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AUSTRALIAN SOCIAL SCIENCE A ABSTRACTS
Dr. K. S. Cunningham (Chairman)
Professor R. M1. Crawford, Professor G. L. Wood, Mr. G. F. James,
Mr. H. L. White, MAr. A. G. L. Shaw
Mr. S.J. Lengyel, Faculty of Commerce, University of Melbourne, Carlton, N.3
EcoNoMics-Professor G. L. Wood and Mr. S. J. Lengvel
EDLCA.TION-Dr. K. S. Cunningham
GeoGRAPHY-Professor G. L. Wood and Miss P. McBride
HIsroRsv-Professor R. NM. Crawford
LAW-Professor G. W. Paton
PHILoSoPH---Professor A. Boyce Gibson
POLITICAL SCIENCE--Mr. L. Churchnard
AGRICULrTURE AND RUtRAL PROBaLtFr-Professor S. MI. Wadham
TERRITORIES AND NvTIVL PROBLEMS-Professor R. M. Crawford
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Economics and Economic Policy
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Philosophy and Psychology
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Australian Public Affairs Information Serice, or A.P.A.I.S., indexes books,
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AUSTRALIAN SOCIAL SCIENCE ABSTRACTS
AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
Committee on Research in the Social Sciences
AUSTRALIAN SOCIAL SCIENCE ABSTRACTS
A publication of the Committee on Research in the Social Sciences,
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wealth Government through the Department of Post-War Reconstruction
All communications should be addressed to the Editor, Faculty of
Economics and Commerce, University of Melbourne, Carlton, N.3
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(A) Economics and Economic Policy
22Ia. Some Post-war Problems. L. G. Melville.
Economic Record, June 1946, pp. 4-22.
Reviewing some outstanding problems awaiting
solution in Australia, namely, obstacles to full em-
ployment, the public debt, interest rates, taxation,
and excess spending power, the author does not expect
widespread unemployment in the early post-war
years. During this period, a strong upward pressure
on prices can be expected, and price control will be
severely tested. After the initial shortages have been
made good, difficulties will arise in stabilizing private
investment or expanding public works when private
investment begins to decline. Perhaps the most
hopeful stabiliser will be the mild inflationary pressure
proposed by Beveridge and implied by the Australian
White Paper. Failing this, we should have to
fall back on an anti-cycle policy which would require
much forward planning. In either case, the planning
authorities will need for their guidance a great volume
of statistics which, to be helpful, will have to be
available shortly after the date to which it refers.
There must, therefore, remain doubts as to how suc-
cessful any of the high employment policies will prove.
The author is not afraid of an increase in the public
debt imposing crushing interest burdens on taxpayers,
nor of the effects of increased social security expendi-
ture. Interest rate will remain low, while the impact
of higher expenditure for social security depends upon
how the revenue is raised.
Australia's principal problems in the future, as in
the past, are likely to come from abroad. Fluctuations
in the prices of our exports will make the stabilizing
of employment in Australia particularly difficult.
Unless full employment is maintained in our principal
markets, it is doubtful whether the Australian problem
can be solved satisfactorily. Moreover, our balance
of payments is likely to remain difficult. Our principal
exports, wool and wheat, face an uncertain future.
222. The Future of British Imperial Preference.
Herberet Feis. Foreign Affairs. New York,
July 1946, pp. 661-674.
After a short survey of the history and effects of the
imperial preference system, both on the participant
and the outsider countries, the author attempts to
evaluate the future as follows:
If the preferences were removed without increasing
the general tariff rates, various important branches of
British production would become more exposed to the
competition of American and other foreign products.
Any loss of export trade is certainly to be anxiously
viewed by Britain, since a large deficit in the British
balance of current accounts is anticipated during the
years 1946-49. However, Britain's primary difficulty
in eliminating such a deficit will not be lack of export
orders. The limiting element in British recovery is
more likely to be shortage of labour and production
rather than lack of markets. The correctness of this
surmise is of course dependent on prosperity in other
countries, particularly in the U.S.A. If industrial
activity and imports in U.S.A. collapse, British export
trade will wither and the loss of the preferences would
be keenly felt. In that sense removal of the pre-
ferences would be, in part, a wager that American
prosperity will be maintained.
Other members of the Empire might encounter
greater difficulties of adjustment than Britain were
the preferences removed. They might in a few years
have to yield to U.S.A. part of the market they have
obtained in such products as hams, lard, dried fruits,
tobacco, rice, wines and timber. But here again
anxieties regarding loss of export opportunity may
prove unjustified. The total prospective need is
much greater than before the war and two new factors
must also be noted. They are first, the limited
American reserves and second, the strongly entrenched
policies of maintaining very high minimum prices for
agricultural products. In manufactured products also,
the American level of money costs of production have
been rising more notably than those of Britain and the
Dominions, and U.S. prices may be high.
Under the present conditions the preferential system
is likely to be less esteemed by the other members of
the Empire than it was during the earlier years of its
existence. The changing strategy of warfare and
defence and the creation of the United Nations have
lessened the belief in the unity of Empire as a guarantee
of security. In the economic sphere, the preferences
will probably be less useful to the participants than
before the war. As time goes on, the U.K. is likely
to become a relatively less important market than it
has been. The increased production capacity of some
of the Dominions will stimulate their wish for other
foreign markets. The growing industrialization, ac-
companied by a readiness to extend protection in the
Dominions and India, is likely to reduce the value of
the preference on various manufactured products.
However, the issue cannot be divorced from political
considerations. The path taken is certain to be in-
fluenced by the judgment of the British countries as
to whether a reliable partnership has been established
with the U.S.-a partnership in the sense of con-
joined destiny that will give each assurance that they
would be standing together in any great future economic
or political crisis.
223. Social Accounting. Dudley Seers. Economic
Record, June 1946, pp. 117-132.
This is an attempt to appraise the significance of
national income analysis for both the practical and the
Scant information concerning statistical sources and
the manner of treatment of particular items and of
the major questions of definition, is given in the official
annual estimates of National Income. This must be
provided before these studies can be used with pre-
cision and confidence.
The analysis describes the framework of national
and international economics. It permits more exact
forecasting of the effects of government economic
policy, in particular employment policy. With further
refinement of statistical analysis, it should be possible
to trace the effects of any economic measure or event
right through the economic structure. It may be
applied to the problem of inflation, and used to describe
the economic position of foreign countries. But such
results obtained from an examination of past income
dynamics can really only be applied to the present
and future if the political climate is still fairly similar.
Subject to further qualification and amendment, the
comparisons are valuable rather as pointers, to be
used with great caution than as exact estimates, of
For the teacher of economics, National Income
provides a useful structure showing the place and
inter-relation of the main departments of economic
theory. Many propositions of economic theory can
be tested by the analysis. R.B.
224. Price Control in War and Peace. C. L.
Hewitt. The Australian Quarterly, Sep-
tember 1946, pp. 87-95.
The purpose of this paper is to describe the broad
development of price control principles in Australia
during the war years and to state some of the main
problems that will have to be faced in any country
seeking an orderly withdrawal from price control.
The fundamental basis of price control in Australia
at the time of its initiation was a formula for the ad-
justment of selling prices in accordance with variations
in cost. The effect of higher costs was reduced by
the averaging of the costs of old stock with new. To
established costs, a trader was permitted to add the
percentage mark-up used in calculating selling prices
prior to the war. This limitation on cost-taking and
the rejection of replacement costs as a basis for pricing
provided consumers with an effective protection from
Early in 1942 this formula had to be altered realising
that it leads to excessive profits. The traders were
then required to calculate future selling prices not by
adding to costs the prewar percentage mark-up but
the current money mark-up. Thereafter consumers
met only the increases in prime costs incurred by
traders. The effect of this variation was gradually
to reduce the percentage mark-up that previously
prevailed and to provide more accurately for the over-
head expenses, the total of which could not be ascer-
tained prior to the end of the trading period.
The last stage was the stabilisation of the price level
as it existed in April 1943, providing for payments from
government funds of unavoidable cost increases.
During the transition period there are two aspects
of price control in peace which are of special im-
portance. The first problem is related to the orderly
withdrawal of control over prices for individual com-
modities. It is one of timing relaxation so that there
will not follow a disturbing rise in prices. The second
problem involves the future of subsidy payments and
the ultimate level of prices and money incomes which
are regarded as desirable.
Author discusses the ramifications of these problems
in detail but he is aware of the fact that it would be
misleading to examine possible solutions, for time may
so change both the problems, and the conditions in
which a solution could be effective, as to make the
venture entirely worthless.
225. A Report on the 40-Hour Week. A 'Looking
Forward' Publication of the Institute of
Public Affairs-Victoria. Melbourne,
1946, pp. 92, demy 8vo. Price Is.
The 40-hour week is at present the most important
question agitating the industrial community and, in-
deed, the nation as a whole. Therefore, the question
should not be determined by political catch-cries or
industrial prejudice but by economic realities.
The central consideration in any major projected
industrial or economic change is the standard of living
of the people. Basically the Australian standard of living
is determined by the productive power and efficiency
of its industries. But to-day any vital economic
decision is complicated by the abnormal economic
circumstances, both in Australia and overseas, left in
the wake of the war. In Australia our standard of
living to-day is much lower than that enjoyed before
the war, and must remain so until the industrial machine
is once again engaged in the full, efficient production
of peace-time goods and services. The report, there-
fore, takes up the two critical and related questions of
the productive power of industry and the economic
conditions brought about by the war. The con-
clusion from the discernible facts is that the claims of
greatly increased industrial productivity and efficiency
during the war are of extremely doubtful validity, and
the man-hour productivity would probably remain
unchanged with a 40-hour week.
Having investigated the effects of the 40-hour week
on different aspects of the economy-on the cost and
price structure, on employment, on different economic
groups and on the rural industries-the report comes
to the conclusion that the introduction of a 40-hour
week should not be considered until the volume of
civilian goods and services per head of the population
has been restored to at least the pre-war level, and
until the nation's stock of capital equipment has been
modernised, placed on a competitive basis with that
of the other advanced industrial countries, and ex-
panded so as to offset substantially the losses caused
by the interruption of economic progress by the war.
226. Kelly, John P. : Aquinas and Modern
Practices of Interest Taking. With an
introduction by Colin Clark. Aquinas
Press, Brisbane, 1945, pp. 78, crown 8vo.
Price 4s. 6d.
"You have no right to profit unless you make the
profit yourself or share the risk of the man who is
making it for you." This basic injunction of Aquinas
is analysed in this study both historically and by con-
fronting it with modern economic thought, with the
ultimate inference that there should be no profit with-
out risk. If that principle is rigidly enforced, there
must follow a more equitable distribution of the real
wealth, which is property.
Colin Clark, in his introduction, hails the study as
one which may bring about a fundamental change in
social science. He approves of the principle that any
interest on loans and deposits is an offence against
morality. There is no objection to profits or divi-
dends from equities, ordinary shares and similar
arrangements provided the lender takes a share of the
risk and receives no return if the venture is unprofitable.
Similarly, there is no objection to the receipt of rent
or hire for the use of houses, land, etc., or of any other
articles, "the use of which does not consist in their
consumption." There is no escape from the con-
clusion that government loans must be interest free.
Existing contractual obligations could be respected,
but as each loan falls due it should be paid off in money
created for that purpose by the Commonwealth Bank.
Of course, there would be no further government
borrowing. But the saving of the interest burden on
the budget would greatly outweigh the current cost
of new public works, and the net effect would be that
taxation would be considerably reduced.
227. N.Z. Overseas Funds and Exchange. The
Canterbury Chamber of Commerce Bulletin.
In May, 1935, N.Z.'s overseas funds reached a
record high level of 46m. In December, 1939, they
fell to a low level of about 7m. In June to August,
1946, the continued rise brought them very close to
Ioom. In view of the present high level, reached
despite heavy drains for the repayment of public debt
held in Britain, two questions are asked, first, whether
the rate is likely to be reduced to parity with sterling,
and second, whether any case remains for continuing
the exchange and import controls imposed in 1938,
and maintained ever since.
Both problems are discussed in detail and answered
in the negative. The reduction required to restore
sterling to parity might cause serious dislocations in
the N.Z. economy, and it is unlikely that control can
be removed completely while the excess money remains
to swell demand for exchange funds.
However, it would be quite possible to relax present
trade restrictions immediately by modifying the control
of imports. With exchange in plenty available, and
being steadily augmented from export receipts, the
government might well adopt the method of open
licences, giving freedom to import up to the amount
of exchange allowed. Such a method would provide
the goods that N.Z. and its consumers need from abroad
much more simply, economically and effectively than
by the present inefficient method of detailed control.
228. Increased Production. The ultimate source
of higher income. A 'Looking Forward'
Publication. Institute of Public Affairs-
Victoria. Melbourne, 1946. Crown 8vo.,
PP- 55. Price is.
This booklet outlines a long-range programme to
raise the level of industrial efficiency and to increase
production. The main features of this programme are :
(i) The general introduction of "payment by re-
sult" to provide a direct monetary incentive to the
individual worker to increase his output. (2) The
reduction of taxation and a new approach to the taxa-
tion of company income. (3) A deliberate policy of
raising the standards of industrial management.
(4) The more widespread application of scientific and
technical research. (5) The acceleration of the tempo
of development of productive plant and equipment.
(6) The encouragement of competition, and govern-
ment action to control monopolistic practices which
have as their object the suppression or restriction of
All these proposals, with the exception of a reduction
in taxation, are of a long-range character. But what
is wanted is something that will lift production now.
To bring about an immediate rise in production the
following measures are suggested :-
(i) A national conference of employers and unions
to be called immediately for a fresh attempt to build
industrial fellowship and teamwork. (2) Taxation to
be greatly reduced. (3) The practicability of re-
lating wages to movements in output by a formula
acceptable to all the parties to industry to be expertly
examined. (4) The Commonwealth Government to
reassure the workers about the steps it is taking to
maintain continuity of employment and, particularly
to avoid unemployment after wartime arrears have
been overtaken. (5) Statistics of productivity to be
regularly published and widely disseminated. (6) A
national campaign for high production, similar to that
in Great Britain, to be launched by the Common-
wealth Government. (7) The practicability of setting
production targets to be considered. (8) An educa-
tional drive on the need for high production, supported
by the trade union movement, to be conducted through-
out the workshops and factories of the Common-
229. New Zealand in the World Economy.
Leicester Webb. International Affairs
(London). April 1946, pp. 174-186.
N.Z. is an outstanding example of an economy
which has developed a high level of prosperity and
industrial efficiency by exploiting the advantages of
international division of labour. Owing mainly to
the success of the economic stabilization programme,
costs in the primary industries have been kept low, so
that, from the point of view of costs, these industries,
given reasonable access to world markets, should be
able to maintain their competitive position. These
factors would seem to dictate a policy of wholehearted
co-operation in all efforts to promote "liberal" trade
and to get rid of quantitative restrictions.
In fact, the situation is quite otherwise. The
country which has been the classic example of the
advantages of liberal trade is now foremost in advocating
controlled (or planned) trade as a means of ensuring
economic security and stability. The N.Z. govern-
ment's argument is that exchange control and import
selection are not by their nature restrictive and are
not in any way inconsistent with attempts to expand
world trade. This may be correct; but, as applied
in N.Z., control has been frankly discriminatory,
giving a first preference to the U.K. Such a policy
is warmly supported by N.Z. public opinion, which is
always conscious that the U.K. normally buys more
than 8o per cent. of N.Z.'s exports.
Reduced to its essence, the N.Z. view is that national
economic planning which involves no conscious direc-
tion of trade can never be effective.
230. Tasmania. The Tasmanian Economy in
1945-46. A Survey prepared by the
State Finance Committee. Government
Printer, Hobart, October 1946, pp. 22.
The people of Tasmania continued to enjoy a high
degree of prosperity during 1945-46. Production in
certain lines reached record figures, and a high average
level of incomes was maintained. The net value of
primary production increased from 8.o5m. in 1938-39
to e3.2om. in 1944-45. It must not be overlooked,
however, that prices for all primary products are now
45 per cent. higher on the average than in the last
pre-war year. There has likewise been a significant
development in secondary industry. Total factory
employment has risen from 13,802 persons in 1938-39
to 18,779 at the end of June, 1946.
A recent and interesting development has been the
extent to which Tasmania has reduced its dependence
on N.S.W. coal supplies. The quantity of coal mined
in Tasmania has increased considerably. The con-
sumption of imported coal by all users has fallen from
5800 tons to 3800 tons per month.
Approximately one-quarter of the Tasmanian work-
ing population is engaged in rural occupations. During
the war there was a considerable expansion in contract
farming or potatoes and' other vegetables. The
demand for this production has now declined, and it
is apparent that, to a considerable degree, there will
be an inevitable change from agricultural pursuits to
231. Insulationism and the Problem of Economic
Stability. C. G. F. Simkin. Economic
Record, June 1946, pp. 50-65.
The main purpose of this article is to investigate
in a general way the possibilities and social costs of
protecting New Zealand against depression; of "in-
sulating" the country against slumps. In analysing
this problem the four pillars of insulationism-correc-
tive expenditure, guaranteed prices, exchange control,
and the development of self-sufficiency-have to be
considered, and their joint effects upon economic
stability estimated. The resulting conclusion is that
insulationism is a one-sided policy, concerned almost
entirely with the stabilization of aggregate demand.
Insulationism neglects to stabilize sterling receipts,
and is a key factor in making necessary import control
and the fostering of self-sufficiency. These two
facts are responsible for most of its general economic
and social disadvantages.
The author then goes on to make his own suggestions,
relating methods of stabilizing sterling receipts, and
the principles underlying a sterling stabilization fund.
232. Commonwealth and Bretton Woods, The
Times, 12 September 1946, p. 9.
Not the least interesting feature of the annual report
of the Commonwealth Bank of Australia is the inde-
pendent line which the governor of this, a nationalized
undertaking, takes in regard to Bretton Woods.
As is well known Australia so far has not joined the
International Monetary Fund. The final date for
signature is 31st December next, after which Australia
could become a member only at such time and in
accordance with such terms as the Fund might pre-
scribe. The governor of the Commonwealth Bank,
however, after balancing the pros and cons, comes
down very definitely in favour of participation. He
recognizes that no country can be expected to yield
up lightly some measure of control of its destiny to
fresh international agencies which are as yet untried.
But he believes that by active participation in the
International Monetary Fund Australia would safe-
guard her own interests and could help "to insure
that the problems of young and developing countries,
some of which share Australia's apprehensions, receive
due consideration by the larger powers."
Now that the war is over, it has again become practic-
able to publish figures of Australian gold and balances
held abroad. It is shown that, with one exception,
the total international funds of Australia rose each
year between June 1939 when they amounted to
A55.7m and 1946 when the total was A215.4m.
