp. 35-44, December 1946.
Italians as such were never desired in Australia, they
were only accepted on economic grounds as last alterna-
tive for agricultural labour. Italians in greater numbers
first arrived about 1890. The labour movement was
against Italian immigration, being afraid of the immi-
grants undercutting wages and putting up with poor
conditions. Italian Fascism aroused further Australian
antagonism. Reasons for Italian emigration were
mainly economic, Italian agriculturists leaving impov-
erished small holdings. During Fascism there were also
political factors causing emigration.
The most important economic attractions were mining
in W.A. and sugar farming in Queensland, more recently
mixed farming, often in irrigation areas, and mining in
S.A. and Tasmania.
Although male Italian immigrants greatly outnumber
females, there was little intermarriage with Australians.
Animosity arose mainly against South Italians with their
low standard of living, who are predominant on the
Queensland canefields. The great numbers of Italian
immigrants after the Great War and the Fascist orienta-
tion of many of them brought the question of assimilation
to the fore. That they were hard-working and willing
to do unpleasant jobs aroused some contempt and
jealousy. Lack of interest on the part of the Common-
wealth and the states and lack of helpfulness on the part
of the Australian population are obstacles to assimila-
tion.

432. The Pattern of Population Change in Aus-
tralia. A. T. Gover. Royal Australian
Historical Society, Journal and Proceedings,
Vol. XXXII, Part V, pp. 295-340, 1946.
This is a paper read before the society on 28 May
1946. The rate of population change is closely associ-
ated with the change from a pastoral settlement to


secondary and tertiary stages of industry. Since 1830
there are three periods of population growth in Australia,
from 1831-60, 1861-90, 1891-1930. A fourth has
begun in 1931. The first was a period of immigration
with an average growth of 150 per cent in a decade;
75 per cent of total increase was due to immigration.
The second period was one of immigration and natural
growth, the average rate of growth in a decade was 40
per cent ; immigration had a share of 25 per cent in this
increase. The third period was one of natural increase,
when the rate of population growth fell to about half of
that of the previous period, owing to the almost complete
cessation of immigration and to the fall in the fertility
rate. The ratio of immigration to population growth
was reduced by the excessive masculinity of the early
period. Only 'a certain number of new workers can be
absorbed each year.' If the number of new workers
(immigrants) is excessive, some reduction in the stan-
dard of living must result and this will reduce the mar-
riage and birth rate.
The high degree of urbanisation in Australia has a
depressing effect on fertility. With increasing wealth
there is more demand for products of secondary and
tertiary industries which can only be produced in the
cities. With improved agricultural methods the land
has less absorptive capacity. Further chapters deal with
the changing age and sex composition, the nuptiality,
the balance of births and deaths and the increasing
tendency to smaller families in Australia. Most essen-
tial is the problem of fertility rates.


433. Aspects of Australian Demography. W. D.
Borrie. Pacific Affairs (New York), pp.
42-52, March 1947.
Scientific analysis has 'found that Australia cannot
support more than 16 m. people at the present standard
of living. The net reproduction rate sank from 1-39
(1901) to 0-94 (1934), then rose again to 1163 (1943),
because since 1936 more marriages, postponed during
the depression, and again during the war more marriages,
were contracted. This is unlikely to last. The fertility
of married women declines, and even assuming that the
present fertility will not change, our population without
immigration will reach a maximum of 8-2 m. 1980 and
then fall. Higher fertility is more important in the long
run than immigration, because immigrants quickly
adopt the fertility pattern of their new country. Owing
to the reduced birth rate since 1920 our age composition
is now changing so that there are fewer young adults
and more aged persons. Defence and economic reasons
suggest immigration. A strong urge to emigrate over-
seas was found 1945 in N.W. European countries by the
Immigration Advisory Committee-the same applies to
Britain; but this is not likely to outlast the shipping
bottleneck. To raise the birth rate, mainly an extension
of social services is contemplated.
The demographic position in N.W. Europe including
Britain is similar to that in Australia and skilled trades-
men, mainly required in this country, are just as scarce in
Europe. The excess population of S. and S.E. Europe
might still provide emigrants, but without the skill
needed in Australia. Open-door immigration policy is
impracticable with existing inequalities in the standard
of living and could not supply a solution of the over-
population problems of S.E. Asia which can be solved
only by internal economic, educational and birth-control
measures. The dictation test for immigrants should be
replaced by a quota system, less galling to the suscepti-
bilities of eastern nations and not endangering 'white'
Australia.







434. Will there be any Australians To-morrow ?
B. A. Santamaria, Twentieth Century,
pp. 48-53, September 1946.
According to a Gallup poll 1944 and to a survey made
by Dr. H. J. Cumpston 1945, insufficient income and
economic insecurity, selfishness and pleasure-seeking,
poor housing and the lack of domestic help, were given
as the main reasons for Australia's low birth-rate. The
phenomenon unifying all these causes is excessive urban-
isation. Queensland, Australian, U.S.A., German and
English statistics show that female gross reproduction
and net reproduction rates in all these countries are
greatest in the farm communities in rural areas and in
rural areas generally and smallest in cities over ioo,ooo
population. To accept urbanisation as inevitable and to
recommend, as A. A. Calwell in his booklet How many
Australians to-morrow? does, better social services,
improved housing and benefits to larger families as
remedies, does not go to the root of the problem. The
Australian policy of commercial farming should give
way to self-contained farms within a co-operative com-
munity.

435. Early Marriage. R. E. Dyne. Economic
News (Brisbane), July 1946.
This article traces the trend of marriage in Queensland
with regard to the proportion of women marrying, and
the age at which they marry.
In the 1870's girls married when comparatively young,
but the age of marriage subsequently rose, while the rate
of marriage itself was comparatively low during the
depression of the I890's.
By the 19zo's, a larger proportion of women were
marrying, and the effect of the depression of the 1930's
was relatively slight.
The present trend towards earlier marriage should be
sustained provided full employment continues.-H.S.

436. New Zealand's Population. The Economist
(London), pp. o07, o18, 18 January 1947.
Secondary industry in N.Z. could absorb an increase
of 1o-15 per cent of its present labour force, if more
workers offered. A recent report presented by the
dominion population committee of the H.o.R. expects
the manpower problem to worsen, as from 1947-1953
there will be a heavy drop in new entrants into industry
owing to the lower birthrate during the depression. For
the immigration of farm-hands there is no case, because
mechanised agriculture does not need more workers and
there is little land left suitable for rural development.
However, industrialisation would call for a large increase
in population. Although immediate large-scale immi-
gration is not recommended because of the housing
shortage, long-range plans should be drawn up for
immigration; such as planned localisation of new indus-
tries, selection of immigrants for their occupational
aptitudes and investigations as to the possibility of
securing Scandinavian and Dutch immigrants. The
very small majority of the N.Z. government after the
recent elections makes the pursuit of long-term interests
unlikely.

437. Population Policy in New Zealand and
Elsewhere: A Review of Objectives.
A. H. Tocker. New Zealand Geographer,
pp. 139-148, October 1945.
This is the summary of a presidential address delivered
Before the Canterbury branch of the N.Z. Geographical


Society in October 1945. After an introduction, popu-
lation problems in various countries, density, safety and
greater equality of distribution as objectives of popula-
tion policy and the concept of optimum population are
discussed. N.Z. population will probably reach a
maximum within 30 or 40 years, then it will tend to
decline. The recent increase in the N.Z. birthrate
is due to wartime prosperity and inflation and the increase
in the marriage rate is unlikely to last. The alternative
is increase through immigration which in N.Z. has
sometimes reached the figure of io,ooo a year, but has
almost ceased since World War I. Emigration in the
past largely depended on relatively free trade and free
markets, a stable international monetary system, free-
dom of movement of people and rich open spaces awaiting
settlement, also on free investment of capital from old
countries in the new countries in the form of productive
instruments whose products were exported, thus paying
interest and principal on the investments. Most of
these conditions have disappeared and were replaced
by nationalism, restricted trade, investment and migra-
tion. However, if a sparsely populated country offers
the maximum of freedom and opportunity to migrants,
it might still attract desirable people.

438. The Principles and Limitations of Fertility
Indices. A. H. Pollard. Paper read before
the Actuarial Society of Australasia, 51st
session, 1947, pp. 9-23.
This paper is a survey of various fertility indices used
by statisticians, their merits and shortcomings. Under
the heading 'annual rates of increase' the lecturer dis-
cusses crude birth and death rates, standardised birth
and death rates and the true rate of natural increase
(which relates age distribution to the experience of the
year in question). Under the heading 'reproductive
formulae' he deals with the net reproduction rate,
differentiated as to sex, but still disregarding duration of
marriage, gross reproduction rate and replacement
index. Finally two recent Australian suggestions, the
Karmel index and the Clark-Dyne index, are explained.
In his concluding remarks the lecturer briefly mentions
some practical problems associated with fertility theory:
the causes of the fall in fertility, possible remedies and
the economics of a declining population.


EDUCATION

439. A Brief Guide to Australian Universities.
Australian Council for Educational
Research, pp. 29. Price is. 6d.
This pamphlet presents a generalised picture of
Australian universities, their organisation and their
activities, in a form suitable for overseas students. The
powers and functions of administrative bodies and the
courses of study are summarised. There is a brief
account of student activities and an attempt is made to
estimate living costs. Statistical tables enumerate the
teaching and research staffs of each faculty and depart-
ment, the fees charged at residential colleges and the
cost of each course, and analyse the distribution of
students in different faculties. The names and
addresses of the chief administrative officers are listed.

