jj JHE LIRE'
AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
Committee on Research in the Social Sciences
Relitered mi AuitraL3 lor itrnsmi sion by poit as 3 peridica
AUSTRALIAN SOCIAL SCIENCE ABSTRACTS
Dr. K. S. Cunningham i'Chairman)
Professor R. M. Crawford, Professor G. L. Wood, Mr. G. F. James,
Mr. H. L. White, Mr. A. G. L. Shaw
Mr. S.J. Leng el, Faculty of Commerce, Umversiry of Melbourne, Carlton, N.3
EcoNo:.Ics-Profes-or G. L. Wood ind rMr. S. J. Lengyel
EDUCATION AND P\CHOLOGv--Dr K. S. Cunninaham
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LAw-Professor G. W. Paton
PHInLOsOPHY-Professor A. Bo-ce Gibson
POLITICAL SCTENCE-MIr. L. Churchtvard
AGRICULTURE AND RURAL PROBLEMS-Professor S. NM. Wadham
TERRITORIES AND NATIli PROBLEMS-Professor R. Nl. Crawford
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Australian Public Affairs Information Service, or ..P.A.I.S., indexes books,
magazine articles and government documents on Australian political, economic
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AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
Committee on Research in the Social Sciences
AUSTRALIAN SOCIAL SCIENCE ABSTRACTS
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Australian National Research Council, subsidized by the Common-
wealth Government through the Department of Post-War Reconstruction
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(A) Economics and Economic Policy
98. Monetary Horizons: An Australian View
of the Bretton Woods Agreement. G. L.
Wood. Austral-Asiatic Bulletin, pp. 43-46,
The main fear of the debtor countries now is that
the re-establishment of the gold standard, or anything
resembling it, will fetter their freedom of action. They
desire protection against unstable world prices, but fear
to surrender freedom in monetary policy for a somewhat
dubious prospect of international co-operation. Steady
internal prices seem more important than stable exchange
rates; and Australia, in particular, would find it
difficult to abandon common economic advantages under
U.K. leadership for unpredictable international adven-
Despite the generous assistance represented by Lend-
Lease, Australians have some doubt whether U.S.A.
will prove to be as wise as she is powerful in world
finance. They feel that America may lack the courage
to assume Britain's traditional role of leader in inter-
national trade and investment. This feeling is almost
Sthe only common ground upon which all sections in
Australia stand in relation to international monetary
The industrialists of U.K. do not wish to import
another depression from U.S.A., which would happen
if plans for financial co-operation prove ineffective.
Similarly, a large section in Australia is unwilling to
accept the possibility of economic depression as an
automatic concomitant of financial alliance with Britain.
Another large section also distrusts pegging of
exchange rates by an International Bank, even if accept-
S ance of the Agreement means a right to assistance from
the International Fund. It holds that it would be a
poor bargain to accept a plan which commits Australia
to a rigid external control under which the exchange
rate for the Australian pound would be fixed by an
international agency, possibly pursuing a monetary
policy unfavourable to Australia and without much
sympathy for Australian difficulties.
In Australia the spectre of an adverse balance of
payments always stalks behind discussions on monetary
policy. There is little disagreement on this matter,
and the section which holds that a modified gold
standard would still condemn Australia to deflation
and unemployment if world prices fell is not by any
means a 'Leftist' alignment. In whatever political
school they find themselves, Australians hesitate to
surrender financial self-government for the sake of
benefits which, unfortunately, are largely regarded as
99. Full Employment. The British, Canadian
and Australian White Papers. D. H.
Merry and G. R. Bruns. The Economic
Record, pp. 223-235. December 1945.
Governments of three very different countries have
accepted responsibility to ensure work for all. Each
recognizes four channels of employment-creating
expenditure, private and public consumption, private
capital, exports. With different emphasis they agree
that capital expenditure is most variable.
Australia expects government to maintain high total
expenditure; and, in this climate, private capital
expenditure would flourish. Competition for scarce
funds and resources will be avoided only by careful
timing. Britain prefers private spending to drive the
economy within the broad track of government monetary
policy. Government would stand ready to take up
slack, by a long-term plan of useful works, which could
be promptly advanced or retarded according to economic
temperature. Canada relies on private investment, with
low interest and taxes. But, there will be a 'shelf' of
government projects always available to prevent the
first impact of depression on her exports leading to
depression in other industries.
Failure of countries to import would hinder rising
living standards, the major aim of full employment.
The accepted idea of imports, as 'leakage' of employ-
ment-creating expenditure, assumes less than full world
employment, and emphasises trade balances. Under
full employment, trade balances simply measure borrow-
ing, and should be free. Exchange rates should simply
reflect the credit policies required for full employment,
if maximum gain from trade is to be enjoyed.
Ioo. Full Employment. Economic Papers No. 5.
Economic Society of Australia and New
Zealand (N.S.W. Branch). Angus &
Robertson, Sydney, 1945. pp. 67, 8vo.
Four papers, dealing with different aspects of Full
Employment, read before the Winter School of the
branch in May 1945 are being published.
Gerald Firth discusses the general problems, pointing
out that, to reduce long period unemployment, (I) over-
all demand must be adequate and can be achieved
through control of expenditure, and (2) men must be
matched with jobs. This could be achieved by encour-
aging new industries where labour is available or by
increasing labour mobility through training and employ-
A budget will have to be planned to ensure sufficient
outlay to maintain full employment, without (in Aus-
tralia) direct controls. Danger of inflation places heavy
responsibility on organised labour. Care is needed to
ensure that expenditure is directed to most urgent
needs, whether public or private. 'Balance of payments'
difficulties may be modified by import control or by
altering the exchange rate.
Richard Thompson deals with the problem from the
employers' viewpoint. Australia needs skilful and
daring private enterprise, free of interference, to give
full employment. Enterprise needs adequate reward
and full return from workers. Private enterprise has
enough jobs for servicemen and war workers. Govern-
ment should not preach that all war-acquired skills will
be needed in peace-most workers will be better off in
pre-war jobs. Conditions in primary industries should
be improved. Preference position is obscure. If women
stay at home, full employment should help population
growth. Government administration should be cut to
a minimum, although controls of supplies, investment
and prices will be required for a time. Government
should have a reservoir of public works available if
private employment falls ; should aid research ; encour-
age exports; promote efficiency and quality.
W. A. Baker represents the employees' viewpoint.
Workers all over the world believe wartime full employ-
ment can be maintained-'seller's market' for labour.
Industrial relations must be improved. Causes of
unrest in Australia are the level of earnings, wage fixing
methods, cost of living adjustment, working conditions,
attitude of employers, 'battleground atmosphere' of
arbitration, and shortages of houses and consumption
Mobility of labour, needed for full employment,
requires vocational guidance, labour exchanges, retrain-
ing, altered trade union practices, and, where workers
must move to new areas, houses. Ample incentives
for efficiency still available under full employment.
Workers could be persuaded to accept incentive pay.
'Economic problem of full employment has for the
most part been solved, the problems ahead are problems
Finally, Professor L. F. Giblin deals with financial
questions. The main problems are to maintain total
outlay and match men and jobs. Government can do
the first, but depends on individuals for the second,
especially the Commonwealth, with its limited powers.
Employers must collaborate with government in
planning investment. Wage earners must give full
output. Farmers must accept returns commensurate
with productivity, instead of 'cost of production' as a
right. Few groups are willing to play the full employ-
Adequate outlay is relatively easy to attain, and we
know the approximate amount required. It can be
achieved by increasing government expenditure, financed
by taxation or by loan. Expenditure from taxation
revenue would increase outlay more, if raised from high
incomes. Lower taxation, especially on low incomes,
will raise private outlay. Rising outlay may endanger
balance of payments, and necessitate import restriction
or export promotion. To reduce unemployment from
13 per cent to 3 per cent in Australia, we would normally
need to (a) raise government loan expenditure by 2zo
million, a year, or (b) raise tax on high incomes by 30
million using proceeds for extra expenditure, or (c)
maintain expenditure, reduce taxation, and budget for a
30 million deficit. Present problem is not to restore
but maintain full employment-problem of reconversion.
Hardest job is to match men with jobs in a free society.
11o. The Open Door. Economic News (Brisbane).
Only against the background of the Imperial Prefer-
ence can the controversy about Bretton Woods, the
American Loan to Britain, and the conditions attached
to it concerning commercial policy be properly under-
stood. If the British opponents of the Loan, led by
The Economist, had their way and Britain set out to
obtain her requirements by trade agreements within the
sterling area, there would soon be a state of commercial
war between the U.S.A. and the sterling area, and the
Dominions and Colonies would be the losers. America
must prove her sincerity by making big reductions in
her own tariff, particularly in primary produce, and by
abolishing her own preferential trading agreements on
commodities like sugar, and her export subsidies. But
if she does so, Australia has everything to gain from
choosing a free multilateral world market for primary
produce, instead of being tied by preferences to a
stagnant British market.
102. The American Loan, World Trade and
Australia. R. F. Holder. Post-war and
Commercial Legislation. Australian Law
Book Co., Melbourne, pp. 58-67. Jan.-
Having discussed the different aspects of the problems
connected with the American loan to Britain and Bretton
Woods, in particular their implications to Australia, the
author's conclusion is that the Washington agreement
is a distinct advance in the treatment of world trade
problems. When all is said, there is no practicable
alternative to Anglo-American co-operation. Accept-
ance of the loan conditions is a risk, but it is a risk for
an objective with which there is little to quarrel; and
there is still an opportunity at the trade conference to
reduce that hazard by negotiation.
o03. Bretton Woods. E. J. Ward. The Labor
Call (Melbourne). April 4 and Ix, 1946.
The Minister of Transport is convinced that Bretton
Woods does not offer a solution of world problems, but
'quite blatantly sets up controls which will reduce the
smaller nations to vassal States, and make every govern-
ment the mouthpiece and tool of international finance.
It will undermine and destroy the democratic institu-
tions of this country-in fact, as effectually as ever the
Fascist forces could have done; pervert and paganise
our Christian ideals; and will undoubtedly present a
new menace, endangering world peace. Co-operation
between the peoples of the world can bring peace,
security and prosperity. World collaboration of private
financial interests can only mean mass unemployment,
slavery, misery, degradation and final destruction.
Therefore as freedom-loving Australians, we should
reject this infamous proposal.'
104. Tryer, A. J., and Crowley, N. G. : Bretton
Woods-An Economic Analysis. Robertson
& Mullens, Melbourne, 1946. pp. 63, 8vo.
Price 2s. 6d.
Subject to certain reservations the Fund is a sound
instrument for facilitating international payments. The
Funds' resources, however, can only meet reasonable
demands. It is necessary therefore that near balance
in payments be obtained and that industrial fluctuations
in important markets be avoided. What are the pros-
pects ? Britain's position is complicated by industrial
dislocations particularly in the export trades, liquidation
of pre-war overseas assets and the accumulation of large
sterling commitments. The proposed American loan
is essential to meet Britain's dollar needs. If this is
not granted Britain must renounce multilateral trade
and free exchanges. On the other hand, if the Fund
is to succeed, American attitudes at several levels must
105. Inflation. Canterbury Chamber of Com-
merce. Bulletin, Nos. 253 and 254.
January and February 1946.
After defining inflation, and distinguishing between
monetary and price inflation, the bulletin asserts that
in N.Z. prices actually have risen more than the official
indexes would suggest, since these are confined to a
narrow range of goods, most of which are subject to
rigid price control. They take no account of changes
in quality and quantity available, nor of the loss of
distributive services which were formerly paid for with
the goods. But there are many parts of the wide and
varied field of expenditure where government regimenta-
tion cannot be applied and where the excess money
finds freer expression. This excess must be overcome.
The amount of money available to the people of N.Z.
in notes and deposits totalled 154m. in September
1937 and 324m. in September 1945. Of these 53m.
is backed by accumulated overseas funds, while C I7m.
is inflation; an excess over what would be needed to
purchase the pre-war volume of goods at pre-war prices.
The chief problem now confronting the Dominion is
how to dispose of this excess money created by inflation,
so that controls can be abandoned, and free marketing
(leading to free, efficient and economic production)
ensured without any undue rise in prices. Broadly
there are two alternative methods of dealing with the
excess. Either it must be absorbed in financing pro-
duction and trade, in which case it would probably
raise prices to about double their pre-war level, or it
must be removed. The possible effects of both alterna-
tives are discussed and a deflationary policy (the removal
of the excess) advocated. This could be achieved
partly by using excess overseas funds for imports, partly
by funding inactive bank balances, and partly by keeping
prices on the present level.
o16. Economic Stabilization in the Post-war
Period. F. P. Walsh. The Record,
(Melbourne), April 1946.
This is a reprint of the Report of the President of
the Wellington Labour Council to the N.Z. National
Council of the Federation of Labour. Its brief sum-
mary is :
So far N.Z. has come through the war better than
other countries. But there are dangerous elements in
the present situation. Shortage of skilled labour, par-
ticularly of female labour, discrepancy in the develop-
ment of export and import prices, the problem of selling
farm produce in overseas markets and, most important,
the accumulated shortage of goods relative to the avail-
able high volume of purchasing power. To check the
inflation, price control and price subsidies were neces-
sary, which means that industry is not being propelled
on its own motive power. These facts have to be faced
and a solution be found. A deliberate policy of deflation
(see No. Io5 above) would be against the best interests
of the country and would bring other evils in its train.
The gap between money and goods should be adjusted
from the opposite end, i.e., by more production. This
is where workers can do a real job. Nothing should
be allowed to interrupt the productive system. N.Z.
cannot afford to have stoppages of production. The
two-way trade between N.Z. and Great Britain must
be maintained and therefore no wall of protection
should be built round local industries regardless of
their efficiency. The manufacturer who builds up a
high-cost industry in a closed market achieves a gain,
but it is at the expense of the community. Industries
cannot absorb wage increases indefinitely. They have
either to be met by price increases, or be held by
subsidies. But the continuation of a policy of subsidies
cannot be carried on for ever without disastrous effects.
In N.Z. the battle for adequate minimum wage
standards has been won, and the tendency is now for
the labour movement to base wages on the productivity
of the economic system and to share the responsibility
for its smooth working with employers and the govern-
107. Australia and Post-war World Trade. Asso-
ciated Chambers of Commerce of Aus-
tralia. Sydney, 1946, pp. 30, demy 8vo.
The pamphlet, the material for which has been com-
piled by T. Hytten and R. F. Holder, deals with the
structure of Australian trade, the changes brought about
during the war, the problems of world trade and the
principles which should guide Australian trade policy
in order that it may play a constructive part in buttressing
Despite rapid development of second industries
behind a tariff barrier and in wartime isolation, the
Australian economy still depends on the state of overseas
trade. Wartime conditions profoundly modified foreign
trade. Exports consist largely of primary products,
imports chiefly of capital goods and manufactured
consumer goods; but the terms of trade worsened,
insofar as a given volume of exports of primary products
now brings less imports of manufactured goods than
in pre-war years.
The maintenance of full employment may require
more control over trade than existed before the war.
Greater freedom of trade, while assisting Australian
exports, must cause a review of Australian industrial
policy, particularly in regard to the tariff. International
investment serves to increase world trade, provided
that the lender accepts repayment and service charges
by importing goods. Exchange stability, though not
rigid exchange rates, is essential to confidence in inter-
national trade. However, the problem of balance of
payments remains despite Bretton Woods. Multilateral
trade is in Australia's interest, particularly if the Ottawa
Australian exports face competition from other pro-
ducers and from alternative commodities. Therefore
it is necessary to keep down costs, though costs of
production have risen in the main industrial countries.
But there are limits to reduction of agricultural costs
and, therefore, it is probable that Australia still will
have to rely on some degree of tariff protection.
Australia must develop efficient marketing machinery,
undertake market research and disseminate trade
information. The function of the State is to pursue
policies of economic expansion, reducing trade restric-
tions and supplementing market information through
the Trade Commissioner service.
io8. Profit, Income and Living Standard. A
'Looking Forward' Publication of the
Institute of Public Affairs--Victoria.
Melbourne 1946. 32 pp., demy 8vo.
The main arguments in this booklet are, viz. : The
desire, common to practically all men, for personal
gain and advancement, is the true meaning of term
'profit-motive'. The wage-earner in his desire for
higher wages is as much actuated by the 'profit-motive'
as the businessman in his search for new avenues of
profit. 2. The average rate of company profits as a
percentage of shareholders' funds is about 6 per cent.
3. If all dividends from companies, less taxes, were
distributed among those with incomes of 300 a year
and less, the additional income would be about 3/6 a
week each, and if all dividends plus undistributed
profits were distributed among them, the addition would
be about 6/6 a week. The most drastic redistribution
of income conceivable could do little to improve the
lot of those on low incomes, and any gains achieved
would be temporary. The destruction of the incentive
would lead to a fall in national production, which would
eventually reduce the incomes of all. 5. The standard
of wage-earners improved since the beginning of the
century by an increase of real wages by 23 per cent,
by reducing average weekly hours of work from 49 in
1914 to 43.6 in 1943, by annual holidays with pay,
by better working conditions and advanced financial
security. 6. Social services have multiplied many times.