These are gross figures and they owe something to
such non-recurrent items as war recoveries and navy
payments. The governor thinks that careful super-
vision and husbanding of Australia's resources may be
required for some time to come ; over the war period.
Australian import prices have risen more than the
prices of her exports, and if this factor continues it
will constitute a constant drain on her overseas funds.
He also draws attention to the question of land values,
which is of paramount importance to the future of
Australia. It would not be safe to assume that the
high level of present prices for such commodities as
wheat will endure indefinitely ; and the capitalization
of land values on the basis of present prices of such
commodities, as he says, may well prove a costly
(B) Industry, Trade and Commerce
(a) General Works
233. Problems of Distribution in Australia. No.
i. A Survey of Distribution. The Case
for a Census. Melbourne University
Press, 1946, pp. 40, demy 8vo. Price 2s.
This publication draws attention to a serious gap in
our knowledge of the structure of business in Australia.
It deals with the importance of the distributive services
in the national economy and their problems. In
particular the need for more adequate statistics and
the questions connected with a Census of Distribution
are discussed. The present publication, prepared
by S. J. Lengyel, is the first of a series of studies upon
distribution to be published by the Department of
Commerce in the University of Melbourne, and deals
with the vital function of distribution in the national
economy, about which we know at present relatively
234. Efficiency and Costs of Production in
Australian Industries. Tariff Board's
Report. P.P. No. 67 of 1945-46, Govern-
ment Printer, Canberra, pp. 8. Price 6d.
This report describes instructions, given by the
Government to the Tariff Board, to keep under con-
tinuous review the efficiency and costs of production
of protected Australian industries, to ascertain reasons
for high costs or prices in Australia as compared with
those of other countries on comparable wage levels,
and to make regular reports on these matters.
Invitations to Australian industry and the public
generally to make suggestions on these subjects, re-
sulted in a response so small as to lead the Board to
conclude that the holding of a public inquiry was not
justified. The Board proposes to seek the information
requested by the Government by three methods :-
(I) Resumption of the procedure whereby comparative
data relating to factories in the U.K. and Australia are
obtained at the Board's inquiries. (2) Extended use of
industrial statistics published in various countries.
(3) Invitations to Australian manufacturers, who may
possess them, to supply the Board with comparisons
of their costs with those of other countries.
The Board suggests, in view of forthcoming inter-
national trade discussions, that international co-opera-
tion in the matter under review could contribute to
the realization of the aims of the Atlantic Charter.
235. New Zealand Trade Report. Department
of Commerce and Agriculture (Export
Division), Melbourne, 1946. Imp. 8vo,
This excellently produced and illustrated report on
trade with New Zealand covers generally the period
when post-war reconstruction of industry and commerce
commenced. It includes, however, New Zealand
tables and statistics which refer to pre-war and wartime
trading periods. The report, therefore, provides an
indication of the likely trends in Australian-New
Zealand trade as far as these trends could be foreseen,
in view of the international discussions and trading
arrangements that were in progress at date of publica-
Apart from general information regarding New
Zealand and her trade, the report comprises a complete
survey of the market by commodities, and deals ex-
tensively with the internal conditions and legislation
affecting trade. The report concludes with a chapter
giving information on questions of sales and distribu-
tion, viz.-agency representation, advertising, etc.
236. Tariff Board. Annual Report for the year
ended 3oth June 1946. P.P., Govern-
ment Printer, Canberra, 1946, pp. 30.
Price is. 4d.
Besides a summary of the Board's activities during
the year under review, the Report contains an interesting
comparative survey of production costs and efficiency
in Australia, U.K. and U.S. ; and also some important
general principles governing the Board's considera-
The most satisfactory feature of the year's inquiries
is the evidence that several manufacturers, who before
the war would probably have been unable to compete
with British suppliers without protection, now seem
able to do so. The general cost levels in the U.K. and
Australia show much less disparity than before the war.
This does not prove that Australian industries have
improved their efficiency more rapidly than have
British. That may be so in some cases but, on the
whole, the changes have been brought by other causes.
There is no such thing as absolute efficiency; it is
always a question of comparison. The effect of the
work of the Tariff Board in the past has largely been
to compare the efficiency of Australian industry with
that of British. If present indications persist and a
large range of Australian industry becomes able to
compete with British without protection, it will no
longer be possible to use the same standard with equal
effect. It will be necessary to find other standards
of comparison, and to that end the Board suggests
that it is highly important that efforts should be made
to arrange for the exchange of information with, at
least, Canada and U.S.A. also.
The Board has always regarded as one of the most
powerful methods of controlling Australian industrial
efficiency the fixing of duty rates at a level that will
give adequate protection only when Australian pro-
duction is efficient. For that reason, the Board con-
siders that in future it will not be in the national interest
to continue the pre-war practice of ignoring the pro-
tective effects of primage duties on protected articles.
The Board has always held that prohibition, or
quantitative regulation of imports, is likely to do more
harm than good to Australian industry by entirely
removing the spur to increased efficiency represented
by overseas competition and, therefore, welcomes the
statement in the government's paper on Full Employ-
ment that quantitative import restrictions will be
imposed in the future only if they become necessary
to keep purchases within the limit of our overseas
(b) Individual Industries
237. Coal. Report of the Commissioner
appointed to inquire into and report upon
The Coal Mining Industry. P.P. No. 51
of 1945-46. Government Printer,
Canberra. Vol. I and II, pp. 505. Price
The Report of Mr. Justice Davidson contains a vast
amount of information on all aspects of the industry.
However, it is so voluminous that its sheer bulk pre-
cludes a condensation into available space. A Summary
of the Report has been published by the N.S.W.
Combined Colliery Proprietors' Association, Sydney, but
even this summary comprises 6o pages. We cannot
do more than to call attention to this exhaustive source
of information upon the .coal industry in Australia
and its problems ; and to outline some of the general
conclusions reached by the Commissioner.
On the basis of material collected from the most
various sources the conclusion is this : The coal
industry requires drastic but careful and sympathetic
handling. But while it is being applied, a vigorous
effort should be made to inform the public fully and
constantly of everything that is being done and of the
results, whether good or bad. Propaganda from any
source should be met with bald statements of facts.
The time has arrived when a note of realism should be
struck in order to dissipate the cloud of maudlin senti-
mentality that is everlastingly spread over the industry
with very bad effect. Through this fog, the com-
munity as a whole has had little opportunity of ascer-
taining the truth and of forming correct conclusions.
The prerequisite for retrieving the present situation
is discipline, but not in the narrow or unilateral sense.
It signifies self-discipline on the part of all owners in
subordinating individual desires and opinions to a
common policy to enable them to collaborate as a body
for their own salvation, and for the good of the industry
and of the community; also, self-discipline on the
part of the mine workers in obeying instructions neces-
sary for the continuity of their own employment and-
safety, and for the benefit of all other workers and
The alternatives are, for many of the owners, the
bankruptcy of their mines when subsidies cease, and
for all colliery proprietors probable regimentation
under some compulsory and, most likely, uncongenial
scheme. The alternatives for the mine workers are
the loss, for many of them, of their employment when
certain mines are forced to close, and a corresponding
compulsion to that exercised over the owners, imposed
on the activities of the men remaining in work. Under
such a type of compulsion, dissatisfaction of both
parties would be bound to increase, with dire results
to the industry and to the general public dependent
on coal for its economic life.
A stage has been reached in the industry which
borders on disaster, and threatening crisis demands
bold measures. If, therefore, the Commonwealth
Government can offer a comprehensive proposal which
bears within it the means of regeneration, the interests
of the community as a whole call for the fullest co-
operation from all alike. If that concerted action be
forthcoming, and if the controller and his advisers
are persons who can command universal confidence
and respect by reason of their integrity, ability and
freedom from all political affiliations, then it would
not be too optimistic to predict that the scheme would
ensure stability in the industry, security of employment
in the best conditions for mine workers, a fair return
on their investment for shareholders, and a favourable
verdict from the people of Australia.
238. Coal. Report by Rowland James on Over-
seas Investigations into Methods of
working Thick Coal Seams-Solid Stow-
in Coal Mines-Oil from Coal and Amen-
ities for Miners. Government Printer,
Canberra. P.P. No. 47 of 1945-46, pp.
58. Price 3s.
This is a report on practices and conditions in the
coal-mines of Great Britain, Germany and France
regarding mining technique. From our point of view
only the last section of the report is interesting, dealing
with amenities for miners, viz. :-bath and change
houses, canteens, rehabilitation centres and miners'
institutes. The conclusions drawn from the infor-
mation collected abroad are:
(1) Bath and change houses throughout the coal-
fields of the Commonwealth should be raised to the
standard of similar structures on the coal-fields of
Britain. (z) Provision should be made for the intro-
duction of canteens, welfare schemes, rehabilitation
centres and workmen's clubs or institutes in order to
provide the mine workers with the amenities to which
they are entitled and induce them and their sons to
remain in and develop the nation's most important
basic industry. (3) A survey of the requirements of
the coal-fields, estimated costs and the general scheme
involved, should become the subject of an immediate
survey. (4) The Federal Government should assist
financially in the provision of the amenities mentioned,
and the controlling body which should be appointed
should be charged with the responsibility of imple-
menting and controlling these schemes in conjunction
with the respective State departments.
239. Coal. Report of the Department of Mines
of S.A. on South Australian Resources of
Coal and Lignite. P.P. of S.A. No. 16 of
1946. Government Printer, Adelaide,
Though S.A. has no high-grade coal comparable
with that of N.S.W., it has two types of lower-grade
coal, sub-bituminous at Leigh Creek, 380 miles by
rail from Adelaide, and lignite within a radius of loo
miles of Adelaide. On the Leigh Creek coalfield it
is estimated that there are 380 million tons of sub-
bituminous coal, of which approximately 30 million
tons can be removed by open-cut mining. Lignite
is inferior to Victoria's brown coal, but both lignite
and sub-bituminous coal of S.A. can be used efficiently
as fuels for industrial purposes wherever suitable
combustion adjustments are made.
There is no doubt that Leigh Creek coal and, to a
lesser extent perhaps the brown coals, have an im-
portant part to play in the economy of the State, but
always in relation to the maximum supplies and cost
of N.S.W. coal available. It is obvious, therefore,
that some degree of flexibility must be observed in
regulating production so that there may always be
sufficient available to meet all normal requirements
and that temporary expansion may be possible when
supplies of imported coal fall short of sufficiency.
These are the economic conditions which control the
use of S.A. fuels, but it must be admitted that other
considerations not of a strictly economical character
must also be taken into account.
The report is well supplemented by particulars
relating to the reserves and composition of S.A. coals,
and also by a map showing the location of the mines.
240. The Changing Status of Coal. Effect on
Australian Economy. F. R. E. Mauldon.
W.A. Mining and Commercial Review
(Perth). October 1946, pp. 13-18.
During the five years 1909-13, annual production
of saleable black coal in Australia was 10.5 m. tons,
by 1938-39, i2.2 m. tons, and by 1943-4, 13.8 m. tons.
The peak was 14.4 m. tons in 1942-3. Not less than
30 per cent of the average annual production from 19o9
to 1913 was exported overseas. By 1938-9 this export
had shrunk to 7.6 per cent. Since 1930, of the total
consumed in Australia, the percentage used by rail-
ways has declined, by factories and power stations has
remained constant, while that used in coke-making
for metallurgical purposes has increased. Brown coal
has displaced black in electricity production and in
the form of briquettes, it has been progressively ousting
wood fuel and black coal on the Victorian industrial
and domestic market. Coal saved by the operation
of hydro-electric stations has been relatively incon-
spicuous. The increased use of petroleum products
in industry, but mainly in transport, has indirectly
affected the demand for black coal. The utilization
of black coal has become more and more efficient.
We can expect a continuance of these trends although
it may be difficult to guess when they will reach their
limits. The demand of the railways will continue to
be inelastic. Future expansion of coal sales to metal-
producing industries now appears to depend upon
their capacity to expand and hold export markets.
Increased use of electrical power per head in Aus-
tralia will probably require a net increase in the absolute
tonnages of coal to be hewn. As a displacer of coal,
technical advance in fuel economy and thermal efficiency
will continue its course, but the scope for greater
economy is narrowing. The use of brown coal will
probably increase. There are many technical possi-
bilities which may become economic possibilities. An
adequate and continuous production of coal is still
among the first of our national worries. R.B.
241. Cotton. Raw Cotton-Question of Assisting
Production in Australia. Tariff Board's
Report. P.P. 1946. Government Printer,
Canberra, pp. 35. Price is. 8d.
Having investigated the situation of the cotton-
growing industry in Australia as compared with other
countries, prices, yields, returns, etc., the Board's
conclusions are :
(I) Continued assistance is necessary if it is desired
that the growing of cotton in Australia should not
cease. There is no proved necessity, from the point
of view of the community as a whole, for continuing
to grow cotton, but further assistance is desirable
provided it can be produced at much lower costs,
averaged over the whole industry and over several
years, than in the past.
(2) The imposition of duties under the Customs
Tariff on raw cotton would be most harmful to the
important and rapidly expanding industries that use
cotton as raw material and to the national economy
generally. Further assistance to cotton growing, if
given, should be by means of bounty.
(3) The cost of such assistance will be justified only
if it does not result in returns to cotton growers per
lb. of raw cotton greater than the equivalent of those
that would, before the war, have resulted from a basic
bounty of 3.25d. per lb.
(4) It seems impossible that, by any improvements
of productive methods, or by even high rates of govern-
ment assistance, sufficient cotton can be grown to
provide a substantial proportion of Australian require-
ments. However, provided the expectations of some
Queensland authorities as to increased yields, reduced
costs and benefits to pastures, can be realized, it should
not be impossible to grow cotton at low cost for the
sake of diversifying and stabilizing farming in the
districts in which it is grown ; and opportunity should
be afforded of attacking the problem.
242. Dried Fruits. Twenty-second Annual
Report of the Commonwealth Dried
Fruits Control Board for the year 1945-46.
Government Printer, Canberra, pp. 16.
For the second year in succession there has been a
marked fall in the production of currants, sultanas
and lexias due to adverse seasonal conditions. It is
estimated that the quantity available for all markets
from the 1946 crop will be approximately 70,000 tons,
as against 68,000 tons in 1945, and 104,000 tons in
1944. The Commonwealth Government allocated the
estimated 1946 production thus: 32,000 tons to the
U.K., 18,ooo tons for domestic consumption, 500oo tons
to Australian Services, 14,000 tons to Canada, 5,000
tons to N.Z., and 500 tons to other countries.
During the year the Australian Government has
entered into an agreement with the U.K. Government
for the sale and purchase of all Australian dried vine
fruits available during the years 1946, 1947 and 1948,
at the following prices in sterling f.o.b. Australia:
Currants, from i crown upwards, 40 per ton; sul-
tanas, from i crown upwards, 52 per ton; lexias,
4, 5 and 6 crown, 5/IIo/- per ton. These prices
represent advances of 5/1o/- per ton on currants and
5/15/- per ton on sultanas and lexias over those
received in 1945.
The present stability of the Australian dried fruit
industry is due in a large measure to the free admission
of Empire-grown fruit into the U.K., Canada and
N.Z. As the proposed additional production in Aus-
tralia under the Service Land Settlement Scheme will
further increase the export surplus, the Board stresses
the necessity for retaining these preferences, since no
other alternative can be suggested which will maintain
stability in the industry.
243. Gloves. Tariff Revision-Gloves N.E.I.,
Including Mittens-Tariff Item 113 (B).
Tariff Board's Report. P.P. 1946. Gov-
ernment Printer, Canberra, pp. 23. Price
Before the war, most of the working gloves required
in Australia were made locally. The manufacture of
dress gloves was before the war carried on in a very
small and apparently precarious way. At present
there are a number of glove manufacturers in Aus-
tralia who seem to possess the knowledge and plant
necessary to manufacture acceptable dress gloves.
How many of the 39 manufacturers at present in
operation measure up to that standard cannot be
estimated at present. These manufacturers have not
had an opportunity of showing what they can do
because of the non-availability of suitable raw materials
and the restrictions imposed on types of gloves per-
mitted to be made.
War conditions still bear so heavily on Australian
manufacturers and their overseas competitors that
little can usefully be said on the question of costs,
differences in costs, or other advantages or disad-
vantages in competition. If tanned and dressed skins
can be purchased on the world market and admitted
to Australia duty free, the Australian manufacturer
should be at little or no cost disadvantage compared
with other countries that do the same. If raw skins
are to be imported and dressed locally, some disad-
vantage may be placed upon glove manufacturers,
if costs in Australian tanneries are higher than in other
countries. With fabric glove materials a similar
Australian manufacturers completely failed to es-
tablish their case for the imposition of duties at the
requested rates. Though estimates varied of the
rapidity with which supplies of gloves are likely to
become available from overseas, it seems most unlikely
that they will be sufficient to meet a material pro-
portion of Australian needs for some time to come.
The Board considers that the industry has promise,
and should be encouraged to develop, but is of opinion
that tariff protection is not needed at present. The
future of the industry will depend upon the way in
which they use the period of immunity from a heavy
volume of overseas competition.
244. Machine Tools. Die-Heads-Question of
Removal from By-law Admission. Tariff
Board's Report. P.P. 1946. Govern-
ment Printer, Canberra, pp. 8.
The market for die-heads in Australia is small, but
the issue has considerable significance in that it is the
first to be raised since the end of the war, in the field
of machine tools.
The costs of production in Australia are so much
higher than those given for the U.K. that the duty
that would be necessary to protect the Australian
manufacturer would impose on the community a cost
greater than could be justified. The Board has not
overlooked the fact that conditions are not yet stable
either in the U.K. or Australia. However, according
to the Australian producers, there are no great possi-
bilities of reducing costs unless the Australian demand
expands considerably or an export trade is developed,
neither of which appears to be likely in the near future.
The onus is on the Australian manufacturers to pro-
duce on the most efficient basis and to make their
products available to users at the lowest possible cost.
Until they can demonstrate their ability to sell at
prices not involving a national cost greater than the
community should be called upon to bear, any request
for tariff protection is premature.
245. Motor Vehicles. Parts for Motor Vehicles,
Tractors and Cycles-Question of Can-
cellation of By-Laws. Tariff Board's
Report. P.P. Government Printer, Can-
berra, 1946, pp. 18. Price is.
The report covers a great number of articles used
in the manufacture of chassis, electrical machines and
appliances, spare parts, etc. Regarding development
of Australian manufacture the Tariff Board's findings
(1) That dynamos for use in the manufacture of
cycle-lighting sets are now commercially manufactured
in Australia and can compete under the existing tariff
(2) That dynamos for motor vehicles and magnetos
for internal combustion engines are manufactured in
Australia, but in circumstances that cannot be con-
sidered economic. The granting of protection on
these articles would not contribute to the economic
well-being of Australia.