440. Australian Universities Adrift. A. Lode-
wyckx. Australian Quarterly, pp. 62-71,
June 1947.







The complete overhaul of our system of higher
education is urgent. The most urgent reforms needed
are to widen the range of subjects taught in the Aus-
tralian universities, to make the matriculation examina-
tions more comprehensive and of higher standard, and
to increase both the size of the teaching staff and the
proportion of full-time professorial posts. Comparisons
are drawn with European and other universities, par-
ticularly those in the British Commonwealth.

441. Vocational Guidance in the Royal Australian
Air Force, 1942-6. Directorate of Train-
ing, R.A.A.F. Headquarters, Melbourne,
pp. 80.
Part A contains a brief factual account of the origin
and development of the Vocational Guidance Service,
its organisation, personnel, techniques, procedures and
researches. Part B describes the main characteristics of
the group, which was psychologically examined by the
Vocational Guidance Service, under the headings of
size, composition, educational status, previous civil
experience, intelligence, special abilities. Part C is a
preliminary appraisal of the work of the Vocational
Guidance Service. Appendix A discusses some per-
sistent problems in vocational guidance, towards the
solution of which the large-scale wartime application of
guidance may contribute, including organisation, the
time for guidance, and the qualification of guidance
officers. Appendix B is a sample of the occupational
monographs prepared by the section.

442. A Statement of Educational Beliefs. As the
Teacher Sees It. Prepared in 1944-5 by a
committee of the Victorian Assistant
Masters' Association. E. H. Blackwood,
Prahran, pp. 24. Price Is.
This small pamphlet states briefly the views of a com-
mittee, representing some of the schools whose staffs are
members of the V.A.M.A., on eight major educational
issues, viz., The School as a Community, Religious
Training, Curriculum, Method, Examinations, Emo-
tional Development, Training of Teachers, and The
Registered School. It lays emphasis throughout on the
need to develop the individual fully as a person and as
a member of a functioning community of which the
school is a part. It recommends a five-year period of
formal training for the teacher which would include
cultural studies, practical teaching, and a study of the
theory and practice of teaching. It admits the existence
of privilege in the ability to attend a registered school,
but considers that the advantages of such a school should
be retained and some means adopted of making them
available to all pupils.

443. Ashby, E. Challenge to Education. Angus
and Robertson, Sydney, 1946, pp. 131.
Price 3s. 6d.
This booklet contains eleven addresses and broad-
casts delivered between 1938 and 1946. Aspects of
Australian education have been analysed and improve-
ments suggested to meet the changes in the pre-war
pattern of life. The school can best prepare children for
the uncertainties of the post-war transition by developing
adaptability and by encouraging individual learning.
Such qualities and habits will be of greater value than
the present 'nauseating docility' of the Leaving Certifi-
cate candidate.


Science, as taught in the secondary schools at present,
has become a course of basic facts needed by the potential
scientist, but these form only one per cent of Leaving
Certificate candidates in science. For the ordinary
student, the science course should give an understanding
of the contemporary scene and a mastery of scientific
method.
It is postulated that the universities are 'built of men'
and that their function is not vocational training but
intellectual health. It is feared that the rapid growth
of the Australian universities will be followed by a
decline in the quality of the lecturers, as the number of
university teachers is inadequate. University standards
could be maintained by a system of Junior Colleges to
provide post-matriculation courses. This would lessen
the over-crowding of first year classes and the present
immaturity of students.


444. Dorothy Neal White. About Books for
Children. Whitcombe and Tombs, Christ-
church, N.Z., 1946, pp. 222. Price
los. 6d.
Hundreds of children's books, old-fashioned and
modern, English and foreign, are critically appraised,
with notes upon their origins. The blending of races in
the Americas has helped to produce a number of authors
and artists who have set new standards in children's
literature. Freshness in outlook, colour and spirit in
illustration, clarity in type, ingenuity in binding, are
marks of the newer books. There is a chapter on
picture-books of many types. Fairy tales are not for-
gotten; and distinctions are drawn between original
and re-told folklore, and the less successful modem fairy
cult. Children who prefer realistic fiction are well
catered for. Countries and peoples of the world,
industry, farm life, sports, history, domestic crises, etc.,
provide the realism required. The biographical field is
rather restricted for children, but some notably good
books are described. Progressive schools to-day make
considerable use of the library, particularly in such sub-
jects as social studies and the natural sciences, and books
dealing with these topics are discussed. The books
discussed under arts and crafts are essentially for the
hobbyist. Anthologies of poems and plays are con-
sidered, while children's magazines and encyclopaedias
are dealt with in the concluding chapters.


445(a). Kindergartens. The Ministry ofPost-War
Reconstruction. New Series Bulletin No.
6, pp. 9.
This pamphlet gives a brief general statement on the
functions of Day Nurseries, Nursery Schools and
Kindergartens, outlines for each state, the organizations
concerned with such work and the facilities provided for
the care and education of the pre-school child. It
also briefly describes the aims and organisation and
gives the addresses of the Lady Gowrie Child Centres.


445 (b). Cultural Facilities. The Ministry of
Post-War Reconstruction. New Series
Bulletin No. 7, pp. 15.
This pamphlet lists the cultural facilities available in
each state in the fields of libraries, films, art exhibitions,
music, etc., and adult education courses. Addresses are
given to which further enquiries may be referred.
100








445 (c). Physical Welfare and Recreation. The
Ministry of Post-War Reconstruction.
New Series Bulletin No. 8, pp. I1.
This pamphlet outlines desirable standards of size for
play space for various age groups and types of sport.
It lists in each state the authorities responsible for pro-
vision of playgrounds and recreation centres and gives
some information on facilities at present available. It
discusses the organisation and work of the National
Fitness Councils in each state, and gives addresses from
which further information may be obtained on such
work.
The three pamphlets above are part of a series on
Australian Community Development. The date of
publication is not given.


446. Department of Education, N.S.W. To-
morrow is Theirs. Government Printer,
Sydney, 1947, pp. 134. Price is.
This publication of the Minister for Education pro-
vides a general survey of the present state system of
education in New South Wales, and at the same time
outlines plans for future developments.
A large number of separate sections, each relatively
brief, deals with the various phases of education at age
levels from pre-school child to adult. Many other
educational activities are included, e.g., the provisions
made for socially, physically and mentally handicapped
children, the correspondence school, national fitness and
health services. The booklet concludes with a statement
of expenses, showing increases from 1935 to 1947 and the
estimated costs of carrying out the additional services
proposed. Each topic is fully illustrated.


447. John Bostock and Edna Hill. The Pre-
School Child and Society. The University
of Queensland, Brisbane, 1946, pp. zz2.
The quality of the community in the future depends on
the care expended on its children in the present. We
need more and healthier children, born from healthy
parents and reared in optimal conditions. Good inten-
tions abound, implementations are few. The long-range
aim is positive health, involving eventually radical
changes in our way of life : decentralisation, replanning
towns, housing, economic security, earlier marriage, etc.
The immediate aim in town and country must be parent
education and a net of pre-school facilities : ante-natal,
post-natal and infant care ; immunisation, holiday and
convalescent homes; mothercrafters, childcrafters,
homecrafters, dentists, dietitians; services for the
handicapped child. Well staffed pre-school child
centres, with creches for working mothers, and eventu-
ally expanding into community centres, would meet
urgent requirements. At present we train annually
ioo infant welfare nurses and 70 mothercraft nurses for
74o,000 pre-school children.
The League of Nations in 1927, and international
conferences since, have asserted the rights of children ;
after twenty years not one of the Geneva Declaration
aims has been realized. The survey of existing facilities
reveals a condition of chaos, neglect and apathy relieved
by inadequate flashes of brilliant inspiration. To over-
come the glaring deficiencies, the Commonwealth should
appoint a Royal Commission to report upon problems of
the pre-school child-and then act to have its recom-
mendations implemented swiftly and in full.


448. Department of Education, S.A. What Our
Schools are Doing. Government Printer,
Adelaide, 1947, pp. 56.
This is a comprehensive record of the many and
varied activities of the South Australian Education
Department. It is essentially pictorial in presentation
and the activities lending themselves to this method of
presentation therefore predominate. The photographs
and the brief comments concerning each photograph,
give a picture of the types of schools-infant, primary,
area, technical, high, etc. ; the curriculum offered in
these schools and the specialist services of the depart-
ment-medical, psychological, dental, etc. Some graphs
are included showing attendance trends. A diagram
shows the general scheme of state education in South
Australia.

GEOGRAPHY
449. Wood, G. L. (ed.). Australia : Its Resources
and Development. Macmillan, New York,
1947, PP- 334. Price 25s.
This book is a scientific assessment of Australia's
economic resources, their present stage of utilisation,
and their possibilities in the immediate future. Its
twenty-one chapters were contributed by scientists,
scholars, and public officials who have special knowledge
of the resources, developmental problems, or social
evolution which comprise the main themes. Climate,
soils, and vegetation form the trilogy of primary resources
round which are written the history and achieve-
ments of the rural industries. The pastures in relation
to the animal industries-wool, meat, dairying-and
agriculture in its various forms, from wheat to sugar,
are treated critically. Forestry and forest industries
have a separate chapter. Problems of special signifi-
cance for Australia, e.g., water conservation and irriga-
tion, population growth, tariff policy and the standard
of living are discussed at length. Mineral and power
resources receive special treatment; and the growth,
place and present status of secondary industries are
placed in proper relationship within the national
economy. Final chapters discuss Federal and state
powers under the Constitution, Australia's interests in
the adjacent islands, and Pacific defence problems with
special reference to Australia. An introductory chapter
appraises the Australian achievement. The work is
fully illustrated with maps, charts and photographs, and
completed by a statistical and historical summary.