109. A 'Made to Measure' Tariff. W. J. Rose.
The Economic Record, pp. 212-222.
The paper describes the working of Clauses 9 to 13
of the United Kingdom-Australia Trade Agreement
(generally called the 'Ottawa Agreement') between 1932
and 1939. It is claimed that, as a result, the level of
the Australian British Preferential Tariff was consider-
ably reduced without detriment, and even with benefit
to Australian industrial development during the period.
Protective duties were reduced to the lowest levels
consistent with protection. At a Conference in 1938
of British and Australian Ministers and Officials, it was
agreed that, on the whole, that section of the Agreement
had worked 'fairly satisfactorily'.
A suggestion made by the Tariff Board in its Annual
Report for the year ended 3oth June, 1942, is quoted,
to the effect that the principles and methods developed
should be capable of wide application to trade between
nations after the war.
11o. Price Control and Rationing in Foreign
Countries. During the War. Faith M.
Williams. Monthly Labor Review (Wash-
ington, D.C.), pp. 882-889. Nov. 1945.
Price-control measures and methods and scope of
rationing have varied widely from country to country
during the war period, depending on the military
situation, the extent of dependence on imported goods,
the transport facilities available, and the traditions of
the country as to government control. The author
reviews the situation in all countries from which reports
are available, inter alia in New Zealand and Australia.
Most nations have had some form of price control
by the government in the interwar period. When
hostilities commenced in 1939 certain countries estab-
lished price ceilings for a large number of essential raw
materials and consumer goods; others had only limited
price controls in the early part of the war. Subsidies
were frequently used, either at the producers', the
wholesalers', or the retailers' level, to maintain the
ceilings fixed. Price control measures proved largely
ineffective in the countries invaded by the Axis powers,
owing to the extreme shortages caused by the destruction
of equipment and transport and the disruption of govern-
ment administration. Rationing of certain essential
foods was general in wartime. Some countries have
decreased rations in peacetime to aid the food supply in
III. Some Implications of the Cessation of
Lend-Lease. John M. Ward. The
Australian Quarterly, pp. 16-28. March
The cessation of Lend-Lease in August 1945 should
have caused no surprise. Lend-Lease had been under
constant fire in the United States. American policy
provided that Lend-Lease should cease so soon as the
war was over.
The Lend-Lease Act and the Mutual Aid Agreements
make provision for the final Lend-Lease settlement.
The United States is entitled to require the return of
certain Lend-Lease goods. Reverse Lend-Lease is to
be considered in the final settlement, which must be
such as to improve world-wide economic relationships.
Apart from legal arrangements, the influence of Lend-
Lease on the nature of each nation's war effort makes a
strict financial settlement inapt.
American policy has been to regard the dollar and
commercial problems produced by the cessation of
Lend-Lease as aspects of the Lend-Lease settlement
and also as factors in the financial arrangements to be
made between the United States and her allies.
112. After Lend-lease. Wisdom and Economics.
Kenneth Henderson. The Australian
Quarterly, pp. 29-34. March 1946.
The abrupt ending of Lend-Lease reflected the not
uncommon American belief that Lend-Lease was a
'bad thing', tolerable only in wartime. The American
business men, who mould opinion and control govern-
ment, looked for specific contractual advantages from
Lend-Lease. It may be that some Americans visualised
the ending of Lend-Lease as a move to beat Britain
to the export markets of the world. Other Americans
may have hoped for a tariff treaty admitting the United
States to the economic system of the Empire.
Popular economic ideas underlying such aims are still
bedevilled by adolescent traits, such as the 'sucker
complex' so marked in American attitudes to Europe
and the fear that there is not enough wealth for every-
body. The world's economic problems are to be solved
by a policy of expanding economy.
(B) Industry, Trade and Commerce
(a) General Works
113. H. F. Goerke: The Structure of Production
-Degrees of 'Industrialisation,' Western
Australian Industry Expansion Commis-
sion. Perth 1946, pp. 12. Folio
The degree of industrialisation of W.A. is greater than
one might expect owing to the gold mining industry.
Excluding this, its degree of industrialisation would be
rather low. In common with the rest of the Australian
States, the percentage engaged in tertiary employment
is very high, and the State has a standard of living
which marks it out as one of the most prosperous in the
world. Its average produced community income in
1938-39 amounted to 272 per person in work, which
was very little below the Australian figure for the same
year at 279. The State is heavily dependent on
overseas trade, more so than any other State in the
Commonwealth. The major exports are wheat, wool
and gold, exported directly to overseas, and the major
imports consist of manufactured products which come
from the other Australian States.
114. Chih Tsang: China's Postwar Markets. A
study of China's postwar needs and trade
opportunities. Institute of Public Rela-
tions. New York, 1945, pp. 239. Med.
8vo. Price $3.50.
Using as a basis China's exports and imports for a
representative period in the 1930's, the author analyses
the probable size, character, and direction of Chinese
foreign trade in the immediate postwar period, as well
as that of Manchuria and Formosa. He estimates as
accurately as possible the amount of producers' and
consumers' goods which China will be able to buy.
Reparations and loans, and the financial problems
involved, are considered. The author's main thesis is
that the postwar market of China is not one to be
exploited, but one to be developed. Western business-
men will have to understand the character of this market,
and provide the means for developing it. Figures of
trade relations with Australia are given throughout.
115. Daniel, Howard, and Belle, Minnie: Aus-
tralia-The New Customer. The Ronald
Press Company. New York, 1946, pp. 369.
The aim of the book is to provide American business
men with an economic and commercial guide to Aus-
tralia, the new customer. The subject matter of the
book falls into two parts. Chapters i to 8 give general
background information which is important to an
adequate understanding of Australia as a market, such
as : the Australian market, the land and the people, the
political system, the Australian customer, living stan-
dards, foreign trade, ports and port facilities, marketing
and advertising. The second part, comprising Chapters
9 to 29, gives detailed attention to primary and secondary
industries, as well as to communication, transportation,
public utilities and other facilities, with particular
emphasis on the future outlook and market opportunities
for American business. Chapter 30 summarizes and
'high lights' the specific post-war developments already
planned for in Australia. An appendix giving market
research data for the capital cities provides additional
useful information. In making available statistical
information about Australia the authors have used
every resource to secure and assemble data that will
prove reliable as a guide to existing conditions.
116. Facts, not Guesses in Marketing. Jones,
E. A. On Marketing, Institute of Indus-
trial Management. Melbourne, 1946,
Intelligent business planning required that adequate
attention be devoted to the systematic and continuous
study of past, present, and potential markets, and to
the discovery and development of methods of deter-
mining and fulfilling demands for goods and services
in the most efficient and economical manner. In U.S.A.
and Great Britain research analysts, who applied
statistical methods and techniques to the study of
consumers' choices and the needs of the national market,
now discharged an important function of business
administration. After outlining the aims and methods
of market research in both countries, the author stated
that according to the American Management Association
many business men who had invested money in market
research considered the dividends fully as satisfactory
as those they had received from their investments in
engineering design research and laboratory research.
In the highly competitive era, both in the home market
and abroad, which Australia was entering, scientific
analysis of the problems involved in assessing potential
markets and in determining the best method of distribu-
tion and sale of goods would be of increasing importance.
117. Sales Planning, Including Its Relation to
Production. Whitlam, A. G., in On
Marketing. Institute of Industrial Man-
agement. Melbourne, 1946, pp. 31-49.
The problems of sales planning in the transitional or
adjustment period are treated under the headings of
products, markets, distribution, finance, stocks, pro-
duction and personnel. The relationship of sales
planning to the production of consumer goods is out-
lined, the summing .up being 'that it is the sales side
of a business which has both the first and last word in
the life history of its products.'
Long term sales planning is then discussed, emphasis
being placed on market research, and a wider knowledge
of, and outlook on affairs and developments in the
international sphere. The importance and urgency of
developing export markets for secondary products is
stressed. Opportunities for a large expansion of trade
with countries extending from the Middle East to
New Zealand are now wide open ; if advantage of these
is not taken now, they may not be available when we
are ready to exploit them. The paper concludes with
a reference to costs of distribution.
(b) Individual Industries
118. Australian Dairy Produce Board. Twentieth
Annual Report for year 1944-45. Govern-
ment Printer, Canberra, 1945, pp. 25.
The Report deals in detail with butter and cheese
exports to Great Britain and other countries, and sets
out the terms and conditions of the long term purchase
agreement whereby Australia will sell and the United
Kingdom will purchase during the period ist July 1944
and ending 3oth June 1948, all butter and cheese surplus
to Australian requirements. During the year the
government has assisted the dairy industry in several
ways and the report sets these out in full detail. The
report of the manager of the London Office of the
Board, dealing with butter and cheese prices and dis-
tribution in the U.K., world food situation, U.K. food
supplies, U.K. agriculture, and labelling of food, is
Exports from Australia of Butter and Cheese:
ToU.K. Other Total
97-0 5-6 102-6
108-7 8-3 117-0
77-8 9-3 87-1
46-9 10-9 57-8
48-9 4-9 53-8
41-6 5-7 47-2
37-4 6.8 44-1
To U.K. Other Total
nds of Tons)
15-8 *7 16-5
184 1-1 19.5
10-1 4-6 14-8
6-6 6-6 13-2
6-1 4-6 10"6
3-8 5-0 8-7
2-7 10-4 13-1
119. Marketing Australian Dairy Produce in
India. Department of Commerce and
Agriculture. Public Relations Director-
ate, Melbourne, 1946, pp. 25, Med. 8vo.
This is a full survey into the Indian market, the local
dairy industry and sources of imports, future demand,
tariff rates and marketing, and is well supported by
statistics. In the pre-war years the market absorbed
imported dairy produce to the average annual value of
about half-a-million. The pre-war trend, especially in
butter and cheese, favoured Australia, wartime develop-
ments being of even greater significance. As a conse-
quence of the cessation of other sources of supplies
which are normally competitive with Australian dairy
produce, during the war years Australia was the main
supplier of butter up to 80 per cent and over, in cheese
to 93 per cent, in dried and powdered full-cream milk
to 80 per cent, etc. Whilst Australia has certain
geographical advantages over some other suppliers,
these are only operative in so far as world prices for
dairy produce and freight differentials permit. Further-
more, seasonal factors, resulting in an over-supply of
important markets, like the United Kingdom, also play
their part in determining the source of supplies for the
Indian and smaller markets.
The Indian import figures indicate a demand for
dairy products which domestic industry, for reasons of
quality or production, has been unable to meet. Future
prospects for the import trade appear to be bright given
favourable economic and political conditions, but
realisation will be governed by the advancement made
by the domestic industry. Though there are good
prospects of achieving a substantial increase in Indian
dairy production within 20 years, and a degree of self-
sufficiency on a moderate rate of consumption, given
continuity of demand for high quality goods, there
seems no reason why expansion in local production in
the next few years should interfere to any marked
degree with the import trade.
120. Australian Egg Industry Year Book. Com-
monwealth Controller of Egg Supplies,
Sydney, 1945, pp. 235. Crown 4to.
This volume tells the story of the Australian egg
industry and its control. It presents the facts and
figures relating to the production and marketing of eggs
in Australia. It also sets out the many highly technical
processes, such as candlingg' and grading of eggs, so
necessary to the successful control of the annual 6m.
turnover of the Australian egg industry.
The book contains a mass of information on the
organization and functions of the Controller, on market-
ing, on the Egg Boards in the different States, etc., and
is well supported by statistics of production and prices
and illustrated by diagrams, charts and graphs.
121. Controller of Egg Supplies. Annual Report
for the year ended 3oth June, 1945. The
Poultry Farmer, pp. 25-37, 4th May 1946.
The controlled production (producers keeping forty
or less adult female fowls or ducks were exempted from
control) in 1944-45 was 104'25m. doz. as against
88 98m. dozen in 1943-44. The average net price
per doz. to producers has risen from is. 5.579d. to
is. 6-o98d. Of the total controlled production 18'51
per cent were processed as frozen whole pulp and
14-38 per cent powdered. Exports of eggs in shell
or powdered were negligible. Pulp exported to New
Zealand totalled z,I85m. lb. as against 3,512m. lb. in
the previous year.
Cost of eggs purchased by the Controller amounted
to 6- iom. or 80'93 per cent of the total selling price,
while cost of processing amounted to 7-77 per cent
and expenses to 9-30 per cent, leaving a net surplus of
the year's operations of I-993 per cent, or 150,z28.
122. Dried Fruit Exports. Twenty-first Annual
Report of the Commonwealth Dried
Fruits Control Board for the year 1944-45.
Government Printer, Canberra, 1945,
The Board reports that owing to adverse seasonal
conditions and other causes the production in Australia
of currants, sultanas and lexias during the 1945 season
was only 68,ooo tons. This is the smallest crop since
1936 and is 36,261 tons below the record production
of 1944. The marked falling-off in production has
necessitated a curtailment of the quantity of Australian
dried vine fruits both for home consumption and export.
The Board again urges that the existing tariff preferences
in the U.K., Canada and N.Z. be retained in order to
enable growers to obtain profitable prices for the surplus
fruit now produced in Australia. A further recom-
mendation by the Board is that no new areas be planted
for the further production of currants, sultanas and
lexias unless, as a result of an economic survey by the
Commonwealth Bureau of Agricultural Economics, it
is shown that there is a possibility of finding remunera-
tive markets for the increased production.
The main statistical figures are:
tion sumption U.K. Canada N.Z.
In Tho usands of Tons
1939 73 17 36 14 4
194O 95 18 50 20 6
1941 80 17 33 20 6
1942 92 24 44 17 6
1943 91 25 43 16 6
1944 104 35 44 16 7
1945 68 25 21 15 6
123. Fruit Growing Industry. Statistical Sum-
mary of the Season 1944-45. Common-
wealth Bureau of Census and Statistics.
Vol. i, No. i. Canberra, Feb. 1946,
pp. 14. (Processed.)
This summary furnishes details of the area, produc-
tion and overseas disposals of Australia's fruit crop,
excluding grapes ; and includes particulars in some
detail of production and trade in canned fruits and
dried tree fruits. The information given supplements
other 1944-45 crop data already released respecting
wheat, vegetables and other crops.
These are the main production figures :
Area Production of principal fruit crops
under (Bushels, '000 omitted
('000) Apples Bananas Citrus Peaches Pears Plums
1940-41 269 12,165 2,610 5,472 2,369 2.921 950
1941-42 266 10,531 2,491 5,196 2,121 2,208 851
1942-43 260 9,851 2,408 4,180 2,036 2,837 927
1943-44 262 14,523 2,108 5,332 2,573 2,684 1,171
1944 45 264 10,705 1,955 5,657 2,172 3,276 722
i24. Canned Fruits Export. Nineteenth Annual
Report of the Australian Canned Fruits
Board for the year 1944-45. Government
Printer, Canberra, 1945.
Owing to adverse seasonal conditions and labour
shortages, the 1945 pack of canned apricots, peaches
and pears aggregated only 2,080,955 cases, representing
75 per cent of the average pre-war output. The recorded
output of 55,855 cases of canned pineapples from the
1945 summer pack was similarly disappointing; but,
when the intermediate and winter crops are processed,
the total for the season should reach reasonable propor-
tions. Service and other governmental demands have
again been heavy, absorbing approximately 70 per cent
of the total pack of these fruits. Shipments to overseas
destinations have been limited to approved quotas and
subject to official supervision of their disposal.
125. The Indian Market for Australian Fresh
Fruits. Department of Commerce and
Agriculture. Public Relations Directorate,
Melbourne, 1946, pp. 32, Med. 8vo.
The survey deals with all aspects of a complete
market research, viz., local production, the import
trade, the principal markets, prices, shipping facilities,
cold storage facilities, customs, selling practices and
The most suitable fruits for Australia to sell in India
are apples, pears, oranges and grapes. The only other
fruit-supplying country with a similar season to our
own is South Africa. Australia was, after the U.S.A.,
the principal supplier of the market and this trade was
increasing, its value having quadrupled in the four years
from 1935-36 to 1938-39 from 58,000 rupees to 240,000,
but it diminished after that year as a consequence of
The report indicates that there is a good potential
market for fresh fruit in India although the market will
not be an easy one to serve. To develop a really good
and lasting trade will require much effort and careful
126. Statistical Year Book of the Gas Industry
in Australia and New Zealand, 1944.
The National Gas Association of Aus-
tralia, Melbourne, 1946, pp. 40. 84"x 31".
Total sales of gas in Australia, estimated at 27, oom.
cu. ft. for 1944, exceeded sales for 1939 by 42-9 per
cent. Meters in commission were estimated at I,031,000,
14-2 per cent above that for the end of 1939. Coke
sales were 38'9 per cent, tar sold or treated 36-4 per
cent more than for 1939. Australian gas undertakings
carbonised 1,685,ooo tons of coal in 1944, 39-6 per cent
above 1939 consumption. Coal stocks were reduced to
94,000 tons against 320,000 tons at the end of 1939.