(3) That preparations are in course for the manu-
facture of dynamos, starting motors and voltage regula-
tors for motor vehicles on a scale intended to be large
enough to supply future demand for the initial equip-
ment of vehicles.
(4) That two Australian concerns manufacture
wheels and demountable rims for tractors and agri-
cultural machinery, but evidence did not show whether
they could make wheels for original equipment of motor
vehicles in the numbers or at a cost that will be necessary
if motor chassis are to be economically made in Aus-
246. Motor Vehicles. Pressed Metal Panels,
Tyres and Tubes, and Batteries for Motor
Vehicles-Question of By-Law Admission.
Tariff Board's Report. P.P. No. 69 of
1945-46. Government Printer, Canberra,
1946, pp. 17. Price Is.
In pursuance of the question whether pressed metal
panels, tyres, tubes and batteries should be prescribed
for entry under the By-Law provisions of the Customs
Tariff, the Board made the necessary inquiry and has
come to the following conclusions:
The shortage of motor vehicles in Australia is so
acute at present, and likely to remain so for some time,
that any available are certain to be sold, whatever their
price. Whether or not duty is charged on panels,
vehicle prices in the near future are certain to be much
higher than before the war, and possibly than they
will be in a few years' time; the charging or remission
of duty is not likely to have a decisive influence in that
If, as seems likely, the selling of the vehicles under
discussion will not be made more difficult by higher
prices resulting from the imposition of duties on panels,
importers and distributors have little to gain from
tariff concessions on strictly limited importations.
Price control will presumably ensure that selling prices
are related to landed costs; and, if "mark-up" of
selling prices is permitted on a percentage basis, im-
porters and distributors may even make less money
if concessions are granted. Under the conditions
described, the issue seems to narrow down to one
between Government revenue and vehicle users.
Provided that the cars for which the importations are
projected would be directed by Government to uses
considered essential, the charging of duties on the
panels would tend to increase the cost of those activities,
and to militate against efforts now being made to prevent
unnecessary increases in the Australian cost level.
The cases of tyres, tubes and batteries are similar to
those of body panels and, therefore, the Board con-
siders that limited quantities of these goods should be
permitted to be imported free of duty within a defined
period of time.
247. Plastics. Plastics Industry. Tariff Board's
Report. P.P. No. 59 of 1945-46. Gov-
ernment Printer, Canberra, pp. 46. Price
The present position of the plastics industry in Aus-
tralia is one of great importance. A partial survey of
plastic moulders showed employees totalling well over
zooo, and capital employed exceeding 1.5 m. In
addition, considerable employment is given and capital
invested in the use of plastic in the paint and other
surface coating industries, as adhesives and for im-
pregnating paper, fabric and wood. The plastics
industry is, therefore, deserving of assistance.
In general it is preferable to assist the plastics industry
by reductions of costs to that industry of chemicals
and other materials used by it rather than by the im-
position of protective duties on its products. If
necessary consideration should be given by the Govern-
ment to the payment of bounties on such chemicals
and other materials. However, no assistance should
be given without full investigation of the effects such
assistance may have on industries other than the
The Board submitted an Interim Report (P.P. 58
of 1945-46, pp. 2, price 3d.) recommending that the
charging of excise duty on methylated spirit used in
the chemical industry should be discontinued. This
recommendation was given effect in Excise By-law No.
36 which was brought into operation on 2Ist January,
248. Refrigerators. Sealed Mechanical Refrig-
eration Units. Tariff Board's Report
N.S. 10. (Processed), pp. 27. Price is.
The question whether it is in the national interest,
generally, to issue licences under the Customs (Import
Licensing) Regulations for sealed mechanical refrigera-
tion units is denied by the Board. It seems certain
that in the course of a few months all present and
prospective manufacturers of refrigerators (with the
possible exception of two) will be able to produce more
cooling units than cabinets to accommodate them. The
Tariff Board, however, desires to make it clear that
this conclusion has been reached only because of the
necessity for economy of non-sterling exchange. The
Board has always strongly opposed the use of quantita-
tive control or prohibition of imports to protect Aus-
tralian industry. Such measures were adopted in 1936
as part of the Trade Diversion policy, and proved in-
effective in bringing about a sound expansion of the
mechanical refrigerator manufacturing industry in
Australia; the Board has no reason to expect any
better results from renewed use of such measures.
Evidence given at this inquiry justifies grave mis-
givings as to whether the manufacture of domestic
mechanical refrigerators in Australia is developing on
sound economic lines. The greatest demand is ex-
pected to occur in the next few years when wartime
arrears are being overtaken, but after that the most
optimistic estimate given at the inquiry was a volume
of 65,000 a year. A large proportion of these is ex-
pected to be of the absorption type, so that the market
to be divided among the seven manufacturers of
mechanical refrigerators and, perhaps, some im-
porters, may be about 40,000 units a year. The amount
of capital to be invested in tools and other requirements
of manufacture is so high that, though the efficiency
of the individual manufacturers is not doubted, the
provable market is too small to carry them all economic-
249. Leather Industry. Report of the Leather
Industries' Advisory Panel, Secondary
Industries Division, Ministry of Post-War
Reconstruction. Australian Leather
Journal, December 1946, pp. 16-26.
The report deals with the tanning and footwear
industries, giving consideration to the following par-
ticular matters : (a) the effects on the industry of war-
time development; (b) likely post-war problems the
industry may need to face; (c) condition and capacity
of existing plant; (d) anticipated volume of domestic
trade; (e) the possibilities of developing an export
trade; (f) estimated post-war requirements in terms
of materials and manpower.
(C) Monetary Policy, Banking, Insurance
(D) Public Finance
250. National Income Estimates 1938-39 to
1945-46. P.P. Commonwealth Govern-
ment Printer, Canberra, 1946, pp. 12.
The paper contains tables giving estimates of the
main items of public and private income and expendi-
ture, and illustrates the way in which public finance is
related to and interacts with the economy as a whole.
The estimates now available cover eight years, ranging
from the last pre-war year through the war period to
the first post-war year. In making comparisons
between 1938-39 and 1945-46, however, it should be
remembered that the latter year was one of transition
from war to peace, so that the relationships shown
in the tables for that year cannot be taken as an indica-
tion of "typical" post-war conditions. Because all
items in the tables are measured in terms of money
values, allowances should be made in interpreting them
for war-time increases in prices as distinct from changes
in the volume and nature of production.
The main figures are:
Net national income
produced .. 803
product at market
prices .. .. 938
Income and expen-
diture of all public
authorities .. 201
Balance of Payments -30
999 1082 1255
238 351 496
-27 -30 -26
43 44 45 46
m Sm im Sm
1229 1279 131 1247
1431 1464 1412 1434
728 692 611 555
-14 +38 +73 +38
Additional tables give details of personal and non-
personal incomes by States and size, gross national ex-
penditure, personal income and outlay, finance for
deficiency of all public authorities and the tables are
supplemented by definitions and explanations.
251. Heller, Walter W. Recent Canadian and
Australian Experience in Inter-govern-
mental Fiscal Relations. Division of Tax
Research, U.S. Treasury Department,
Washington, 1946, pp. 8 (Processed).
In recent years the Federal-State co-ordination front
in Australia and Canada has been extremely active.
The record in Australia is one of continuous and
generally harmonious co-operation. The record in
Canada is one of repeated attempts, thus far unsuccess-
ful, to solve the major problems of fiscal co-ordination.
Australia has developed highly successful Federal-
State fiscal machinery (Premiers' Conference, Loan
Council, Works Council, Grant Commission) and has
co-operatively resolved the conflict in income taxation
by centralizing the income tax in the hands of the
Commonwealth. Canada has established no per-
manent co-ordination machinery, and its Dominion-
Provincial Conference broke up over the proposition,
among others, that the Dominion Government per-
manently take over the provincial income taxes.
From the Canadian experience it is possible to draw
the inference that the embodiment of a large number of
specific proposals into a comprehensive programme
involves very great risks for any single part of that
programme. In Australia, where the income tax issue
was split off for separate consideration, the co-ordina-
tion efforts have been successful. In Canada, where
they might have been successful had they been similarly
split off, they fell by the wayside when the comprehen-
sive programme was rejected by the Provinces.
252. Social Effects of Municipal Rating. Henry
George League, Melbourne. A Study
conducted in Footscray by the Land
Values Research Group, pp. 60, demy 4to.
Price 2s. 6d.
This is a report on the relative merits of rating on
unimproved land value and annual rental value carried
out during the period October 1944 to August 1945
in Footscray by the Land Values Research Group for
collection, analysis and distribution of facts upon the
incidence and effects of public charges imposed upon
land tenures. The Footscray City Council co-operated
in the study, the aim of which was to find what the
economic effects would be of a change in the rating
system from the annual rental value basis to the unim-
proved capital value basis.
Under both the annual rental value and the site or
unimproved land value rating systems, the rates are
borne only by property owners. In the former, rates
are proportionate to the value of the land and improve-
ments combined. In the latter, they are proportionate
to the value of the site exclusive of the improvements.
The conclusion of the very detailed and extensive
survey is that the annual value rates upon built lots are
considerably greater than the share of council costs for
which they are supposed to be a payment. The rates
on vacant lots, on the other hand, are much below the
council costs. The conclusion is therefore that it is
a characteristic of annual value rating to bonus vacant
sites at the expense of built sites.
252a. Local Government Finance. Proceedings
of the Local Government Second Summer
School, 1946. Local Government Assoc-
iation of N.S.W., Sydney, 1946, pp. 95,
Four papers were presented to the School. One,
by Mr. Bruce Miller, concentrated on giving examples
of overseas devices that might be adopted to improve
local government finances here, while the other three,
given by Messrs. F. B. Horner, J. W. Every-Burns
and Frank M. Davidson, related to local trends and
experiences. Mr. Miller traversed the financial re-
lationship between the Commonwealth and the State
and left no doubt in the minds of his audience that the
Commonwealth "would have the biggest say as to
what money would be available in the future." Mr.
Horner showed a series of graphs illustrating the present
position of local government finance in N.S.W. Mr.
Every-Burns demonstrated the inadequacy of the
existing land rating system. Land rating, which takes
little account of wealth turnover in the commercial
and professional fields, falls on the land-owners and,
while it is logical that he should bear the cost of work
like roads and footpaths, which benefit him, it is surely
not fair that he should pay for services which do not
directly benefit property, but are of a more personal
character, such as libraries, public health centres and
community activities. For these, it is reasonable,
that cost should be met from general taxation to which
all subscribe, according to their capacity. Mr. Davidson
made a number of detailed recommendations about the
form in which local government accounts should be
presented, and concluded with the recommendation
that an expert committee should be appointed to look
into the general question of local government ac-
253. Liquidation of War Surpluses in Australia.
P. C. Greenland. The Australian Quart-
erly, June 1946, pp. 23-42.
If all the contents of all the shops and warehouses
in the nation at any pre-war moment of time had been
stacked together in one vast heap, they would almost
certainly not have equalled in quantity or in value the
property held by the Commonwealth at the close of the
war. When the last shot was fired, the greater part of
this enormous aggregate of commodities became
surplus to requirements.
For the handling and disposing of this war surplus
in the best interests of the nation, the Commonwealth
Disposals Commission has been established, and the
author goes on to discuss the organization and function-
ing of this Commission in detail.
Disposing of its enormous stock of goods, the Com-
mission gives first priority to public bodies. After
their requirements have been met, the war surplus
is released for sale to the general public. There is,
however, one over-riding priority in relation to most
classes of equipment. The Repatriation Commission
has first claim on all items which it desires to obtain
for the rehabilitation of discharged members of the
All merchantable materials in new condition are sold
through established trade channels. Others are sold
Eventually, the Commission must come down to the
hard core of the disposals problem i.e., finding out
what to do with immense quantities of equipment for
which there is no commercial market but which are
too valuable to be dumped. The amount which the
war surpluses are likely to realize is a question which
nobody is at present willing to answer.
254. The Cost Accountant's Approach to the
Small Manufacturing Industry. S. H.
Richardson. The Australian Accountant,
August 1946, pp. 323-332.
No industry can afford to be without:
(i) Accuracy in its cost records-and who would be
so bold as to claim accuracy for cost records unrelated
to and unreconciled with the financial record ?
(2) A means of measuring the efficiency of operations
-and without predetermined estimates or standards
this is not possible.
(3) A means of controlling the activities of the
business-by budgetary control.
In a small industry the time and effort necessary
to obtain these basic requirements is not great, pro-
vided the job is reasonably organized. Small in-
dustries do not need detailed and complicated methods
of allocating overhead expenses, controlling raw
materials, etc. They should rather concentrate on
vital matters such as:
(1) Efficient labour control rather than records of
labour costs for each and every job carried out.
(2) Control of .expense as expense, rather than by
elaborate and complicated methods of overhead ab-
(3) Concentrate on good purchasing, control and
economical use of materials; elimination of waste
and spoilt work rather than elaborate method of re-
cording material costs against every job carried out.
(4) Devise simple and easily understood efficiency
statements with clear-cut reasons for variation from
standard or estimate.
255. The Form and Presentation of Accounts
of Public Companies. A. W. Christmas.
In: Proceedings Victory Convention of the
N.Z. Society of Accountants. Wellington,
1946, pp. 29-57.
The conventional styles of trading and profit and
loss accounts and balance sheets have long been con-
sidered insufficient for modern business conditions.
They do not disclose to the management, much less
to the shareholders, the complete information required
in these days of complex trading operations. In the
light of the report of the Cohen Committee in Britain
and the recommendations of the Institute of Chartered
Accountants in London, the author has prepared two
sets of model accounts, for internal and external use
respectively, which are subsequently discussed in
256. Mathea, C. P. Price Control. The Chart-
ered Accountant in Australia, August 1946.
The author gives a brief outline of the various ways
in which prices for goods and charges or rates for
services are fixed and of the most important reasons
for the continuous review of the financial accounts of
individual traders and whole industries. His aim is to
give accountants some idea why they are called upon,
from time to time, to furnish financial accounts and
cost data of traders, and why it is of the utmost im-
portance that the data submitted be compiled in such
a way as to enable the Prices Branch to analyse the
position and give a prompt decision on the matter in
257. Goldberg, L. New Accountancy Literature.
Accounting Principles, Technical Pub-
lications, No. 21, pp. 52.
The pamphlet deals with the more important and
more widely applied concepts of accountancy, covering
doctrines, reserves and provisions, depreciation of
fixed assets, valuation of stock, holding company
Goldberg, L. Classification of Accounts and the
Planning of Accounting Systems, Tech-
nical Publications No. 22, pp. 94.
The book indicates the important place which account
classification takes in the planning of accounting
systems. With this aim* the author considers the
nature of accounting records, and the nature, purpose
and bases of classification, with a brief treatment of
some of the factors which are relevant in its operation.
H. F. Downes. Financial and Operating State-
ments as an Aid to Management, Tech-
nical Publications No. 23, pp. 62.
The pamphlet consists of three parts dealing with
(I) the managerial functions and problems confronting
management, (2) organization for control, and (3) a
discussion on report forms in common use.
Fitzgerald, G. E. and Speck, S. E. Accounts of
Holding Companies, Technical Publica-
tions No. 25, pp. 45.
The authors are dealing rather comprehensively
with one of the topical problems of accountancy, dis-
cussing holding companies, the methods of presenting
their accounts, the principles governing the prepara-
tion and presentation of consolidated income state-
ments and balance sheets.
Fitzgerald, A. A. Statistical Methods as applied
to Accountancy Reports, Technical Pub-
lications No. 28, pp. 103.
This is practically a reprint of an already well-known
and recognized treatise on the problems of relationship
between statistics and accounting and an introduction
to statistical methods and principles as applied to
All the above books have been published by the
Industrial Training Division of the Department of
Labour and National Service.
(F) Transportation and Communication
258. Transport. Annual Report of the Transport
Department. P.P. of N.Z. No. H-40 of
1946. Government Printer, Wellington,
pp. 23, demy 8vo. Price Is.
Private cars licensed at 3Ist March, 1946, numbered
201,425, an increase of 2,007 as compared with the
number at the same date in 1945 ; all other classes of
vehicles showed an increase over the previous licensing
period. Petrol-consumption of motor-vehicles during
the calendar year 1945 increased by 11,878,00o gallons,
compared with 944, an increase of 22 per cent. Deaths
from road accidents fell from 140 in 1944 to 129 in
1945. Road accidents increased substantially after the
additional petrol allowance for private cars was granted
in August 1945. Restrictions on household deliveries
by motor-vehicle, except milk zoning, ended during the
The report is amply supported by statistics.
259. Air Transport. Statistics of Australian
Regular Air Transport Services. Year
ended 3oth June 1946. Department of
Civil Aviation. Melbourne, 1946.
Operations of all regular air transport services, with
the sole exception of mail, showed great expansion
during the year under review as against the preceding
year. The number of passengers transported in-
creased from 323,953 to 514,619; passenger miles
totalled 227.85 m. as against 142.90 m. while the actual
tons of freight was 5020.8 as against 2338.8 a year
before. Mail is the only item in the statistics showing
an actual decrease, from 2,011.4 tons to 1,400.9 tons.
260. Transport and Communication 1944-45.
Bulletin No. 36 Commonwealth Bureau of
Census and Statistics. Government
Printer, Canberra, 1946, pp. 66. Price
The present issue furnishes particulars of govern-
ment railways, tramways, motor omnibuses, ferries,
civil aviation, motor vehicles, traffic accidents, shipping,
post and telegraphs, telephone, and wireless. Par-
ticulars relating to vessels on the Australian registers,
interstate and coastal steamship services, vessels built
and registered in Australia, depth of water and tides
at principal ports. Shipping casualties, which have
been excluded from the Shipping Section for some
years, have been reinserted in this issue.
It appears that the railways reached their peak
operations in 1943, showing the following figures:
Train miles run 96.10o m., total gross revenue 84.74 m.,
working expenses 64.03 m., net earnings 20.72 m.
Against these the 1945 figures are, in the same order:
90.23 m., 74-50 m., 61.37 m., 13.13 m.
In contrast, particulars relating to the Postmaster-
General's Department show an uninterrupted upward
trend and the highest revenue (8.45 m.) so far re-
(G) Labour and Industrial Relations
261. Eaton, Maude. The Forewoman and her
Position in Industry. Industrial Psychol-
ogy Division, D.S.I.R., Wellington, 1946.
(Processed), pp. 13. Price is.
It seems probable that while a thoroughly satis-
factory forewoman is likely to be more successful
than any foreman, the majority of forewomen appear
to be less successful than the majority of foremen.
Reasons for this are: Errors in selection; the com-
paratively short period of service of women in factories,
narrowing the range of selection; the comparatively
low status accorded to women in factories. Because
the social attitude has often been implicitly hostile,
it has usually needed a forewoman with an outstanding
personality to make an unqualified success of her job.