450. Principal Land Utilisation in South Aus-
tralia. C. M. Hambidge. Proceedings of
the Royal Geographical Society of Aus-
tralia, South Australian Branch, Session
1945-46, pp. 9-25, Adelaide, December
1946.
The author divides the state into nine major divisions.
i. Unoccupied country which can be subdivided into
'five areas, the largest being that adjoining the western
boundary of the state, the others being east and north
of Lake Eyre, near the eastern boundary and along part
of the Strzelecki Creek, the large salt lakes and the minor
areas in the Mallee.' 2. Pastoral country, cattle.
3. Pastoral country, sheep, i.e., 'the grazing country with
low rainfall as distinct from similar country with better
rainfall and much greater carrying capacity.' The
cattle country comprises about ioo,ooo sq. m. with


101







about iio,ooo cattle and the sheep country carries
2,000,000 sheep on about the same area. 4. Marginal
lands in the Murray Mallee, the north and on Eyre
Peninsula. Originally wheat farming was the major
activity, 'but all farms are now on a basis of mixed
farming, with grazing as the main source of revenue.'
5. Agricultural lands. They include 'the principal
wheat-growing lands of the state.' 6. Grazing with some
agriculture, limestone country. The western side of
Eyre Peninsula is 'only suitable for light grazing prim-
arily owing to the rough nature of the country, with sheet
limestone on and near the surface.' 7. Dairying and
intense grazing. This division includes 'the high
rainfall areas of the South Mount Lofty Ranges and the
lower "South East," together with the reclaimed swamp
lands along the lower reaches of the Murray. Intense
grazing means carrying two or more sheep per acre and
raising of fat lambs.' 8. Undeveloped light grazing.
'Three zones are included . the smallest at the lower
end of Yorke Peninsula . situated on Kangaroo
Island . the largest zone is in the Upper and Lower
South East.' 9. Horticultural. o1. Government forest
areas. Pinus radiata is mainly grown in the Lower
South East, in the Mount Lofty Ranges and in the
northern agricultural areas.
Finally the author stresses that 'only I6'2 per cent of
the state has an average rainfall of over io inches p.a.
S. .as rainfall is one of the major determining factors
of land usage.'-E.J.D.

451. The Simpson Desert Expedition, 1939.
Scientific Reports: No. 8-The Soils
and Vegetation of the Simpson Desert
and its Borders. R. L. Crocker. Trans-
actions of the Royal Society of South
Australia, Vol. 70 (2), pp. 235-258, 1946.
The Simpson Desert extends north of Lake Eyre
about 300 miles and is about 250 miles across at its
greatest width. It is in the Hot Desert Zone, with mean
average temperature higher than 70o F. Rainfall prob-
ably averages between 4 inches and Io inches annually.
It increases from south to north owing to the influence
of summer monsoons and is most unreliable.
The soils fall into three main groups: (I) aeolian
sands; (2) brown soils associated with surface gibbers ;
and (3) alluvial soils associated with flood plains of the
principal rivers and watercourses. Some analytical
data on the soil types are presented. The Desert sands
are predominantly quartz and near the extreme limit of
fineness for aeolian sands. The sand gradings are
variable and many of them have the characteristics of
mixed sands.
The principal vegetation communities are described
under twelve associations. These have been grouped for
convenience of demonstrating the major habitat linkages,
and for ease in mapping into edaphic complexes. A
tentative vegetation map of the area is presented.-
W.S.C.

452. Tunnelling Erosion in North-Eastern Vic-
toria. R. G. Downes. Journalfor Scientific
and Industrial Research, pp. 283-292,
August 1946.
'In many parts of Victoria there occurs a form of sub-
soil erosion which is known as tunnelling. A study has
been made in a part of north-eastern Victoria (in the
parishes Gowangardie and Upotipotpon, south of the
Broken River) of its occurrence in relation to the natural
features, and a hypothesis of its formation is given.'


The headings of the chapters (vegetation and climate,
the nature of the soils on which tunnelling occurs, three
stages of tunnelling erosion, characteristics of an area
which enables tunnelling, mechanism of tunnelling,
relation to other forms of subsoil erosion, possible means
of control) show how this strange type of erosion was
investigated. 'Many new tunnels have started in 1945
and 1946 following the drought years.' Thirteen pic-
tures illustrate the formation of this puzzling type of
erosion, which in a similar way has also occurred in
U.S.A., New Zealand, and China.-E.J.D.

453. Recent Developments in Weather Analysis.
W. J. Gibbs. Australian Geographer, pp.
47-51, November 1945-June 1946.
After a brief survey of the history of weather analysis
in Australia the author explains air-mass and frontal
analysis. The main frontogenetic regions in Australia
are : coastal regions on account of the temperature dif-
ferences of land and sea ; oceanic convergence zones;
the cols between migrating anticyclones with their
converging wind fields; the boundary between surface
air and subsiding 'upper air.'
In low latitudes in particular fronts become indefinite,
and mere convergence within an almost uniform air-mass
leads to uplift and the phenomena of 'weather.' Here
'stream-line analysis,' the study of flow patterns,
becomes an important tool of weather analysis. The
'intertropical front' is generally such convergence zone
without true frontal characteristics. Convergence pro-
duced by topographical differences is a frequent cause
of cloud and rain.
'Upper-air analysis' with the aid of radiosonde and
radiowind observations has been started ; in this way the
upper winds and the 'steering' of surface pressure forma-
tions by upper air conditions can be established from a
high-level pressure map.
Extended-period forecasting for a few days to several
months ahead is still in an early stage.-F.L.


454. Trends in Australian Irrigation. N. R.
Wills. Review of Marketing and Agricul-
tural Economics, pp. 20-28, January 1947.
The history of irrigation is summarised beginning
with the settlements at Mildura and Renmark sixty years
ago. A compact chart shows the comparative extensions
of total areas cropped and the total areas irrigated
between the years 1907 and 1940. Irrigation expanded
most rapidly between 1917 and 1930, when the total of
irrigated areas nearly trebled while the total of cropped
areas increased by only about two-thirds during nearly
the same period.
The relationship between the positions of the areas
already irrigated and those of the lo-inch and 2o-inch
isohyets is shown on a chart to indicate the past tendency
to carry out large irrigation schemes chiefly in the regions
of low rainfall. On another chart is shown the area
irrigated in each state compared with the total area
cropped. A final chart shows the uses to which the
irrigated areas have been put.
The latest figures (1940-1941) show about 850,ooo
acres under irrigation in the whole of Australia, com-
pared with about 21 million acres of cropped land.
Victoria leads, with N.S.W. a fairly good second. In
Queensland there are some 60,00o acres, chiefly for
sugar; and about 30,000 acres for orchards and vine-
yards in S.A.
The immediate future irrigation policy will apparently
be chiefly concerned with the extension of irrigation to







areas where the average rainfall is reasonably satisfactory,
but where its variability is such that occasional seasons
occur when the rainfall is insufficient.-TW.S.C.

455. R.M.C. Harnessing Australia's Greatest
River. The Work of the River Murray
Commission. Compiled by A. F. Ronalds.
J. J. Gouley, Government Printer, Mel-
bourne, 1946, pp. 32.
'It is estimated that the Murray Basin . produced
last year almost one-half of the total rural primary pro-
duction and one-third of the total exports of all products
from Australia. In Victoria alone, by means of irri-
gation, less than two per cent of the total area of the
state contributes fifteen per cent of the total primary
production.' The activities of the Commission are
dealt with briefly under the headings-Historical,
River Murray Agreement, Hume Dam, Yarrawonga
Weir, Weirs and Locks, Lake Victoria Storage, Murray
Mouth Barrages, Cost of River Murray Works, Reser-
voir Siltation and Catchment Protection, Irrigation
Development. One map, a profile of the works, four-
teen pictures, and several tables give additional informa-
tion.-E.J.D.

456. Economics of Snowy River Diversion.
Murray Valley Newsletter, pp. 4-5, 15
February 1947.
The excess water of Snowy River should be diverted
inland according to the views of governments and citi-
zens. Water amounting to 866,000 acre feet annually
could be diverted, but, since the area of utilisation is
hundreds of miles distant, not more than half of that
amount would be available for the land concerned. It
would take many years before the diversion could be
completed.
The committee has to decide whether, in the national
interest, the Murrumbidgee river or the Murray should
be used as the carrier. A summary of the case in favour
of the use of the Murray is quoted. The chief points
are : (i) lower capital cost, (2) the possibility of larger
hydro-electric generating stations, and (3) the need of
the Murray area for still more water than it already has.
The Murrumbidgee supporters say that the water is
needed there as an insurance against drought.-W.S.C.

457. The Teaching of Geography in Australian
and New Zealand Universities. Wilson H.
Maze. Australian Geographer, pp. 77-83,
November 1946.
The last survey concerned was made in 1933 for the
British Association for the Advancement of the Sciences.
In 1933 'of forty-four (dominion) universities only eight
had a Department of Geography, of which only two were
adequately developed.' Since then the changes in
Australia are summarised as follows : '(i) the recognition
of geography as a full course in the Faculty of Arts in
the University of Sydney (in addition to full courses in
the Faculty of Science), (2) the extension of a one-year
course to a two-year course in the Faculty of Arts in the
University of South Australia, (3) inauguration of
courses of Economic Geography in the University of
Western Australia, (4) inauguration of a course of
geography in the Faculties of Arts and Science with
geology as a pre-requisite in the University of Mel-
bourne.' A greater advance is to be seen in New
Zealand where a one-year course at Victoria University
College, Wellington, has been expanded to two years and


where Auckland University College and Otago Univer-
sity each has one-year courses in geography and economic
geography. Canterbury University College has the first
independent Department of Geography with a course
leading to the degree of M.A. with honours. Mr. Maze
stresses the need for University training in geography
for teachers in schools and also the growing demand for
professional geographers in the government service and
elsewhere in the community.-M.B.

