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AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
Committee on Research in the Social Sciences
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:TJL AN, CIAI, Cjf4, TR,' CT -S
EjaITOR _1COMMM UE
Dr. K. unning 4
Professor R.-M. Crawford G. L. Wood, Mr, Gr F, james,
Mr. H, I,- WTtf-a, N1. A. G.- L. Shaw
Mr. S. J. Lengyel, Faculty of Commerce, University of Melbourne Carlton N.3
EcoNomics-Professor G. L, Wood and Mr., S. J. Lengyel
-1Z -ioLoGy-Dr.- K. S,. Cunningham
EDUCATION AND PsycT
-Profe sor G. L'Wood-and Mis P.'McBride
'HISTORY-Professor R. M. Crawford
LAw-Professor G. W. Paton
THILOSOPHY-Profesgor A. Boyce Gibson
POLITICAL SCIENcE-Mr. L-. Churchward
ArRICULTURE AND RURAL PROBLRmsProfessor S. M. Wadham
TEERITORIIIS AND NATIVE PR611LEMS-ProfeSSor R,'M. Crawford
All communications should be addressed toe the -General -Editor.
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Economics and Econom ic Policy
4", -Industry, Trade and Commerce 5
Monetary Policy, Banking, Insurance
-Public Finance 2Z
ion and Communication
Labour and Industrial Relations
Agriculture, Land and Rural Problems
Government and Politics
-7- ousing 56-
Social Security and Public Health -6o
Social Surveys 61
Population and Migration 6
Ausiratian Public Affairs 1iformation Service, or A.P.A.LS., d
'magazine artic: document on Australian politiegl, eco'xioruic'
les and, government
and social, affairs. It is'published Monthly by, the Commonwealth.
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AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
Committee on Research in the Social Sciences
SAUSTRALIAN NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
COMMITTEE ON RESEARCH IN THE SOCIAL SCIENCES
O < The Committee on Research in the Social Sciences is a special
o committee of the A.N.R.C. charged with the duty of reporting upon
~ the main investigations which appear to be required in the social
o field, of considering the best machinery for conducting these enquiries,
az r- and of arranging for finance.
0e The Committee is also making a detailed examination of the
r > position in Australia with regard to training in the social sciences at
the various universities, with special attention to the provision of
research workers. The scope of the committee's work includes the
sociological aspects of such studies as anthropology, economics,
education, history, human geography, jurisprudence, medicine,
philosophy, political science, psychology, public administration and
An outline of the history and functions of the committee by the
chairman, Dr. K. S. Cunningham, was recently published; and
may be obtained free of charge on application to the Australian
Council for Educational Research, T. & G. Building, Russell St.,
Members of the Committee
AGAR, Prof. W. E., University of Melbourne.
ALCOCK, Prof. H., University of Queensland.
BAILEY, Prof. K. H., Attorney-General's Department, Canberra.
BLAND, Prof. F. A., University of Sydney.
BURTON, Mr. H., University of Melbourne.
BUTLIN, Prof. S. J., University of Sydney.
COOMBS, Dr. H. C., Director-General, Department of Post-War
CRAWFORD, Mr. J. G., Department of Post-War Reconstruction.
CRAWFORD, Prof. R. M., University of Melbourne.
CUNNINGHAM, Dr. K. S., Director, Australian Council for Educational
ELKIN, Prof. A. P., University of Sydney.
GIBLIN, Prof. L. F., Department of the Treasury.
GIBSON, Prof. A. Boyce, University of Melbourne.
JAMES, Mr. G. F., University of Melbourne.
McRAE, Prof. C. R., University of Sydney.
MAULDON, Prof. F. R. E., University of Western Australia.
MELVILLE, Mr. L. G., Commonwealth Bank of Australia.
O'NEILL, Prof. W. M., University of Sydney.
PARTRIDGE, Mr. H., University of Sydney.
PASSMORE, Mr. John, University of Sydney.
PREST, Act.-Prof. W., University of Melbourne.
SHAW, Mr. A. G. L., University of Melbourne (Secretary).
STONE, Prof. Julius, University of Sydney.
STOUT, Prof. A. K., University of Sydney.