The average number of persons employed by Australian
gas undertakings in 1944 was 8,770, o1 per cent less
than in 1939, but salaries and wages paid totalled over
3m. against 2-72m. in 1939.
In N.Z. gas sold in 1944 was 4'59m. cu. ft. as against
3 63m. cu. ft., 1939, while the average number employed
was 1,780 against 2,ooo in 1939.
i27. Meat Export. Tenth Annual Report of the
Australian Meat Board for the year ended
30th June 1945. Government Printer,
Canberra, 1945, pp. 26.
During the war period meat production has been
generally well maintained, though over the past twelve
to fifteen months a decline in mutton, lamb and pigmeat
production has occurred owing to adverse seasonal
conditions. The surplus over normal civilian require-
ments and latterly over the rationed limits has largely
been absorbed by the Services, and export figures have
been correspondingly reduced. The disposal of the
export surplus is assured under agreement with the U.K.
government until September 1948; but during this
period it will be necessary for all possible steps to be
taken to place the various sections of the industry on a
world competitive basis.
Meat Exports (in Thousands of Tons)
Beef Pig- Canned Dehy-
and Mutton Lamb meat Meat drated
1939-40 136 22 91 25 9 -
1940-41 87 11 98 35 14 -
1941-42 56 6 74 17 38 -
1942-43 8 11 82 1 16 1
194344 17 14 60 8 14 2
1944-45 21 16 78 18 15 2
128. Australian Sugar Year-Book, 1945-46. The
Strand Press, Brisbane, 1946, pp. 318.
Sup. 104, 8vo. Price I5s.
The fifth volume of the Sugar Year-Book is again a
complete reference book of all aspects of the Australian
sugar industry. A wealth of factual material is piled
up in the publication, viz., verbatim reports of the
different trade bodies, sugar industry awards, Common-
wealth Sugar Agreement, district reports, legislation,
etc. The book contains detailed statistics relating to
prices, consumption, production, etc., and also a full
directory of all firms, offices, associations in the trade
or connected with it.
129. H. L. Wise: Tobacco Growing and Manu-
facture in New Zealand. Whitcombe &
Tombs Ltd., Wellington, 1946, pp. 109,
8vo. Price 6s.
The author gives a brief history and descriptive
account of tobacco growing and manufacturing in New
Zealand, dealing with the origin and development of the
industry, its methods of production, manufacture, and
organisation as well as sales, exports, and prices.
It has been proved beyond doubt that soil and climate
in certain localities are eminently suitable for production
of leaf of the type and quality that meet the requirements
of manufacturers in New Zealand, and probably for
export to the United Kingdom also. In cultivation
there are 1,500 to 1,700, and in manufacturing, approxi-
mately I,ioo people engaged in the industry. The
gross income to growers in 1943-44 was about 300,000,
while the aggregate value of the manufactured products
was more than 2-8m., as against 1-.m. ten years
before. The progress shown is a reflection of the
success of the steps taken by the Government and the
Tobacco Board to encourage and expand both produc-
tion of leaf and manufacture of tobacco and cigarettes
within New Zealand. The prospect for the future
depends mainly upon (i) the public willingness to
consume tobacco and cigarettes containing an increasing
proportion of New Zealand leaf, (2) the attractiveness
of the industry to growers and potential growers, and
(3) the continuation of the present policy of protection
afforded to the industry, especially through the medium
of import control, against the competition of the prod-
ucts of overseas manufacturers.
130. Wine Overseas Marketing. Seventeenth
Annual Report of the Australian Wine
Board for the year 1944-45. Government
Printer, Canberra, 1945, pp. 12.
The report discloses a further improvement in the
exports of wine to the United Kingdom and the ship-
ment of 600 tons of brandy was also sanctioned. Trade
figures show an increase of 5 3'2 per cent in clearances
of Australian wines from bond in the U.K. as compared
with last year, but a decrease of 85 3 per cent on the
figures for the year 1938-39. Shipments to the U.K.
increased by 157"9 per cent as against last year, but
were 80 per cent less than in 1938-39. Exports to
other markets decreased by 14'7 per cent.
Here are the main figures :
Production Home con- Exports Production Exports
In Thousands of allons
1939-40 14,775 3,962 3,628 564 135
1940-41 16,009 4,720 1,623 812 250
1941-42 15,861 5,324 1,420 702 206
1942-43 19,824 7,814 816 574 160
1943-44 19,864 7,730 1,273 481 189
1944-45 13,230* 8,678 1,554 459 208
(D) Public Finance
131. The Future of Federal Aid. G. I,. Wood.
The Economic Record, pp. 197-211, Decem-
The co-ordination of Federal and State financial
policies presents difficulties connected with the enlarging
responsibilities of the Commonwealth owing to depres-
sion and war. Only the superior financial resources of
the Commonwealth can be made to match increasing
public expenditure upon new and expanding functions
Some instrument is needed for overcoming financial
rigidity, and for enabling States with unequal resources
to function at approximately equal standards. The
main device to overcome this friction is the Federal
grant-in-aid; and the Commonwealth Grants Com-
mission is tending to become a court of conciliation
and arbitration in a fiscal sense between the Common-
wealth and the claimant States.
In the process, however, the 'division of powers' has
become a fiction, but shared functions a persistent
necessity, and close co-operation in Federal-State
finance becomes indispensable. Federal grants must
bridge the gap between the needs and the financial
resources of the States. The functions of grants and
the technique of gearing Federal, State, and Local
government through finance are not fully understood
in any Federation. The apportionment of total tax
resources among the Commonwealth and the States
is still unco-ordinated and unscientific, and there is
need for an expert review of public financial resources
at all levels of government.
In Australia, assistance to the States by the Common-
wealth is made by way of:
(a) direct 'budget to budget' payments (amounting
to about 46m. in 1943-44),
(b) subsidies to producers or other groups (amounting
to about 18m.), and
(c) indirect payments of many kinds.
The most important field of indirect expenditure by
the Federal Government in the States is that on social
services, in which the Federal Government was spending
about 4om. in 1943-44
The provision of minimum standards of social
services over the whole Commonwealth is likely to be
the main controversy of the future. They could be
provided by differential payments to the States upon
a broad basis of needs in conformity with national policy.
Two conclusions are reached: a central authority is
necessary to integrate Federal aid with broad national
policy ; and there is need for a more powerful engine
of compromise which would provide facilities for inter-
governmental co-operation at all levels.
132. War Damage Commission. Report for the
period ist January 1945 to 31st December
1945. Government Printer, Canberra,
1946, pp. 9.
The Fund was in credit to the extent of over I3m.
as at 3ist December 1945, against which there is an
outstanding liability of probably 7'5m., but the
majority of the claims have not yet been assessed.
More than 90 per cent of the claims relate to New Guinea
133. The Growth of New Zealand's General
Government Debt. E. P. Neale. The
Economic Record, pp. 182-196, December
New Zealand finished the war with Japan with a
general Government debt of approximately 629m., as
against 99'7m. in 1914, 201 2m. in 192o, and
343 2m. in 1939, or per head of population 375,
88, 163, and 211 respectively. In addition there
is a net indebtedness of local bodies of 6om., making
the total public debt in August 1945 689m., or 409
per head of the population. However, indebtedness
per head of population is a dubious index of debt
burdens, inasmuch as rates of interest vary, as also do
national incomes per head. In estimating relative
burdens of public debt, consideration must also be
given to the extent to which debts are held abroad.
In this respect the trend is towards relying increasingly
on the local market. Whereas in 1914, 78-8 per cent
of the debt of the general Government had been raised
in London, 4-3 per cent in Australia, and 16'9 per
cent locally, the 1945 figures are 33-o, -2, and 66-8
respectively. In order to measure the relative burden
and also to interpret the indebtedness in comparison
with other countries, the author has tentatively assessed
the purposes for which the total debt had been incurred,
resulting in the following abridged table :
Percentage of total debt for various purposes.
1. Directly productive (i)
2. Investments (ii)
3. Indirectly productive (iii)
4. Financially unproductive and
5. Provincial liabilities ..
(i) Railways, posts, telegraphs and telephones, lighthouses and
harbours, state forests, electricity supply.
(ii) Land purchases, advances to settlers, workers, local bodies,
(iii) Roads, bridges, mining, immigration.
(iv) Public buildings, wars, defence.
134. Commonwealth Disposal Commission. First
Annual Report for the year ended 31st
August 1945. Commonwealth Disposal
Commission, Melbourne, 1945, pp. 21.
With the termination of the war enormous quantities
of goods of all kinds have become surplus to require-
ments and the Commission has been established to deal
with this surplus within and without the Common-
wealth. The policy of the Commission is directed to
ensure an orderly and widespread distribution of surplus
goods at fair market prices under conditions which will
not prejudice the national economy and the achievement
of full employment in the post-war period. The
Report sets out the principles of this policy, describes
the general sales procedure and gives an analysis of
the sales during the year under review amounting to
o1,296,244. The anticipated disposal programme for
1945-46 will be many times higher than this amount.
135. The Planning of Public Investment in
Australia. Richard I. Downing. Inter-
national Labour Review, pp. 352-379,
Public investment and public enterprise have always
been important factors in the Australian economy.
Since there is still great scope for developmental
expenditure in Australia, public investment should
contribute effectively to the realisation of the Common-
wealth Government's announced aims of full employ-
ment, rising standard of living, and improved capital
investment. The White Paper on Full Employment in
Australia leaves no doubt as to the importance which
the government attaches to the planning of public
investment and the chief purpose of the author is to
describe the work of the National Works Council, which
has been charged with the responsibility for the planning
of public investment in Australia by the agreement
between the Commonwealth and State governments.
In doing so the author surveys the entire inter-
governmental machinery in Australia and its historical
development : Premiers' Conferences, Loan Council,
Commonwealth Grant Commission, Agricultural Coun-
cil and now National Works Council; machinery
which, on the whole, is better suited to promote con-
sultation between the Commonwealth and its six
constituent States than the federal systems of the U.S.
and Canada. This is in practice demonstrated by the
Housing Agreement, Soldiers Settlement Agreement,
Uniform Taxation, etc. The main part of the paper
is devoted to the reports of the Co-ordinator General
of Works, in relation to the general employment policy.
136. Hutchinson, A. R. : Public Charges upon
Land Values. A Study of the Effects of
Local Government Rating Systems upon
the Social and Economic Development of
the Australian States. Henry George
S Foundation, Melbourne, 1945, pp. 32,
8vo. Price 6d.
All Australian States impose public charges on land
values, but the rates vary widely. These charges take
one or more of three forms : land rents, land taxes and
local government rates imposed on land values. Of
the three forms by far the most important are the local
government rates, and this study deals with their effect
on the price of land and social conditions. In Queens-
land, N.S.W. and W.A. (Land Value Rating Group)
land value rating is general over the whole State, while
in S.A., Victoria and Tasmania (Annual Value Rating
Group) this does not operate at all or is confined to a
few districts. Author shows that dwelling construction,
the degree of improvement of holdings, the flow of
migration, the increase in the number of factories, the
growth of producers' co-operatives, etc., have been
greater in the first group than in the second, thus
proving the theory that the land value rating system
in keeping down the price of land enables all forms of
land use to be undertaken with less preliminary accumu-
lation of capital. By calling upon vacant site owners
to contribute as much to revenue as though their
properties were in full use, it reduces the share of those
who develop their properties properly, leaving them
with more working funds to put into improvements of
their properties. The conclusion : The beneficial social
and economic effects which have attended the operation
of land value rating point to the desirability of the
extension of this principle to other activities of State
and Federal Governments, in particular that capital
charges for public works and services which maintain
or increase land values should be met by rates levied
upon land values.
137. Theory and Practice in Accounting for
Commodity Stocks. The first Common-
wealth Institute of Accountants Research
Lecture in the University of Adelaide,
October 1945. A. A. Fitzgerald. The
Australian Accountant, pp. 426-442,
Customary practice in accounting valuation of com-
modity stocks is based upon the 'lower of cost or market'
rule-a rule which, despite its air of precision and its
almost unquestioned acceptance, conceals many ambi-
guities and uncertainties. 'Market' is variously inter-
preted as estimated selling value, estimated selling value
after deducting estimated selling expense, or estimated
replacement value. 'Cost' is an indefinite term, which
can be adequately defined only in detail.
There is a growing tendency in accounting literature
in U.S.A. to be critical of the supposed merits of the
'lower of cost or market' rule and to suggest its replace-
ment by the practice of valuing stock for profit and loss
purposes at cost only, with disclosure in the balance
sheet, as supplementary information, of the difference
between cost and realisable value. Even if this new
doctrine prevailed, the problem of defining cost would
For income tax purposes, the Federal Income Tax
Act permits the taxpayer to value each article of trading
stock at either its cost price, its market selling value, or
the price at which it can be replaced. There is a strong
case for allowing estimated selling expense to be
deducted from market selling value, for admitting
standard cost as a method of determining cost, and for
allowing the use of the last-in-first-out method in
appropriate cases. Consistency in the method of
valuation used as between opening and closing stocks
should be insisted upon.
Dissatisfaction with the present provisions arises from
fear that 'profits' on which high rates of taxation have
been paid may be swallowed up by losses in subsequent
years when taxation rates are lower. The remedy for
this lies in a system of tax refunds, when losses are
incurred within a reasonable time, rather than in further
relaxation of the provisions of the Act as to permissible
bases of stock valuation.
138. Uniform Accounting. C. J. Berg and
E. W. Gower. The Australian Accountant,
pp. 125-137, April 1946.
A Model Chart of Accounts based on sound principles
of definition and scientifically constructed to deal with
the accounting problems met with in most branches of
industry and commerce is the most important instru-
ment of control and administration in the hands of
management. It enables both financial and cost
accounting systems to be welded into one complete
entity under the control of one executive who can
direct the working of its several parts.
The Model Chart separates the financial accounts
from the cost accounts and both of these from the
accounts covering the sales, selling expenditures and
profit and loss accounts making a total of ten classes.
The segregation of the Service and Production Depart-
ments, as well as the division of the Fixed and Variable
Costs applicable to the latter, ensures much more
accurate information in the cost accounting section than
would otherwise be obtainable.
The accounts of each class are divided into ten groups
according to their functions and each group may be
further subdivided on the decimal system giving a total
of one thousand accounts with very little complication,
and as Class 5 is free to be used for the special require-
ments of any particular industry or activity the Model
Chart should satisfy the needs of all but the most
complex of businesses.
139. Uniform Accounting. A. Clunies Ross.
The Australian Accountant, pp. 99-112.
Although attempts by overseas and Australian
authorities to obtain standardisation of terminology
have proved abortive owing to the extreme conservatism
of the accounting profession, there is little doubt that,
either by adoption or enforcement, greater uniformity-
in terminology, in internal methods and in external
presentation-will make its appearance.
Standardisation of terms is an essential preliminary
to any other moves toward uniformity and as the
physical sciences have, on the whole, established
universal terminology it is possible that governmental
authority might take a direct interest in this matter as
regards accounting practices.
Numerous international writers have since advanced
plans for the uniformity of accounting procedure, but
Schmalenbach's Der Kontenrahmen, published in 1928,
is extremely sound in its principles of definition and
can undoubtedly be adopted to advantage by many
different forms of productive and commercial activity.
When considering uniformity in the quantity and
nature of the information given, particularly by pub-
lished accounts, the tabular form of Revenue Statement
and Balance Sheet is an important advancement on the
conventional form as a presentation of the necessary
information in this simple manner makes it easily
understandable by the uninitiated. This great advan-
tage of simplicity plus uniformity gives the tabular form
of presentation a great claim to universal adoption.-
140. Smyth, E. Bryan: Executorship Accounts
(Australia). The Law Book Co. of
Australasia Pty. Ltd., Melbourne, 1946,
pp. 152. Roy. 8vo. Price 15s. 6d.
This is a textbook for students of accountancy and
consequently it deals with all aspects of the subject,
legal, accounting and administration, less from the legal
than from the accountancy point of view. Nevertheless,
the legal requirements in the various States of the
Commonwealth and decisions of the Courts are ade-
quately covered. A number of actual examination
questions are given at the end of each chapter.
141. Public Utility Accounting Mechanized.
W. H. Parr. The Accountants' Journal,
Wellington. April 1946.
A description of the fully mechanised accounting
system of the Nelson City Council relating to the gas
and electricity supply, based on the 'Bill from the
Office' plan with the mechanical aid of Burroughs
Public Utility equipment. The working of the system
is described in all its details.
142. Accounting Concept of Capital and Income.
N. S. Young. The Australian Accountant,
pp. 66-81. February 946.