458. The Present Position of Mapping in Aus-
tralia. J. Macdonald Holmes. Australian
Geographer, pp. 71-76, November 1946.
The author, as convenor of the committee of the
A. and N.Z.A.A.S. appointed to review the work of
mapping in Australia and surrounding areas, presents
three statements on the subject from the Commonwealth
Director of National Mapping, the Army Director of
Survey, and the Department of the Navy. The first
records the formation in 1945 of the National Mapping
Council to co-ordinate and correlate mapping on a
national basis, to determine standards, recommend the
allocation of Commonwealth funds for mapping, etc.
Information is given about developments of aerial map-
ping, the use of radar, and the possibility of obtaining
equipment for more accurate mapping. The second
report covers very much the same ground and points out
that the most urgent requirement is the production of
4-mile to the inch sheets for the whole country rather
than the routine mapping of better known parts at one
mile to the inch. It considers that 'the nation is now
map conscious and one can hopefully visualise a mapped
country in the course of a generation or two, rather than
over a period of centuries as was previously conceived.'
The Navy report summarises the hydrographic surveys
undertaken during the war, mainly off New Guinea, the
Barrier Reef and the approaches to Fremantle, Geraldton
and other ports. Federal Cabinet has approved a
twenty-five year programme for making hydrographic
surveys in 'Australian waters and Australian spheres of
influence in the Pacific' and issuing charts of the regions.
For this, three vessels of the R.A.N. should be used,
and the R.A.N. Surveying Service has undertaken a
detailed programme.-M.B.

459. Possible Effects on Land Utilisation of
some Recent Advances in Food Tech-
nology. J. R. Vickery. Australian Geog-
rapher, pp. 65-69, November 1946.
'The main object of this paper is to put forward a plea
for greater consideration being given, by those respon-
sible for framing policies of land utilisation, to current
advances in the science of preservation, processing and
transport of food.' Examples for chilled beef, butter,
milk and vegetables are given. Chilled beef: 'Large
areas now devoted to the breeding and fattening of cattle
on the extensive or "range" system' will be developed for
intensive fattening as cattle of better carcase quality at a
lower age will be required. Butter: '. . recent
advances in the technology of fats constitute such a grave
threat to butter that agricultural scientists should shortly
determine the way in which the dairy industry should be
reorganised and what might be the appropriate alterna-
tive methods of land utilisation in dairying districts.'
Milk: 'Much of the land used for milk production for
the capital cities has a much lower fertility than that in
the main dairying districts where butter and cheese are
now the main products. If a substantial substitution
by city consumers of dried for fresh milk occurs then







considerable areas of land in reasonable close proximity
to the large cities may well become virtually worthless
for dairying purposes; dried milk production would
naturally tend to be carried out in the fertile districts
where costs of production were low.' Vegetables: 'In
the U.S.A. in 1944 over 60 per cent of the peas consumed
had been canned or frozen, and a similar trend seems
likely in Australia. . The production in market
garden areas of many kinds of vegetables suitable for
processing may therefore be expected to decrease, while
areas suited to large-scale production may be expected to
develop markedly in future.'-E.J.D.


460. Forests and Human Welfare. H. V.
Cranston. Australian Geographer, pp. 39-
47, November 1945-June 1946.
'We are prone to under-estimate or overlook the bene-
fits which forests contribute to regional development and
national prosperity.' '. .. the destruction of enormous
areas of forest and the consequent deterioration in
climate, soils and water supplies' in Australia is dis-
cussed. 'By reducing the velocity of winds, by reducing
temperatures and by increasing relative humidity, the
forest also retards evaporation, forests also render
invaluable service to man through their protection of
watersheds and regulation of stream flow. . An ade-
quate protection of watersheds ensures abundant water
supply for domestic use, for irrigation of agricultural
lands, for hydro-electricity and for river navigation. .. .
It is claimed that settlement has pushed too far into the
rough country of the catchments. A number of
examples of variations in stream flow are given. 'Out-
side food products, no materials are so universally used
in human economy as wood and wood products ....
It has been stated that the armed forces have actually
used a greater tonnage of wood than of steel.' Attention
is drawn to eucalyptus oil, tea-tree oil, to the tannin-
bearing trees, and to the expanding demands of the
cellulose industries. 'As almost anything can be pro-
duced from wood, a sustained yield from our present
forests and also to extend them can proceed without in
any way affecting the farm production of the better lands,
as our forests will grow on the poorer soils. However,
large areas of considerable forest value but of doubtful
agricultural value have been alienated.'-E.J.D.


461. Boundary Lines in the South-West Pacific.
J. Macdonald Holmes. Australian Geog-
rapher, pp. 52-57, November 1945-June
1946.
The use of geometrical lines to fix political boundaries
has been carried out for some centuries in the western
Pacific. These geometric lines are likely to be transient
because of the conflicting interests of various countries.
In the South-west Pacific, consisting of Australia, New
Zealand and neighboring island groups, there is an
absence of sharp boundaries in the political, racial,
linguistic and religious aspects. Climatic boundaries
are often suitable for boundary fixation, but the climates
of the South-west Pacific are very varied. Nature's
boundaries in the realm of natural history are discussed.
So also are boundaries to regions having different stan-
dards of public health. Much of the South-west Pacific
will be held in trust for native peoples, and the Euro-
American nations will have to develop a spirit of
co-operation.-W.S.C.


462. Modern Tonga. C. G. F. Simkin. New
Zealand Geographer, pp. 99-io8, October
1945-
The kingdom of Tonga consists of about 150 islands
of which only 36 are inhabited, with 235 sq. miles in
total and a population of over 34,000. Tongans are the
only Pacific people to retain real self-government,
controlled by its own traditional leaders, though it relies
on Britain for its actual independence. Every man has
the tenure of a farm. There is no unemployment and
there is free education, free health service and social
security. The land holdings are planted chiefly with
coconut trees and there are smaller areas in bananas and
pineapples. Yams, tapioca and other food crops are also
raised. The methods of cultivation are primitive.
Animals bred in Tonga are scraggy, often diseased.
Local trade is mostly barter. The chief local products
changing hands are livestock, fish, vegetables, fruit,
baskets, mats and tapa cloth. Copra and recently
bananas are exported. Total exports in 1938 were
2"9 per head, imports 2-4 and native taxes 0-2.
The Tongan rate of increase compares favourably
with Fiji, American Samoa and the N.Z. Maoris. There
are plenty of old people, but the infant mortality rate is
high. Housing is unsatisfactory; only about one-third
of the houses are neat wooden cottages with iron roofs
and glass windows, the remainder chiefly structures with
thatched roofs, reed walls and earthen floors. The col-
lapse of the old religious beliefs has been followed by
Christianity and the missions have been tender with
other aspects of Tongan culture.-W.S.C.

463. Tussock Grassland or Steppe ? H. H.
Allan. New Zealand Geographer, pp. 223-
235, April 1946.
A critical analysis of the term 'Steppe.' '. .. it can
hardly be claimed that geographers, pedologists and
climatologists understand clearly what they refer to
as steppe areas, soils, and climates ; nor have they given
us definitions against which argument is impossible. But
it has been left to the botanists to run completely amuck.
The word 'steppe' captured the ear of plant-ecologists.
. . In Australia it demanded the mallee, the mulga,
the vegetation of the Nullarbor Plains, and the grass-
lands, with even an effort to capture the Eucalyptus
forests. . To call the indigenous grasslands of New
Zealand "steppes" is to be in the fashion. . Highly
desirable as it is to classify the grasslands of the world
. .it seems more than unhelpful to retain the term
"steppe" as an ecological one . Our low tussock
grasslands have certain obvious similarities to the
bunchgrass prairies of America and the Stipa-tussock
steppes of Russia; they have equally obvious dissimi-
larities. Until we have much more exact data on our
tussock grassland ecology, soils and climates, it is to
burke the issue to subsume our indigenous grasslands
under a world-wide designation.' Two photos showing
low tussock grassland.-E.J.D.

464. The Loburn Run, North Canterbury.
Joyce Deane. New Zealand Geographer,
PP- 345-355, October 1946.
A critical analysis of nearly a century of land use in a
representative part of N.Z. The Loburn run is about
twenty miles north of Christchurch, consisted of 2o,ooo
acres of virgin tussock grassland and was stocked with
I,ooo merino sheep and twenty cattle. '. .. and to-day
much of it is in worse condition than it was before ..







much of this North Canterbury "downland" country has
now a derelict air. .. The story of the successive
phases of settlement is more or less the story of . .
much of the marginal land of Canterbury and . .
many other parts of N.Z.' The result of the first ten
years was that 'overgrazing and repeated burning
hastened the radical change in the composition of the
vegetation, reducing both total yield and feed value.'
Then came o1 years of 'pioneer farming' when Irish
settlers took over the land on farms 'too small for
successful farming. Worse still, it introduced into the
district a generation of smallholders who were doomed
from the start.' However, the wheat boom of 1870
made them prosperous for a few years, but by 188o
prices fell and the result was 'a marked loss of fertility
and a rapid decline in yield. It is probable that the
damage done to the soil at this time is at the root of the
present-day problems of the Loburn district. The thin
veneer of silt on the gravel downs and terraces was not
good enough soil to stand the constant drain on its
fertility.' From 1880-1915 those who 'remained
reverted to the mixed farming of their Irish forbears.'
After 1918 orcharding was introduced and in 1929 'the
Crown'bought some 5,000 acres from which depression
and gorse had excluded the farmers and here ..
forest is flourishing.'-E.J.D.