WADHAM, Prof. S. M., University of Melbourne.
WHITE, Mr. H. L., Commonwealth National Library, Canberra.
WOOD, Prof. G. L., University of Melbourne.
WRIGHT, Prof. R. D., University of Melbourne.
AUSTRALIAN SOCIAL SCIENCE ABSTRACTS
A publication of the Committee on Research in the Social Sciences,
Australian National Research Council, subsidized by the Common-
wealth Government through the Department of Post-War Reconstruction
All communications should be addressed to the Editor, Faculty of
Economics and Commerce, University of Melbourne, Carlton, N.3
No. I March 1946 4s. per annum
THIS publication of abstracts in the social sciences is intended to provide a survey
of important material, published in, or related to Australia, New Zealand and their
territories, dealing with the various social sciences. The field of the survey dealt with
in these Abstracts is indicated by the classification of the subjects on the inside cover.
The aim is to help the specialist in any particular field to decide what works he
should read, and what he may omit; and to indicate to other workers in allied fields
what is being done. For these purposes it has been decided that the abstracts shall be
genuine precis of the works covered.
At present it is intended to publish the Abstracts half yearly ; but if, in the future,
a larger volume of original work is produced, it is intended to publish the Abstracts
more frequently so that all deserving work may be covered as soon after publication
Copies of this and subsequent issues of the Abstracts will be sent on application
(enclosing subscription of 4s. in the Sterling Area, and $1 in other countries, per
annum) to the Editor, Department of Commerce, University of Melbourne, Carlton, N.3.
Where the size of a Government publication or Parliamentary Paper (P.P.) is not given, it is 81 ins. x 131 ins.
(A) Economics and Economic Policy
i. Full Employment in Australia. Government
Printer, Canberra, P.P. II of 1945, pp. 19.
'Full employment is a fundamental aim of the Com-
monwealth Government.' With this announcement of
the objective commences the Report of the Government
on its post-war economic policy. 'The policy outlined
is that governments should accept the responsibility
for stimulating spending on goods and services to the
extent necessary to sustain full employment. To
prevent the waste of resources which results from
unemployment is the first and greatest step to higher
living standards.' 'The amount of employment available
at any time depends on the demand for goods and
services-that is, on expenditure by individuals, firms,
public authorities and overseas buyers. Full employ-
ment can be maintained only as long as total expenditure
provides a market for all the goods and services turned
out by Australian men and women, working with avail-
able equipment and materials, and fully employed after
allowing for need for leisure.' It is held that 'the essen-
tial condition of full employment is that public expendi-
ture should be high enough to stimulate private
spending to the point where the two together will
provide a demand for the total production of which the
economy is capable when it is fully employed.' The
problems which are connected with such a policy are :-
the danger of excess spending, the need for flexibility
of resources, the importance of providing incentives to
enterprise and efficiency, the necessity of maintaining
a fair wage policy and a high level of social services.
Private capital expenditure will continue to be one of
the most significant parts of total expenditure, but
'its extreme variability and the impossibility of com-
pletely stabilizing the factors bringing about variability
present a most important and difficult problem.' To
prevent such changes international co-operation and
'the stabilization of total expenditure and employment
in Australia by bringing about a compensating expansion
in public capital expenditure and by other means' are
suggested. This, of course, will require a continual
review of export prospects and involve also control of
imports in order to prevent an external depreciation of
2. Some Problems of Economic Policy. Report
by D. B. Copland. Government Printer,
Canberra, P.P. 9 of 1945, pp. 38. Price
The more important issues of economic policy in
Australia in relation to developments that are taking
place in the United Kingdom, the United States and
Canada are discussed. The main questions dealt with
are :-the national war effort in each country, economic
controls, price control, farm prices, de-control after
the war, economic research and economic policy, trade
policy and the place of public works in the economy.
The author had the opportunity of discussing these
questions in official and unofficial circles in the countries
mentioned and the comments made by him are con-
clusions emerging from his discussions. The relation
of public finance to the objective of full employment
forms a central theme of the report, and Australian
industrial activity is considered in conjunction with
financial and economic policy in overseas countries.