The central problem of accounting is to determine
proper criteria for distinguishing those transactions
which should appear in the profit and loss account
from those transactions which should be carried into
the balance sheet, at least in the first instance. The
author distinguishes the accounting concept in this field
from the legal concept of profit or income which had
been developed in the courts. From an accounting
viewpoint capital and income transactions are deter-
mined by a process of classification rather than by a
process of valuation. The prime objective is to deter-
mine in the case of a going concern the profit or loss
made or incurred during the period covered by the
accounts, and to this end the purpose of accounting
should be to determine and charge against income all
costs associated with the production of that income.
These costs include the amortization of investments
made in fixed assets which are exhausted in the process
of earning incomes over a lengthy period. In the
statutory procedure laid down in the income tax act
for determining taxable income accounting methods for
separating capital and income transactions play a vital
part. In the legal field the application of the accounting
concept of separating capital and income is concerned
with the determination of profits available for dividend
in the case of a limited liability company. Here the
author points out that the legal rules laid down by the
courts in some instances are at variance with sound
accounting practice and commercial prudence.
(F) Transportation and Communication
143. The Case of the Iron Horse. F. J. Shea.
Journal of the Institute of Transport
(N.S.W. Centre), April 1946.
The author's object is to establish the relative values
of the railroad and the airplane as agencies of national
transport, and to envisage the position which should be
allotted to each of these carriers in our future transport
planning. Having discussed the establishment and
operating policies, comparative capacities, defence
values, and relative economies, he comes to the following
I. The Australian railways should be progressively
modernised, improved and freed from all obstructions
to the rapid, free and economical interchange of traffic
over all systems. Since the chief obstacles, both
physical and mental, to the achievement of this goal
are break-of-gauge points, no further delay should be
tolerated in the removal of these barriers, particularly
since the capital cost, large as it is, is not significant
when compared with the cost of alternative air transport.
2. Airways should be developed to the maximum
feasible extent in accordance with sound operating
economics, in harmony and co-operation with the
railway policy outlined above, and in a manner which
will fully exploit the particular physical, economic and
defence values of this form of transport. Above all,
airways must be developed as an integral and co-opera-
tive, but not competitive, unit in the national transport
service in the best interest of the entire community.
144. Stevedoring in New Zealand. Report of the
Waterfront Control Commission. Govern-
ment Printer, Wellington. P.P. of New
Zealand, No. H. 45-1945. Pp. 89.
Price is. 9d.
The Commission was appointed in April 194o, and
its functions as prescribed under the W.C.C. Emergency
Regulations, 194o, are to do all things necessary for
the purpose of ensuring the utmost expedition in the
loading, unloading, and storage of cargo at any port.
The results show that in expediting the despatch of
shipping the Commission has fully justified its existence.
From the tables published in the Report it appears that
overseas ships during the war years have been turned
round in approximately half the time taken prior to the
war. This quick turn round of overseas vessels is due
to the reduction in ports of call, working 'round the
clock' on Sundays and holidays, and the increased rate
of work under the co-operative contracting system.
Comprehensive tables covering the five years of the
Commission's operations are included in the Report,
showing full details of tonnages handled, rates of work,
profit distribution and costs per ton under the co-opera-
tive contracting system, average wage at the main and
secondary ports, wages paid by each shipping company
or agent, and summarized accounts of the various funds
controlled by the Commission.
145. Aviation. Report of the Air Department
for the year 1944-45. Government
Printer, Wellington. P.P. of New Zealand,
No. H. 37-1945. Pp. 7. Price 6d.
The main part of this report deals with the activities
of the Royal N.Z. Air Force during the year 1944-45.
The brief appended report of the Controller of Civil
Aviation reveals that on the 3Ist March 1945 ten
scheduled services were operated in N.Z. by the Union
Airways of N.Z. Ltd. and Air Travel (N.Z.) Ltd.,
which totalled 1,742 miles. Nine aircraft were em-
ployed on these services, 51,754 passengers, 272,251 lb.
of freight and 313,013 lb. of mail were carried. Miles
flown totalled 965,787. The service of the Tasman
Empire Airways between Auckland and Sydney is
operated on a basis of three return trips weekly. Traffic
statistics are as follows : Miles flown 427,460, passengers
carried 5,803, freight 84,189 lb. and mail 142,812 lb.
(G) Labour and Industrial Relations
146. The Commonwealth Basic Wage. O. de R.
Foenander. The Secretary, pp. 1835-
1839. February 1946.
This is an outline treatment of the Commonwealth
Basic Wage and its nature and purposes from its
inception in I907 down to the early months of 1946.
Attention is drawn to the acute dissatisfaction by the
unions with the wage (particularly since the cessation
of hostilities with Japan) and to the demands for its
increase. The article closes with a plea for a revision
of the method by which the wage is adjusted in the
attempt to conform with movements in the wage-
earner's cost of living.
147. An Experiment in the Use of Psychological
Tests in the Selection of Women Trainee
Telephone Mechanics. M. Oxlade.
Bulletin of Industrial Psychology and
Personnel Practice, pp. 26-32. March
A battery of seven tests was administered to 33 women
trainee telephone mechanics. Results in the Otis and
Matrices Tests of general ability and in the A.C.E.R.
Mechanical Comprehension Test, were found to be
related to success in examinations held at the conclusion
of training. If existing employment procedures were
supplemented by the more objective factor of results
of these tests, the selection of women for this type of
training could be made more effective.
148. Industrial Accident Records. Booklet No. 3.
Industrial Welfare Division Department
of Labour and National Service, 1945,
pp. 42. Demy 8vo.
The problem of reducing the number of industrial
accidents is a difficult one because of the varied circum-
stances which bring them about. The first step, there-
fore, is to know what these circumstances are and to
determine their importance. In this booklet a uniform
system of recording is presented. Chapter I discusses
the information which should be kept, and describes
the various forms generally required to do this. Chapter
II deals with the analysis of this information and defines
clearly the terms used in making this analysis. Chapter
III considers the two standard rates known as the
frequency rate and the severity rate used for appraising
safety performance, and discusses the particular uses
of the two rates. Chapter IV describes in detail accident
statistics compiled by a large engineering firm using the
149. The Experience of the Women's Employ-
ment Board in Australia. Judge Alfred W.
Foster. International Labour Review,
pp. 632-642. December 1945.
In this article a short account is given of the war-time
Women's Employment Boards, including their activities
and the manner in which they discharged the duties
assigned to them. The writer, who was himself
Chairman of both Boards, is not without hope that
their influence will continue into the post-war period,
shedding light, in particular, on the vexed problem of
equal pay for the job regardless of sex.
15o. Trade Unions. Report of the Industrial
Registrar for the year 1944. (P.P. of New
South Wales, No. 1945-50.) Government
Printer, Sydney, 1946, pp. 8. Price 7d.
At the end of 1944 there were 186 employees' and
25 employers' unions registered under the Trade Union
Act, 1881-1936 in N.S.W. The numerical facts about
the two groups are:
No. of Expendi-
Unions Members Receipts ture Funds
Employees 186 465 754 724 706
Employers 25 14 50 47 81
1944 211 479 805 772 787
1940 202 355 693 647 563
1938 206 341 504 466 540
1934 192 295 365 339 413
The strongest of the employees' unions are: Federated
Ironworkers Association, Amalgamated Engineering
Union, Amalgamated Clothing Trades Union and
Australian Railways Union. The strongest of the
employers' unions are : Graziers' Association of N.S.W.
and N.S.W. Retail Tobacco Traders' Association. The
Report contains detailed statistical tables relating to the
151. Supply and Demand of Female Labour.
Economic News, Brisbane. December
The present extreme shortage of female labour is
likely to persist for many years, because the shortage
is due not only to rising demand, but also to contracting
supply. The number of girls in the principal relevant
age groups, and the proportion of them who are willing
to go out to work, are both tending to fall. This is the
inference drawn from a number of statistical series
showing the trend in the female population by age
groups, of the percentages of females going out to work
and female employment in the industry, leading to an
estimate of 2zo7 per cent of females in employment in
1950 against 24-3 per cent in 1933 and 26'4 per cent
in 1943 respectively. The causes of this development
are discussed in detail, while its obvious effect is that
all those who are basing their plans on an expanded
supply of female labour will have to think again, par-
ticularly those who are hoping to employ women in
work of a domestic or manufacturing nature. Much
work hitherto done by women will probably in future
be e done by men, who will probably do the work more
efficiently and make more use of machinery.
152. Availability of Female Labour. The Journal
of Industry (Adelaide), May 1946.
The number of girls available for employment from
1939 to 1958 shows a downward trend in all States,
except Western Australia. This is the effect of the low
birth rate during the depression years, as shown in the
table below, abridged from a statement of the S.A.
Industries Advisory Committee. This table, however,
does not show the full reduction in the numbers available
for employment in manufacturing industries for the
following reasons :
(I) the leaving school age is rising slightly, and may
increase by one year;
(2) the marriage age has recently fallen slightly from
the average of 25 years; which was maintained
for the last 1o to 12 years ;
(3) the scope of employment for girls, as evidenced
during the war;
(4) the metropolitan areas show a greater decrease
than country districts ;
(5) the average working life of a girl is only about
eight years, as against 35 to 40 years of male
'The main reason in calling attention to this shortage
is to guard against undertakings establishing themselves
upon the unjustified presumption that numbers of girls
will be available for employment.' The situation is
aggravated by the fact that the number of boys who
will reach the age of 15 within the next 15 years, also
shows the same relative decline.
Percentage of girls reaching age 15 available for
employment, based upon the actual births for the last
1939 = ioo.
N.S.W. Vie. Q'land Aust. Aust. Tas.
1940 1or 98 103 ioo 97 95
1942 99 96 IOo Ioo Ioi 86
1944 98 92 93 9I ITo 86
1946 88 83 90 79 IoI 84
1948 81 79 87 75 95 82
1950 83 78 89 71 96 82
1952 88 82 97 77 103 88
1954 89 84 104 82 107 90
1956 97 91 io8 93 123 96
1958 io6 io8 119 113 125 96
AGRICULTURE, LAND AND RURAL
153. A Critique of Rural Sociology in the United
States. M. Rothberg. Social Horizons
(Sydney), pp. 1o-I8. July 1945-
American rural sociology was at first motivated by
reform ideology aimed at giving immediate relief to
rural people. Placed on a practical footing by the 1908
Country Life Commission appointed by Theodore
Roosevelt, it entered the survey phase accumulating
and cataloguing knowledge of rural life and focusing
attention on rural problems. The science was officially
recognized and placed under the guidance of agricultural
economics when the Division of Farm Population and
Rural Welfare was established within the U.S. Depart-
ment of Agriculture in 1919.
Unfortunately early American rural sociology was
built on uncertain theoretical grounds which seem to
have carried over to come extent to the present, the
following being some of the effects observed :
Blurring of concepts and definitions with con-
sequent retardation of theorization ; treatment of
rural phenomena as static and isolated from urban
influences; tendency to cling to outmoded economic
While leading sociologists attempt to create a body
of theory founded on facts and tested principles, lesser
ones seem to be content to engage in short-term, fact-
finding studies.-M. Rothberg.
154. The N.S.W. Farm Mechanization Scheme.
Its History and Future Possibilities. P. C.
Druce. Review of Marketing and Agri-
cultural Economics (Sydney), pp. 10-17.
The Scheme was started in 1943 and was originally
devised to encourage greater wartime production from
the small dairy farmer through co-operative use of
mechanized cultivation and fodder conservation prac-
tices. Interest-free government loans were made to
equip machinery pools to operate specific types of farm
equipment. Subsequently, the Scheme spread inland
to non-dairying table-land districts. Since 1944 it has
been administered by the State Department of Agricul-
Financial losses incurred by the State are important
weaknesses. Causes are tied to unnecessarily high
operating costs and suggest that financial self-support
is problematical. Uneconomic charges, operator prob-
lems and seasonal nature of work are difficulties con-
fronting these co-operative societies. Action and
reaction between societies and private contractors'
activities are discussed.
Placing the Scheme on a permanent post-war footing
requires (i) a sound financial operating basis for borrow-
ing societies in order to protect State funds, (2) autono-
mous control by societies of their machinery pools,
(3) provision for administrative expenses previously
regarded as patriotic gestures.-M. Rothberg.
155. Agricultural Production in New South
Wales during the War Years. W. J.
McCullough. Review of Marketing and
Agricultural Economics (Sydney), April
Agricultural conditions in N.S.W. during the war
years are analyzed and the underlying facts commented
upon. Because of manpower and material shortages
and the severe drought in 1941 and 1945, production
of grain and most dairy products has fallen considerably
as against the average pre-war level, while the output
of dried vine fruits and the production of eggs was
greatly expanded under the stimulus of wartime demand
and prices. The result of the 13 accompanying statisti-
cal tables is summarized in the following single table :
Average of 1935-1929
1940 1941 1943 1945
Total area under crop 103 ioz 85 81
Persons permanently em-
Male . .. .. 99 95 77 81
Female .. .. 115 127 237 202
Total .. 00oo 97 85 88
Tractors in use .. 125 130 132 147
Superphosphate used .. 102 IoI 58 42
Wheat .. 143 45 96 31
Oats .. .. .. 166 47 176 42
Barley .. .. 239 9o 114 62
Butter .. 94 87 79 61
Cheese . 87 83 68 58
Wholemilk .. .. 94 92 91 79
Dried vine fruits-
Lexias .. 123 134 125 150
Sultanas .. 139 142 159 ioi
Eggs .. .. .. o16 113 122 171
156. Land Tenure in New Zealand. Horace
Belshaw. Far Eastern Survey, pp. 115-
ii9. April 24, 1946.
The article is a summary of a paper read before a
conference on land tenure organized in Chicago by the
Farm Foundation in February 1946. It is a criticism
of present land tenure policies. The point of view
expressed is that private property in land, as well as
other existing institutions and attitudes, imposes limita-
tions on land tenure reform. The article stresses the
desirability of experimenting with several types of
tenure to determine their merits. The writer himself
proposed the following type of experiment:
(i) A settlement might be established, already
developed and laid out in farms. The settlement
should be large enough to provide adequate foundations
for a community life, and grouped around a community
centre in which forms of co-operative enterprise,
amenities and adult educational activities should be
encouraged. (2) The land should be cut up into
farms of an economic size. (3) Farms would not be
sold but owned by the State and leased to the farmer
on terms which are outlined in detail.
157. Review of the World Wheat Situation.
P. C. Druce. Review of Marketing and
Agricultural Economics, pp. 157-165. May
The failure of the European wheat and rye crops
in 1945 (the combined crop was goo million bushels
below the pre-war average) and a small Asiatic rice
crop, combined with an otherwise greatly increased
demand for wheat caused by the severe shortage of all
other foodstuffs, has completely changed the world
wheat supply position during the past year.
Stocks held by the four chief wheat exporters, Canada,
United States, Argentina, and Australia, are insufficient
to meet the present extraordinary demands, and little
wheat is available from other sources. By the end of
the present crop year these four countries will have
almost exhausted their surplus stocks, which were built
up during the war years to record levels ; and in 1947
both exports and domestic consumption will have to
come almost entirely from current production.
While the coming European harvest will probably be
greater than in 1945, it will be well below the pre-war
average; and it would appear unlikely that the four
chief exporters forecast surplus of from 600 to I,ooo
million bushels in the 1946-47 crop year will be suffi-
cient to meet European and Asiatic demand. So, while
the present acute supply position in Europe is likely
to be alleviated to some extent in three or four months'
time, the world position is likely to remain tight for at
least two years and, on present indications, Australian
wheatgrowers should be able to dispose of record crops
both this year and in 1947.
158. Sydney Wholesale Fruit and Vegetable
Prices. J. Lindsay. The Economic Record,
pp. 174-181. December 1945.
There has been much comment during the war
about the high prices of fresh fruit and vegetables,
which-excepting potatoes and onions-are not included
in the regimen of items. Changes of the cost of these
items are measured by the C Series prices index
numbers. Based on wholesale prices recorded by the
State Marketing Bureau in Sydney and by a method
explained in detail and supplemented by detailed tables,
the author compiled prices indices both for fruit and
vegetables, summed up in the following tables :
Index Numbers of Sydney Wholesale Prices
(1936-39 in each quarter = ioo)
1940 1941 1942 1943 1944
V. F. V. F. V. F. V. F. V. F.
January-March .. 110 129 86 96 205 159 170 189174 219
April-June 13.. 1 113 124 89 227 148 279 226 208 238
July-September.. 86 109 143 96 182 166 263 242 200 238
October-December 114 100 126 103 234 194 154 229 190 232
V = Vegetables, F = Fruits.
159. Price Control of Primary Products. W. S.
Kelly. Chamber of Agriculture of Victoria,
1945 Year Book, Melbourne, pp. 73-81.
Wartime conditions demanded maximum rural pro-
duction per available unit of manpower. Accordingly,
a price policy had to be devised which would guide
production, minimize inflation and yet not disturb the
existing agricultural balance, both within and between
States. Price ceilings and subsidies aimed at estab-
lishing just prices were therefore applied. In deter-
mining just prices, production cost surveys 'can only
be taken as a rough guide'. Present high costs suggest
the following factors should be studied in determining
a reasonable price level: (I) Comparison with pre-war
price levels allowing for movement of the general price
level; (2) relative price movement of alternate products ;
(3) effect on output, allowing for availability of labour
and for any seasonal effects; (4) price movement for
livestock in an industry ; and (5) effect on land values.