The management's attitude is the key to the situation.
The attitude of the other executives will largely take
its colouring from the management's. If forewomen
are not discriminated against on matters of status,
etiquette and consultation, their position in the factory
is more assured and their other relationships infinitely
262. Travelling to Work. A review of some
Australian data. K. F. Walker and E. J.
Moran. Bulletin of Industrial Psychology
and Personnel Practice (Melbourne), Sep-
The daily journey to work has important social
functions, although it gives rise to financial and other
costs to the community. A survey of the transport
arrangements of 6,895 industrial workers in Sydney
revealed an average travel time of 77.32 minutes per
day and that 54 per cent of workers spent one hour
or more per day in travel. Three-quarters of the
workers used public transport, while one-sixth walked
all the way to work. About two-fifths of the sample
changed vehicles at least once on the journey. Em-
ployees of factories in inner suburban areas change
more often than employees of factories further out.
Comparison with data for Britain shows a slightly
longer travelling time in Sydney, and a higher pro-
portion using public transport. Data from another
study show a relationship between absenteeism and
time spent travelling to work.
263. Criteria for the Selection of Personnel
Officers. P. H. Cook. Bulletin of Indus-
trial Psychology and Personnel Practice
From an analysis of certain data concerning 48
personnel officers, 27 men and 21 women, 25 of whom
were classed as most effective and 23 as least effective
in the performance of personnel duties, out of a total
group of 88 officers engaged in the work, the following
conclusions can be drawn.
(i) The minimum age for success in women officers
is 27 years; within certain limits, which were not
determined, age is not relevant as far as men officers
are concerned. (2) For both men and women the
minimum educational level necessary for success is
Intermediate Certificate standard or its equivalent.
(3) The minimum intelligence level for success in
women is high average standard (I.Q. 105) and for men
presumably not less than average standard (I.Q. ioo).
(4) The Rorschach Inkblot Method is a useful selection
instrument for screening out both men and women who
for personality reasons are quite unsuited for the work.
However, positive predictions cannot be made from the
results of this test. (5) Both men and women with
introversive personality trends are more likely to be
successful than those with extratensive trends. Officers
classed as extratensive were all graded as "least satis-
factory." (6) Industrial experience prior to training
has no relation to success in both men and women.
264. Wage Stabilization in New Zealand. A. R.
Low. International Labour Review, Vol.
LIII, pp. 170-185.
In this article an account is provided of the economic
stabilization policy in its relation to wages that was
observed in New Zealand in the prosecution of the
recent national war effort. Of particular note is the
growing dissatisfaction and unrest in some quarters
to which the application of that policy gave rise.
Pressure forced concessions to be made to wage-
earners in the later days of the war (beginning early
in 1944), a development that in its turn will, no doubt,
lead to an attempt to hold wage rates at a new level.
265. Statistical Quality Control-Theory and
Application to Production. A. L. Stewart.
Manufacturing and Management, July
1946, pp. 17-25.
Statistical quality control is a comparatively new
tool of production management. As a scientifically
sound and economic method of controlling product
quality, its use has developed considerably during the
war years and has resulted in substantial savings in
materials and labour to many industrial establishments.
A certain amount of variability is inherent in all
repetitive production processes, and this new tool can
be of assistance in ensuring that such variability has
been freed of all controllable causes and is therefore
of a purely random nature. An elementary intro-
duction to these fundamental ideas is given, and brief
reference is made to the actual results achieved in a
number of typical industrial applications.
266. Hare, A. E. C. Report on Industrial
Relations in New Zealand. Whitcombe
and Tombs Ltd., Wellington, 1946, pp.
This work is divided into three parts. In Part I,
the writer's purpose is to indicate, by way of back-
ground for Parts II and III, the principal elements of
unrest in a modern industrialized society and the chief
remedies calculated to cure the unrest. In Part II
he examines industrial relations as he sees them in
the New Zealand of the present day. In Part III he
offers recommendations and endeavours to apply the
remedies to which he has referred to meet the par-
ticular conditions in New Zealand.
Included in his recommendations are Factory Act
reform, improved methods of management in industry
enabling, among other things, workers to become
partners in industry; reorganization of employers'
organizations, and trade unions ; recasting of the
Department of Labour ; and the establishment of an
efficient School of Social Studies.
267. Personnel Management Practices. The
Institute of Industrial Management, Mel-
bourne, 1946, roy. 8vo, pp. 84. Price los.
The volume contains six lectures on personnel
management currently applied to Australian Industry,
including such problems as selection and placement,
training and health, as well as employer-employee con-
F. L. Fitzpatrick deals with some tested management
methods urging a personnel policy founded on justice
and directed to the objective, i.e., large output, right
quality, low cost, high earnings for good work and
good return to investors on capital. Australia desper-
ately needs more and better production. It is up to
managers to get it, and by rational planning, progressive
policies and hard work by management, we shall pro-
duce it. The paper is supplemented by copies of
forms used in engagement and rating of employees in
R. B. Drewe's subject is employee training as adopted
by Dunlop Rubber Australia Ltd. since their intro-
duction of the training scheme and the policy laid
down by the management for the full development of
its employees in the future.
J. A. Rafferty's paper is on the services and working
conditions in the Australian National Airways. He
deals with the provision of physical amenities and in-
centives like superannuation schemes, library schemes,
recreation, housing, etc.
G. A. Stokes writes on wage incentives, their methods
and social implications. His conclusion is that extra
payment should be contingent on extra effort only
and workers on wage incentives should not be alienated
by palpably unfair and unimaginative administration
of bonus rates where, if anything at all goes wrong,
they, and only they, are penalised.
Alan L. Life deals with joint consultation through
employer-employee committees, in particular with the
Whitley Council Movement and the Joint Production
Committee Movement in Great Britain and the works
committees in the Fairfield Mill and the Botany Mill
of the Australian Paper Manufacturers" Ltd.
Finally E. J. Reilly deals with problems of safety
in industry and discusses the practice in use in ICIANZ
268. International Labour Organisation. Report
of the Australian Government and Em-
ployers' Delegates on the 27th Session,
1945. P.P. No. 52 of 1945-46. Govern-
ment Printer, Canberra, pp. 41. Price 2s.
The main subjects of the conference were : (i) The
maintenance of high levels of employment during the
period of industrial rehabilitation and reconversion.
(2) The protection of children and young workers.
(3) Minimum standards of social policy in dependent
territories. The paper gives a comprehensive report
on the discussions and the part of the Australian
delegates in them, and also the full texts of the resolu-
tions adopted by the Conference.
Australia has been elected to the Governing Body of
the ILO and the Australian Government delegates
consider that this membership will necessitate a much
closer study of ILO activities than hitherto. In
particular, Australia should, where possible, ratify and
apply ILO conventions and implement recommenda-
tions. Whereas the U.K. has a record of 44 ratified
ILO conventions, Australia falls very low in the list
with only I2 ratifications.
269. A Tentative Battery of Tests for Selection
of Women for Cotton Textile Spinning.
K. F. Walker and N. M. Oxlade.
Bulletin of Industrial Psychology and
Personnel Practice (Melbourne). June
This article discusses the use of certain psychological
tests in selection of women operators. Although the
number of operatives tested was relatively small and
conditions for the investigation were not ideal, it has
been shown that the use of these tests in the employ-
ment of operatives would result in more effective
selection. A combination of the Lacing Board,
Spinning Board and Detroit Tests gives almost as good
results as a combination of the five tests, and in view
of their lower reliability, the Placing and Turning
Tests might be omitted from the battery. Further
research is needed in order to validate the battery
completely, but its tentative use in the meantime is
In practice psychological tests in selection should
be used in conjunction with other aspects of sound
employment methods (application form, interview,
medical examination, etc.).
270. Cunningham, Dr. K. S.: Jobs and Men.
The Institute of Industrial Management,
Melbourne, 1946, pp. 16, demy 8vo.
The address outlines the problem of fitting the
individual into the vocational pattern, the means by
which this problem might be solved, and the benefits
which its solution would confer upon the individual,
the community and industry. The complexity of the
modern occupational pattern and the rapidity with
which it changes are illustrated by references to
American and Australian occupations. Two aspects
of the problem are then treated ; the need for further
knowledge of occupations, and the need for increased
knowledge of human beings.
The speaker points out that guidance now has a
scientific background, and that the proper place for
training in guidance work is the University. He
concludes with the suggestion that the Institute should
set up a committee "to survey what is being done at
present in the systematic study of the total field of
occupations in Australia."
271. Placing People in Jobs by Aptitude Tests.
Ronald Taft. The Commonwealth Engin-
eer, Vol. 33, No. 10, pp. 349-53. Selec-
tion and Placement of Aircraft Workers.
Ronald Taft. Manufacturing and Man-
agement (Melbourne). Vol. i, No. i,
These two articles relate to the application of scientific
procedures to vocational guidance and employment
The first deals with the use of aptitude tests, their
history, their application and their success, with
specific reference to Australia. They are useful both
in connection with educational guidance, particularly
in the choice of school subjects, and also in the selection
and placement of persons for jobs. They are of
distinct value to the employer, as well as to the person
who is given guidance on the basis of their test results.
The second article refers to the procedures used by
the Beaufort Division of the Department of Aircraft
Production, in a co-ordinated personnel management
programme. This includes the selection and placement
of trainees and other employees, their training and
follow-up after placement. Interwoven through it is
the application of aptitude tests and employee ratings.
272. Joint Management-Employee Councils and
Committees in Industry and the Public
Service. Postmaster-General's Depart-
ment, Canberra, 1946, pp. 20 (Processed).
The impulse towards the establishment of joint
committees has arisen from the need to establish
harmonious relationships and to secure co-operation
between employers and employees in an endeavour
to secure maximum output. This paper describes
the types of Committees (social committees and clubs,
canteen committees, joint production committees,
general welfare committees, works councils), their
objects and functions, authorities and responsibilities.
The study goes on to discuss the objections raised
against joint committees from the workers' and em-
ployees' point of view as well as their advantages and
The conclusion from the review of joint committee
schemes in industry and in Civil Service drawn by
authors is that employee participation in management
has advantages which far outweigh its disadvantages
but that success in any instance is dependent upon the
observance of certain well-defined principles which
are enumerated and briefly discussed in the study.
AGRICULTURE, LAND AND RURAL
273. Production and Distribution in the Aus-
tralian Egg Industry, Wyn F. Owen.
Review of Marketing and Agricultural
Economics, October 1946.
The available data of commercial egg production
are set out, their incompleteness prior to 1942 is em-
phasized. War-time developments in drying and
pulping are stated. Limitations of cold storage as a
means of carrying eggs over from periods of glut to
those of scarcity are emphasized.
A deterioration of 15 per cent during storage has
been past experience. The contract with Britain
gives an assured market for two seasons, but the further
outlook is less certain. The next two years give an
opportunity for improving efficiency in various direc-
tions. S. M. Wadham.
274. Report on Rural Training for Returned
Service Personnel. G. A. Currie.
Journal of the Australian Institute of
Agricultural Science, June 1946, pp. 5-8.
Summary of a confidential report submitted to the
Ministry of Post-War Reconstruction in July, 1945.
A proposed plan for the rural training of 2o,ooo persons
within the Commonwealth Reconstruction Training
Scheme was discussed with a "wide cross-section of
knowledgeable and interested people in each State."
Practical training is to be gained from two years'
continuous experience on approved farms. "In-
tensive training in farm management would be given in
short two months' courses in residential schools es-
tablished and staffed for the purpose," the basic prin-
ciple to be used being (i) farming as a business, (2)
farming as a science, (3) farming as a practical art,
(4) farming as a way of life.
It was recommended that all aspects of the training
scheme be administered by the State Departments of
Agriculture as agents for the Commonwealth.-
275. Water Conservation and Land Drainage.
Eighth Report of the Rural Reconstruc-
tion Commission, pp. 78.
This report discusses the availability of water and
how it should be allocated, technical problems of
irrigation, financial and political aspects of irrigation
and land drainage.
The Commission concludes that water will ultimately
be one of the most important of all commodities in the
Australian economy. It should, therefore, be allocated
primarily to ensure supplies for domestic and stock
purposes; secondly, irrigation ; thirdly, hydro-
electric schemes. New irrigation developments should
be considered together with the demand for what they
could produce. Much preliminary research is essential
for new irrigation ventures. An advisory service as
well as a research station is an essential part of any
large irrigation scheme. Research on the irrigation
of the North is overdue. Experience has shown that
the cost of the headworks and the main supply will
have to be largely borne by the country, but that
extra revenue results from the increase in productivity
and population. Land drainage will improve certain
areas but more research is needed; the national
attitude should be the same as for irrigation. Particular
attention should be given to the development of irriga-
tion as an ancillary to the live-stock industries of the
drier regions in order to eliminate drought wastage
rather than in carrying greater numbers of stock.
Four water schemes-the Snowy, the Ord, the Bradfield,
and Artesian Basins are reviewed. Co-ordination
between all Australian governments is essential in
irrigation policies.-A. J. Mclntyre.
276. Wadham, S. M. Necessary Principles for
Satisfactory Agricultural Development in
Australia. Joseph Fisher Lecture at the
University of Adelaide, June 1946. Hassell
Press, Adelaide, pp. 22.
The world farming epoch which ended with the
Great Depression was characterized by exploitation of
new farm lands, financed by European countries, an
increase in the volume of farm products, and the
upset of the agriculture of older regions. The de-
pression brought adjustments such as debt moratoria,
further marketing legislation and abandonment of
marginal areas, and also the realization that there
was over-production of many farm products. Cam-
paigns for better nutrition were initiated and studies of
farm life became popular. The second world war
increased demands and blocked normal channels of
trade, and at the end of the war many people are faced
with disaster. But war-time and post-war high prices
and big demand for farm products are unlikely to last,
so expansion of farm production is unwarranted.
The desirable principles of agricultural recon-
struction in Australia are : Proper allocation of land
to ensure the needs of the future, e.g. safeguarding
water catchments; erosion control ; maintenance of
soil fertility; a credit system linked with an agricultural
advisory service; amalgamation of small farms or
co-operative use of machinery to achieve advantages
of farm mechanization; a recognized wage system for
farm workers; a ladder of progress so that efficient
workers can rise to ownership ; settlement and sub-
division, the latter not to be regarded as inevitably
desirable; a recognition that crown leasehold is not
necessarily superior to freehold tenure; better rural
education ; a federal body to collate State administra-
tion rather than dictate policy; better housing, water
supplies and other amenities for country people.-
A. J. McIntyre.
277. A Rural Policy for Post-War Australia.
A Statement of current Commonwealth
policy in relation to Australia's primary
industries. Authorised by the Prime
Minister of Australia. Department of
Post-War Reconstruction, Canberra, 1946,
The Government recognizes that high levels of
employment in Australia and elsewhere are essential
to maintain continued rural prosperity and it has
based its home and international policies largely upon
this view. The immediate outlook for rural in-
dustries is bright. During the war years there was a
great increase in the earnings of the farmers and their
financial position was greatly improved since 1939.
Although accurate figures are not available, it is esti-
mated that the total indebtedness of farmers to in-
stitutions, such as government agencies, various banks,
insurance societies, pastoral and trustee companies,
has declined from, in round figures, about 300 m. in
June 1939 to about 240 m. in June 1945, i.e. a re-
duction of about 60 m. These figures do not include
private mortgages or hire purchase debts which are
also likely to have been reduced considerably. Against
this improvement heavy expenditure will be needed
for plant and equipment as these become available.
It is the intention of the Government to maintain
the healthy financial conditions of the farmers through
organised marketing, cost of production surveys and
raising the farm efficiency. The Government will
take the necessary steps for the reconstruction of
economically unsound farm units, for the improvement
of soil conservation and for uniform land valuations.
The Government stresses the importance of raising
nutritional standards and the Commonwealth proposes
to discuss with the States certain measures for main-
taining and increasing the consumption of whole milk.
Examples are given of schemes already introduced for
the elimination of violent fluctuations in prices of rural
An early improvement in living conditions in rural
areas was desirable, and it was hoped that the Com-
monwealth would be given powers to extend medical
facilities to areas where they had not previously existed.
278. The Financial Position of 22 New South
Wales Wheat-Sheep Farms in 1944-45.
P. C. Druce. Review of Marketing and
Agricultural Economics, September 1946,
Fifty wheat-sheep farmers in the major wheat-
growing districts of the State were asked by the Depart-
ment of Agriculture, N.S.W., to keep farm records on
provided forms. Twenty-two returned satisfactory
books. Two were tenant farmers. Managerial ability
of most of these farmers was well above average, some
being amongst the best in their districts. Wheat
yield in the 1944-45 season for the farms within the
North-Western Slope was above the official Division
average (1935-36 to 1939-40), while farms in the other
Divisions had yields only 19%-43% of their respective
'The farmers' own valuations of land improvements,
equipment and stock were accepted except when they
appeared to be quite unreasonable.' On this basis
invested capital per acre varied between 6.1 and 14.4
on owner-operated farms.
The following incomes were calculated: 'True
Net Income,' 'Net Family Income,' 'Net Farm Income,'
'Operator's Earnings' and 'Managerial Return.' Only
four farmers had this last type of income, and three out
of these four were in the drought-unaffected North
Western Slope Division.
'The maximum liability on any farm at the beginning
of the year was 8,140; on one farm there were no
liabilities.' Of the total liabilities of the 19 owner-
operated farms (with liabilities) 63 per cent was owed to
279. U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization.
Report by the Australian Delegation on
the Conference held at Quebec, Canada,
October-November 1945. P.P. No. 64 of
1945-46. Government Printer, Canberra,
pp. 23. Price is.
This is a report of the Australian Delegation on the
proceedings of the conference and the delegation's
part in them. It contains also the statements made
by the leader of the delegation, Dr. R. J. Noble, Under
Secretary of N.S.W. Dept. of Agriculture.
Throughout the meeting it was stressed that great
responsibilities rest with member nations relating to
increase efficiency in production and distribution, to
extend useful knowledge on nutrition and to do every-
thing possible to increase levels of nutrition and
standards of living to the full extent practicable by
means already available in the countries concerned.
In order to facilitate effective participation by the
Commonwealth in the work of the FAO, it is recom-
mended that special committees be established within
the Commonwealth and within each of the States.
280. Production Goals for Primary Products.
Some Aspects of Their Formulation and
Function. K. O. Campbell. Economic
Record, June 1946, pp. 83-98.
Production goals are defined as compromises between
fluctuating supply and demand. Prospective demand
was determined from civilian and services require-
ments. Feasible supply or productive capacity de-
pended on (I) available rural manpower, (2) allocation
of resources to agriculture, (3) extent to which farmers
voluntarily worked harder and were prepared to change
their farming systems, (4) commodity price structure
and, the major factor, (5) weather.