The report should be studied in conjunction with
the Australian White Paper on Full Employment
3. The Post-War World Economy. By L. G.
Melville. In Australia's Post-War Econ-
omy. Australasian Publishing Co., Sydney,
1945, pp. 1-45. Price 7s. 6d.
After a brief survey of the basic assumptions of the
classical theory of international trade and finance (and
their criticism by Keynes, Robinson, Chamberlin and
others), of international monetary co-operation, econ-
omic nationalism, full employment and the consequences
of unemployment, the author's conclusions are as
The old theory of international trade gave us a means
(free trade) and an end (international prosperity). But
the assumptions of the theory were deficient and are
now inappropriate to the changed economic circum-
stances. Nevertheless, the articles of the creed continue
to be accepted, although they need to be revised. Em-
ployment must replace trade as the means to the end.
If high levels of employment were maintained in the
major countries of the world, much of the validity of
the old theory would be restored and the 'trade' approach
and multilateralism would again have a chance of suc-
cess. But even if all countries are not yet prepared to
accept full employment as a goal, and the 'trade' ap-
proach to post-war problems breaks down, something
will be saved if the 'employment' approach is accepted
within regional groups.
4. Prices and Wages. Economic News, Bulletin
of the Queensland Bureau of Industry,
Official statistics show that during the past years
retail prices in Australia have been 23 per cent above
1938-39 levels, and that wages have risen faster than
prices, so that real wages for a normal working week
are now 4 per cent higher than pre-war. However,
including fruit and vegetables and other items excluded
from the 'C' series index, and if we take into account
loss of cheap lines, loss of reduction of delivery and
other services provided by retailers, the price increase
may be nearly 40 per cent. Between 1938-39 and
March 1945, wages rose 28 per cent in Australia, 49
per cent in Britain, and in U.S.A. some 5o-6o per cent
in industry and more than Ioo per cent in agriculture.
The inference is that increases in wages are now desir-
able, and indeed necessary, in particular industries.
'Relative to Britain, we are now due for a rise in real
wages, and a considerably greater rise in money wages
and in retail prices, or we may combine a somewhat
smaller rise in internal prices with an appreciation of
(B) Industry, Trade and Commerce
(a) General Works
5. Secondary Industry in Post-War Australia.
By Sir Herbert Gepp. In Australia's Post-
War Economy. Australasian Publishing
Co., Sydney, 1945, pp. 175-218. Price
The author traces the development of secondary
industry, its growth both before and during the war,
and its possibilities in the future. He stresses his belief
that development of secondary industry in Australia
will go on, and at an accelerated pace, provided that
fundamental conditions exist, i.e.-international trade
co-operation, better education, continued supply of raw
materials, scientific research, good industrial relations
and adequate rewards for initiative and for work accor-
ding to results.
6. Tariff Board. Annual Report for the year
ended 3oth June, 1945. Government Prin-
ter, Canberra, P.P. 39 of 1945, pp. 21.
Besides reporting on routine business, on inquiries
made, reports furnished and work on hand, the Board
deals with some questions of principle in tariff-making
procedure, i.e. production costs, fair and reasonable
prices and profits, and the significance of profit es-
timates. The difficulties encountered in comparing
costs of production in two countries, as is necessary,
for example, under the Ottawa agreement, are caused
mainly by the facts that there is no method of arriving
at a cost of production for which accuracy can be
claimed during a period of even a few years ; that there
is not necessarily any connection between cost of pro-
duction and selling prices; that selling prices do not
always govern the purchase of goods; and that many
tariff items cover wide ranges of goods. The principles
adopted by the Board to overcome these difficulties
will not be applicable for some years because of un-
settled economic conditions and, therefore, some tem-
porary arrangements are recommended. The Board
stresses its opinion that the greatest discrimination
should be exercised in dealing with industries developed
during the war that may require abnormally high
protection to survive the return to peace conditions, but
Australia should not be called upon to sacrifice those
that show some prospect of permanence. Although in
the next few years it will be impossible to measure the
merits of Australian industries by comparisons of their
costs with those of other countries, the Board considers
it essential that Australia's post-war reconstruction
should be on the lowest cost basis attainable. Such a
basis should, of course, be sought as a means of main-
taining and improving living standards and not at their
expense. Increased efficiency offers the only means
of doing that.