Generally, price structure for Australian primary
products remained steady. Severe drought, however,
proved to be a complicating factor in Victoria and part
of New South Wales. Reduced costs of production
may be expected.-M. Rothberg.
160. New Zealand Dairy Survey. Report by
G. C. Howey. Australian Dairy Produce
Board, Melbourne, 1946. Demy 8vo,
The production per cow and per acre in New Zealand
is higher than in Australia. At the same time the price
paid to dairy farmers is lower. With the conditions of
wartime finance and with control of the industry, pay-
ment to farmers is made on a costs of production basis.
Therefore the assumption is that the cost of producing
a pound of butter in N.Z. is, under existing conditions,
lower than that in Australia. Increased production and
the consequent lowering of the cost of production has
been shown by the survey to be due to :-
(a) The improved plane of nutrition enjoyed by the
Dominion dairy cattle for an extended season due
to grassland management and control coupled
with conservation of excess pasturage, including
the later use of proven pedigree sires in the herds.
(b) The improvement in the herds due to the grading
up of the cattle, the application of herd recording
results and the consequent culling of the lower
(c) The efforts made to control herd wastage.
(d) The efforts made to improve the rearing of young
(e) Action taken to determine mineral deficiencies of
the particular soils and treatment for the recovery
of the land.
It is definitely from pasture improvement, herd
improvement and from improved animal nutrition that
N.Z. has established her admittedly high standard of
economic security in the industry. Though the actual
methods of N.Z. may not be applicable to Australia, it
is certain that pasture improvement, animal nutrition
and herd improvement can profitably be employed in
Australia ; and it is idle to say that the essential scientific
and practical knowledge is not available. It only
requires marshalling. Author makes some concrete
suggestions in this direction.
161. Agricultural Frontiers in Australia. N.
R. Wills. Review of Marketing and Agri-
cultural Economics (Sydney), pp. 5-10.
The influence of climate on farming patterns and
boundaries in Australia is discussed. About 40 per
cent of the continent lends itself to pastoral activities.
In the dry interior of rainfall less than 15 inches,
pastoralism is the only agricultural activity possible.
For cropping purposes about Io per cent of the continent
is suitable, I 2 per cent having been under crop in
The settlement belt is roughly crescent-shaped and
follows the east coast down from the Atherton Plateau
in North Queensland, south and then west to the Gulf
regions of South Australia. At its broadest this belt is
450 miles wide and tapers off at either end.
Production is essentially commercial in direction,
market and price being the ultimate determinants of
the chief livestock and crop belts of which seven are
broadly indicated on a diagram map.-M. Rothberg.
162. The Case for Cotton. Queensland Cotton
Board, Brisbane, 1945, pp. 29. Demy 8vo.
Cotton growing is the only Australian rural industry
with considerable potentialities remaining to be developed
for the home market. The actual consumption of raw
cotton in Australia is over 300,000 bales (of 500 lb.
each). Present position is: 1o,ooo bales produced in
Australia, 90,ooo bales imported as raw cotton for
Australian spinning mills, 2oo,ooo bales imported in the
form of cotton manufactured goods. While cotton can
be grown successfully under dry farming in the better
rainfall areas by following efficient farm practices and
crop rotation, the stability and success of the industry
depend in great measure upon the crop being grown
with the aid of irrigation. Australian production of
cotton would not unduly increase the retail selling price
of manufactured cotton goods, as is supposed, because
the percentage of the retail selling price of ordinary
consumer goods represented by raw cotton costs only
ranges from 2 to 3 per cent. A guaranteed price to
growers is essential for a period of at least ten years to
enable cotton growing to become established and
(A) Government and Politics
163. Local Government in New Zealand. Report
of the Local Government Committee.
Government Printer, Wellington. P.P.
of New Zealand, No. I. 15-45. Pp. 189.
Price 3s. 6d.
For some time it has been evident that the organiza-
tion of local government in New Zealand is in need of
thorough overhaul, both on its constitutional and
financial side, and a Parliamentary Committee has been
appointed to investigate the problems and make recom-
The result of the Committee's work is presented in
this Report, dealing critically with all aspects of local
government, its present structure, functions, member-
ship, elections, finances, and its relation to the central
government. Concerning the latter the principle should
be the encouragement of the greatest measure of local
control compatible with efficiency, and the acceptance
of the principle that administration is a partnership.
All statements of the Report are supported by statistics.
The principal recommendations relate to the creation
of larger bodies by amalgamation of local authorities,
hospital, electric power, drainage and river boards, and
the setting up of a permanent Local Government Com-
mission to'carry out a detailed survey of the area and
function of all local authorities and the drawing up of
schemes for reorganization.
164. The N.S.W. Marketing of Primary Products
Act. A Democratic Enactment. Jolly,
G. S., and Robertson, S. D. Review of
Marketing and Agricultural Economics,
pp. 41-48. February 1946.
Under this Act, an extension of the Act of 1927,
marketing boards may be set up by any group of
primary producers to control the marketing of their
products. The initiative in establishing or dissolving
these boards as well as their control is retained by
producers through their elected representatives. Under
such conditions, orderly marketing can be placed with
the hands of producers themselves.
The history, function and operation of several
marketing boards are described. Activities of the State
Marketing Bureau (established under the 1927 Act)
incorporated as a branch of the Division of Marketing
and Agricultural Economics in 1943, are also described.
165. Regional Administration of Agriculture in
N.S.W. Wills, N. R. Public Administra-
tion, pp. 23-28. March 1946.
The present agricultural pattern of N.S.W. com-
prising well-defined crop and livestock belts dates from
the creation of the existing State Department of Agri-
culture in 189o. It covers a territory agriculturally
mature and showing a 'marked acreage stability over
the last fifteen years'. Regional administration can
therefore be based on permanent agricultural boun-
daries. Previously, agricultural administration was
functional rather than regional in nature. With the
re-organization of the Department of Agriculture in
1940, these were reduced from o1 to 6.
Advantages of decentralized administration are seen
in replacing the 6 types of districts by an all-purpose
one consisting of 17 regions officially adopted by the
State for survey and planning.-M. Rothberg.
166. Local Government in the Post-war Period.
Local Government Association of N.S.W.,
Sydney, i945, pp. 127. Price 7s. 6d.
This little book contains the papers read at the First
Local Government Summer School held at Sydney
University in April 1945 and represents an attempt to
define the status that local government might play in
the general re-organization of government which the
post-war world will demand.
The first paper was prepared by Lord Wakehurst, and
read by the President of the N.S.W. Group of the
Institute of Public Administration, Sir Frederick Jordan.
Lord Wakehurst contrasted the tendency in Australia
to concentrate administrative power at Canberra with
the efforts being made in England to strengthen the
position of local authorities. The effect of centralisa-
tion is to weaken the sense of pride in the locality and
thus to debilitate citizenship.
Richard Windeyer discussed some of the problems of
local government; and pointed out that, if democracy
is not to break down, community interests must be the
concern of all citizens. He quoted de Tocqueville with
approval: 'A nation may establish a system of free
government, but, without the spirit of municipal
institutions it cannot have the spirit of liberty.'
Probably the most challenging paper in the book was
read by the Hon. E. S. Spooner, for some time Minister
of Local Government in N.S.W. Asking whether there
was any future for Local Government, he inquired
whether the next quarter of a century might not show
that Local Government as an effective arm of the
democratic system had disappeared under the constant
pressure for centralisation. He considered that local
government must either stand up and fight or lie down
and die. If it were to fight, it would need courageous
and informed leadership. Too often the leaders of
local government were ready to applaud principles at
conferences and, on return to their localities, to abandon
those principles to gain some apparent local advantage.
In the general discussion of the papers, stress was
laid upon the need to develop research and publicity as
part of the ordinary activities of the Local Government
Association. Unless Local Government took care to
let rate-payers and the public know what it was doing
and was able to do, it would languish and continue to
The papers included a Review of the development of
Local Government in N.S.W. by Professor F. A. Bland,
and the Objectives and means of achievement of Local
Government by Councillor E. S. Shaw.-B.M.A.
167. Wheare, K. C. Federal Government. Oxford
University Press, London, 1946, pp. 278.
This is a comprehensive and documented inquiry
into the nature and working of federal government,
examining the workings of federation in the United
States, Switzerland, Canada, and Australia. Having
discussed all aspects of federal constitutions, their pre-
requisites and organization, the author deals extensively
with the working methods of federal governments in
practice-with public finance, the control of economic
affairs, social services, foreign relations and the war
power. The author's main conclusions concerning
tendencies and prospects of federal government could
be briefly summarised as follows :
There is one general tendency in all federal govern-
ments : they have grown stronger. This does not mean
that they have steadily acquired from the regional
governments fields of jurisdiction which at the establish-
ment of the federation were confided to the exclusive
control of the regions. What has happened in the main
has been that the general governments have developed
more and more intensively the area which was assigned
to them originally. The chief forces which have caused
general governments to increase in strength at the
expense of the regions are war, economic depression,
the growth of social services, and the mechanical evolu-
tion in transport and industry. If wars and economic
crises are to recur frequently, the prospect is that federal
government will not survive for long. It may be
doubted, for example, whether the federal system of
Australia could survive another war or another severe
economic crisis. The two wars and the economic crisis
of the 1930's have already gone far toward converting
Australia's federal constitution and federal government
into a quasi-federal constitution and government.
On the other hand, it has not been the general
governments alone which have grown in strength.
While the relative strength of general and regional
governments has changed strongly in favour of the
general governments during this period, the regional
governments themselves have made a considerable
increase absolutely. Yet there remains one strong
element in the tendency of general governments to
increase their powers and that is the financial pre-
dominance which they have obtained. The regions
have not succeeded in resisting this, and it is noticeable
that, with all their assertions of independence and of
their determination to resist unification, there is a
tendency to accept at the same time a large measure of
financial assistance from the general government. In
Canada and Australia particularly the tendency is to be
It is often argued against federal government that it
is out of date because, in a world where life is becoming
more and more a single whole, federal government
preserves hard and fast regional divisions. To this the
author's answer is that mere unity is no virtue in itself.
To deal with our unified and interlocked economic life
a government with large powers is needed and it has
been evident that federations have not always allocated
sufficient powers to their general governments to deal
with modem economic crises. This calls for readjust-
ment and such readjustment can be made. Federal
government, after all, does not stand for multiplicity
alone, but for multiplicity in unity. Within this unity
there is room under federation for each region to govern
itself in its own way.
168. Parliamentary Standing Committee on Broad-
casting. Tenth Report relating to National
Programme Administraton. Government
Printer, Canberra, 1946. P.P. 44 of 1946.
Reporting on the question whether there should be
an inquiry by an appropriate authority into the costs
of personnel and administration of the A.B.C. the
Committee recommends that, in view of the Australian
Broadcasting Act, 1942, and the Commission's directive
in 1943, the proposal to hold the enquiry should now
(B) International Relations
169. Risks of a Big-Power Peace. Herbert V.
Evatt. Foreign Affairs (New York), pp.
195-209. January 1946.
Dr. Evatt's thesis is that prevailing pessimism in the
world is, at least partly, due to the attitude of those
leaders amongst the Great Powers who have attempted,
and are still attempting, to make both the writing and
execution of the peace treaties their own exclusive
prerogative. This will, however, not work, since the
settlement imposed by a few cannot be expected to
evoke general assent. 'At every stage of the war,
Australia and other nations which have a clear record
of active and sustained belligerency have been trying
to establish the principle that it is not only just, but
also essential, that all of them should participate in the
peacemaking process.' . 'Accordingly, Australia
and New Zealand, in the Agreement of January 21,
1944, publicly announced as one of the fundamentals
of their external policy, that the final peace settlement
should be made in respect of all the enemies of the
United Nations only after hostilities with all of them
had been successfully concluded'. But the claims
advanced by the smaller nations were given scant con-
sideration, and in the original plan of U.N.O. the vast
power proposed to be given to the Security Council
was not balanced by the bestowal of similar power to
the Assembly. A main achievement of the San Francisco
Conference was to strengthen the democratic character
of the new organisation by enlarging the authority of
the Assembly. Reviewing world events since San
Francisco, Dr. Evatt concludes that the lesser Powers
'should not relax for a moment their efforts to secure
for themselves, as belligerents, an adequate voice in
the making of the peace settlements. . The impor-
tant gains made by the lesser nations at San Francisco,
especially in relation to the powers of the Assembly,
the Economic Council and the Trusteeship System,
take on new significance in the light of recent events.
The future of mankind may well be determined as
much by the courage, initiative, determination and
democratic idealism of the lesser Powers as by the
strength, leadership, and responsibility of the major
170. Dependent Areas of the Pacific. An
Australian View. K. H. Bailey. Foreign
Affairs (New York), pp. 494-512. April
What has happened since Japan's surrender vindicates
those who declared, as far back as 1942, that there could
be no return to the colonial status quo in the Pacific
area. The government of Australia has gone on record
with proposals for the future of dependent territories
and the purpose of this article is to discuss these pro-
posals, and to sketch their background and development.
Australia has contended : (i) That it is the duty of
all States responsible for the administration of dependent
territories to regard themselves as trustees for the
inhabitants of the territories and the promotion of their
welfare, (2) that they should hold themselves account-
able for the due performance of the trust, (3) that regional
co-operation is the best way for the promotion of welfare,
and (4) that the territories must be included within any
system of collective security that is established for the
area as a whole. The author goes on to discuss these
principles one by one and concludes that the proposals
for an island defence zone north of Australia and New
Zealand, put forward in the A.N.Z.A.C. agreement,
clearly stand in need of revision, since the discovery of
the atomic bomb has probably rendered obsolete most
of the previously existing plans for security. The
strategic frontiers of Australia and New Zealand are
further away today than they were in 1944. Perhaps,
indeed, strategic frontiers no longer exist. Therefore,
Australia recognizes that security for her must be
collective security, that the dependent territories must
be brought within the security arrangement made under
the Charter, and that Australia desires to be dealt with
as a free and self-governing country, with a voice in the
shaping of her affairs.
171. Indonesian Analysis. A. H. McDonald.
Allied Policy in Indonesia. Geoffrey
Sawer. Austral-Asiatic Bulletin, pp. 6-16.
Professor McDonald gives us an historical survey of
Dutch colonial policy and Indonesian nationalism.
Political independence will not solve the basic problem
of over-population; a solution here will only come
through a comprehensive policy of agricultural improve-
ment and local development of native and light indus-
tries. This would presuppose an immense economic
expansion within Indonesia itself, to which the existing
export trade can add its valuable contribution in a
different, less dominating relationship.
Mr. Sawer makes a survey of British, American and
Australian policies towards Indonesia. His conclusion
is that the Australian government 'seems to have done
what its critics constantly urge it to do-it has followed
the policy or absence of policy of the U.S.A. and Great
Britain. Indeed it has produced an almost perfect
synthesis of their policy : like America, it has remained
officially silent, while, like the British, it has given
sufficient encouragement to both sides to help the
conditions for a compromise.'
172. Stevens, Sir Bertram: New Horizons : A
Study of Australian-Indian Relations. Pub-
lished under the auspices of The Aus-
tralian Institute of International Affairs
(N.S.W. Branch) by Peter Huston, Sydney
(14 Bond Street), 1946. Pp. 201, 8vo.
The author presents the problem and plight of India
and the East. He deals with many phases of Indian
life-with its social, financial, communal, religious and
political problems, and with plans for development.
He tells the story of an India slowly but surely changing
from the land of poverty and industrial backwardness
to a unit of industrial activity. He sees the standard of
life rising, and he shows how the expanded capacity
for production in Australia, which was built up during
the war period, provides an opportunity for co-operation
beneficial both for India and Australia.
India's progress is assured if she remains within the
British Commonwealth of Nations, and we should
welcome this development. 'Our tradition as a demo-
cratic people of goodwill requires us to help the Indians
to help themselves. Our interests as an expanding
industrial nation make it imperative that we co-operate
with Indian plans for development, which certainly
offer us the export field that we shall so badly need.' ..
'Commonsense combines with self-interest to recom-
mend that we should co-operate with the Indians in
their great undertaking.'
173. The Pattern of Pacific Security. A Report
of a Chatham House Study Group.
Royal Institute of International Affairs,
London, 1946. Pp. 1-73. Price zs. 6.
This report discusses aims for collective security in
the Pacific and the factors to be considered in effecting
these aims. Collective security presupposes certain
sources of insecurity and must be modelled with potential
dangers in mind. Usually, after a war, too much
attention is focused on the defeated enemy as a potential
danger. Any system of collective security is in danger
of breaking down through failure of the particular
parties to co-operate on the basis of mutual trust and
agreement. Neglect of the responsibility of the indivi-
dual members, and the belief that such a system can
operate without powerful sanctions of its own, are two
possible weaknesses of any scheme of collective security.