465. Coal in Victoria. Mining and Geological
Journal, pp. 4-20, March 1947.
(a) Brown Coal in the Latrobe Valley, pp. 4-9.
The quantity of brown coal available in the Latrobe
valley is estimated at 27,000 m. tons, nearly three-
quarters of Victoria's total estimated brown coal reserves
of 37,000 m. tons. Among points discussed are : First
discoveries-brown coal research-electrification of
railways-large scale boring-report of the advisory
committee-development of raw brown coal production
-work of the State Electricity Commission-manufac-
ture of briquettes-brown coal in the future.

(b) to (g) by J. P. L. Kenny.

(b) Wensley Bray Brown Coal Mine, Wensley-
dale, p. io.
About 4 m. tons of good quality brown coal proved by
boring. Operations begun 1923. Chief market was
Geelong, 25 miles away, but competition with imported
N.S.W. black coal proved impossible and production
ceased. Work was started again in August 1943.
Present production about 8oo tons per week.

(c) Benwerrin Coal Mine, pp. 10-13.
Location 5 miles S.E. of Dean's Marsh railway
station at the head of Box Creek. From about 1900
operations carried out at various times. Some of the
seams carry brown coal of more than average quality,
but their thickness is variable.
(d) Bacchus Marsh Brown Coal Mine, Parwan,
pp. 13-17.
1927 a bore disclosed brown coal at a depth of 400 feet
and running down to 5oo feet from surface. A shaft
was sunk in 1929 to a depth of 510 feet where sand
underlying the coal was reached. Mining went on inter-
mittently until 1940. Production began again in Sep-
tember 1942, since when operations have been continu-
ally hampered by outbreaks of spontaneous combustion
which repeatedly put the mine out of action.


(e) Brown Coal near Thorpdale, pp. 17, i8.
Brown coal sub-basaltic outcrop occurrences south
and west of Elizabeth Creek, a tributary of the Tarwin,
were described in 1899. Various outcrops and borings
indicate seams of 4, 6, i2, 14 and, in one case, 40 feet
thick. No commercial operations carried out to date,
but open cut working possible.
(f) Coal near Warragul, pp. 18, 19.
On the Strzelecki Rarpe in the head-waters of the
Lang Lang River several outcrops, 8 and io miles south
of Warragul, have been investigated and to some extent
worked. Analyses indicate coal of good quality and
one outcrop with a fair thickness of coal is near the main
road. However, the seams are probably too small or
faulty to be worked at a profit.
(g) The Hazelwood Coal Seam, pp. 19, 2o.
Outcrops near a branch of Billy's Creek, 7 miles E.S.E.
of Morwell. The site is readily accessible. The evi-
dence of boring indicates the existence of a coal seam
2 ft. 6 in. to 3 ft. thick. Where opened the product
was not suitable for steam raising but appeared to be a
good gas coal.-W.S.C.

466. The Literature of the Pacific Islands. J. W.
Davidson. The Australian Outlook, pp.
63-79, March 1947.
Over 2oo articles and books are mentioned under
various headings.
General Works : Most important, "The South Seas in
the Modern World" (London 1942) by F. M. Keesing.
"Pacific Islands Yearbook" (5th Edition Sydney 1944),
useful. Detailed information in various official publica-
tions.
Physical Geography : G. L. Wood's "The Pacific
Basin" (Oxford 1930) [Meanwhile 2nd edition 1946 by
Wood and P. McBride; The Editor] deals with human
and physical geography. A summary of present
knowledge is provided in "The Pacific Ocean Handbook"
(Stanford University 1944) by E. G. Mears. Many
rather technical articles in the proceedings of the con-
gresses of the Pacific Scientific Association.
History : Many works mentioned, but none of them
very comprehensive.
Physical Anthropology : Most important, A. C. Had-
don's "The Races of Man and their Distribution"
(revised edition Cambridge 1929). Useful studies in
the Bernice P. Bishop Museum Memoirs (Honolulu) and
in the Anthropological Papers of the American Museum
of Natural History, Vols. XXXIII-XXXIV (New York
1933).
Languages : "The Melanesian Languages" (Oxford
1885) by R. H. Codrington and "The Melanesian Island
Languages" (Cambridge 1926) by S. H. Ray.
Social Anthropology : No comprehensive work, but
Felix M. Keesing's "Native Peoples of the Pacific World"
(New York 1946) covers the area for the general reader.
Government : Most detailed information in annual
reports and other publications of the individual govern-
ments.
Economics : Statistical information to be found mainly
in the "Statistical Yearbook" of the League of Nations
(Geneva annually) and in the publications of the local
governments.
Regarding Population and Health Conditions few
demographic surveys have been made. Research
chiefly concerned with the problem of native depopula-
tion. Information on health conditions in official
reports of the various administrations.-W.S.C.







HISTORY

467. Alexander, F. Moving Frontiers: An
American Theme and its Application to
Australian History. Melbourne University
Press, 1947, pp. 48. Price 4s. 6d.
This is an expansion of the presidential address for the
history section of the A.N.Z.A.A.S. at its Adelaide
meeting of August 1946. The American conception
of the frontier as 'the outer edge of settlement within a
larger geographical area' was first developed by F. J.
Turner in 1893 and led by a reorientation of a great deal
of U.S. historical writing. Turner's thesis of the
frontier as consolidating or national influence, a major
factor in the promotion of American democracy, and a
force making for individualism, is briefly analysed and
his argument about the effects of the closing of the
frontier discussed. The large influx of southern and
eastern European immigrants at this time would result
in a distinctively American compromise between the
demands of a highly industrialized urban economy and
the sectionalism which survived the closing of the
frontier. The author concludes that the premises of
the Turner theme are still valid and that a 'combination
of individualism and sectionalism still determines' the
political and economic organisation.
The application of this theme is difficult but suggestive.
There are pastoral, mining and farming frontiers in
Australian history and their effects on our political and
social development are sketched out with particular
reference to W.A. The Australian frontier appears to
have been a consolidating rather than a sectionalising
influence. Urban industrialisation, which preceded and
accompanied the closing of the frontier and the lack of
large-scale foreign immigration, has led to the develop-
ment of an Australian labour movement very different
from the American. Australian frontier regions lack the
intellectual self reliance and demand for cultural facilities
which can be seen in America after the closing of the
frontier.-N.D.H.

468. Eldridge, F. B. The Background of Eastern
Sea Power. Georgian House, Melbourne,
1945, pp. 386, maps and illustrations.
Price i8s.
This history of the development of seapower in the
Pacific and Indian Oceans is based upon a close study of
printed documents and secondary sources. Beginning
with an analysis of the evolution of Malay, Arab, Chinese
and Japanese naval and mercantile power, the author
points out the real aptitude of Asiatic peoples for the sea.
The fighting qualities displayed by the Japanese in the
Mongol wars of the thirteenth century are comparable
to those of the English seamen in the sixteenth and
seventeenth centuries, and were demonstrated subse-
quently in the Russo-Japanese war, although here the
special conditions of naval warfare in narrow seas threw
little light on the real quality of Japanese naval strength
faced with a major western seapower. The easier con-
ditions of navigation in eastern waters with regular winds
and currents did not produce that research into maritime
architecture and the science of navigation which made
Western seamen and ships more than a match for
Eastern peoples. This was clearly shown by the
rapidity with which Portugal and Spain established their
maritime power in the two oceans. A detailed examina-
tion is made of the growth of Dutch mercantile and naval
power in the Indian Ocean and of the struggle for
supremacy between the English and French, resulting
in 1763 in the establishing of English naval predomi-


nance. A thorough analysis is made of the numerous
naval engagements between the three Western European
seapowers during this period. The survey stops at
1763.-N.D.H.

469. Fitzpatrick, Brian. The Australian People,
1788-1945. Melbourne University Press,
1946, pp. viii, 257. Price I2s. 6d.
This is an outline history of Australia from three
angles. The first, called 'Perspectives,' is a bird's eye
view of the whole of Australian history. The second,
called 'Process,' is a sketch of Australian economic
history. The material for this section is mainly a
summary of the material used in the author's British
Imperialism and Australia and The British Empire in
Australia. The third, called 'Story,' is a narrative of
Australian history with an estimate of the main person-
alities and social movements. The appendices contain
a list of the Secretaries of State and colonial governors
from 1788-1863, a list of the colonial ministries from
1856-1901, and a list of the Commonwealth ministries
and Governors-General from I9oI-46.-C.M.H.C.

470. Murtagh, James G. Australia : The Cath-
olic Chapter. Sheed and Ward, New York,
1946, pp. xviii, 261.
This is an outline of the work and achievements of the
Catholic Church in Australia with the emphasis on the
activities of the priests and the bishops. In addition
to the priests and bishops, there is a chapter on the work
of Caroline Chisholm. In the last two chapters there is
an account of the opinions of the Catholic laity and
hierarchy on social organisation. The material used is
drawn mainly from the published. works of Cardinal
Moran and Mgr. O'Brien. For his account of the
convict period the author has used the pamphlets and
autobiography of the Reverend Father Ullathorne.
-C.M.H.C.