(b) Individual Industries
7. Brewing Industry. Tariff Board: Report
on Hops. Government Printer, Canberra.
P.P. 37 of 1945, pp. 20. Price is.
The position of the hop industry is thus summarized
by the Board: The present customs duties will afford
adequate protection so long as the conditions limiting
importations prevail. There is no shortage of hops
in Australia. Apprehensions of brewers are due to an
increase in the quantity used by other than brewers.
There is a shortage in overseas countries except in New
Zealand. The present return to Australian hop-growers
is reasonable. The Report is well supported by
8. Dried Fruits Industry. Twentieth Annual
Report of the Commonwealth Dried Fruits
Control Board for the year 1943-44. Gov-
ernment Printer, Canberra, 1945, pp. 10.
Also Reports of the Dried Fruits Boards of
Victoria, South Australia, New South
Wales and Western Australia for the year
1944, and Report of the Australian Dried
Fruits Association, dated 23 October 1945.
The six reports give a complete picture of the industry
concerning production, exports, domestic consumption,
and prices. Since the establishment of the Control
Board production has expanded substantially. In 1944
it was more than 104,ooo tons as against 37,000 tons in
1924. However, the 1945 crop yielded only 68,000
tons and is the smallest pack since 1936. Exports have
been almost wholly shipped to the U.K., Canada and
N.Z., in which markets Australia enjoys a tariff prefer-
ence. Total exports amounted to 68,000 tons in 1944
as against 33,200 tons in 1939, while home consumption
increased from 13,000 tons to 24,100 tons during the
same period. The future of the dried vine fruits
industry depends for its present stability upon the tariff
preference, the Australian tariff on fruits from other
countries, and the maintenance of an Australian price.
Under present conditions further plantings of vines on
new areas should be prevented.
9. Fishing Industry. Report of the State
Development Committee. Victorian Govern-
ment Printer, Melbourne, P.P. 26 of 1945,
For many years Victoria has suffered from inadequate
fish supplies, necessitating a comprehensive inquiry
into the conditions of the fishing industry. About
iom. pounds of fish is marketed annually in Victoria,
about 83 per cent being the common varieties :-barra-
couta, salmon, shark, mullet and flathead, while the
preferred varieties :-garfish, schnapper, flounder,
bream and whiting are in short supply. Marine con-
ditions generally in Victorian waters are such that
probably a limited increase only can be expected in the
future supply of the choice varieties of fish which are
taken from the inlets, rivers, estuaries, and bays, some
of which are now being exploited to capacity. Supplies
of the common varieties of fish can be increased to a
much greater extent. The Committee believes that
the haphazard practices of the industry must be replaced
by more modern operations, and makes concrete recom-
mendations for the improvements in the methods of
handling the catches, in transportation and marketing.
io. Gas Industry. Post-War Reconstruction of
Gasworks Outside Capital Cities. By J. W.
Batchelor. National Gas Bulletin, Sept.-
Oct. 1945, pp. 16-18.
Surveying the post-war prospects of the smaller gas-
works the author, himself manager of a plant, sum-
marizes the problems of the industry which is in keen
competition with electricity, with the question : 'Do we
supply gas at a constant calorific value, even pressure
and free from impurities, correctly metered, to properly
adjusted appliances ?' His answer is an emphatic 'No,'
and the task is the amalgamation of the smaller plants,
better domestic appliances, introduction of a tariff
that will insure that every consumer pays his just share
of cost of the service, better education of the personnel,
and more scientific production.
1. Oil Industry. The Baerami Shale Oil
Proposals. Report by the Parliamentary
Standing Committee on Public Works.
Government Printer, Canberra, 1945, P.P. 7
of 1945, pp. 75. Price 3s. 4d.
The question whether natural petroleum exists in
payable quantities in Australia, is unsettled, but large
deposits of coals and shales exist. The most extensive
proved oil shale desposits are said to be at Glen Davis
and Baerami. Glen Davis has been in production for
some years, but very little work has been done at Baerami
beyond driving a number of tunnels. A mission of
American experts in 1942 investigated the deposits of
shale in this country, and recommended the develop-
ment of Glen Davis and Baerami so as to step up
production to about 4om. gallons of crude oil per
annum of each.