Production goal technique as developed by the U.S.
Department of Agriculture is appraised. The Aus-
tralian Production Goals Committee based production
potential on (i) available statistical material; (2)
reference to State instrumentalities, and (3) cursory
localized surveys. 'The failure of production to
reach the goals set is the outstanding feature of the
statistical record.' Shortcomings are ascribed to
(1) failure to examine production at locality levels;
(2) exclusion of some important commodities among
production goals set, (3) production goal periods not
coinciding for the various commodities, and (4) 'goals
were not reduced to common denominators-crops in
acres and livestock in numbers.'
Use of finalized production goals at the Common-
wealth, State, locality and individual farm level is
criticized. Lessons for post-war agriculture are sug-
281. Economic Outlook for the Horticultural and
Viticultural Industries. Bulletin 2, Bureau
of Agricultural Economics, Common-
wealth Department of Commerce and
Agriculture, 1946, pp. 29 and appendices.
A preliminary report prepared to assist Common-
wealth War Service Land Settlement by examining
the economic outlook for these industries as a basis
for settling ex-servicemen. 'The principle has already
been accepted that war service land settlement should
be undertaken only where economic prospects for the
production concerned are reasonably sound. The
present survey endeavours to analyse and to assess
these prospects, using the best available data and
making assumptions about the future which are within
reasonable bounds of probability.'
Production data were obtained largely from existing
secondary sources, except for a complete survey of
citrus fruits. Demand data were based on the applica-
tion of formulated assumptions to existing domestic
and world markets. The difference between demand
and production was converted into acreages of recom-
mended plantings.-M. Rothberg.
(A) Government and Politics
282. Parliamentary Reform In New Zealand.
A Critical Examination of the Functioning
of Parliament by A. H. Nordmeyer and
R. Algie. Journal of Public Administration,
The first of these articles regrets the degeneration
of the Address-in-Reply Debate to the level of a mere
repetition of election speeches and suggests a shorten-
ing of the length allowed to speakers in the Budget
Debate as a means of keeping the debate to the subject.
The degeneration of Question Time into mere propa-
ganda time is also regretted. Mr. Algie reviews
common criticisms of parliamentary government, the
party system, the apparent inefficiency of parliamentary
debates, the growth of delegated legislation, the weak-
ness of the committees.
282a. Employment of Women in the Civil
Service. Jean F. Arnot. Public Admin-
istration (Sydney), December 1945, pp.
In the British civil service the first appointment for
female clerical workers was made in 1871, and in 1891
a special examination was held. In 1919 the Sex Dis-
qualification Act opened the home civil service in all
branches to women. To-day differentiation in pay
is responsible for more and more work being regarded
as women's work.
In the United States Federal Service women entered
the lower grades of work long before they were ad-
mitted to the higher ones. In 1870 the principle of
equal pay for equal work was proclaimed, and in 1883
a system of competitive examinations was introduced.
To-day in practice there is still some degree of dis-
In the Australian Commonwealth Service we find
a strict system of segregation. With the establishment
of the N.S.W. Public Service Board in 1895, it was
required to make regulations facilitating the employ-
ment of women where it was desirable to make use of
their service. With the closing of the entrance examina-
tions in 1922, girls entering the service have been at a
disadvantage from the start.
Women's claims in all countries are (i) that rates of
remuneration shall not be differentiated and (2) that
all appointments shall be open to men and women.
283. The Universities Commission and Its
Functions. E. J. Hook. Public Admin-
The Universities Commission, set up in 1943 to
administer reservation and civilian financial assistance
at the Universities, also administers the professional
part of reconstruction training. It is not a corporate
body and belongs directly under the Minister for
Even before establishing State offices in 1946, the
Commission was largely decentralised as it worked
through local man-power, and largely followed the
advice of and left detailed administration to each
Civilian financial assistance is mainly restricted to
those who have recently left school.
Reconstruction training is available to former mem-
bers of the Forces with six months' service. Part-
time training up to 60 is available to finish courses
begun in the Services or associated with one's occupa-
Full-time training is restricted mainly to the follow-
ing : Incapacitated, interrupted a course to enlist,
contemplated a course prevented by the war, war-
widows. These must be capable of matriculating
with a year's qualifying course. Benefits include all
fees, allowances for books and instruments, and living
allowances from 2 los. for a single woman living with
her parents, to 5 5s. for a married man with a child.
284. Murtagh, James C.: Democracy in Australia.
An Essay in Organic Reconstruction.
With a Foreword by Dr. Mannix, Arch-
bishop of Melbourne. Catholic Social
Guild, Melbourne, 1946, pp. 70.
The book is divided into two parts: 'Principles'
and 'Applications.' Part I sets out the tenets of
Catholic political philosophy on such subjects as
human society, 'natural associations' (the family, the
municipality, the vocational group, the State), the
derivation of State authority, 'natural rights,' and the
main proposals for 'the reform of institutions.' 'The
restoration of institutions to the natural trade and
professional associations in society and the handing
back to these subsidiary groups most of the subordinate
tasks and duties which to-day overwhelm and crush
government administration.' Part II contains a dis-
cussion of the political and social set-up in Australia
informed by the analysis of Part I, and an assessing of
the prospects of an 'organic Society' in Australia.
284a. State of Democracy. S. Howard. Aus-
tralian Quarterly. June 1946, pp. 15-22.
Mr. Howard defines democracy as primarily an atti-
tude of mind. He discusses certain aspects of Aus-
tralian social and political life and asserts 'Democracy
has lost in the past 25 years its dynamic quality.' He
suggests two restoratives : a changed type of leader-
'a Prophet, not party politicians,' and 'a programme of
youth and adult education designed to produce not
only earners but citizens.'
284b. F. A. Bland: Federalism in Australia.
Public Administration (Sydney), Sep-
tember 1946, pp. 152-161.
Federalism represents an attitude to and a belief
in the desirability of maintaining that form of govern-
ment associated with a federal system. Discussing
the advantages and disadvantages of such a system,
in particular the federal system of Australia, the author
concludes that 'federalism is a force which moderates
the absolute power of the masses. And indeed demo-
cracy requires this moderating influence. It requires
to be continually reminded that the decision of the
majority does not constitute the essence of democracy
but is really an expedient. Again, federalism is
democracy between States. Both are expressions of
the theory of self-determination, both are intrinsically
co-operative as opposed to all forms of authoritarian
organisation. Thus, in the changed character of
parliamentary government and of democratic thought,
federalism remains a most effective bulwark against
arbitrary action by political parties, and the incipient
dictatorship by the experiences of other States overseas,
should strenuously defend.'
(B) International Relations
285. Evatt, H. V. Australia in World Affairs.
With a Foreword by Sir F. W. Eggleston.
Angus and Robertson, Sydney, 1946,
pp. 213, demy 8vo. Price los.
This volume contains o2 speeches and articles of
Dr. Evatt covering the period from early 1945 until
the middle of 1946. They deal with current inter-
national problems and can be summarized as follows:
Peace depends on the concert of the Great Powers,
but they should be responsible to world opinion and
submit to the rule of law. Power is not a source of
wisdom-wisdom comes from a general consensus of
all. In every civilized order the small powers have
significant contributions to make and it would be a
disaster if the influence of the smaller nations were
eliminated. Armaments should be regulated and
limited in a world security scheme for which the
Charter makes adequate provision. Particular areas
lend themselves to a treatment on regional lines, from
the point of view both of the settlement of disputes
and of the organization of security.
A peaceful world order can never be complete until
the colonial problem is solved through a universal
acknowledgment of trusteeship and a system of ac-
countability to a world authority with an obligation to
advance political freedom and economic welfare for
If the world is to become stable, the legal element
in international life must be strengthened. Dr. Evatt
advocates not only an expansion of the ambit of inter-
national law, but also an extension of the power of the
International Court of Justice.
The permanent security of the Pacific area should
be provided for on regional lines as foreshadowed in
the Australian-New Zealand Agreement. The neces-
sary bases would be determined in a general scheme
with mutual right of use by the Powers included in the
286. International Implications of Atomic Energy,
A. P. Elkin. Australian Quarterly, Sep-
The most startling of the many circumstances sur-
rounding the atomic bomb was not so much the bomb
itself as its accompaniment by statements on the
highest political plane. This was not just a new and
better bomb but an event, in comparison with which,
even the winning of the war was a minor episode.
Two alternatives confronted mankind: (I) the de-
struction of civilisation through fear and the use of
atomic bombs, or (z) international control of the
manufacture and use of atomic energy, which would
ensure the development and use of the fundamental
power of the universe for the well-being of all men.
Scientists concerned in the production of the bomb
were awakening to their social responsibilities, they
were beginning to realise their obligation to educate
both the public and politicians to the urgency of
international control of atomic energy. Scientists
were beginning to study the social causes of war.
The setting up of the United Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural Organisation was only the
beginning of international control over scientific
287. Australia's Foreign Relations. The Round
Table, September 1946, pp. 387-394.
Isolationism persisted in Australia until 1939,
although geographic and strategic factors making for
isolationism had in reality been contradicted fifty
years before. Between the world wars Australia did
little more than follow Britain's lead in foreign policy.
The Pacific War resulted in a re-statement of Labour's
foreign policy so that greater stress was placed on
Australia's independent status and the need for regional
defence in the south-west Pacific. Australia looked
to U.S.A. more than to Britain for assistance in the
crisis. Although Australian policy remained broadly
the same as Britain's there was increasing divergence
on matters of detail. This divergence was reflected
in the Australian insistence on full employment at
the I.LO. Conference and in Dr. Evatt's continuous
campaigning on behalf of the small States. The
pursuance of this latter role was not always consistent
with Australian participation in a British Common-
288. United Nations. Report of the Australian
Delegation on the Meetings of the
Assembly, Security Council and Economic
and Social Council, held in London in
January and February, 1946. P.P. No.
49 of 1945-46. Government Printer,
Canberra, pp. 49. Price 2s. 4d.
Besides a full report on the proceedings of the
meetings, the paper contains also the full texts of the
principal resolutions and regulations adopted by the
Assembly, and the statements made by the Australian
delegates Dr. Evatt (regarding the election of Aus-
tralia to the Security Council), Mr. Makin (regarding
the establishment of an Atomic Energy Commission),
and Mr. Beasley (regarding the world grain situation).
Finally the draft resolution is appended to the report
submitted by the Australian delegation regarding the
inauguration of the system of trusteeship.
289. Planning Peace in the Pacific. Alan
Walker. Australian Quarterly, June 1946,
The Rev. Alan Walker asserts that peace in the
Pacific must rest on four pillars, the acceptance and
the expression in policy of the fact of racial equality;
the primacy of native welfare ; the expansion of
economic freedom and the establishment of security
through joint action rather than by individual national
(B) Social Security and Public Health
290. Social Services: Fourth Report of the
Director-General of Social Services for
the year ended 3oth June 1945. P.P. No.
66 of 1945-46. Government Printer,
Canberra, pp. ii. Price 9d.
During the year under review invalid and old-age
pensions have been increased by 5s. 6d. per week
from 27s. to 32s. 6d.; child endowment has been
increased for each eligible child from 5s. to 7s. 6d.,
and widows' pensions have been increased by 5s. 6d.
to a maximum of 27s. 6d. per week.
The number of claims for maternity allowances
increased by 15,826 to a total of 159,621, while child
endowment at the close of the year was paid to 938,543
children in 518,293 homes and 335 approved in-
stitutions. Total expenditure for social services ad-
ministered by the Department amounted to 39,409,615
as against 39,149,114 in the previous year, while the
percentage cost of administration was I.o6 as against
1.02 a year ago.
(C) Social Surveys
(D) Population and Migration
291. Population. Report of the Dominion Pop-
ulation Committee. Government Printer,
Wellington. P.P. of New Zealand No.
1-17 of 1946, pp. 136, med. 8vo. Price
This is the report of a Select Committee of the
House of Representatives appointed to consider ways
and means of increasing the population of the Dominion.
The conclusions and recommendations of the Com-
mittee, based on a careful and detailed study of the
subject, are :
The population of New Zealand is predominantly
European. At the present time 94.33 per cent. are
of European extraction, 5.23 per cent. of Maori ex-
traction, and only 0.44 per cent. of other than Euro-
pean or Maori extraction. If the very low birth rate
of between 16 and 17 per Iooo of the European popula-
tion which was in existence in 1936 had continued,
then, apart from immigration possibilities, the popula-
tion would in a relatively short time have tended to
decline. The rate of over 23 per 1ooo in 1945 is
abnormally high, and is probably due to conditions
associated with the return of servicemen from over-
seas. Other things being equal, and excluding the
possible beneficial effect of the universal family benefit,
the rate is likely to stabilize somewhere between 18
and 21 per iooo. At this rate, and providing the
size of families remains constant, the population will
slowly, increase. The heavy fall in the birth rates
during the depression, however, has created a gap in
the population which it will be impossible to fill.
This will create employment difficulties, particularly
in the next six or seven years. Due to the fact that
the age-structure of the European population is now
definitely that of a matured country, a continuation
of the rate of fall in the death rate cannot be expected
which was in evidence over earlier periods of New
Zealand's history. Of recent years the total death
rate has fallen largely because of a fall in the infantile
death rate. Since this is now the lowest in the world,
a continuance in the rate of fall cannot be expected.
The very great increase of recent years in the Maori
population is the outstanding fact in New Zealand's
population development. The total Maori population
increased by nearly 30 per cent. between 1926 and
1936. Approximately 97 per cent of the Maori
population live in the North Island. The Maori
death rate, however, is considerably greater than the
European death rate, and this is particularly true of
of the Maori infantile death rate which, in 1944, was
102.2 per iooo Maori births, as compared with 30.12
per iooo non-Maori births.
The average expectation of life, which increased
very considerably between 1891 and 1931, is still
increasing, but at a slower rate. The average expec-
tation of life for males is now 65.46 and for females
68.45. For Maoris the average expectation of life
is 46.2 years for both sexes.
The report deals extensively with questions of
location of the population and its occupational distri-
bution and recommends from this point of view the
decentralization of certain industries. The demand
for agricultural labour is falling off and there is no
necessity for the State to organize the immigration of
either agriculturalists or agricultural labourers into
the Dominion. On the other hand there is scope for
the immigration of coal miners, workers in saw-milling
and bush-felling, hospital nurses, domestic servants
and for secondary industrial work. However, housing
shortages were so serious as to make it impossible
for an immediate commencement of large-scale immigra-
The fact that the population is steadily aging has
some very important results financially. It increases
the burden of old-age benefits and increases the re-
sponsibility of the working community for the dependent
sections of the community. On the other hand, an
increasing population will, other things being equal,
result in a lowering of the burden of debt, particularly
of the unproductive debt.
Finally the Committee endorses the recommendations
of the 1937 Committee of Inquiry into the various
Aspects of the Problem of Abortion and of the Pharmacy
Board respecting the sale of contraceptives.
292. Thompson, Warren S. : Population and
Peace in the Pacific. University of
Chicago Press. Chicago, 1946, pp. 379.
Besides demographic problems the book deals also
with agricultural and mineral resources, production,
industrialization, transport and foreign trade in all
Pacific countries with the exception of the U.S.A.
(including Alaska), Canada and the Soviet Far East.
Regarding Japan, author appreciates her continuing
need for overseas territories and for opportunities
to revive her export trade. He urges that Manchuria
and Formosa be allowed to retain special economic
relations with Japan for some time after they have
reverted to Chinese sovereignty. Emphasising the
social and political factors that retard China's economic
progress, his counsel is that "help to China in moderniz-
ing her economy should be made contingent on the
willingness of the Chinese leaders to show their people
the need for voluntary control of population growth."
Considerable time and space are devoted to the author's
reproaches of Australia and New Zealand for their
short-sighted policies of immigration as shown by
restriction and exclusion of Asiatics.
(1) Migration Policy. The Economist,
August 17, 1946.
(2) Population and Empire. The Round
(3) Britons for the Dominions. G. F.
McLeary. Time and Tide (London).
(i) Discussing the economic and political ramifica-
tions of the question of British migration into the
Dominions The Economist comes to the conclusion
that Britain neither can nor should slam the door
against emigration; to do so would not be politic
towards the Dominions nor just towards individuals.
But it cannot afford to encourage a wholesale exodus.
This fact does not weaken the Dominion's case for
expansion, but it makes necessary a broader approach
to the sources of supply. At the same time, a more
generous and far-seeing attitude towards immigration
to Britain would facilitate emigration abroad. What
is wanted is a wider system of circulation, not a one-
way traffic system. It is for the Dominions to swell
their population by immigration, but not to rely on
Northern European stock for their main source of
supply. North-Western Europe as a whole cannot
provide many emigrants. But large numbers could
still come from the Mediterranean countries of Europe,
especially from Italy. If it is right for the Dominions
to accept settlers from Southern Europe it is at least
equally right that Great Britain should open her doors
to them. As things now stand, the British Govern-
ment appear to be as conscious of the disadvantages of
sending British citizens abroad as they are unconscious
of the advantages of bringing additional manpower
into this country. The welcome given to refugees
during the war is now being dissipated by most un-
generous treatment towards those who have fought
in the Allied cause.
(2) After a statistical survey of the trend of popula-
tion and of some estimates of the future white popula-
tion of the British Empire and of the European reservoir,
The Round Table approves to Mr. Caldwell's conclusion
that 'any suggestion of trebling or even doubling the
population in a generation is not likely to be realized.'
Even the relatively small numbers contemplated by
Mr. Calwell (70,000 per year) may not be too easy to
find. For the Dominions will now want young,
skilled workers, those who are always of value to their
own country and who will be particularly valuable as
numbers decline and the population becomes older.
The opportunity of peopling the Empire from Great
Britain and Ireland was lost in the nineteenth century.
Unless population trends are very substantially changed,
the opportunity is not likely to occur again. At the
same time the chances of any large-scale peopling of
the Empire from Europe are also being lost as the
shadow of decline moves over the continent. Asia
still has its 'teeming millions,' but they are barred by
the white migration policy of the Dominions. Thus
the Dominions must turn increasingly to their own
natural growth and we may soon see them initiating
comprehensive policies to stimulate it.
(3) There will be general agreement that the policy
of promoting migration to the Dominions is right. If
the British Commonwealth is to maintain its position
as a Great Power the resources of the Dominions must
be much more fully developed and their areas must be
much more fully peopled. We must spare some of
our young people to help in the achievement of that
aim. The fact must be faced, however, that unless
there is a well-marked reversal of the long-term down-
ward trend of the birth-rate in this country, a reversal
strong enough to bring the net reproduction rate up
to replacement level at least, we shall be unable, without
endangering our own position in world affairs, to
make an adequate contribution to the human re-
sources the Dominions require for the developments
they have in view.