471. Raffaello, Carboni. The Eureka Stockade.
Dolphin Publication, 1947, pp. 178.
Price 4s.
A much-needed cheap edition of what is practically
'the only account by a participant of the rebellion of the
gold-diggers of Ballarat,' with an introduction by Brian
Fitzpatrick.
Raffaello's diary conveys more vividly than any later
work on the subject the atmosphere of the goldfields-
the resentment against a tyrannical officialdom, the
feeling 'that man is not to be put down by autocracies
in whatever garb they are dressed'-and gives, when
allowance has been made for his 'braggadocio,' an
essentially accurate picture. 'I am a living eye-witness
and challenge contradiction,' he says, and contradiction
of his more important assertions and descriptions has
not been forthcoming.-D.F.M.

472. Portus, G. V. Britain and Australia.
Longman's pamphlets on the British
Commonwealth, pp. 67, 2 maps. Price
Is. 8d.
A brief survey of the development of Australia under
the following headings: settlement; environment;
twenty-one years; the pastoral age; exploration and
the squatters ; extension ; the golden interlude ; land
problems; development 1861-93; labour; federation
and its problems; World War I and its aftermath;
what the depression revealed; Armageddon again;







Australia's industrial revolution; the Australian people.
The author shows how the development of Australia has
continually been modified by the contradictions between
the natural environment as revealed by exploration and
settlement and the ideas of investors and governments.
'Our environment has directed the kind of economy we
adopted, and it has influenced our political outlook,
predisposing us to depend on State action . in curi-
ous contrast with the sturdy individualism . which
is part of our heredity. . Had our environment been
different, our heritage of individualism might have
flowered another way. . But large scale pastoralism,
while in some ways accentuating individualism, has also
engendered widespread governmental activities and
taught us to rely on them'-a contradiction which some-
times makes the Australian people hard for others to
understand.-A.G.L.S.

473. Governor Macquarie and the Rum Hospital.
M. H. Ellis. Journal and Proceedings of the
Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol.
XXXII, Part V, pp. 273-293, 1946.
A detailed account of the 'Rum Hospital' contract
made by Macquarie in 1812, with a careful analysis of
the costs of the building, the profit made by the con-
tractors, and the effect of the contract on the rum
traffic, together with the views of the local population
and the British ministers on the governor's policy.
The author concludes: 'The actual expense of the
building to the government was 4,zoo . and
against this the Colonial Treasury received 9,ooo in
duty on the contractors' liquor. The hospital served
the needs of Sydney for over half a century . the
surgeons' barracks flanking it were still serving public
purposes in the middle of the twentieth century.'
-A.L.G.S.

474. Australia in World Affairs. C. Hartley
Grattan. Current History (Philadelphia),
pp. 32-44, January 1947.
A brief survey of Australia's foreign policy and its
development. After the first world war that policy
was still simply 'security within the British Common-
wealth.' During the inter-war period, it began to be
realized that although both Australia and Britain had
the same objective in foreign policy, owing to different
circumstances, the approach was different. These ideas
were given a conservative construction in the policy
announced by Mr. Menzies in his speech of April 1939,
and have been more radically developed by Dr. Evatt
with a claim for a free Australian policy in international
affairs and international organisation directed to pre-
venting war, improving living standards and maintaining
the rights of small nations-particularly in U.N.O.-
but at the same time strengthening British Common-
wealth relations.-A.G.L.S.

475. Department of Information. Australia. A
Proud Page of Our History. Government
Printer, Sydney, 1945, pp. 18, illustrated
and with maps.
The booklet, authorised by the Minister for the Navy,
Mr. Makin, briefly reconstructs the stories of the last
hours of H.M.A.S. Perth and Yarra, lost in separate
actions in East Indies waters in March 1942. The
account of the loss of H.M.A.S. Perth is that given by
the Minister for the Navy in the House of Representa-
tives on 2 March 1945 after four survivors had been


recovered from the hands of the Japanese. Some
description of the ships is given and two maps show their
movements leading up to their last actions.-R.F.S.E.

LAW
(A) Constitutional Law
476. Section 116 of the Constitution. F. D.
Cumbrae-Stewart. Australian Law Jour-
nal, pp. 207-212, October 1946.
Section i1 6 of the Constitution prevents the Common-
wealth from establishing any religion or prohibiting the
free exercise of any religion; this article discusses the
interpretation of this section in Adelaide Company of
Jehovah's Witnesses v. The Commonwealth (1943) 67
C.L.R. 116. A wide view is taken of the purpose of the
section, and of the meaning of the phrase any religion.

Section 116 of the Constitution and the Terri-
tories of the Commonwealth. H. T. Gibbs.
Australian Law Journal, pp. 375-377,
February 1947.
The submission is that in legislating for the territories
the Commonwealth is not bound by section I16 which
is discussed in the previous abstract, as there is no
indication that the framers of the Constitution intended
that the inhabitants of dependent territories should
receive the benefit and protection of the constitutional
guarantees which are available to the inhabitants of the
Commonwealth proper.

477. Australia and the International Labour Con-
ventions. K. H. Bailey. International
Labour Review, pp. 285-308, November-
December 1946.
The power to enter into treaty relations is an integral
part of the executive power of the Commonwealth; the
Commonwealth may also under the 'external affairs'
power make laws giving effect to treaties. On the other
hand the general constitutional power to make laws with
respect to such matters as production, employment and
basic human rights is vested not in the Commonwealth
but in the several states. Unless, therefore, the Com-
monwealth is able to derive, from the fact of entering
into treaty relations with other countries, some power to
implement its treaties, it will be substantially, and,
progressively, hampered in its conduct of Australia's
external affairs. The result may be seen in Australia's
relatively poor record in the ratification of I.L.O. con-
ventions-only twelve out of sixty have been ratified by
Australia. In the Henry Case in 1936 Evatt J. (as he
then was) took a broad view of the power of the Common-
wealth under the external affairs power. It is sometimes
objected that by the mere device of making a treaty, the
Commonwealth could nullify in effect the powers of the
states; but the courts are not blind to the merely
colourable, and could easily deal with this situation.

478. The Defence Power of the Commonwealth
in Time of War. G. Sawer. Australian
Law Journal, pp. 295-300, December 1946.
This article discusses the seventeen major cases in
which, during World War II, the High Court has dis-
cussed the scope of the defence power. It is evident
that the Commonwealth has been able to exercise a very
great degree of legal control in wartime under the







defence power and that the cases in which the power has
been denied have been few in number and relatively
unimportant in detail. It is difficult, however, to dis-
cover any consistent principle. Tests suggested are
purpose, pith and substance, directness of operation-the
majority of the Justices favouring the first. Where
Justices, purporting to apply purpose or object tests in
terms of possibility of aiding defence, have denied power
to the Commonwealth, their opinions can be explained
only as intuitions resting on undisclosed considerations,
or considerations merely hinted at; findings that the
Parliament or Executive has not really desired to aid
defence, but to achieve some other purpose, or that the
measure will not in fact aid defence. The function of
the Court is inescapably political. The only way of
escape is to narrow the interpretation, which is hardly
likely to be done now, or to admit that in time of war the
opinion of Parliament or the Executive as to the con-
nection between a law and defence must be taken as
conclusive.

479. Constitutional Aspects of the Marketing
Problem. N. R. Wills. Australian Quar-
terly, pp. 20-31, March 1947.
The problems of federalism are as much economic as
they are problems in jurisprudence. Section 92 pro-
hibits any state from organising marketing so as to impede
the free and unrestricted flow of commodities across
state boundaries. In 1920 the High Court held that
section 92 did not bind the Commonwealth, and the
Commonwealth then built up extensive machinery for
the protection of the export industries. In 1936 the
Privy Council ruled that the Commonwealth was bound
by section 92. An amendment to give the Common-
wealth greater power failed to win acceptance. Organ-
ised marketing has remained in many cases due to
co-operation of producers but if there is a new crisis the
lack of legal coercion may be seriously felt. One way of
solving the problem might be the setting up of an all-
party constitutional convention with power to review
the entire range of federal-state relationships in the
light of existing economic realities.

480. Commonwealth Control of States. W. N.
Harrison. Australian Law Journal, pp.
379-80, February 1947.
The article points out that Alfred Deakin foresaw that
the Constitution left the states financially bound to the
chariot wheels of the central government.

(B) Legal Theory
481. Soviet Legal Theory. G. W. Paton. Res
Judicatae (Melbourne), pp. 58-68, May
1947.
This article discusses the Soviet theory of the disap-
pearance of law and the state and its subsequent rejec-
tion. So far as legal theory is concerned, the Soviet
writers now show a tendency to revive theories originally
considered dangerous. There is now a clear recognition
of the part that both law and the lawyer must play in
social life.

(C) Law Reform
482. Law Reform in Victoria. E. H. Coghill.
Res Judicatae (Melbourne), pp. 69-74,
May 1947.


This article discusses the difficulty of the law reformer.
Herring C. J. late in 1944 created a Law Reform Com-
mittee with representatives of the Bench, the bar, the
solicitors and the University. This parent committee
has set up many sub-committees which have done a
great deal of work in drafting legislation for the removal
of anomalies from the law. The committee is entirely
unofficial, so far as the government is concerned, but
it benefits by the co-operation of the secretary of the
Law Department and the parliamentary draftsman.
It is not difficult to obtain lawyers who will freely give
their time; it is difficult to interest Parliament suffi-
ciently to ensure that the bills are passed into law.
The article gives an account of the detailed problems
which have been discussed by the committee.