In the opinion of the Committee the development of
Baerami cannot be supported until further experience
is gained at Glen Davis. Neither the shale deposits
at Latrobe nor the brown coal of Victoria offer good
prospects of being exploited for the economic production
of petrol. On the other hand the hydrogenation of
black coal and Victorian brown coal to produce fuel
oil should be given earnest consideration.
12. Pharmaceutical Industry. Tariff Board:
Report on Phenacetin, Caffeine, etc. Gov-
ernment Printer, Canberra, 1945, P.P. 38
of 1945, pp. 15. Price 9d.
This report is of wider interest than the title indicates,
because beyond the question of protecting the domestic
manufacture of some drugs not produced here before
the war, it raises the general question of tariff pro-
tection of new industries and its implications. The
principal international commitments involved are
contained in Articles 9, Io and 13 of the Ottawa Agree-
ment. Under the present unsettled conditions these
obligations cannot be fulfilled and, therefore, the
Board recommends temporary assistance rather than
tariff protection. The methods of such assistance are
bounties, quotas and flexible duties. The Board con-
siders it desirable that consultation with the U.K.
Government be initiated forthwith with a view to making
some temporary arrangement under which worthwhile
Australian industries may be protected until reviews in
accordance with the principles of the Agreement again
13. Sugar Industry. Queensland Cane Growers
Association. Verbatim Report and Pro-
ceedings of the i8th Annual Conference.
Queensland Cane Growers Council, Bris-
bane, 1945. Imp. 8vo, pp. 95.
This is a good summary of all aspects of the sugar
industry presented by a statutory body created by the
Act. Report and discussions deal with the most im-
portant happenings during the year under review,
with special reference to the Tariff Board inquiry into
the claim of canegrowers and millers for subsidies to
bring their profit from the 1943 crop up to the average
of pre-war profits, which the Board refused to recom-
14. Wine Industry. Tariff Board, Reports on:
(i) Spirit for Fortifying of Wine, P.P. 6 of
1945, pp. 19. Price is. (2) Prices for
Grapes and Fortifying Spirit, P.P. 4 of 1945,
pp. 31. Price is. 4d. (3) Use of Cane
Sugar in Sauterne, P.P. 5 of 1945, pp. 8.
Price 6d. (4) Control of Liquor Order,
pp. 10o of 1945, P.P. i6. Price 9d. All
published by Government Printer, Can-
These four reports give, in conjunction, a rather
comprehensive picture of the present state of the Aus-
tralian wine industry. While production of wine in
1943-44 was roughly the same as before the war, home
consumption, military and civilian together, increased
considerably, resulting in a decrease of wine in bond from
g9m. gallons in 1938 to I6m. gallons in 1944, while
exports decreased by about 8o per cent. During the
same time both production and exports of brandy fell
by about 20o per cent, while local consumption increased
by 30 per cent. Domestic prices of wine are now on the
average about 20 per cent higher than before the war,
while London maximum retail prices are about 500
per cent above the pre-war prices.
As to the specific questions raised by the enquiries
the Board's conclusions are as follow:
(i) If shortage of fortifying spirits does occur it could
be lessened or avoided by reduction of the civilian
consumption, reduction of the alcoholic content,
making more unfortified wines, and increasing
the fixed price of fortifying spirit in 1945 to 7s.
per proof gallon.
(2) The prices fixed for grapes for the 1944 vintage
should be maintained, with few exceptions, for
(3) Satisfactory sauterne is being produced in Aus-
tralia at reasonable cost without the use of cane
sugar or excessive amounts of sulphur dioxide.
In the circumstances disclosed by the industry,
it is undesirable to encourage the use of cane sugar
in the manufacture of sauterne.
(4) Present difficulties of merchants and consumers
in obtaining supplies of brandy and wine are due
mainly to shortage of bulk containers and trans-
port. Deliveries by wholesalers in the rationing
year 1943-44 were about 50 per cent more than
annual consumption before the war. Stocks of
matured brandy are satisfactory.