294. Applications and Extensions to the Karmel
Formula for Reproductivity. Colin Clark
and R. E. Dyne. Economic Record, June
In the Economic Record of June 1944 Mr. P. H.
Karmel demonstrated a method for measuring re-
productivity by controlling for duration of marriage,
rather than for age of mother as customary with the
traditional Kuczyinski measure. This new method
proved useful for examining reproductivity trends in
a country in which marriage rates were sharply fluctuat-
ing. In this more recent article, Messrs. Clark and
Dyne have carried the refinement a stage further and
have controlled not only for duration of marriage
but also for age of mothers at marriage. They have
applied their technique to data for Queensland .(938-
1944) and for New Zealand (1926-41). Their re-
searches furnish additional proof that the Kuczynski
formula gives an exaggerated index of fertility in years
of abnormally high marriage rates.
295. Can the White Australia Policy Continue ?
James Vance Marshall. World Review
(London). August 1946.
The White Australia policy has long been the cardinal
article of Australian faith. Its object is to stop the
entry into Australia of non-white migrants. Whether
under the post-war conditions such policy can con-
tinue to operate remains to be seen. A glance at the
map of the Pacific area shows how different the position
of Australia is compared with other countries. The
way between the Commonwealth and the Asiatic
mainland is bridged by islands so closely set as to
almost constitute an isthmus. There is a lurking
danger far more insidious than the threat of invasion
by battle-the threat of semi-underground Asiatic
infiltration. Unlike America, Australia's colour prob-
lem is outside her gates. By eternal vigilance she has
kept it there.
But under the new international situation ? Rightly
or wrongly, China has become an accepted member of
the world's Big Five. And Japan ? Will the Japan-
to-be-the proposed New Japan, reorganised, demo-
cratised, modernised, Anglo-Americanised, and, to an
extent, Russianised-will she, as well as China and
India, cast her gaze across the Pacific and demand to
know what this White Australia policy signifies ?
296. The 1945 New Zealand Census. E. P.
Neale. Economic Record, June 1946,
The population of New Zealand, September 1945,
was (including 97,263 Maoris, but without 44,o96
members of the Forces overseas on census night)
1,702,223 as against 1,573,8o1 in 1936. Only 32 per
cent. of the population is in the South Island, as com-
pared with 50 per cent in 1901 and 63 per cent in the
late 'sixties. The northward drift since near-ex-
haustion of the gold resources in Otago and Westland
has been facilitated by its greater suitability for dairying,
and the gradual improvement of relations with the
Maori race, who inhabit mainly the North Island.
Of the total population 63 per cent was in boroughs
or cities in 1945, as against 59 per cent in 1936. The
main urban areas' population (including Maoris) are:
Auckland, 263,575 ; Wellington, 172,887; Christ-
church, 149,741 ; Dunedin, 83,055 ; Invercargill,
27,419; Palmerston North, 27,277; Wanganui,
26,453 ; Hamilton, 26,344.
297. Vital Statistics. Australian Demography
1944. Government Printer, Canberra,
1946, pp. 168. Price 7s. 6d.
The present issue of the Demography Bulletin, the
62nd in the series, furnishes detailed statistics relating
to the year 1944. Statistics for the years 1860-1944
are also included in summary form.
In this Bulletin, publication of many of the items
omitted during wartime has been resumed. Results
of the last complete Census (1933) have been included
in Section I, Population, and overseas migration statis-
tics in Section II. Some of the leading particulars of
the Australian Life Tables, based on the results of
the 1933 Census and on the mortality statistics for the
period 1932-34, are shown in Section III.
The main results of the statistics are summarized
in the following table :
Est. Natural Total Crude Crude Crude
Popn. increase increase birth death marriage
Millions rate (1) rate (2) rate (1) rate (1) rate (1)
1933* 6-656 7-86 79 16-78 8-92 7-03
1934 6-705 7-07 74 16-39 9-32 7-71
1935 6-573 7 09 *71 16 55 9-46 8-45
1936 6806 7 70 -79 17-13 9-43 8-66
1937 6-866 7-99 88 17-53 9-44 8-70
1938 6-929 7-83 *92 17-46 9-64 9-05
1939 6.997 7-72 -98 17-65 9-93 9-93
1940 7-068 8.25 1-02 17-97 9-72 11-08
1941 7-137 8-92 -97 18-94 10-02 10-58
1942 7-196 8-57 -83 19-06 10-49 12-00
1943 7-266 10-35 -97 20-65 10-30 9-36
1944 7-341 11-46 1-04 20-99 9-53 9-33
(1) Per 1000 of mean population.
(2) Per 100 of the population at the previous 31st December.
298. Broadcasting. Eleventh Report of the
Parliamentary Standing Committee on
Broadcasting relating to Control of Over-
seas Material for Australian Programmes.
P.P. No. 45 of 1945-46. Government
Printer, Canberra, pp. 18. Price is.
The question, whether it is desirable, in the public
interest, that control should be exercised over the
importation and use of overseas material for broad-
cast programmes, e.g. transcriptions, recordings,
scripts, continuities, etc., is being answered by the
Committee in the affirmative. It would be unwise to
adopt a policy of isolation from the world's resources
in edifying entertainment and enlightenment, though
Australian musicians, writers and actors should be
given a measure of protection against unfair com-
petition. This protection could probably be secured
to better advantage by control of the use of imported
material than by control of its importation. So far
as music is concerned, the Broadcasting Act provides
already for a minimum of 2.5 per cent of music time
to be devoted to the works of Australian composers,
and it would be logical to impose similar control over
the use of material other than music if there be evidence
to justify it. In order to provide a basis for the proper
consideration of such percentages, arrangements should
be made to compile proper and suitable statistics on
the annual percentage of time and expenditure on
Australian, in comparison with overseas, productions.
299. Broadcasting. Fourteenth Report of the
Parliamentary Standing Committee on
Broadcasting relating to the Broadcasting
of News. Government Printer, Canberra,
pp. 23. P.P. No. 63 of 1945-46. Price
The Committee considers that the A.B.C. should be
empowered to establish its own independent service
in respect of Australian news ; and procure its over-
seas news direct, through its staff, from such overseas
agencies as the Commission deems fit, as well as from
such independent sources as the Commission deems
it desirable to use. This would involve an extra
cost of approximately 34,ooo as against the cost of
using the services of the members of Australian News-
paper Proprietors' Association and the Associated
Press Pty. Ltd. as outlined in a draft agreement attached
to the report, but the Committee considers it vital that
the A.B.C. should have the complete confidence of the
community in its news services. However, the Com-
mittee makes it clear that its object is to fix responsi-
bility on a publicly-owned instrumentality, account-
able to the community for selection of the news which
it broadcasts; it is not intended to cast any reflection
on newspapers which select news according to their
judgment of what is suitable to publish or withhold
either through lack of space in their journals or for
any other reason which in their opinion is justifiable,
but which would not necessarily influence the A.B.C.
in the exercise of its independent judgment.
300. Reasons for Choice of Teaching as a Career.
G. Bassett. The Forum of Education,
Vol. V, No. i, August 1946, pp. 29-35.
This study reports the results of asking students of
Sydney Teachers' College, in 1945, to indicate, in
order, what reasons determined their choice of teaching
as a career. 539 college students answered the question-
naire under conditions which preserved anonymity.
Results, comparing men (135) and women (i50), were
obtained from homogeneous sex groups but not from
mixed classes. The results showed that, for the whole
group, liking for teaching, fondness for children, and
the wish to continue their own education were the
dominant factors, in that order.
301. The Functions of a University. A. K.
Stout. The Australian Quarterly, June
The University's primary function, adhered to
throughout the centuries and across national boundaries,
is the 'preservation of knowledge and its advancement
by original inquiry.' This includes the training of
future scholars and those who need the type of know-
ledge pursued at the Universities; aspirants to the
learned professions. Only this teaching rightly belongs
to the Universities. In Australia to-day there is too
much teaching, too much administrative work, too
much setting and marking of examination papers.
Other threats to the University are the demand for
short ad hoc training courses which are proper to In-
stitutes of Technology, and the threat of political
control, resulting from the universities' dependence
on government subsidies. Before Australian States
found new universities they might ponder the example
of the English universities which 'have been able to
develop, freed from central government control, the
fetters of ecclesiastical domination, the manipulation
of the Crown, and the tuning of teaching by the
political party in power.' (Grant Robertson).
Governments should be aware of the traditional and
international nature and function of the university;
they must not be compelled merely to meet the im-
mediate demand for 'trained men,' but must 'perpetuate
the inherited essentials of university life and work.'
302. New Grading Scheme for Primary Teachers
(New Zealand). Report of Consultative
Committee set up by the Hon. Minister
of Education. (Supplement to 'National
Education', ist October 1946).
Following the terms of reference, a brief history is
given of the N.Z. system of grading, and the effects
of subsequent weakening amendments are critically
analysed. Careful consideration of several remedial
measures possible under the present system convinced
the Committee that these were mere palliatives, or
would create as many defects as they sought to remove.
In seeking to produce a model grading scheme the
Committee found it imperative to link such with an
inter-related salary system. Nine suggested schemes
were tested before the final form was adopted.
The proposed scheme is simple, has a numerical
basis, and takes cognizance of teaching efficiency
alone. Marks for certificates and service are excluded.
Academic qualifications are rewarded by a salary
bonus. Teachers are graded into four conterminous
groups related to salary received. This still leaves
three 'bars' to be surmounted, but it is anticipated
that efficient teachers will not be halted at these. A
differentiated scale of maximum and average annual
grading marks is an essential part of the plan. Cogent
reasons are advanced for all proposed changes.
Provision is made so that no teacher loses his present
seniority. Trainees, recruits, soldier-teachers and
other special cases are properly provided for. Reasons
are given for favouring annual rather than biennial
grading. Graphs illustrate the present groupings and
stages in proposed reforms.
It is recommended that a senior officer administer
the scheme to obtain uniformity of practice and the
compilation of relevant statistical data. Further, any
such scheme must be rigidly administered, and no
relaxation of principles must be allowed without the
303. Technical Education in the Textile Industry-
Report by The Textile Panel Advisory
to the Secondary Industries Commission
-Ministry of Post-War Reconstruction.
March 1946, pp. 23.
The textile industry has expanded rapidly in Victoria
and New South Wales, e.g. the total number of woollen
and tweed mills has increased from 29 in 1919 to go in
1939. The industry competes with existing suppliers
of textiles and also with producers of artificial fabrics.
Despite this great increase there are practically no
facilities outside the industry for training skilled
workers or for research. This lack was accentuated
in war years. The Commonwealth Government has
met this position by appointing a Textile Advisory
Panel to the Secondary Industries Commission. The
Panel was assisted by Professor A. Barker, Emeritus
Professor of Textiles at Leeds University. In its
report the Panel recommends the establishment of a
higher Textile College at Geelong and separate schools
at Melbourne and Sydney. The courses for these
schools have been drawn up on similar lines to those
of the English institutions, with suggested improve-
Representatives of these industries-except the
cotton industry, have agreed with these suggestions.
The dissentients argued that skilled workers were
best trained in the mills, and administrative workers
could visit overseas factories. The remainder also
agreed with the specific details prepared by the Re-
construction Training Committee. These details give
the floor space and equipment required and cost of
buildings. The Victorian Government will supply
the building at Geelong, and Cabinet has approved
expenditure of 5o,ooo for equipment and 1oo,ooo
for schools at Melbourne and Sydney. The Woollen
Industry has been invited to offer 20,ooo for student-
304. Henderson, N. K. Your Child and His
Future: Education and Opportunity in
Australia. Research Group: Left Book
Club of Victoria, pp. 48. Price Is.
What chance has the Australian child of self-develop-
ment, all-round achievement and future happiness, as
judged by present social and educational conditions ?
About 2o per cent of the Australian population is at
school at a given time. Yet our education, traditionally
regarded as 'the Government's business,' is still in
the doldrums. Individual variations among children
cannot be overstressed, but the appropriate, in-
dividualised methods of education are not available.
The main problem is still how to make the few teachers
and unsuitable buildings serve large numbers of pupils.
Our children are mass-handled (one-third of primary
classes hold over 50 pupils) and most schools are 'sit-
Examining the relationship of higher education to
opportunity, only 20 per cent of Australians receive
formal education after 14. Parental income, not
ability, interest or need, decides who shall continue
at school. At present 75 per cent of Australia's
graduates come from private schools (although about
75 per cent of Australians attend State schools).
War-time subsidies at universities, and the resulting
wider basis of selection, have enabled a greater number
of able students to graduate, and have also resulted in
improvement in student quality, as judged by Leaving
A comprehensive scheme of educational selection
and psychological guidance, with adequate financial
subsidisation at critical points in the secondary school,
is the only solution.
305. New Zealand Council for Educational Re-
search-x th Annual Report, 1945-46.
Wellington, 1946, pp. 38.
This report covers the period from Ist January,
1945, to 3ist March, 1946. It contains a list of
members of Council and Staff, reports of the President,
Director and the four local Institutes for Educational
Research, the text of the New Zealand Council for
Educational Research Act, 1945, and a full list of
Council publications. The Director's report includes
a progress statement on the operation of the Act, an
outline of publications for the period covered by the
report, a list of current investigations, information and
advisory services, and comments on a conference held
in May 1945 to decide Council policy on supply and
standardization of psychological tests. He briefly
outlines his visit overseas to the United Nations
Educational and Cultural Conference, and his work on
a Consultative Committee on Adult Education in New
Zealand. Additional details are given on the following :
Carnegie visitors' grants, the circulating Art Set,
assistance to the R.N.Z.A.F. during the war years,
the winding up of the Carnegie Museums Trust, and
Council financial arrangements under the terms of
the new Act.
306. Physical Education, Ninth Interim Report
from the Joint Committee on Social
Security. P.P. No. 71 of 1945-46.
Government Printer, Canberra, 1946,
pp. 31. Price is. 4d.
The Report deals with the working of the National
Fitness Act 1941 and the activities of the States in
this field. The recommendations made by the Com-
mittee relate to the financing of these activities on an
extended scale and as a permanent feature of the
Commonwealth social structure, to more co-ordination
between the activities of the State Councils, the uni-
versities and Education Departments and to adminis-
tration and research.
307. Broadcasting. Thirteenth Report of the
Parliamentary Standing Committee on
Broadcasting relating to the Finances of
the National Broadcasting System. P.P.
No. 61 of 1945-46. Government Printer,
Canberra, pp. 16. Price 9d.
The A.B.C. has requested that its share of the
listeners' licence fee should be increased to 15s. per
full-rate licence, urging that it is impracticable to give
effect to its charter with its present income. On the
other hand the Postmaster-General advised that the
balance of the fees is already insufficient to meet the
Post Office expenditure in connection with the
national broadcasting service, i.e. maintenance and
operation of stations and the provision of telephone
trunk lines for relaying programmes, etc.
Surveys of the financial systems of Empire national
broadcasting services have found that only the U.K.,
South Africa and Australia have so far retained the
system of a fixed licence fee as the sole source of
income. Canada and N.Z. are in the commercial
field and are able to make profits commensurate with
rising costs and development. In Australia the income
of the national service increased from I.38m. in
1941-42 to i.59m. in 1945-46, while the income of
the commercial services increased during the same
time from 1.33m. to 2.2om. Apparently, giving
the A.B.C. authority to supplement its licence-free
revenue by income from sponsored programmes
would solve the problem without further public burden,
while both an increase in the licence fee and by subsidy
from Consolidated Revenue would involve direct or
indirect increase in taxation. Nevertheless the Com-
mittee considers that the final decision of the method
to increase revenues needs further inquiries and,
therefore, it recommends a Commonwealth subsidy
for the year 1946-7 of approximately z23,ooo00.
Lewin, Evans: Best Books on Australia
and New Zealand. An annotated Bibliog-
raphy. The Royal Empire Society, Lon-
don, 1946, pp. 63. Price 4s.
Compiling this useful bibliography, the librarian of
the Society has pointed out that, on the whole, except
in the fields of literature and economics, the output
of books in Australia has not been extensive when
compared with the sister Dominion of New Zealand,
where the output of books and pamphlets has been
comparatively extensive. Fiction and poetry have
been excluded from this bibliography owing to the
fact that the number of such books is now too large
for inclusion in a general list. There is a flourishing
school of novelists in Australia, but New Zealand lags
behind in this respect.
Annual Catalogue of Australian Publications.
No. 9, 1944. Compiled by the Common-
wealth National Library. Government
Printer, Canberra, 1946, pp. 129. Price,
The first section of the catalogue includes all books
other than official publications published in Australia
in 1944, together with some of earlier years which have
now been noted for the first time. A list of books
published overseas is restricted to books dealing wholly
or mainly with an Australian subject, or the authors of
which are permanently resident in Australia. The
list of annual and serial publications comprises a short
selection of the more important of these publications.
The accompanying statistics show that the total
number of books published rose from 495 in 1943 to
973 in 1944.
308. Scheelite. Mining and Recovery of
Scheelite at King Island. Chemical
Engineering and Mining Review (Mel-
bourne). June 1946.
Largest known deposit of scheelite in the world is
at Grassy in King Island, Tasmania. The Pine
Creek deposits in America have comparable ore re-
serves, but they are contained in a group of deposits.
This paper gives full particulars and facts relating to
the geology and ore reserves, mineralisation, area and
deposits as well as the technique and results of the
309. Holmes, T. MacDonald. Soil Erosion in
Australia and New Zealand. Angus and
Robertson Ltd., 1946, pp. 296. Price
The seriousness of the problem of soil erosion in
Australia is pointed out. The eight types are exten-
sively discussed and the regional distribution for
Australia shown and quantitative evidence of its
occurrence given for two States (S.A. and N.S.W.).
The destructive power of erosion and its corollary
deposition, and many problems associated with erosion
The problem facing the individual farmer-pastoralist
is how to reduce run-off. If this were controlled or
reduced to a minimum, soil erosion would be non-
existent. Fully described are a number of experiments
carried out to test what mechanical structures would
adequately control drainage, to provide a practical
demonstration of soil conservation and to test rainfall
intensity through run-off results.
The future of the Western Division of N.S.W. and
Central Australia is then considered.
The solutions usually provided regard the problem
solely as one of supplying water. But when the water
is supplied many unexpected difficulties arise. A full
section is devoted to irrigation and its problems are
fully explored. The 'more spectacular' schemes are
described and criticised, while the way in which each
State is attacking the problem is set out. Again the
author reminds that the control storage and utilisation
of large volumes of water is costly; the maximum
possible utility must be obtained from each effort.
It is necessary to have a multi-purpose scheme.