Racial, social, economic and territorial sources of
insecurity are discussed in this study.
Any plan for security in the Pacific must envisage-
(i) a political organ of conference and decision, with
appropriate machinery for conciliation and for
reviewing colonial development;
(ii) a Pacific Court of International Justice, related
to the Permanent Court, and a quasi-judicial
organ for arbitration ;
(iii) an economic organ for the conception, super-
vision, and co-ordination of development and
welfare programmes ;
(iv) a defence organ capable of instant action to hold
in check any threat to the general security ;
(v) an organ of 'intellectual co-operation' as a cul-
tural clearing house.
174. Power Politics and the Future of the U.N.O.
P. D. Phillips. Austral-Asiatic Bulletin.
This is an examination of the courses open to Aus-
tralia in world affairs. The writer suggests that there
is more unanimity in Australia on the question of
foreign policy than the political scene a few months
prior to a general election would indicate. He em-
phasises the necessity of distinguishing between present
policy and traditional party propaganda.
175. International Power and Policy Since San
Francisco. A. H. McDonald. The Aus-
tralian Quarterly. December 1945.
The clash of interest and policy between Britain,
America and Russia should not be taken as equivalent
to the reduction of the U.N.O. to 'merely a setting for
the play of power politics.' Economic insecurity, the
search for freedom from want, is leading towards inter-
national co-operation, but 'freedom from fear in the
strategic sense is still regarded as a matter for national
policies, spheres of vital interest, and regional arrange-
ments.' This is the background to the failure of the
Foreign Ministers Conference (1945). Thus fear and
distrust, added to traditional policies of nationalism,
remain the chief hindrance to the development of inter-
national co-operation. Regional policies-successful
co-operation between nations in a given area-might
indicate a way towards a good neighbour policy in the
general world situation.
176. The Pacific Islands in the Peace. An
Australian View. The Round Table, pp.
35-39. December 1945.
Before the Second World War the wide spaces of the
Pacific seemed likely to limit offensive action to 'island
hopping.' But this conception is now obsolete, and the
Powers interested in the Pacific cannot be satisfied with
dividing the great ocean into spheres of naval control.
The author goes on to discuss the strategic position of
the Pacific islands and expects that America will claim
the Marianas, Marshalls and Carolines and will also
raise the question of the use of base facilities at chosen
points like Manus and Espiritu Santo, where she has
built great wartime bases. Britain will be operation
again from Singapore and there is scope for develop-
ments based on Borneo. Russia's reactions are more
difficult to predict. The attitude of Australia and New
Zealand is defined in the Agreement of January 1944.
They are, and must continue to be, active partners in
the British Commonwealth, but their place in the Pacific
calls also for close relations with America. Apart from
the defence aspect the future of the various territories
of the Pacific and the welfare of their inhabitants cannot
be successfully promoted without a greater measure of
collaboration between the numerous authorities con-
cerned in their Control. The suggestion at the time
of the ANZAC Agreement was for a South Seas
Regional Commission to secure a common policy and
carry out the necessary measures of organization in the
area. Whatever may have happened since January,
1944, the basis of this policy has remained the same
and is in harmony with the U.N. Charter. United,
the region will stand and prosper; divided, its peoples
will decline and fall.
177. Housing Problems. A. M. Ramsay. The
Australian Quarterly, pp. 87-94. Decem-
This article endeavours to expose some of the reasons
why Australia has found it impossible to house a big
proportion of the people, where and how they wish to
live, and discusses whether effective steps are being
taken to overcome the difficulties revealed in the
analysis. The central problem of housing is that the
basic wage earner cannot afford to pay more than one-
fifth of his wage in rent (this is actually the basis of
the Commonwealth-State Housing Agreement), while
neither in the past nor at present can decent homes be
built at a cost making such a rent a practical proposition.
The private investor requires a gross return of 8 to io
per cent on his outlay, while the rental rebate scheme
set out in the Agreement between the Commonwealth
and State Governments is for reasons, discussed in
detail, regarded by the author as inadequate to solve
the problem. Because of the decisive importance of
the rate of interest in financing housing schemes the
author recommends a system based on differential rates
of interest instead of one based on rental rebates, and
also mass building by governments or semi-government
bodies for the housing needs of people in the low-income
brackets. Failing these the financially well equipped
will be housed first, few houses will be built for those
on lower incomes, and most of these houses will add
ugly and inconvenient dormitory suburbs to cities which
are already too large.
178. Government Housing in New Zealand.
Report of the National Housing Confer-
ence. The Real Estate and Stock Journal,
Melbourne, pp. 29-32. February 28, 1946.
The Conference, convened by the Associated Cham-
bers of Commerce of N.Z., was attended by the repre-
sentatives of a great number of trade and professional
organizations. Labour was not represented. The
recommendations are :
(1) That the government extend to other suitable
local bodies the facilities for private house-building
that are provided for under the present Wellington
City Act. Under this scheme the City Council
acts as guarantor of that part of the mortgage
finance over the usual two-thirds margin up to
go per cent, with a limit of I,5oo on the gross
amount of the loan.
(2) That the government remove all restrictions upon
building societies in regard to the acceptance of
shares and deposits.
(3) State housing policy should be immediately
revised to cater primarily for the lower income
groups who are unable to take care of themselves.
Any provision by the State for other than lower
income groups should not be attempted until the
latter are satisfactorily housed.
(4) The financing of State housing should be placed
on a sound financial basis comparable with any
other methods of financing housing, and the
deficit unavoidable in housing the lower income
groups should be made up by the taxpayer.
(5) To serve the needs of the lower income groups
and to avoid undue burdens on the taxpayer,
State housing should provide a more modest
house than is at present being built.
(6) Rentals of all State houses for tenants of normal
income should be placed on an economically
(7) To encourage citizens to have a financial stake in
the country, State houses should be for sale as
well as for rental.
(B) Social Security and Public Health
179. The New Zealand Social Security Program.
Jacob Fisher. Social Security Bulletin
(Washington, D.C.), pp. 3-11. Septem-
This is a rather comprehensive and up-to-date review
of New Zealand's social security programme, its history,
achievements, and shortcomings as well as its benefits,
administration and financing. The paper is well sup-
ported by statistics on all aspects of the services. Con-
clusion : 'The smallness of the country, the relative
homogeneity of its population, the absence of regional
variations in living standards, and the lack of large
differences in the distribution of wealth account no
doubt for some of the simplicity and directness of the
N.Z. social security programme. No little credit is due
to its people, however, for their boldness in attacking
systematically and imaginatively the social and economic
problems common to all industrial nations.'
180. Social Services. Third Report of the
Director-General of Social Services for
the year ended June 30, 1944. Govern-
ment Printer, Canberra. P.P. No. 20 of
1945. Pp. 15. Price 9d.
During the year under review there was a decrease
in the numbers of invalid and old-age pensions mostly
because of the war jobs and vocational training of
invalids, but a heavy increase of maternity allowances
owing to the abolition of the means test. There was an
increase in child endowments though the average
number of endowed children per claim is still decreasing,
being I 836 in 1942, 1 815 in 1943 and 1 796 in 1944.
Total expenditure for social services amounted to
39,149,I14, while the percentage cost of administration
(C) Social Surveys
181. Food Consumption Levels in Australia and
the United Kingdom. Report of a Joint
Committee of Australian and United
Kingdom Officials. Government Printer,
Canberra, 1946. P.P. 41 of 1946, pp. 68.
This Report contains, both in terms of nutrients and
of the quantities of the different foodstuffs, the essential
levels of food supplies moving into civilian consumption
in the United Kingdom and Australia in 1944. Com-
parative figures are given for 1943 and the pre-war
period, and the changes in each country since the pre-
war period are also compared.
The conclusions of the Committee are summarized
as follows :
(a) In both the United Kingdom and Australia the
total food supplies currently entering into civilian
consumption, if they were distributed broadly in
accordance with physiological needs, would, with
one exception, be sufficient to meet nutritional
intake requirements on a restricted basis without
impairing health, morale or working efficiency.
The exception is in respect of the Australian
supply of calcium which appears to be marginal.
(b) The estimated per capital supplies of some
nutrients, viz., calcium, iron, ascorbic acid,
thiamin and riboflavin in the U.K., are greater
than those in Australia, whilst for protein of
animal origin, vitamin A and niacin, the supplies
are greater in Australia. Supplies of total protein,
total fat and carbohydrates and therefore of
calories, are similar in the two countries. The
calculated average nutrient intake requirements
of the two countries are practically the same.
With two exceptions, the margins between 1944
supplies of minerals and vitamins and intake
requirements, are slightly wider in the U.K. than
in Australia. Some margin must be allowed
because waste in consumption and disparities of
distribution in relation to needs cannot be entirely
eliminated. Under present conditions these
wastes and disparities are probably greater in
Australia than in the U.K.
(c) In 1944 average Australian diet is more varied
and palatable than the average U.K. diet by
reason of the greater available supplies of meat,
sugar, shell eggs and fruit. This was also the
case before the war, but the deterioration in the
U.K. has been greater than that of Australia.
The Report is supplemented by a large number of
statistical tables and explanations of the statistical
182. The Food Consumption and Dietary Levels
in 2730 Australian Family Households in
1944. National Health and Medical Re-
search Council, Nutrition Committee.
Government Printer, Canberra, 1945,
The diet of the Australian people was found to be
generally adequate in 1936-38 (Final Report Advisory
Council on Nutrition, 1938). The 1944 survey, under-
taken to investigate the dietary effects of war-time
conditions, found that 'average per capital intake of
most nutrients (calcium excluded) was adequate'.
However, 'numerous groups within the sampling con-
sumed appreciably less than the average amounts',
especially of protective foods.
Household dietary budgets were used in co-operation
with housewives. Specific nutrients per adult male unit
and per capital were calculated, and a table of recom-
mended allowances constructed based on figures used
by the National Research Council of America.
A low level of calcium intake is general throughout
the Commonwealth. Average per capital vitamin BI
intake was low in rural parts of Western Australia.
Satisfactory average intakes conceal the fact that
inequalities in distribution of nutritionally-correct food-
stuffs are marked in some groups and in some areas.
For instance, unfavourable transportation and climatic
conditions were associated with inadequate intake in
certain rural areas. Economic and social considerations,
as well as general ignorance of nutritional matters, con-
tribute to the existence of nutritional qualities.
Diet levels varied directly and narrowly with expendi-
ture on food. In a Sydney area where housewives were
employed in industry, the highest dietary levels in the
Commonwealth were achieved and these were associated
with high weekly food expenditures. Low purchasing
power was associated with diets high in cereals and low
in protective foods, especially in Tasmania.
Vulnerable groups (e.g., nursing or expectant mothers,
or where three to six children were present) were
nutritionally disadvantaged.-M. Rothberg.
183. Rural Amenities. Seventh Report of the
Rural Reconstruction Commission. Gov-
ernment Printer, Canberra, 1945. Pp. 92,
The circumstances of farm life imply certain dis-
abilities which cannot be overcome unless the farm is
so located that the farmer can live in the town without
detriment to the efficiency of the farm. The object of
the report is to discuss means of removing as many of
the disabilities of farm life as practicable. Good housing
and a liberal and efficient system of rural education are
of great importance in adding to the attractiveness of
country life. Good roads, efficient and rapid transport
and an extension of telephone services at a cost within
the reach of the majority of country dwellers are essential
if country people are to lose some of their sense of
isolation. Adult education, libraries, community centres
and, of course, water supply, electricity and health
services are indispensable if those who live in the
country are to have access to amenities which, as far
as practicable, correspond with those available to city
residents. The Commission made extensive inquiries
into the existing conditions throughout the Common-
wealth and makes detailed recommendations of what
should be done, and by whom. Most of the issues
raised by the Commission in this report fall within the
province of the States rather than that of the Common-
184. A Study in Rural Housing. Jean I. Craig.
Social Horizons (Sydney), pp. 55-62.
Two areas surveyed (A and B) were located in a
dairying district on the north coast of N.S.W. These
areas, 25 miles apart, comprised villages of 80 and 45
houses, respectively. The quality of community life,
the relationships of both areas to a large country centre,
public utilities, are all briefly described.
The housing survey was carried out by completing
schedules for 43 village houses (176 occupants) and 62
farm houses (263) in A, and 38 farm houses (173) in B.
Results were tabulated and grouped. Type of occu-
pancy and condition of house were related.
Shortcomings in these areas are touched on and
housing is seen as 'merely one aspect of the general
problem of broadening and deepening the whole outlook
of the country man'.-M. Rothberg.
185. Holt, Alan J. Wheat Farms of Victoria--A
Sociological Survey. School of Agricul-
ture, University of Melbourne, 1946.
Demy 8vo, pp. xv, 179. Price Ios.
This investigator, whose training and experience has
been in the administration of land settlement policy,
approaches the subject from the practical rather than
the academic angle. A sample of 138 farms in the
wheat belt comprising 151 households was taken and
an intensive study made of the social and economic
structure, the main items covered being: historical
background, economic status of farms, land tenure,
statistical analyses of farm population data, housing,
work analysis, use of leisure time, social organization,
socio-climatic conditions, attitudes to topical rural
questions and the effects of the war. The main con-
clusions are that wheat farm households suffer relatively
great geographic and social isolation and that workers,
particularly family workers, are not adequately remuner-
ated for their services. Suggested remedies-a basic
farm wage for all farm workers (including farm-
operators) and the aggregation of farm households in
country townships away from the farms-infer that a
compromise between commercial economics and social
welfare is necessary to place this industry on a funda-
mentally satisfactory basis.
186. The Community Can Do It. Make a Plan.
Australian Broadcasting Commission,
Sydney, 1945. Pp. 94, 8vo. Price 2s.
This handbook was prepared by the A.B.C. to coincide
with a series of broadcasts for discussion groups describ-
ing community activities in various parts of the Com-
monwealth and abroad. It deals with community
activities, how they started, and how to overcome
initial problems. It gives examples and advice, in
particular it describes the Community Centres at
Fishermen's Bend, Sandy Bay, Feilding, Woodville
Gardens and the community efforts in the Murray
(D) Population and Migration
187. Immigration. Report of the Commonwealth
Immigration Advisory Committee. Gov-
ernment Printer, Canberra, 1946. Pp. 50,
Reporting on their tour of certain European countries,
the Committee's conclusions are:
(s) Investigation in Britain and the European coun-
tries included in the survey, indicated that not
only were there only small groups of children
available, but that in all cases, with the exception
of the special conditions in Norway, the govern-
ments concerned were not in favour of any other
nation handling the problem of their war orphans.
(2) Migrants will be offering in varying volume from
the various countries visited. Switzerland,
Holland and Norway appear to be numerically
the strongest migration sources in Europe. No
great flow of migrants can be expected from
Belgium, France, Denmark and Sweden. In
Britain migration to Australia is still popular
despite errors of the past. It would be impossible
to assess the numbers, but the target figure in the
first year of active migration operations could be
obtained from British servicemen and women and
civilians desiring to come to Australia.
The Committee makes a number of recommendations
regarding assisted passage, reduction or elimination of
landing money, and stresses the importance of the time
factor. While migrants wait, the shipping position
improves but slowly, and the bright dreams of life in
a new country fade as the would-be migrant gives up
the idea and settles down in his own country again.
The final conclusion: 'We cannot expect the best of
two worlds. If we want migrants, Australia and
Australians must do something vigorous about preparing
to receive them. And we can only receive them if we
have work to be done. We can capture their imagina-
tion by full employment and vast ventures needing men
and women for the development of the country.'
188. Calwell, Arthur A. : How Many Australians
To-morrow ? Reed & Harris, Melbourne,
1945. Pp. 66, Crown 8vo. Price is. 9d.
A survey of our population developments, and trends,
their causes and effects, both from the economic and
political point of view. Population is our 'number one
problem.' We can increase our population threefold
or more and provide full employment and adequate
standards of living for everybody. If the experience of
the Pacific War has taught us one thing, it surely is that
seven million Australians cannot hold three million
square miles of this earth's surface indefinitely.
Author's interpretation of the facts and figures is
that we should entice all the European immigrants we
can absorb, British or not British. We need all the
people we can gain this way. Even if we could absorb
70,000 immigrants a year our numbers would only
reach about izm. by 1980 if pre-war birth and death
rates persist. Therefore, the principal population
problem of Australia is not immigration but fertility.
The natural increase should be stimulated by all possible
means : better social services, good housing, adequate
child endowment, free education from primary schools
to universities, and by striving to encourage a new
attitude to parenthood.
189. Population Policy in New Zealand and
Elsewhere: A Review of Objectives.
A. H. Tocker. New Zealand Geographer.
With the rapid advance of demographic study in
recent years, it has become possible to compare aspects
of population in different countries. Such comparisons
have shown that the populations of most European
or European settled countries are tending to decline
while in Asia and South America rapid growth con-
tinues. The war has strengthened the vague feeling
that larger populations are necessary, but the objectives
of population policy have not been defined. A variety
of objectives are reviewed. New Zealand statistics
show that the population will reach a maximum in
30 to 40 years. Increased population can be gained by
natural increase or immigration. The recent rise in
the birth rate reflects a temporary increase in the
marriage rate. Immigration might be promoted by
offering to immigrants a maximum of freedom and
190. The Future of Australian Publishing. H. L.
White. Australian Quarterly, pp. 58-69.