(D) Criminal Law
483. Insanity, Drunkenness and Crime. J. P.
Bourke. Australian Law Journal, pp. 418-
423, March 1947.
The purpose of the article is to point out the laborious
approach of the law to the matter of criminal responsi-
bility where insanity and drunkenness are in question
and discusses recent cases which are likely to cause
confusion unless properly understood.

(E) Shipping
484. Some Aspects of Salvage. W. H. Tredin-
nick. Australian Law Journal, pp. 241-
243, November 1946.
This discusses the rules of salvage arising out of the
attempt of the S.S. Elizabete to save the American
Farmer.

PHILOSOPHY
485. Prediction and Scientific Law. J. A. Pass-
more. Australasian Journal of Psychology
and Philosophy, pp. 1-33, September 1946.
The object of the article is to show that clarity in the
social sciences is considerably impeded by the close
current association between the conceptions of pre-
diction and of scientific law. The writer persistently
attacks the practicalismm' of methodologists in the social
sciences, and links it with 'the tendency of social scien-
tists to think of themselves primarily as administrators,
and to seek rather an improvement of administrative
procedures rather than an extension of scientific know-
ledge.' Apart from its insistence that a law can be
drawn from the consideration of past events as well as
from anticipations of the future, what will mainly interest
social scientists will be a long section entitled 'Are
scientific laws statistical statements ?', concluding that
statistical statements are neither 'better' nor 'more
scientific' than universal propositions, nor a surer guide
to prediction in individual cases.

486. A Refutation of Morals. John Mackie.
Australasian Journal of Psychology and
Philosophy, pp. 77-90, September 1946.
The writer's theme is that however much people may
think their statements about morality are objective
statements, they are really objectifications of their
approvals. The standing objections to this view are
carefully considered, and the door is left open for 'a
positive system of ethics' in which goods and bads are







like everything else, elements of situations. With
regard, however, to the more usual claims of moralists,
concerning right, ought, obligation, etc., he maintains
firmly that they are nothing but objectifications of feelings
and have no objective validity whatever.


PSYCHOLOGY

487. The Selection of Leaders. Cecil Gibb.
Australian Quarterly, pp. 52-56, Decem-
ber 1946.
The author, who was the first psychologist appointed
to the Australian Army Officers' Pre-Selection Board
(O.P.S.B.), describes a technique adopted in the selection
of army officers. He then applies the same general
principles to the selection of trainees for management
positions in industry and finally evaluates the significance
of this selection technique.
The O.P.S.B. consisted of four permanent members-
chairman (colonel), deputy-chairman (lieutenant-col-
onel), psychiatrist, psychologist and two local members
(army officers appointed by the formation in which the
board was working). In addition a Psychology Testing
Section was attached to the board and technical officers
were co-opted as advisers as required.
The candidates lived for some days as a group with
the O.P.S.B. and the selection procedure consisted of
written tests, interviews, certain practical tests as well as
observation of group behaviour. Tests and personal
interviews were conducted by the psychologist and his
assistants, the practical tests under the control of the
military officers of the board. In a board conference the
psychiatrist, psychologist and the other military officers
presented their opinions concerning the candidate's suita-
bility. Each candidate was rated by the board and this
decision communicated privately to him.
The article next outlines some ways in which this
technique has been applied in industry in selection for
management positions and suggests its applicability to
selection within the public service of the Common-
wealth and of the Australian states.
In conclusion, Mr. Gibb stresses the need for ade-
quate methods in the selection of leaders. He believes
that 'leadership resides not only in the individual, but
in his functional relation with other members of his
group.' Therefore the personal-social relationship can
best be observed and assessed by group methods of
selection which are superior to the more usual 'interview
method.'

488. An Experiment in the Selection of Adminis-
trative Staff. P. H. Cook. Bulletin of
Industrial Psychology and Personnel Prac-
tice, pp. 14-27, June 1947.
A report on an experiment in the selection of an
administrative (clerical) officer. Candidates were
assessed for (a) level of education, occupational experi-
ence; (b) administrative capacity; (c) personality
traits: conscientiousness, co-operativeness, tact, initia-
tive and imagination. There were z2 male candidates
with mean age 38 years. Two selectors X and Y assessed
candidates from the evidence of written applications on
the above three bases of assessment. They agreed sub-
stantially on the first factor but not on the other two.
The candidates were then interviewed for 15 minutes
by X and Y with a third selector Z. The selectors made
independent ratings of the candidates. Much higher
agreement between selectors was reached, particularly
on the first two factors.


On the basis of pooled assessments from the interview
the top six candidates were taken and given (a) a written
assignment closely related to the possible duties of the
position and (b) an intelligence test. These showed fair
agreement, but the sample was too small to draw firm
conclusions.
It is suggested that for the selection of administrative
personnel the selection procedure should involve-
(a) written applications-to be used only for the
rejection of clearly unsuitable candidates;
(b) interview procedures-using at least three suit-
able selectors working on an agreed rating
scheme and rating independently;
(c) written tests and/or psychological tests; and
(d) observation of the candidates in informal leader-
less situations.

489. Problems of Research in Industrial Psy-
chology in Australia. P. H. Cook. Aus-
tralian Quarterly, pp. 47-62, March 1947.
This report indicates some way in which the psycholo-
gist can make a contribution in the field of industry,
and gives some idea of practical considerations which
affect the adequacy of research into industrial problems.
Important problems are pointed out which are likely to
arise because of the attitude of those closely associated
with the research project (e.g., management, trade
unions, operatives and research worker).
A short statement deals with the statistical treatment
of data and stresses the need for adequate records. This
is succeeded by an account of specific problems in
using research techniques. Useful methods of obtaining
information concerning the attitudes, opinions and beliefs
of groups of persons are (i) the questionnaire method,
(ii) the interview and (iii) mass observation techniques.
The author critically assesses the major features and
limitations of each. Other aspects of research are the use
of psychological tests, ratings by supervisors and selec-
tion of adequate samples from groups of workers for the
purposes of experimental study.
In conclusion, the author suggests some of the types
of research which might be carried out in Australia.
(i) A nation-wide investigation of occupational trends,
(ii) the development and refinement of selection and
placement techniques in industry, (iii) an analysis of
training methods in industry, (iv) the causes and costs of
labour turnover, and (v) an examination of the design
of machines and equipment.

490. A Study of Work Attitudes. S. S. Dunn.
Bulletin of Industrial Psychology and Per-
sonnel Practice, pp. 21-29, March 1947.
This study reports the findings of an investigation on
those factors about jobs which make the greatest appeal.
The factors considered were opportunity for advance-
ment, opportunity to use your own ideas, high pay,
good boss, steady work, opportunity to learn a job, com-
fortable working conditions, good working companions,
good hours, opportunity to be of public service, clean
work, and easy work. The subjects were 185 men taking
courses at the S.A. Institute of Industrial Management.
The factors were preferred in the order listed above, with
minor variations only between the various occupational
groups within the sample. The findings are similar to
a reported American study for a similar group by Chant
but differ considerably from Wyatt and Langdon's
report on the preferences of English female factory
workers. The group for this study was probably not
representative of Australian workers generally, however,







and almost certainly female workers would give a differ-
ent ranking.

TERRITORIES AND NATIVE
PROBLEMS

491. The Aborigines and their Culture and the
Half-Caste Problem. T. D. Campbell
and J. B. Cleland. Handbook of South
Australia. 25th Meeting, the Australian
and N.Z. Association for the Advance-
ment of Science, Adelaide, pp. 25-31,
August 1946.
In the older settled areas there are only 40-46 full-
blood natives. The remnants of the tribes who for-
merly inhabited the Port Lincoln district and the Bight,
more than Ioo full-blood natives, are now at Koonibba
Mission Station and the surrounding district on Eyre
Peninsula. At Ooldea there are about 250 detribalised
individuals. The small number of full-bloods in the
north-east of S.A., east of the Simpson desert and near
the Diamantina and Copper Creeks, all detribalised and
rapidly disappearing, is hard to estimate. In the north-
west in the large native reserve (26,000 square miles) in
the Musgrave Ranges about 500 full-bloods are con-
tinuing their ancient mode of life as hunters and nomad
food gatherers. Ernabella Mission Station, just outside
the reserve, has permanently changing numbers of
native visitors, arriving from the reserve or even from
the N.T. and W.A., whom the mission encourages to
continue their primitive existence in order to avoid
contact with Europeans and detribalisation.
In the older settled areas half-castes far outnumber
full-bloods. Thus at Point McLeay and Point Pearce
Station there are 308 and 335 half-castes respectively,
but only four and four full-bloods. The half-castes
are living as Europeans and it is essential to absorb them
in the general community. It is dangerous for them
to be segregated and protected. On the outback
stations the half-castes are of the utmost help in working
the properties. The full-bloods, however, should be
kept as far away from civilisationn' as possible.
In conclusion the article deals with anthropological
studies in South Australia. A board for anthropological
studies was established at the University, the Anthropo-
logical Society of S.A. was founded in 1926 and an
ethnologist was appointed at the S.A. Museum. Under
the auspices of the board, expeditions were carried out
almost yearly into northern S.A. and Central Australia
for about twelve years prior to the recent war. The
results of research have been published in the Records
of the South Australian Museum, Oceania, the Medical
Journal of Australia and the Australian Journal of
Experimental Biology and Medical Science. The article
includes a list of the principal ethnographical specimens
in the S.A. museum. In the University library,
Adelaide, there is a collection of i6-mm. films on native
life and technology obtained during the various anthro-
pological expeditions.