Finally, it is asked : 'Does soil erosion require a
fundamental change in national policy as well as a
change in social outlook before it can be cured or
controlled ? . The situation requires a full-scale
attack. Fresh climatic and farming knowledge, new
use of machinery, more manpower, a wise use of more
capital, more understanding of the issues on a nation-
wide scale and more solid help from city and overseas
interests are sorely needed.'-R.B.
310. Water Conservation in South Australia.
J. R. Dridan. In: Handbook of South
Australia, August 1946. Government
Printer, Adelaide, 1946.
Describes fully the South Australian works designed
'to collect, conserve and distribute water' in which both
original ideas and intensive efforts have been necessary
since rainfall is low and evaporation during distribu-
Nearby local sources were first used to supply both
city and country. Then followed construction of
reservoirs on the most reliable streams and distribu-
tion of water by gravitation to extensive areas.
At present greater Adelaide is supplied from reservoirs
of total capacity of 14.4m. gals., which can reliably
supply only 7.5m. gals. per annum, a volume in-
sufficient to meet an unrestricted demand of 8.8m.
gals. This, together with assumed growth of popula-
tion and anticipated increase in the number and extent
of industrial undertakings, emphasizes the need for
further development. The Adelaide Artesian Basin is
an emergency source of supply for home and industry;
also used extensively by market gardeners.
In country areas a 'liberal policy' has been adopted.
Water conservation areas, constructed in early periods,
still fill an essential need. The more reliable
reservoir-pipe systems serve more than 4m. acres.
Artesian sources, some used for many years, but others
not yet greatly developed, provide water of high quality
suitable for domestic, industrial and pastoral use.
Future developments will have to resort more and
more to pumping schemes and long distributional lines
(e.g., recently completed Morgan-Whyalla pipe line).
A map is appended.-R.B.
311. 'Water for the Thirsty Inland: A case for
diversion of part of the Snowy River
Waters to the Murrumbidgee.' The
Murrumbidgee Valley Water Users' Assoc-
iation, Leeton, N.S.W., 1945, pp. 44.
This attractively-illustrated brochure emphasizes our
need to carefully plan and fully utilize our water re-
sources. It presents the claim of N.S.W.-now
apparently committed to a long-range plan of irriga-
tion and water conservation-to the waters of the
Snowy River, whose source is not only the largest but
the only really permanent supply of water in the State.
The works involved in the scheme are:
(a) A dam in the Snowy River creating a balanced
(b) A diversion tunnel between the balancing storage
of the Snowy River and the Murrumbidgee River.
(c) A dam in the Murrumbidgee River creating a
balancing storage downstream at the point of
discharge of the diversion tunnel.
(d) Hydro-electric power stations.
The estimated cost, together with power transmission
lines, is i3m., and the work would take 6 years to
complete. It is hoped to divert annually about 50 per
cent of the Snowy River waters. This would be used
for the generation of power but more especially for
irrigation and water supply. 4m. to 5m. acres in the
Murrumbidgee valley from Wagga to the junction of
the Murrumbidgee and Murray Rivers will be developed.
Soldier settlements will be established and altogether
an additional 50,ooo people will be carried in the valley.
It is estimated that output will rise to 5m. This new
development is impossible without provision of addi-
tional storage. Again, the scheme is necessary to safe-
guard the present Murrumbidgee Irrigation area of
400,000 acres, upon which approximately 2o,ooo people
have been settled, which produced in 1943-44 primary
products to the value of 3.3m., which has attracted
important secondary industries. The towns, at present
served by the Burrinjuck power station, must be guar-
anteed their electricity. It is pure fantasy to suggest
that there will be an embarrassment of over-production
if the diversion takes place.-R.B.
312. Mineral Resources of Western Australia,
Bulletin No. 3: Tantalum and Niobium.
Department of Mines, W.A. Govern-
ment Printer, Perth, pp. 15o.
The results of research by officers of the W.A. Mines
Department into the production of tantalum ores
(occurring freely in W.A., which state produces a large
proportion of the world's supply), are presented here.
Part I.-'Tantalite in W.A.'-gives a general outline
of the geology of productive areas, the minerals occurring
and mined, hints to prospectors searching for tantalum
minerals, and information about marketing and values.
Part II.-'The Properties and Uses of Tantalum and
Niobium'-lists all the known tantalum and niobium
minerals and gives methods of extracting the metals
from the ores, the properties of tantalum and niobium,
the alloys and compounds formed and the use made of
metals and alloys.
Part III.-'W.A. Tantalum and Niobium Minerals'.
The introduction gives a brief description of the general
occurrence in W.A. of the associated minerals together
with an outline of the mineral groups adopted and some
general details of their group properties. A table of
their distribution according to localities is added. In
the descriptive part which follows, each mineral is taken
in order and described from all known localities.
Details of the crystallography and of physical, chemical
and optical properties are given.-R.B.
313. The Bauxite Deposits of the Boolarra-Mirboo
North Area, South Gippsland, Victoria.
Commonwealth of Australia, Department
of Supply and Shipping, Mineral Re-
sources Survey. Bulletin No. 14 (Geo-
logical Service No. 5). Commonwealth
Government Printer, Canberra, 1945,
Little is known of Australian Bauxite deposits outside
this area. Of the twenty-four known deposits occurring
here, within an area of 150 square miles the centre of
which is 16 miles S.W. of Yallourn and 74 miles E.S.E.
of Melbourne and at different elevations, five have been
exhaustively prospected, and described in detail and are
shown to contain reserves of 735,500 tons of bauxite of
metallurgical grade suitable for the manufacture of
aluminium. Grade is rather uniform. It is expected
that the deposits as yet not prospected will contain more
than 200,000 tons of ore of much the same grade and
Altogether Australian ores have very limited use.
Only relatively small quantities of Bauxite from Gipps-
land are used (for chemical purposes and in the manu-
facture of firebrick).
The topography, general geology and structure of the
area of occurrence are considered. Considerable space
is devoted to such technical matters as the constitution,
methods of analysis and prescription of commercial
grade, of bauxite, the methods used in prospecting and
proving the deposits, and the results of beneficiationn'
tests of samples of the ore are given.
The report is well supported by statistical data, and
photographic plates and maps (19 plates in all).-R.B.
314. Gentilli, J. Australian Climate and
Resources. Whitcombe and Tombs Pty.
Ltd., pp. 333. Price 8s. 6d.
This is a geography of the 'great Australian Zone'-
Australia, New Zealand and New Guinea: the major
portion of it deals with the Australian pattern.
The structural and geological features of Australia
are first dealt with. Then, as the author states,
'Koeppen's formulae (explained in Appendix I) are
applied to all climatic data available and the regions
thus defined are examined in their build, climate,
natural life and economic development. While such
regions are empirical, they nevertheless permit inter-
continental comparisons. A general study of the whole
continent based upon such formulae was highly desir-
able. As well, economic development, with the obvious
exception of mining and allowing for artesian water and
irrigation, bears out the proposed climatic regions fairly
The book is fully illustrated by map and photograph.
315. Blacket, Gladys M. : The Life and Work of
Edmund Thomas Blacket. Royal Aus-
tralian Historical Society, Journal and
Proceedings, Vol. XXXII, part III,
Sydney, 1946, pp. 145-171.
This is a paper read to the Royal Australian Historical
Society, Sydney, on the life and work of an architect
described as 'the Sir Christopher Wren of Australia'.
Edmund Thomas Blacket was born at Southwark,
Surrey, 25th August 1817, and arrived in Sydney with
his wife in November 1842. After a period as inspector
of building and teaching in Church of England schools,
he practised as an architect in Sydney, and took
apprenticed pupils some of whom became well known
in Australian architectural history. His main works
are the Great Hall and Main Building of Sydney
University; Saint Saviour's Cathedral, Goulburn;
St. Mary's, West Maitland; All Saints', Wollahra;
St. Paul's, Burwood; St. Philip's, Church Hill; St.
Thomas's, North Sydney; St. Stephen's, Newtown;
All Saints', Bodalla ; and the completion of St. Andrew's
Cathedral, Sydney. He was appointed Diocesan
Architect in 1847, and Colonial Architect in 1849. He
resigned from government service in 1854 to become
architect of the University of Sydney and to enter private
practice. He died in February 1883. He was an
architect of the Gothic Revivalist period with a thorough
mastery of the various periods of Gothic.
316. Antill, J. M. Major Henry Colden Antill,
of Picton, N.S.W. (1779-1852). Royal
Australian Historical Society, Journal and
Proceedings, Vol. XXXII, part III, Sydney
1946, pp. 172-2oo.
Major H. C. Antill was born in New York in 1779,
the second son of a Loyalist soldier in the American
War of Independence. His father's property having
been confiscated, the family moved to Canada. Henry
Colden Antill joined the British Army in 1796, and
came to New South Wales with Macquarie's regiment,
the 73rd Highlanders. He was appointed Aide-de-
Camp to the Governor in 18io, and took part in various
official inspections of the settled and unsettled parts of
the colony. He was a close friend of William Redfern
and supported Macquarie over the Emancipist question.
He married in 1818, and in 1821 retired from the Army
to take up land, first near Liverpool, and later in 1825
near Picton, where he received a grant of 2,ooo acres,
later increased to 2,900 acres. He also served as
Resident Magistrate and as Superintendent of Police in
this district. He was responsible for the founding of
the township of Picton, subdividing part of his property
in 1844. The article gives various details of his official
duties, of life at Jarvisfield and of his family. Antill
died at Jarvisfield in 1852.
317. Wood, F. L. W. This New Zealand,
Hamilton, N.Z., 1946, pp. 259.
This book, originally published in the U.S.A. under
the title 'Understanding New Zealand', gives an account
of the social, political and economic life of the Dominion.
There is a brief survey of its history, an account of the
early history of the Maori, an estimate of the geo-
graphical and geological controls of its development, an
estimate of the ideology of its people, and the growth of
social equality. Dealing with more recent times there
is an account of New Zealand's government system,
agriculture, industry, Maori people, education and
culture, completed by a survey of the impact of the
war on the country and an estimate of her relation to
the British Commonwealth, to Australia, and to foreign
countries with regard to international trade as well as
to Pacific regional and world defence. A short post-
script brings the story up to date. Also included is a
short, critical bibliography and several illustrations.
318. James Jervis. Settlement in the Marulan
-Bungonia District. Royal Australian
Historical Society,Journal andProceedings,
Vol. XXXII, part II, 1946.
An account of the growth of settlement in the area
on the upper Shoalhaven valley, with details of its
exploration, land grants by Governors Macquarie and
Brisbane, the development of pastures, land surveys,
communications and townships together with brief
biographical sketches of the most important settlers.
319. Pitt, George H. The Press in South
Australia 1836-185o. Adelaide, 1946.
The Wakefield Press, pp. 60.
This book gives a detailed account of the development
of the S.A. press and the rivalry between the S.A.
Gazette and Colonial Register and the Southern Aus-
tralian with details of their contest for government
patronage, their financial difficulties and stormy quarrels
with Governor Gawler. As well as a brief account of
other early papers and leading journalists of the period,
there is a description of the peculiarities of the news-
paper and journalism of a century ago.
320. Adoption of Children. Mr. Justice O'Bryan.
Res Judicatae. The Magazine of The Law
Students' Society of Victoria. Vol. III, i.
This is a study of the operation of the Victorian
Adoption of Children Act 1928. Prior to this Act,
though a de facto adoption might produce certain legal
consequences by virtue of the adoptor putting himself
in loco parents to the child, the law did not recognize
any transfer of parental rights and duties from the
natural parent to the adoptor. The Victorian Act
referred to introduced many changes, following the
English Adoption of Children Act of 1926.
So far as guardianship and upbringing are concerned,
there is almost a complete transference of the parents'
rights to the adoptor. The rules of succession are
treated in full.
In all proceedings under the Act, not only is the
welfare of the infant considered, but it is a statutory
requirement that for the purpose of any application the
Court shall appoint some person to act as a guardian
ad litem of the infant. The parent by adoption for
most purposes takes the place of the natural parent.
321. G. W. Paton. A Text-Book of Jurispru-
dence. Oxford University Press, 1946,
pp. x, 528.
This work attempts to deal, in a compass within the
reach of students, with the problems of jurisprudence,
with special reference to developments in this century.
Book I covers the schools of jurisprudence from Austin
to Kelsen and Pound, the evolution of law, the definition
of law and the relationship of law and justice. Book II
deals with the sources of law. The remainder portrays
the conflict between the narrow approach of the analyst
and the pressure of social forces. One chapter is
devoted to criminal law and the theories of government.
322. Stone, J. : The Province and Function of
Law. Associated General Publications
Pty. Ltd., Sydney, 1946, pp. xi, 918.
This work is divided into three parts : law and logic;
law and justice ; law and society. There is an extensive
cover of the modem literature and the work shows great
erudition. There is an interesting account of the
modem sociological school. It is obviously impossible
to summarise the thesis of the writer and a bare reference
to this monumental work must suffice.
323. The Structure of Government-Australia.
The Round Table, June 1946.
This article is a clear and informative account of the
constitutional problems leading to the drafting of the
proposals for the referendum. The three referendum
proposals look very modest when compared with the
fourteen powers which the electors denied to the
Federal Parliament in 1944, and some ardent supporters
of Commonwealth power have condemned them as not
merely patching, but superficial patching. This view
is extreme. The three powers proposed would materi-
ally strengthen the position of the Commonwealth;
the power with respect to employment would transfer
to the federal sphere some of the major issues of Aus-
tralian State politics, and the other two powers besides
being of considerable political moment, might necessi-
tate a considerable increase in federal administrative
activities. The ultimate effect of these proposals might
be very considerable. It cannot be said, however, that
the Australian people are taking any very great interest
in these or any other constitutional problems.
324. Hannan, J. P. The Principles of Income
Taxation. Law Book Co. of Australia.
It is probably unique to find a large volume of
legislation directed at a subject which it makes no
attempt to define. This, however, is the position in
regard to income taxation. The enactments vary in
range and complexity, but in one respect they are alike ;
they practically ignore the primary question. What is
income ? The aim of this work is to meet this need.
Decisions are drawn mainly from British and Australian
courts. Only skilled interpretation can unravel the
technical intricacies of income tax Acts with their
forbidding labyrinth of amplifications and exceptions.
PHILOSOPHY AND PSYCHOLOGY
325. Causation in Social Change-Q. B. Gibson.
Australasian Journal of Psychology and
Philosophy. December 1945.
This paper discusses the difficulty in casual explana-
tion of social events occasioned by the great complexity
of the causal factors on which any social event depends.
It is argued that, the number of factors operating in
any social change being very large, the procedure of the
social scientist must be to select the more important
factors. This raises the question of what is meant by
a factor being 'important'. After some discussion of
possible answers, it is suggested that the real criterion
of causal importance implicit in our procedure is whether
or not the absence of the factor would have led to an
event very different in character from the one which in
fact occurred. The social scientist must depend on
isolating the more important causal factors in this sense.
The question is then raised whether there is any
connection between the largeness of a change and its
importance as a causal factor. The meaning of the
'largeness' of a change is examined, and on the basis of
this, it is argued that, while there is no logical connection
between largeness and causal importance, it would make
the work of explanation much easier if it were in fact
found that small events (e.g. decisions or individuals)
could be discounted.
The paper concludes with a discussion as to whether
it is. legitimate to extend the principle of selecting
important factors to the selection of some general type
of factor as the most important over the whole field of
social change. This sort of selection, it is argued,
forms the only sound logical basis for general 'inter-
pretations of history'. There is no reason why it should
not be attempted, and it is not vitiated by recognition
of constant interaction between types of factor in the
course of social change.-D.W.M.
326. Instinct in the Explanation of Behaviour.
Frederick V. Smith. The Australasian
Journal of Psychology and Philosophy.
December 1945, pp. 1-34-
The writer sets out to value the explanation of
behaviour given by the hypothesis of 'instinct'. The
position of McDougall is outlined (i) vitalistic approach,
(ii) specific instinctive patterns, (iii) three phases in
these instinctive processes-cognitive, affective and
conative, (iv) sentiments, (v) self-regarding sentiment.
These last two allow the native propensities to be
influenced by environment. An examination follows
of some of McDougall's concepts, (i) Horme, (ii)
specificity of instincts, (iii) neurological correlates.
Evidence is cited showing that if specific tendencies
do exist they are extremely adaptable. The writer
shows how McDougall was led to support Lamarckism
to maintain his position on the development of instincts.
The experimental evidence concerning separate pre-
disposing tendencies is presented from (i) field of
perception, (ii) synaesthesis, (iii) internal factors such
as hormones. The concept of instinct can, however,
besides being considered as defining elements of pre-
scription of response to individual situations, be
considered as defining persistence of effort in given
directions. However this view is of limited use since
little is known in any exact manner about knowing or
willing particularly as these occur with lower organisms.
McDougall's treatment would have benefited if his
postulations had been considered with regard to
organisms at different evolutionary stages.
(i) that there are probably fewer instincts than the
number set by McDougall;
(ii) that the specificity of instincts is in any case
uncertain if the further assumption is made of the
intelligent nature of the all pervading horme.-
327. The Psychological Assumptions of Econ-
omics. Kenneth F. Walker. The Econ-
omic Record, June 1946, pp. 66-82.
Since economics is concerned with one aspect of the
actions of men and women, a science of economics must
make psychological assumptions.
The writer calls in question the scientific validity of
the economist's proposition of psychological hedonism.
Three important developments of modern psychology
throw new light on this proposition :
(a) increased stress upon the irrationality of human
(b) the movement towards explaining individual
behaviour in terms of social forms rather than
explaining social forms in terms of individual
(c) the increased demand for the use of operationally
Psychological hedonism or the Maximum Principle
is called in question as a scientific term because it is
not susceptible to empirical test unless cast in a form
which specifies what is maximized. If this is not done
economics may not be admitted as a positive science:
or alternatively that there must be a narrower definition
of economic science such as one that defines economics
with a specific reference to a market economy. The
writer urges co-operation between the economist, the
psychologist and the sociologist in reconsidering and re-
formulating the basic assumptions made to account for
328. Internalising the External: Some Aspects
of the Psychological Problem of the Self.
Duncan Howie. The Australasian Journal
of Psychology and Philosophy, 1945, pp.
The writer discusses the most important modem
psychological theories about the nature of the self.
The problem is to bridge the gap between the 'external'
observation of behaviour and the awareness of internal
Stout treats the problem of developing self-awareness
(i) spatially, (ii) temporally, accounting for the mechan-
ism of such a development by imitation. McDougall
describes the self in terms of the master-self regarding
sentiment developed through primitive passive sympathy
by the experience of the individual from his innate
Freud postulates a divided self-the id, the instinctual
source of energy, the ego representing the external
world and the super-ego derived from the ego by the
pressure of social and personal environment through
the process of identification. Freud takes a position of
extreme instinctivism which leads to a complete internal-
The Gestalt school emphasizes the total field situation
operative in any given act. The drive to act comes
from a disequilibrium of forces, or tension. This
tension has both internal and external aspects. Each
tension has a valence or value and leads to a differentia-
tion within a field. This view avoids the cognitivism
of Stout, and the mysterious instincts of McDougall
and the barren pessimism of Freud.-D.W.M.