Based on evidence given as Acting Commonwealth
Librarian to the Tariff Board Enquiry into book pub-
lishing in Australia, z2st November 1945. Positive
suggestions for assisting publishing are based on a
review of past developments and a critical examination
of proposals for tariffs, embargoes and quotas in the
bookshops. Australia's book supply has come mainly
from Britain, with an increasing proportion from the
United States. A relatively small, though an important
and growing contribution, has been made by Australian
publishers. The distinctive characteristic of Australian
publishing is its association with bookselling. The war
had increased the number of full-time firms, the best of |
which should be encouraged. A general tariff would
encourage the reprinting only of 'best-sellers' and handi-
cap a small, young, isolated country needing a constant
flow of new ideas. An embargo would limit still more
the variety of books available and introduce the vicious
principle of discriminating between essential and non-
essential books. It would also react unfavourably on
the distribution of Australian books abroad. Positive
ways of assisting publishing in Australia would be to
make the raw materials for book production readily
and cheaply available ; to grant further assistance from
the Commonwealth Literary Fund, especially to new
and promising publishers; to promote Australian
books, in Australia through the National Library
extending its bibliographical work, and, overseas,
through its Australian libraries of Information; and
finally the establishment of a National Book League to
promote the use of books, including Australian books,
through exhibitions, films, radio and the Press.
191. A Policy for Australian Publishing. M. W.
Peacock. Australian Quarterly. pp. 70-74.
A plea by the Hon. Secretary Victorian Section,
Fellowship of Australian Writers, for increased facilities
for local book production, especially with the aid of
the Commonwealth Literary Fund. He sees great
possibilities in cheap editions, not of the cheap book
type, but in the model of the Australian Pocket Library.
192. E. Philipp: Juvenile Delinquency in New
Zealand. New Zealand Council for Edu-
cational Research, Wellington, 1945. Pp.
140. Price 7s. 6d.
The study commences with a discussion of the
incidence of delinquency and shows in detail the many
difficulties associated with the attempt to secure accurate
statistics. The years under review, viz., 1938 to 1945,
show an increase of about 17 per cent during the first
five years of the war; but this increase appears not to
have been as great as the increase in England and the
United States during the same period. The period
1944-45 shows a decline. An analysis of the nature of
the offences suggests that the proportion of thefts in
New Zealand to the total of serious offences is much
lower than in England, U.S.A. or Australia. The peak
age of incidence of delinquency is 15 years. The
numbers of repeated offenders are increasing. The
second chapter deals with the question of making
records and of reporting to the Children's Court. The
next chapter shows the operation of the suggested
reporting method by taking several illustrative cases.
The final chapter discusses the responsibility for delin-
quency and the need for training workers in the field.
193. J. D. G. Medley: The Present and Future
of Australian Universities (The Macrossan
Lectures, University of Queensland, 1945).
Melbourne University Press, 1945. Pp.
45. Price is.
The first lecture discusses the function of Australian
universities and the criticisms commonly directed
against them. Particular attention is paid to the fact
that in Australia the university has dual or multiple
functions to perform which, in more populous or more
'anced countries, can be provided for in separate
Sin .utions. Special problems arise from the necessity
for combining in one institution utilitarian professional
training and the humane studies traditionally associated
with universities. In the second lecture, after discuss-
ing the special problems facing the University in the
post-war period, the author advocates three fundamental
reforms. The first is a marked development in thie
training of teachers. The relevance of this lies in the
fact that the university cannot transform but can only
develop the material which comes to it. The second
proposal is for an intermediate stage of education which
might well take a practical form, between the termina-
tion of secondary schooling and entry to the university.
The third proposal is that up to one million pounds
should be made available for research work in the
universities in the next five years.
194. E. H. Le Maistre: Physical Education :
Oxford University Press, Melbourne,
1945. Pp. 310.
This book, by the Director of Physical Education at
Sydney University, is intended as a text book for
students doing courses of physical education as well as
for teachers and others who have to supervise or organise
physical instruction. An historical account of the
contribution made by individuals and by countries is
followed by an analysis of the aims and principles of
physical education. The author emphasises the import-
ance of all-round development ; he favours forms of
physical education conducive to qualities sought for in
a democracy rather than those more rigid forms asso-
ciated with military training. Attention is given to
various forms of athletics and to sports, and to the
precautions which must be observed if they are to be
employed with benefit and safety. One chapter is
devoted to an outline of anatomy and physiology, and
another to muscle action and location. In the chapter
on tests and measurements tables are given showing
norms of performance for boys and girls of various
ages. The final chapter on future trends makes a plea
for more attention to physical education in Australia
and for the development of schemes properly adapted
to local conditions. Bibliography.
195. The Future of Education in Papua. A.
Capell. Oceania, pp. 277-295. June 1945.
The proper fulfilment of Australian responsibilities
in Papua calls for a careful review of methods used in
education of the natives. The impact of the war on
native life has made this all the more important. The
open and explicit aim should be the preparation of the
Papuan peoples for the adequate development of their
own country. The article pays particular attention to
the problem of the language is to be used as the medium
of instruction. It is strongly maintained that at least
in the early stages, the vernacular language and not
English should be the medium. Neither pidgin English
nor Motu is regarded as a satisfactory lingua franca.
Attention is also devoted to the problem of the training
of teachers, and the unwillingness of some of the chief
missions to have their teachers trained anywhere but in
their own institutions. So far as types of schools are
concerned, the village school must remain the backbone
of the system with district schools for those able and
willing to proceed to higher education. Other problems
dealt with are the nature of the curriculum and the
relationship between government and missionary effort.
196. L. W. Phillips and K. S. Cunningham:
Education for Livelihood. Australian
Council of Educational Research, Mel-
bourne, 1946. Future of Education
Series, No. 10, pp. 49.
The authors discuss the general problems arising
from the fact that the education of the individual to-day
must take account of the training needed to fit him for
occupational life. Attention is devoted to the relation-
ships between general and technical education. It is
argued that the supposed antithesis between the technical
and the cultural often leads to false conclusions and false
values. The system of technical education in Australia
is then reviewed in some detail. The greatest weakness
of the present situation is found in the absence of
systematic provision for those who do not remain at
school after the age of compulsory attendance and yet
have not the qualifications for attendance at technical
schools. Multi-purpose secondary schools for all
children from 12 to 16 with pre-vocational courses in
the final year should, it is claimed, be followed by two
years of half-time education except for those engaged
in full-time studies. The importance of educational
and vocational guidance is stressed.
197. Mr. Menzies on Educational Reform. N. E.
Lee. The Australian Quarterly, pp. 35 to
58. March 1946.
Taking as a text several sections of a speech by Mr.
Menzies in the Federal Parliament in July 1945 the
author analyses the relationship between education and
social reform. It is maintained that the modern study
of economic history has established the fact that political
events largely grow out of the social and economic
conditions of the time. The 'right-wing' type of educa-
tion consciously or unconsciously seeks to preserve the
economic status quo. Thus we have the anomaly that
while such education lauds the social reformers of the
past it severely discourages-and condemns as 'left-
wing'-any teachers who discuss the need for social or
economic reform to-day. This attitude has come to be
known as 'whiggism' in education and history. It is
argued further that the whig conception of the part of
religion in education tends to make it a soporific and
an excuse for segregation of the privileged classes into
schools of their own. Similarly the advocacy of 'useless
knowledge' has significance only in relation to a form
of society where there is a sharp distinction between
those who can afford leisure and those who cannot.
The author supports his views by quotations from
historical and other writers. He suggests the extension
of history teaching-technological history in early years,
followed by economic history and finally by general
198. Education on the Offensive. C. R. Bull.
The Australian Teacher, pp. 10-17. Nov-
The need for a drastic overhaul of education is
emphasised in view of the demands of the new age.
Australia is seen as a country which will rapidly increase
in importance. She cannot meet these responsibilities
without sweeping changes in the content and method
of education. Much of the subject matter at present
taught in schools is useless. The author sees much
wasteful overlapping and a danger of artificial divisions
in our three competing educational systems-the State
systems, the Catholic schools, and the independent
private schools. The schools must make far more
effective use of the range of equipment now available.
If this were done the great majority of teachers could
assist pupils in the process of self education, while the
small number of gifted teachers which a country of the
size of Australia can produce could then be more
199. N. H. Rosenthal: Films-Their Use and
Misuse. Robertson and Mullens, Mel-
bourne, 1945, pp. 36. Price 3s. 6d.
The writer, who is Director of the Visual Aid Centre,
University of Melbourne, gives an account of experi-
ments in the use of film as an instructional medium
carried out in his capacity as Officer in Charge of Visual
Training for the R.A.A.F. He claims that the instruc-
tional film must be clearly distinguished from the
entertainment film, and that irrelevancies and humour
must not be allowed to detract from instructional merit.
Suggestions are made concerning the development of
a system of visual education.
200. R. E. Halliday and K. Gordon: Pictorial
Handbook to Physical Education in Primary
Schools. Education Department of Western
Australia, Perth, 1945. Pp. 109.
A handbook for use by teachers in Australian schools.
Consists of some 360 photographs with explanatory
text. The various chapters cover posture, class organi-
sation and formations, fundamental positions, rhythmic
jumping, exercises for various parts of the body,
activities and agilities, and hand grips.
201. Character Education Poll : Character Edu-
cation Enquiry, 362 Little Collins Street,
Melbourne, 1945. Pp. 24. Price Is.
This pamphlet contains the opinions of between 300
and 400 persons out of 1,3oo to whom a questionnaire
on character education was sent. The group consisted
of ministers and church workers, social workers,
teachers, industrial welfare officers, university staff,
unclassified persons. Replies were obtained to 18
questions on such issues as discipline, punishment,
reward, ethical instruction, religious instruction, self-
government, etc. The voting on each of the 18 ques-
tions is indicated and typical comments are quoted.
202. W. H. Hobbs: Fortress Islands of the
Pacific. J. W. Edwards, Michigan, 1945.
Pp. 188 and 107 illus. Price $2.50.
An account of the origin, structure and distribution
of different types of Pacific Islands. The main features
of the geography of selected islands of each type are
described ; the military value of each type is discussed ;
islands of strategic importance as 'stepping stones' to
China and Japan, and of networks of islands which it is
suggested the United States should hold for strategic
reasons are enumerated.
203. The Wealth of Central Australia. Morley
Cutlack. Qld. Geog. Journal, Vol. XLIV,
1944-5, pp. 33-50.
Population Potential of The Northern
Territory. E. J. Connellan. Qld. Geog.
Journal, Vol. XLIV, 1944-5, pp. 89-111.
The Monsoonal North of Western Aus-
tralia. K. M. Durack, Journal of Agricul-
ture W.A., Vol. XXII (second series),
No. 3. September 1945.
Mr. Cutlack reviews 'the wonders and undeveloped
riches in . the "heart of Australia" '. He describes
some of the country seen on his visits to 'the centre'
and the Northern Territory, relates some of his experi-
ences there, and claims that these areas have great
undeveloped pastoral, agricultural and mineral resources.
Mr. Connellan sets out detailed proposals for the
development of the Northern Territory and the Kim-
berleys. Successful administration requires at least
partial local government; the development and defence
of the area require a reorganised transport system ; land
policy should be directed towards establishing the
maximum population consistent with financial security;
closer settlement through the use of irrigation for fodder
production should only be undertaken after detailed
settlement. Other proposals refer to mining, tax con-
cessions, housing, education, and treatment of aborigines.
Mr. Durack's article deals with three topics :
(a) A comparison, illustrated by maps, of the climate
of Northern Australia with that of India, the
Llanos of Venezuela and Colombia, the 'Matta',
'Caatinga', and 'Sertao' of Brazil, and the Sahara,
Sahel, and Sudan of Africa. Western Sudan has
the most similar climate ;
(b) a discussion of grazing conditions in northern
Western Australia to show that pasture manage-
ment is as necessary as stock management;
(c) a statement of the principal findings at Carlton
Reach Experimental Area, East Kimberley,
1942-45, concerning irrigated pasture, natural
pasture, farm crops, vegetable crops, fruit culture,
fertilizer requirements and incidence of pests and
204. Burning Tussock Grassland : A Geographic
Survey. K. B. Cumberland. New Zealand
Geographer. October 1945.
In the tussock grassland areas of New Zealand, the
tussock cover is being depleted, largely as a result of
burning, with a consequent decline in carrying capacity
and increase in soil erosion. The answers of 50 pas-
toralists to questionnaires of The North Canterbury
Catchment Board show that, for various reasons, virtu-
ally all run-holders use fire, although the majority of
them recognize this practice has serious disadvantages.
Dr. Cumberland discusses some of these, and mentions
possible alternatives to the use of fire, having its advan-
tages but not its disadvantages. Detailed surveys will
be necessary to determine the extent of the problem
and correct procedure. Pastoralists should be given
technical assistance and financial encouragement for the
use of alternative practices.
205. Proposed Loxton Irrigation Scheme. Report
of the Parliamentary Committee on Land
Settlement. Government Printer, Ade-
laide, 1945. P.P. of South Australia,
No. 49 of 1945. Pp. 25.
The Committee recommends the development of an
irrigation scheme at an estimated expense of 728,000
at Loxton by pumping from the Murray. The area is
expected to support from 350 to 400 fruitgrowers and
their families on holdings of zo-3o acres, and to provide
good prospects for development as a project for War
Service Land Settlement.
206. Loveday Division of the Cobdogla Irrigation
Area. Report of the Parliamentary Com-
mittee on Land Settlement. Government
Printer, Adelaide, 1945. P.P. of South
Australia, No. 48 of 1945. Pp. 15.
The area was cleared, graded, and reticulated with
concrete pipes in the period after 1914-18 war. By
1923 about i,ooo acres were planted, but at this date the
price of dried fruits fell and little extension has occurred
since. The Committee recommends that, after certain
engineering and drainage works have been undertaken,
a specified part of the area be re-examined and the
blocks found suitable for permanent planting allotted.
The Committee recommends also that blocks now
occupied as Internment Camps and use for poultry
farming should be thrown open to allotment for con-
tinued use as poultry farms.
207. The Beginnings of Savings Banking in
Australia. S. J. Butlin. Royal Australian
Historical Society, Journal and Proceedings,
Vol. XXXII, Part I, 1946.
The Australian history of savings banking begins in
1819, with measures to enforce convict discipline and
encourage thrift among emancipists. The example of
New South Wales was followed in Tasmania by Governor
Arthur ; and similar institutions were founded in other
States, largely from a paternal desire to promote thrift
among the poorer classes of free settlers.
In all States a large part was played by governments,
for the institutions were either entirely State-owned, or
else were established through government initiative and
were subject to close supervision.
In finance, the colonies offered little scope for invest-
ment of deposits in gilt-edged securities. Hence arose
a wide practice of mortgage lending, and in New South
Wales some discounting of bills. Owing to the diffi-
culty of finding suitable instruments, there was a general
though not uniform system of profit-sharing, rather
than the payment to depositors of fixed interest.
The banks in general followed the normal Australian
practice of branch banking, rather than the English unit
The banks were remarkably successful and filled a
social need in 'fostering the habits of frugality and
economy among the lower orders.'
There are 26 tables of statistics.
208. The Historical Explanation of Land Use in
New Zealand. Andrew H. Clark, Journal
of Economic History, pp. 215-230. Novem-
A criticism of environmental determinism as an
explanation of the present-day rural pattern of New
Zealand, and a development of the importance of the
factor of relative location.
Rural cultural landscapes of the South Island of New
Zealand and of Great Britain are compared. Similarities
suggestive of environmental determinism and cultural
descent as the important social dynamics are described.
A rapid survey attempts to demonstrate that this inter-
pretation is untenable.
The colonization of New Zealand under the Wakefield
scheme attempted to set up an antipodean 'little
England.' Under this scheme, the proceeds of Crown
land sales were to be used to import selected rural
labourers and to finance rural settlements. 'Relatively
slow expansion, based on a large degree of self-sufficiency
within a well-ordered, carefully stratified, transplanted
British society, was visualized in the early years.'
Coincidence of the Wakefield experiments, the multi-
plication of Merino sheep and the New South Wales
droughts of the 1840's provided the precise timing for
social forces to replace the original general farming
scheme with the development of the sheep business.
Location relative to certain breeds of cattle (beef short-
horn), as well as of sheep, in Australia, influenced the
foundation of cultural landscapes.
The discovery of gold in New Zealand soon after the
gold rushes to Australia provided attractions for people
and techniques from New Zealand's nearest neighbour.
The skill of gold diggers in managing water was subse-
quently utilized in developing stock-watering facilities
over plains. This enabled a better balance and broader
base to be given to the developing farm economy.