492. Report on the Administration of the Northern
Territory for Year 1944-45. P.P., Can-
berra 1947, pp. 8.
In the longest section of the report : 'The native of
the N.T.', the administrator expresses a most favour-
able opinion about the natives of the N.T. and their
treatment by white employers. In future, 'the estab-
lishment of depots and settlements in various parts of
the territory, together with a system of patrol districts


and patrol officers, must be inaugurated.' The N.T.
with 13,451 full-bloods has an estimated number of
1,037 half-castes, including half-castes out of the N.T.
In the areas inhabited by the largest proportion of
natives in their primitive state the proportion of half-
caste to full-blood natives is the lowest. This shows
'the wisdom of maintaining inviolate reserves when the
natives are free and unmolested.' An estimate of the
distribution of full-blood natives in the N.T. gives the
numbers of primitive and practically inviolate natives
in Arnhem Land Reserve as 4,000, in Central Australia
800, natives in and around mission stations 3,000, aged
and infirm maintained at government ration depots
1,25o, natives in stations, army etc. employment 3,000.
About I,ooo nomadic natives are not accounted for.
In Central Australia, water supply is inadequate and a
drilling programme has been started.
Of the half-castes the great majority of adults have
full citizen rights and are not controlled by the Native
Affairs Branch.
Other parts of the report deal with pastoral matters,
railway plans, mining, transport, government and
administration, Darwin.

493. The Aboriginal Mind at Work: Semantic
Notes on Australian Languages. Ernest
Worms. Mankind (Sydney), pp. 231-232,
March 1946.
This is the etymology of two words belonging to the
language of the Djaber Djaber and Nyol Nyol tribes,
Dampier Peninsula, Kimberley, W.A. One of these
two words is of particular interest to the sociologist,
viz., the verb 'ma-bandjen.' Its original meaning is 'to
exchange, to give a thing and to receive another for it';
in a metaphorical sense it means 'to surrender, to sacri-
fice, to love.' It also has a legal and a religious sense.
The author gives an account of seven different applica-
tions of this word.

494. The Ramu Stones : Notes on Stone Carv-
ings Found in the Annaberg-Atemble
Area, Ramu Valley, New Guinea. Peter
England. Mankind (Sydney), pp. 233-
236, Plate W, March 1946.
Apart from a preliminary note in a Sydney paper,
this is the first publication of a prehistoric stone sculpture
found by the author near the Lau village of Sabu, two
or three miles from Annaberg in the Ramu Valley.
It is the relief of a human figure, probably a woman,
carved from a slab of a hard igneous rock, probably
andesite. It is suggested that this piece, which has
nothing to do with the material culture of the present
population, belongs to an extinct native culture which
was also responsible for other stone objects discovered
in the same district and adjacent areas previously, such
as perforated discs and mortar-like basins of various
sizes, up to nearly 300 pounds weight. The relief
illustrated in the present article is now in the Australian
Museum, Sydney.

495. Prehistoric Stone Objects from New Guinea
and the Solomons. Carl Schuster. Man-
kind (Sydney), pp. 247-251, Plates X and
Y, July 1946.
Illustrations and descriptions of four prehistoric stone
objects found in the interior of New Guinea, in the
Huon Gulf area: a pestle, shaped as a human head;
another pestle, the handle decorated with the conven-







tionalised figure of a bird; two bowls, or mortars, one
shaped as a stylised bird, the other plain. These pieces
are now in the Natural History Museum, Chicago.
Fig. 4 shows a stone mortar decorated with a human face
in relief, and a pestle, both collected by the late Capt.
A. Middenway of Sydney at Gatukai, New Georgia, and
now in the Fiji Museum in Suva.

496. Earth's Most Primitive People. A Journey
with the Aborigines of Central Australia.
Charles P. Mountford. National Geo-
graphic Magazine (Washington), pp. 89-
104, map and 18 photographs, January
1946.
This is a popular account of one of the expeditions
arranged by the Board for Anthropological Research,
University of Adelaide. The expedition started from
Ernabella Mission Station, where some mimic per-
formances of aboriginal legends were observed and
recorded. Three geologically different formations were
visited, viz., Mount Conner, 800 ft., a flat rock plateau,
Ayers Rock, 1,ioo ft. high, and a huge group of some
sixty gigantic rock pillars, the highest up to 1,400 ft.
This group is known under the misleading name 'Mount
Olga.' The expedition was unable to explore this area
thoroughly because the water hole on which it depended
turned out to be quite inadequate. More than a week
was spent at Ayers Rock, where the extensive galleries
of rock paintings were copied and photographed, legends
collected, and the shape of the rock mapped for the
purpose of plotting totemic places. The Pitjendadjara
tribe in the Mann Range area, with about three hundred
members, is perhaps one of the most primitive peoples
as far as material culture is concerned. They have no


clothing of any kind, and their weapons consist only of
spears and spear throwers. The Pitjendadjara are not
autochthonous in their present hunting grounds; prob-
ably they came from the north. Among their ritual
objects are pearl shells which must have been imported
from the far northwest coast. These shells are passed
from tribe to tribe across the continent, even as far as the
southern coast, a trade route of more than 2,ooo miles.
The Pitjendadjara use them for rain-making magic.

497. Records of the Rock Engravings of the
Sydney District, Nos. 21-32, 33-37-
Frederick D. McCarthy. Mankind (Syd-
ney), pp. 217-225, March 1946; pp. 262-
272, July 1946.
The author has been engaged in recording the rock
engravings in the Sydney district for several years,
assisted by trained collaborators. There is still a large
number of original drawings engraved in the ground,
mostly consisting of sandstone. These engravings are
gradually disappearing under climatic influences, and
many have been damaged by vandals. So far no survey
with photos and polychrome copies, like those taken of
Bushman rock art in South Africa, has been carried out.
But the author's records provide exact measurements,
full descriptions and miniature illustrations of the out-
lines of the engravings. These have been divided into
local groups. All the rock engravings are representa-
tions of animals or human beings, footprints of men and
animals and, in some cases, implements and weapons
of the aboriginals. Many of them must have had a
magic or religious function. They are an important
source of information about the religious and social life
of the now extinct natives.




U-


THIS publication of abstracts in the social sciences is intended to provide a survey
of important material, published in. or related to Australia, New Zealand and their
territories, dealing with the various social sciences. The field of the survey dealt with
in these Abstracts is indicated by the classification of the subjects on the inside cover.
The aim is to help the specialist in any particular field to decide what works he
should read, and what he may omit; and to indicate to other workers in allied fields
what is being done. For these purposes it has been decided that the abstracts shall be
genuine pr6cis of the works covered.
At present it is intended to publish the Abstracts half yearly ; but if, in the future,
a larger volume of original work is produced, it is intended to publish the Abstracts
more frequently so that all deserving work may he covered as soon after publication
as possible.
Copies of this and subsequent issues of the Abstracts will be sent on application
(enclosing subscription of 4s. in the Sterling Area, and $i in other countries, per
annum) to the Editor, Department of Commerce, Universityof Melbourre. Carlton, N. 3










AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL' RESEARCH COUNCIL

CoMMITTEE ON RESEARCH IN THE SOCIAL SCIENCES

The Committee on Research in the Social Sciences is a special
committee of the A.N.R.C. charged with the duty of reporting upon
the main investigations which appear to be required in the social
field, of considering the best machinery for conducting these enquiries,
and of arranging for finance.
The Committee is also making a detailed examination of the
position in Australia with regard to training in the social sciences at
the various universities, with special attention to the provision of
research workers. The scope of the committee's work includes the
sociological aspects of such studies as anthropology, economics,
education, history, human geography, jurisprudence, medicine,
philosophy, political science, psychology, public administration and
statistics.
An outline of the history and functions of the committee by the
chairman, Dr. K. S. Cunningham, was recently published; and
may he obtained free of charge on application to the Australian
Council for Educational Research, T. & G. Building, Russell St.,
Melbourne, C.I.

memberss of' the Commnttee :
AGAR, Prof. W. E., University of Melbourne.
ALCOCK, Prof. H., University of Queensland.
BAILEY, Prof. K. H., Solicitor-General, Canberra.
BLAND, Prof. F. A., University of Sydney.
BURTON, Assoc. Prof. H., University of Melbourne.
BUTLIN, Prof S. J., Universiry of Sydney.
COOMBS, Dr. H. C., Director-General, Department of Post-War
Reconstruction.
CRAWFORD, Mr. J. G., Department of Post-War Reconstruction.
CRAWFORD, Prof. R. M., University of Melbourne.
CUNNINGHAM, Dr. K. S., Director, Australian Council for Educational
Research (Chairmani.
ELKJN, Prof. A. P., University of Sydney.
GIBLIN, Prof. L. F., Department of the Treasury.
GIBSON, Prof. A. Boyce, University of Melbourne.
JAMES, Mr. G. F., University of Melbourne.
McRAE, Prof. C. R., University of Sydney.
NIAULDON, Prof. F. R. E.. University of Western Australia.
MELVILLE, Mr. L. G., Commonwealth Bank of Australia.
O'NEILL, Prof. W. M., University of Sydney.
PARTRIDGE. Mr. H., University of Sydney.
PASSMORE, Mr. John, University of Sydney.
PREST, Prof. W., University of Melbourne.
SHAW, Mr. A. G. L., University of Melbourne (Secretary).
STONE, Prof. Julius, University of Sydney.
STOUT, Prof. A. K., University of Sydney.
WADHAMI, Prof. S. NI., University of Melbourne.
WHITE, Mr. H L., Commonwealth National Library, Canberra.
WOOD, Prof. G. L., University of Melbourne.
WRIGHT, Prof. R. D., University of Melbourne.









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