TERRITORIES AND NATIVE
329. Beaglehole, E. & P. Some Modern Maoris,
with an introduction by Peter Buck.
N.Z. Council for Educational Research,
Wellington, 1946, pp. xxi, 347. Index.
This book reports a study of the social life and living
conditions of a group of Maori people at Kowhai in New
Zealand. The introduction discusses the place, its
population both Maori and non-Maori, and the history
of the group. The authors used the method of partici-
pant observation to study all aspects of the life of the
group, which lives side by side with a 'pakeha' or non-
Maori community. It deals in successive chapters
with earning a living, making a home, bringing up
children, growing up, being amused, being religious,
being sick, the tangi (death customs), what 'being a
Maori' means to both Maori and Pakeha, and the import
of the character-structure of the Maori for education.
The authors believe it necessary to change this structure
to one more in agreement with pakeha character struc-
ture to enable the Maoris to integrate themselves into a
pakeha community. They believe that to do this the
home environment of Maori children must be altered,
and therefore advocate adult education through a
community centre with practical rewards offered for
(I) Report of the Board of Native Affairs
on the Development and Settlement
of Native Lands and the Provision
of Houses for Maoris for the year
ended 3Ist March 1946. Govern-
ment Printer, Wellington. P.P. of
New Zealand, No. G-io, 1946,
pp. 57, med. 8vo. Price is 3d.
(2) Native Department. Annual Report
for the year ended 3ist March 1946.
Government Printer, Wellington.
P.P. of New Zealand, No. G-9 of
1946, pp. 15, med. 8vo. Price 6d.
In presenting its report the Board furnishes a review
of the varied activities connected with the development
and settlement of Native lands, and outlines the measures
taken therewith to improve the living conditions of the
Maori race. This statement read in conjunction with
that abstracted under No. 216 provides a summary of
the progress achieved in maintaining and extending the
agricultural and pastoral schemes which were initiated
in 1930 with the object of establishing and settling more
Maori people upon their own lands; the Native
Housing Scheme, inaugurated in 1938, for the provision
of better housing accommodation for Maoris; the
re-establishment of Maori returned soldiers undertaken
since 1944 ; and refers to other operations financed by
State or Trust funds and initiated for the benefit and
advancement of the Maori race.
The report of the Native Department deals with
Maori welfare during 1945-6. One of the principal
new measures introduced was the Maori Social and
Economic Advancement Act, 1945, which provides
greater facilities for dealing with the general Maori
welfare and for closer co-operation between the Depart-
ment and the people.
331. Papua and Mandated New Guinea Today.
Thomas Penberthy Fry. Pacific Affairs,
June 1946, pp. 146-164.
Before the war Europeans had established various
industries in the territories of which gold-mining, copra
and rubber production and shipping were the most
important, but this development had caused compara-
tively little dislocation in the native villages. Native
labour was engaged mainly in agriculture, fishing and
hunting with the exception of about 60,ooo who were
employed as indentured or casual labourers.
The invasion and subsequent war caused much
damage and dislocation. Now, reconstruction has
begun and the territories are again under civilian admini-
stration. The guiding principle since the re-establish-
ment of the civil administration has been that relief
and rehabilitation of the natives come first, and that
Europeans will not be allowed to re-enter the territory
until they can be usefully employed there.
One innovation which is likely to have far-reaching
economic effects, and which has already met with violent
hostility from European employers, is the new native
labour policy. The Australian government has announced
that the indenture system of native labour was to be
abolished 'as soon as practicable'. Meanwhile wages
have been increased and labour conditions improved.
This will profoundly affect the future. There seems to
be no great future for copra, but that of gold is probably
assured, and rubber and timber industries may be
successfully developed. The maintenance of military
garrisons and the construction of bases and other defence
works would considerably increase the importance of
local trade. The construction of public utilities and the
provision of inter-island shipping services would entail
government expenditure of many millions of pounds.
If the expenditure made for such purposes were to
outstrip economic requirements, it could be justified, if
at all, only on grounds of social welfare and defence ;
and substantial annual expenditure from the public
revenues of the Australian government would be inevi-
Abbott, J. P., 17.
Accountancy, 139, 140, 141, 142.-
Adult Education, 71.
Agriculture, 37, 38, 43, 153-162, 165, 276, 277, 280.
Airey, W. T. G., 215.
American Loan, 101, 102.
Anglo-Australian relations, 49.
Arnot, J. F., 282.
Atlantic Charter, 48.
Aviation, 32, 33, 34, 145, 259.
Bailey, K. H., 170.
Baker, W. A., 1oo.
Balance of payments, 24.
Ball, W. Macmahon, 50.
Barossa, Valley of, 62.
Bassett, G., 300.
Batchelor, J. W., io
Beaglehole, E. and P., 329.
Belle, Minnie, 115.
Belshaw, H., 156.
Berg, C. I., 138.
Bibliography, 307 (a)
Bland, F. A., 284 (a).
Borrie, W. D., 66.
Bretton Woods, 98, ioi, 102, 103, 104, 232.
Brewing Industry, 7.
Broadcasting, 168, 298, 299, 307.
Bruns, G. R., 99.
Bull, C. R., 198.
Burton, H., 49.
Butlin, S. J., 207.
Calwell, A. A., 188.
Campbell, A. E., 74.
Campbell, K. 0., 42, 28o.
Capell, A., 195.
Carroll, Dorothy, 91.
Chih Tsang, 114.
Child Welfare, 72.
Chisholm, Caroline, 93
Christmas, A. W., 255
Civil Service, 45, 47, 282.
Clapp, Sir Harold, 35.
Clarey, P. J., 36.
Clark, A. H., 208.
Clark, C., 294.
Clunies Ross, A., 139.
Clunies Ross, I., 18, 19.
Coal, 64, 237-240.
Coghill, E. H., 212.
Commodity Stock Accounting, 137.
Commonwealth Bank, 20.
Commonwealth Disposals Commission, 134.
Commonwealth Grants Commission, 22.
Community Centres, 74, 186.
Connellan, E. J., 203.
Constitution, 209, 21o.
Cook, P. H., 263.
Copland, D. B., 2.
Cost Accounting, 254.
Cotton, 162, 241.
Country Towns of Victoria, 63.
Cowper, N. L., 209.
Craig, J. I., 184.
Crawford, J. G., 43.
Crop Forecasting, 40.
Crowley, N. G., o14.
Cubis, D. E. M., 94.
Cumberland, K. B., 204.
Cumpston, J. H. L., 70.
Cunningham, K. S., 196, 270.
Cunningham, W. A., 21.
Currie, G. A., 274.
Cutlack, M., 203.
Dairy Produce, 118, 119, 16o.
Daniel, H., I15.
Distributive Trades, 233.
Downes, H. F., 257.
Downing, R. I., 135.
Dridan, J. R., 310.
Dried Fruits Industry, 8, 122, 242.
Druce, P. C., 154, 157, 278.
Durack, K. N., 203.
Dyne, R. E., 294.
East, L. R., 86, 87.
Eaton, Maude, 261.
Economic Policy, 2, 3, io6, 227,'228, 231.
Education, 70-80, 190-201, 300, 302, 303, 304, 305.
Egg Industry, 120, 121, 273.
Elkin, A. P., 65, 286.
Evatt, H. V., 55, 169, 285.
Far Eastern Reconstruction, 51.
Feis, H., 222.
Firth, G., 1oo.
Fisher, J., 179.
Fishing Industry, 9.
Fitzgerald, A. A., 27, 137, 257.
Fitzgerald, G. E., 257.
Foenander, O. de R., 146.
Food Consumption Levels, 181, 182.
Foreign Policy, 54, 55, 169, 170, 173, 174, 176, 285,
Forty-hour Week, 225.
Foster, A. W., 149.
Fraser, Sheila B., 21.
Fruits, 123, 124, 125, 158.
Fry, T. P., 331.
Full Employment, I, 99, ioo.
Gairns, A. J., 30.
Gardner, A. J. A., 92.
Gas Industry, o1, 126.
Gentilli, J., 314.
Geography, 82-91, 202-206.
Gepp, Sir Herbert, 5.
Germans in S.A., 68.
Giblin, L. F., 24, ioo.
Gibson, Q. B., 325.
Goerke, H. F., 113.
Goldberg, L., 257.
Gole, V. S., 30.
Gordon, K., 200.
Gower, E. W., 138.
Greenland, P. C., 253.
Greenwood, J. M., 27.
Greig, W. R., 31.
Gunn, J. A. L., 27.
Halliday, R. E., zoo.
Hannan, J. P., 324.
Hare, A. E. C., 266.
Hawthorn, H., 221.
Heinig, C. M., 70.
Heller, W. W., 251.
Henderson, Kenneth, 112.
Henderson, N. K., 304.
Hewitt, C. L., 224.
Hill, W. E., 49, 51.
History, 92, 95, 207-208, 315, 316, 317, 318, 319.
Hobbs, W. H., 202.
Holder, R. F., 102.
Holmes, T. MacDonald, 309.
Holt, A. J., 185.
Hook, E. J., 283.
Horn, F. L., 27.
Howard, S., 28, 49, 284a.
Howey, G. C., 160.
Howie, Duncan, 328.
Housing, 56, 57, 58, 59, 177, 178, 184.
Hutchinson, A. R., 136, 266.
Hydro-Electric power, 82.
Immigration, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 187, 293, 295.
Imperial preference, 222.
Industry'(General), 5, 234.
Industrial Psychology, 147, 261, 269, 271.
Industrial Relations, 36, 149, 152, 266.
Industrial Training, 76.
International Affairs, 54, 55, 175, 285, 286, 287, 289.
Intra-Commonwealth Relations, 52.
Ives, Walter, 38.
James, Rowland, 238.
Jolly, G. S., 164.
Jones, E. A., 116.
Kelly, J. P., 226.
Kelly, W. S., 159.
Kiddle, Margaret, 93.
Kimberleys, Eastern, 85.
Kirby, F. G., 78.
Labour, 151, 152, 262.
Land Tenure, 156, 208.
Law, 96, 97, 209, 211-214, 320-324.
Leather Industry, 249.
Lee, N. E., 197.
Lend-Lease, IIi, 112.
Lengyel, S. J., 233.
Lewin, Evans, 307a.
Libraries, 78, 81.
Lindsay, J., 158.
Local Government, 46, 163, 166.
Low, A. R., 264.
Lowe, W. S., 215.
McCarthy, M. E., 29.
McConnell, W. K., 2o.
McCullough, W. J., 155.
McDonald, A. H., 171, 175.
McIntyre, A. J. and J. J., 63.
McRae, C. R., 79.
McWilliams, N. G., 213.
Machine Tools, 244.
Maistre, E. H. Le, 194.
Managerial Accounting, 28.
Mandated Territories, 215, 217, 218.
Maoris, 216, 329, 330.
Marketing, 115, 116, 117, 164.
Marshall, J. V., 295.
Mathea, C. P., 256.
Mauldon, F. R. E., 240.
Maze, W. H., 85.
Medley, J. D. G., 193.
Melville, L. G., 3, 22Ia.
Menzies, R. G., 54.
Merry, D. H., 99.
Metcalfe, J., 81.
Migration, 65-69, 293, 295, 187 (see also Population).
Minerals, Mines, 89, 90, 91, 308, 312, 313.
Monetary Problems, 98.
Motor Vehicles, 245, 246.
Murphy, B. B., 96.
Murray, Sir H., 94.
Murtagh, J. C., 284.
National Income, 23, 223, 250.
Neale, E. P., 133.
New Guinea, 221, 331.
New Zealand, 133, 215, 218, 219 227, 229, 235.
Northern Territory, 44, 203.
Nye, P. B., 89.
O'Brien, E., 95.
O'Bryan, N., 320.
Oil Industry, II.
Oxlade, M., 147.
Oxlade, N. M., 269.
Pacific Relations, 50, 51, 170, 171, 173, 176, 202.
Packer, G., 34.
Papua, 195, 331.
Parliamentary Reform, 282.
Parr, W. H., 141.
Pascoe, R. F., 31.
Passmore, J. A., 80.
Paton, G. W., 321.
Paul, W., 211.
Peacock, M. W., 191.
Personnel Management, 263, 267, 270, 272.
Pharmaceutical Industry, 12.
Philipp, E., 192.
Phillips, L. W., 196.
Phillips, P. D., 97, 174.
Pitt, G. H., 3Ic.
Politics, 284, 284a.
Population, 65-69, 187, 188, 189, 291-294, 296, 297.
Post-War Economy, 3, 48, io6, 107, o18, 221a.
Pre-School Centres, 70.
Prest, W., 57.
Price, Charles A., 68.
Price Control, 29, no, 159, 224, 256.
Price Spreads, 42.
Production Control, 31.
Psychological Tests, 147.
Public Finance, 131, 133, 135, 136, 257, 252, 252 (i).
Public Service, 45, 47.
Publishing, 190, 191.
Raggatt, H. G., 89.
Railways, 35, 143.
Ramsay, A. M., 177.
Rating System, 253.
Remington, G. C., 47, 8i.
Rents in Melbourne, 57.
Robertson, S. D., 40, 164.
Rose, W. J., lo9.
Rosenthal, N. H., 199.
Rothberg, M., 41, 153.
Rural Finance, 21, 278.
Rural Policy, 183, 277.
Rural Training, 274.
Rural-Urban Fringe, 39.
Savings Banking, 207.
Sawer, G., 171.
Scott, W., 28.
Secondary Industry, 5.
Seers, D., 223.
Selby, D. M., 214.
Shea, F. J., 143.
Simkin, C. G. F., 231.
Smith, F. V., 326.
Smyth, E. B., 140.
Social Security, 60, 179, 18o, 290.
Social Services, Sth. Melbourne, 61.
Social Studies, 75.
Soil Conservation, 41, 88, 309.
Speck, S. E., 257.
Stevens, Sir B., 172.
Stewart, A. L., 265.
Stone, J., 52, 322.
Stout, A. K., 301.
Sugar Industry, 13, 128.
Taft, R., 271.
Tariff Board, 6, 236.
Taxation, 26, 324.
Thomas, R. G., 88.
Thompson, A. B., 71.
Thompson, R., Ioo.
Tocker, A. H., 189.
Trade Unions, 150.
Tyrer, A. J., 104.
United Nations, 53, 174, 279, 288.
Universities, 79, 193, 283, 301.
U.S.A.-Australian Relations, 49.
Valuation of Stock-in-Trade, 27.
Wadham, S. M., 37, 276.
Wages, 4, 146, 264.
Walker, A., 64, 289.
Walker, K. F., 269, 327.
Walsh, F. P., io6.
War Damages Commission, 25, 132.
War Surpluses, 253.
Ward, E. J., 103.
Ward, J. M., i I.
Warren, T. S., 292.
Water Supply and Conservation, 82-84, 86, 87, 205,
206, 275, 310, 311.
Wheare, K. C., 167.
Wheat, 157, 185.
White, H. L., 190.
Whitlam, A. G., 117.
Williams, Faith M., iio.
Wills, N. R., 39.
Wills, R., 161, 165.
Wind Erosion, 88.
Wine Industry, 14, 130.
Winterbottom, D. C., 84.
Wise, H. L., 129.
Witten, A., 69.
Women's Employment Board, 149.
Wood, F. L. W., 317.
Wood, G. L., 48, 51, 98, 131.
Wool Industry, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19,
Workers' Compensation, 97.
Young, N. S., 27, 142.
-PERS: pablication, of abstiacfs in-Ahe Social sciences is intended-lwpf6vide. a. wrv,-ty
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rit ie* f Can'-t rce,:Qniversity f'Melbourile t .3
AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
COMMITTEE ON RESEARCH IN THE SOCIAL SCIENCES
The Committee on Research in the Social Sciences is a special
committee of the A.N.R.C. charged with the duty of reporting upon
the main investigations which appear to he required in the social
field, of considering the best machinery for conducting these enquiries,
and of arranging for finance.
The Committee is also making a detailed examination of the
position in Australia with regard to training in the social sciences at
the various universities, with special attention to the provision of
research workers. The scope of the committee's work includes the
sociological aspects of such studies as anthropology, economics,
education, history, human geography, jurisprudence, medicine,
philosophy, political science, psychology, public administration and
An outline of the history and functions of the committee by the
chairman, Dr. K. S. Cunningham, was recently published; and
may be obtained free of charge on application to the Australian
Council for Educational Research, T, & G. Building, Russell St.,
.Members of the Committee :
AGAR. Prof. \V. E., Universiry of Melbourne.
ALCOCK, Prof. H., Universiry of Queensland.
BAILEY, Prof. K. H., Solicitor-General, Canberra.
BLAND. Prof. F. A., Univerir'y of Sdney
BURTON, Assoc. Prof H., Unr.ers.ity of Melbourne.
BUTLIN, Prof. S. J., Unr.err;it, of Svdnvy.
COOMBS, Dr. H. C., Director-General. Department of Post-War
CRAWFORD, Mr J. G., Department of Post-War Reconstruction.
* CRAWFORD. Prof. R. M., Universiry of Melbourne.
CUNNINGH IM, Dr. K. S.. Director, Australian Council for Educational
ELKIN, Prof. A. P., Uni'ersitv of Svdney.
GIBLIN. Prof. L. F., Department of the 'Treasury.
GIBSON, Prof. A. Bo.ce, Ulnlerilt, of Melbourne.
JAMES, Mr. G. F., Universiry of Melbourne.
NlcRLE, Prof. C. PR., LUnier'-ir of S.dncv.
MAULDON. Prof. F. R. E., Uriveroir, of \\Wetcrn Australia.
MELVILLE, Mlr. L. G., Comm>on.eralth Bank of Australii.
O'NEILL, Prof \. MI., LUn!er-ti o:f Sdrn,:,.
PARTRIDGE. Mr. H., Lin,.ernrx of S, dne',.
PASSMORE. NMr John. Linn ersiry of bvdnev.
PREST, Prof. \\., Uni erit: .,f Melbourne.
SHAW, Mr. A. G. L.. Lni\ersiny of NIlb.ll.urne ISecretary).
STONE, Prof. Julius. Unnersir, of S'dneo,.
STOUT, Prof. .. K., Uniner-ir, uf Sdnvc
WADHAMI, Prof. S. MI., UL'nerir-, of Melbourne.
\VHITF., Mr. H L-.. Co'mrnonoeijIth Natiinal Lib-iar', Canberra.
WOOD, Prof G. L Ur.nerirv of MNilbo:urn,-
WRIGHT, Prof. R. D University of Mlelt.-urne.
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