Thus occurred 'The reversal of the trend from extensive
sheep farming back to the originally intended mixed
farming in the British fashion.'
Refrigeration assisted the opening up of the land and
encouraged the establishment of small farms and the
breaking up of estates.
'The character of agricultural and pastoral activity
in the island was probably influenced as profoundly by
its location I,2oo miles beyond Australia on a sailing
route from Great Britain which touched Australia first,
as by the origin of its people or the environment to
which they came.'-M. Rothberg.
209. The Ricketty Federal Constitution. N. L.
Cowper. The Australian Quarterly, pp.
75-85. March 1946.
The article discusses the legal and political difficulties
inherent in the present constitutional set-up. The
thesis is expressed in the conclusion : 'It will be seen,
therefore, that the Commonwealth can, and in my
opinion inevitably will in the course of time, by the use
of powers with respect to finance, make the States as
subservient to the Federal Parliament as the Provinces
are to the Parliament of the Union of South Africa;
and it is obvious that, in spite of its having withstood
every attack upon it, every attempt to change or destroy
it, the federal system is really full of white ants and
borers, and ready to topple, and in my opinion we might
as well give it a push and get rid of it and put a sensible
-that is a unitary-system in its place.'
210. The Constitution in Transition (anony-
mous). Austral Asiatic Bulletin, pp.
52-58. April 1946.
In a very clear survey, an anonymous constitutional
lawyer discusses the significance of cases recently
decided by the High Court. The writer points out
that there is general agreement that some constitutional
change is necessary-differences are rather as to the
degree and nature of reform. Even the phrase 'post-
war reconstruction' is ambiguous : sometimes it is used
narrowly to cover the transition period and more
commonly to denote a permanent and enduring process.
Dr. Evatt's original constitutional amendments of 1942
were directed to post-war reconstruction and would
have restricted the power of judicial review. The draft
bill and the proposal submitted to the electors were
much more modest. The amendments having been
rejected by the electors, judicial interpretation provides
the only possible means by which the constitution may
be enabled to pass through a period of transition.
During war the defence power gives to the central
government 'almost total' authority, but there are many
limitations, e.g. the Commonwealth can acquire property
only upon just terms, and cannot legislate contrary to
section 92. In large part the subject-matters of the
Commonwealth war-time measures were, subject to
territorial limitations, within State competence, but in
general State legislation was supplemented and not
supplanted. In the urgencies of war there were inevi-
table departure from classical considerations of separa-
tion of powers. Towards the end of the war a
Regulations Advisory Committee was appointed which
acted to some effect.
Questions relevant to post-war reconstruction in its
more limited sense have already arisen in cases before
the High Court. Latham, C. J., upheld the continued
operation of the control over land sales introduced
during the war: the Full High Court upheld the
National Security (Minimum Rates) Regulations, made
after Japan's agreement to surrender but before the
actual surrender and applied to certain industries after
the date of the actual surrender. In relation to each
challenged measure, it must be asked whether it is
concerned with one of the exigencies that attend the
cessation of the war and, if so, whether the means
proposed is one which might reasonably be considered
to bear thereon.
The Pharmaceutical Benefits Case has diminished the
operation of section 81. The Airlines Case is significant
in two respects : firstly, it establishes that the Common-
wealth power to make laws with respect to trade and
commerce with other countries and among the States
is not a mere power to regulate trade and commerce,
but extends to enable the Commonwealth by some
instrumentality of its own to engage in such trade and
commerce: secondly, section 92 is a potential obstacle
to Commonwealth legislative activity on a national
scale and is, in some respects, a greater hindrance to
the Commonwealth than to the States.
211. People in Glass Houses Should not Throw
Stones. Critic Criticised. W. Paul.
Australian Law Journal, pp. 290-293.
This article is a reply to Mr. Buller Murphy's article
noted in the last issue of A.S.S.A. (No. 96). Mr. Paul
asks what injustice is suffered by an accused person, if
he is proved to be of bad character. In modern times,
the law has shown great leniency, and the so-called
evil results of Curwood's case have been exaggerated.
It is not against natural justice to prove the character
of the prisoner and it is unfair to criticise English law,
which on this point shows greater tenderness towards
the prisoner than do other systems.
212. Savings by a Wife from House-Keeping
Allowance. E. H. Coghill. Australian
Law Journal, pp. 400-401. April 1946.
This article discusses whether savings by the wife
from the housekeeping allowance should be regarded at
the wife's property, the husband's property, or the joins
property of both.
213. The Matrimonial Causes Act No. 22 of
1945 (Commonwealth). N. G. McWilliam.
Australian Law Journal, pp. 330-333.
It is impossible to summarise the provisions of this
Act, but it is of great social interest as it affects the
problem of the dissolution of war marriages, and creates
an 'Australian' domicile for divorce purposes. The
rule of law is that a wife may sue for divorce only in
the jurisdiction in which her husband is domiciled.
If an American service man marries an Australian girl
and deserts her and then commits adultery, the lady
can get a divorce only by instituting proceedings in the
appropriate American State. This Act allows the wife
to sue in Australia. if she was resident here at the
critical time. This is a clear rejection of accepted
principles, but justified by present exigencies. This
part of the Act will be in force for five years. The other
important change introduced is that any person who is
domiciled in one State (or Territory) of the Common-
wealth and has resided in another State (or Territory)
for at least one year prior to the commencement of
proceedings, may bring an action for any matrimonial
cause in the latter State (or Territory). The law to
be applied is that of the State where the person is
domiciled. The Act, therefore, introduces two impor-
tant principles and its practical effect is shortly discussed
in this article.
214. Grounds for Divorce in the States and
Territories of the Commonwealth. D. M.
Selby. Australian Law Journal, pp.
333-334. February 1946.
This is a short but useful note summarising the
grounds for divorce and contains information useful to
the sociologist as well as the lawyer.
TERRITORIES AND NATIVE
215. New Zealand Dependencies andthe Develop-
ment of Autonomy. W. S. Lowe and
W. T. G. Airey. Pacific Affairs, pp.
252-272. September 1945.
The Pacific Dependencies under New Zealand control
are the Cook Islands, the island of Niue and the man-
dated islands of Western Samoa. The major problem
in all Dependencies springs from the sudden intrusion,
about a century ago, of an alien culture and economic
system. Arising from this clash of cultures are several
problems common to most of the Pacific islands. The
authors discuss these problems and the social problems
of the individual islands in detail leading to the con-
clusion that co-ordination is necessary in the administra-
tion of the islands of the Pacific. A Central Pacific
Institute would do for administrative staffs what the
Central Medical School in Suva has attempted to do
for indigenous medical trainees. At the same time,
there are problems, such as the nature and extent of
economic development to be attempted in the Pacific
islands, and the question of air bases, air routes and
defence strategies, which will have to be the subject to
international agreement by all the governments involved.
216. Maoris. i. The Development and Settle-
ment of Native Lands and the Provision of
Houses for Maoris. Government Printer,
Wellington. P.P. of New Zealand, No. G.
10-1945. Pp. 14. Price 6d.
2. Native Department. Annual Report for
the year 1944-45. Government Printer,
Wellington. P.P. of New Zealand, No.G.
9-1945. Pp. 8. Price 6d.
The first report deals with the operations of the
Board of Native Affairs setting out the principal activities
undertaken during the year in connection with the
development, settlement, and farming of Native Lands
and lands owned or occupied by Maoris, and in providing
housing accommodation for Maoris.
The settlement of the Maori upon his own lands
offers perhaps one of the widest avenues for his advance-
ment. The Board of Native Affairs is therefore steadily
pursuing the policy, first adopted in 1929, of developing
unproductive Native lands with the assistance of funds
provided by the State. A large section of the Maori
people is thus being afforded the opportunity of earning
a living under conditions which they find most suitable.
The results already manifested under this policy are
distinctly encouraging. Development schemes now
embrace a total area of approximately I I7m. acres, of
which more than 800,000 acres are in the course of
being either developed and improved, or farmed as
settled holdings. The number of individual farmers
already established is now 1,892, and these settlers,
together with some 2,ooo other farm workers, support
a very considerable number of dependents, estimated
to be in excess of 20,000.
The second paper is a report on the other activities
of the Native Department, viz. : social welfare work,
legislation, native land court, native trustee, etc. The
estimated Maori population as at 31st March 1945 was
about o03,ooo. This shows an increase of approxi-
mately 25 per cent since the last census in 1936 and
almost of ioo per cent over the last thirty years. There
is thus a very definite indication that the race has
survived the danger of extinction which appeared certain
less than fifty years ago.
217. The Mandates System : Origin-Principles
-Application. League of Nations, Geneva,
1945 (Ser. 1945. VI. A.I.), pp. 120.
Chapter I briefly retraces the historical background,
the genesis and the establishment of the system of
'tutelage' created in virtue of Article 22 of the Covenant.
Chapter II analyses the fundamental principles of the
mandatory system and the methods adopted for the
application of those principles, as defined in the provision
of the mandate 'Charters'. Chapter III describes the
way in which supervision of the mandatory administra-
tion is exercised by the League of Nations, the powers,
duties and procedure of the organs of the League in
regard to mandates, the sources of information and the
means of supervision placed at their disposal and, in
particular, the role and work of the Mandates Com-
mission. Chapter IV is devoted to the question of the
moral, social and material welfare of the natives. The
last chapter, which is entitled 'The population of the
mandated territories', summaries the demographic data
furnished in the annual reports of the mandatory Powers
and statistical tables are given concerning the numerical
development of the populations, birth rates and death
rates, etc., so far as these can be computed approxi-
mately on the basis of such data.
218. Mandated Territory of Western Samoa.
Twenty-second report of the Administra-
tion covering the four years from Ist April,
1941 to 31st March, 1945. Government
Printer, Wellington. P.P. of New Zealand.
A-4-I945. Pp. 17. Price 9d.
Western Samoa consists of two large and seven
smaller islands in the Southern Pacific, administered
by the Government of New Zealand pursuant to a
mandate of the League of Nations. The population
of the Group was in 1920, when N.Z. took over, approxi-
mately 32,000 and it has practically doubled meanwhile,
being at the end of 1944 over 62,000. Value of foreign
trade has increased from 387,00ooo in 1940 to 850,000
in 1944. Exports consist mostly of copra, cocoabeans
and rubber, prices of which rose considerably following
the entry into war of the U.S. The large amount of
money in circulation as a result of the presence of U.S.
troops brought about very substantial increases in
imports, but exports fell for a period owing to Samoans
neglecting their plantations in order to undertake
employment. However, during 1944 production in-
creased again following the release of labour through
the transfer of military forces elsewhere.
219. Cook Islands, Government Printer, Welling-
ton. P.P. of New Zealand (A-3-I945),
pp. 16. Price 6d.
Due to measures of war economy, this is the first
report to be published since the annual reports of the
Cook Islands and of the Niue Island Administration
for the year 1940-41, dealing with four years ended
31st March 1945. The islands are parts of the Dominion
of New Zealand. The population of the Cook Island
in 1945 was 14,506, that of Niue 4,200. The value of
the external trade of the Cook Islands in 1944 amounted
to 28o,ooo as against 18o,ooo in 1940, that of Niue
53,o000 against 40,000. Factors contributing to this
have been the price now obtainable for copra, the
development of the trade in handicrafts, and wages
earned by the people employed on the construction of
airports and other public works. Main products of
export are : citrus fruits, bananas, tomatoes, copra and
handicraft. The Report deals with all aspects of the
Administration: economic, cultural, social and is well
supported by statistics.
220. Aborigines Welfare Board. Annual Report
for 1944. Government Printer, Sydney
(P.P. of N.S.W., 21 of 1945), pp. 2o.
Price is. 3d.
There are approximately 1,000o aboriginal persons
in N.S.W. of whom only about 6oo are full-blooded
aborigines, while the rest are of mixed blood. About
26 per cent of the aborigines reside on Aboriginal
Stations, 20 per cent on Reserves, and 54 per cent in
camps and towns or were nomadic. More than 96 per
cent of the able-bodied aborigines were in steady
employment. Generally, their health has been very
satisfactory. The Report deals with all aspects of
social services and gives some statistics as to the location,
health and occupation of aborigines in N.S.W. In the
view of the Board, 'contact of the aboriginal community
with the white community has now progressed to such
an extent that they must eventually be absorbed into
the general life of the white civilization.' There are
fundamental differences in culture involved, however,
and therefore an educational system must be established.
As soon as conditions permit, it is the Board's definite
intention to establish such an educational scheme.
221. Indentured Labor in New Guinea. Harry
Hawthorn. Far Eastern Survey, N.Y.,
pp. 74-78. March 13, 1946.
The Australian Government's policy as laid down in
the Papua and New Guinea Provisional Administration
Act, 1945, is to eliminate indentured labour and pro-
fessional recruiters and to introduce a free labour
system on improved conditions. In this connection the
author reviews the social, economic, demographic and
moral problems of indentured labour and discusses the
controversial problems of its abolishment. The ulti-
mate query, as the author sees it, is whether in the
development of New Guinea the needs of both whites
and natives can be harmonized. If the answer is in
the negative, whose development takes preference ?
The general theme of the Australian Government's
proposals, and the violent nature of the opposition
represented by a section of planters and traders with
vested interests in the indenture system, indicates that
the Government will grant the natives preferred stock
in New Guinea's development. The author sym-
pathises with these aims. However, he has also some
doubts whether a country with limited resources can
carry out such an extensive plan. Therefore a com-
bination of the Government's intentions and plans such
as those of Hurst (co-operative development) and of
Hogbin and Wedgwood (indirect rule and revision of
the educational system) might give a solution for this
and for other areas.
THIS publication of abstracts in the social sciences is intended to provide a survey
of important material, published in, or related to .ustralia, New Zealand and their
territories, dealing with the various social sciences. The field of the survey dealt with
in these Abstracts is indicated by the classification of the subjects on the inside cover.
The aim is to help the specialist in any particular field to decide what works he
should read, and what he may omit ; and to indicate to other workers in allied fields
what is being done. For these purposes it has been decided that the abstracts shall be
genuine pricis of the works covered.
At present it is intended to publish the Abs/racts half yearly ; but if, in the future,
a larger volume of original work is produced, it is intended to publish the Abstracts
more frequently so that all deserving work may be covered as soon after publication
Copies of this and subsequent issues of the Abstracts will be sent on application
(enclosing subscription of 4s. in the Sterling Area, and $S in other countries, per
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Printed in Australia by
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AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
COMMITTEE ON RESEARCH IN THE SOCIAL SCIENCES
The Committee on Research in the Social Sciences is a special
committee of the A.N.R.C. charged with the duty of reporting upon
the main investigations which appear to be required in the social
field, of considering the best machinery for conducting these enquiries,
and of arranging for finance.
The Committee is also making a detailed examination of the
position in Australia with regard to training in the social sciences at
the various universities, with special attention to the provision of
research workers. The scope of the committee's work includes the
sociological aspects of such studies as anthropology, economics,
education, history, human geography, jurisprudence, medicine,
philosophy, political science, psychology, public administration and
An outline of the history and functions of the committee by the
chairman, Dr., K. S. Cunningham, was recently published; and
may be obtained free of charge on application to the Australian
Council for Educational Research, T. & G. Building, Russell St.,
Members of the Committee :
AGAR, Prof. W. E., University of Melbourne.
ALCOCK, Prof. H., University of Queensland.
BAILEY, Prof. K. H., Attorney-General's Department, Canberra.
BLAND, Prof. F. A., University of Sydney.
BURTON, Mr. H., University of Melbourne.
BUTLIN, Prof. S. J., University of Sydney.
COOMBS, Dr. H. C., Director-General, Department of Post-War
CRAWFORD, Mr. J. G., Department of Post-War Reconstruction.
CRAWFORD, Prof. R. M., University of Melbourne.
CUNNINGHAM, Dr. K. S., Director, Australian Council for Educational
ELKIN, Prof. A. P., University of Sydney.
GIBLIN, Prof. L. F., Department of the Treasury.
GIBSON, Prof. A. Boyce, University of Melbourne.
JAMES, Mr. G. F., University of Melbourne.
McRAE, Prof. C. R., University of Sydney.
MAULDON, Prof. F. R. E., University of Western Australia.
MELVILLE, Mr. L. G., Commonwealth Bank of Australia.
O'NEILL, Prof. W. M., University of Sydney.
PARTRIDGE, Mr. H., Uruversiry of Sydney.
PASSMORE, Mr. John, University of Sydney.
PREST, Prof. W., Universiry of Melbourne.
SHAW, Mr. A. G. L., University of Melbourne (Secretarv).
STONE, Prof. Julius, University of Sydney.
STOUT, Prof. A. K., Univerity of Sydney.
WADHAM, Prof. S. M.. University of Melbourne.
WHITE, Mr. H. L., Commonwealth National Library, Canberra.
WOOD, Prof. G. L., University of Melbourne.
WRIGHT, Prof. R. D., Uniersity, of Melbourne.
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