Each report is well supported by statistics.
15. Wool Industry. Report No. 2 of the Textile
Advisory Panel and Review of the Secondary
Industries Commission, Ministry of Post-
War Reconstruction, Canberra, 1945. Royal
4to, pp. 46.
The Panel draws attention to the rapid development
in the synthetic fibre industry as shown both by the
increase in the quantity produced, which from 1940 on-
wards actually exceeded world wool production, and the
quality and range of the fabrics placed on the market.
Moreover, the price of rayon is showing a constantly
decreasing trend while that of wool is fluctuating and
considerably higher, on the average about double that
of rayon. However, the possibilities of wool in pro-
duction, manufacture, adaptability and distribution,
as well as the economic blending of wool with other
fibres, are relatively unexplored; and the recommen-
dations are directed to a tour of exploration. The Panel
believes that scientific research and the application of
the new knowledge gained are the answer to the chal-
lenge, and will stimulate and revitalize the industry.
The detailed proposals put forward by Panel and
Commission are, in essence, biological, textile, economic
and market research, sales promotion and publicity,
stimulation of the use of wool in new and so far unex-
plored avenues, better technical education, and the
creation of co-ordinated machinery capable of effec-
tively dealing with these problems which concern so
closely the future welfare of Australia.
The Prime Minister's statement that the Common-
wealth Government accepted these proposals as the
basis of their policy and is going to provide about
600,000 per annum for research and publicity for the
wool industry, and his announcement about the method
of financing the scheme and the bodies which will be
instrumental in this work, are printed in the appendix.
16. Wool Industry. Post-war Wool Realisation.
Report and Recommendations of the Con-
ference of Representatives of the United
Kingdom, the Commonwealth of Australia,
the Dominion of New Zealand, and the Union
of South Africa, held in London, April-
May, 1945. Government Printer, Can-
berra, 1945, P.P. 28 of 1945, pp. 15. Price
During the war, the U.K. purchased all the Australian
and N.Z. wool, and supported the market in the Union
of South Africa, and now has a surplus of Dominion-
grown wool of Iom. bales (3,300m. lbs.). An agreement
has been made between the Governments of the four
countries for the formation of a Joint Organisation for
the sale of this surplus and the new clips during the
period of disposal, which may be 14 years. During
that period the government representatives will meet
yearly and decide for the following year the general
level of reserve prices for wool, below which sales will
not be made either from stocks or from current clips.
The wartime system of appraisement and acquisition
in Australia will continue for the 1945-46 season,
without any change in conditions, the price of i5.45d.
Australian per lb. The Australian Government will
assume half ownership in the Australian-grown wool
at present owned by the British Government, and the
two Governments will share equally in financing all
further purchases of wool during the operation of the
Appendix A. deals with facts of accumulation and
with prospects of disposal.
Appendix B. contains a report on methods of mar-
keting, and Appendix C. deals with the disposal plan
and its finances.
17. Abbott, J. P. : The Future of the Wool
Industry. In Australia's Post-War Econ-
omy. Australasian Publishing Co. Sydney,
1945, pp. 63-102.
The author, who is Vice-President of the Australian
Wool Board, endeavours to give a comprehensive view
of the factors which might have a bearing on the future
of wool. He does not minimize the many problems
and difficulties which lie ahead, and accepts them not
as an occasion for alarm, but as a challenge which should
evoke the most energetic and imaginative measures for
maintaining the position of wool in existing markets
and finding new ones. He, then, suggests means of
solving some of the main problems confronting the
woollen industry, i.e., liquidation of wartime accumu-
lations, improved methods of producing the raw wool,
development of research, spreading the knowledge of
new discoveries, and enabling the backward areas of
the earth to use more wool than at present.
18. Clunies Ross, I. : The Australian Wool
Industry in the Post-War World. Austral-
Asiatic Bulletin. September 1945, pp.
The future of the Australian wool industry is com-
plicated by the wartime accumulation of surplus stocks,
and the growth of the synthetic fibre industry. Dominion
Governments may be required to tide their wool indus-
tries over the transition from war to peace by taking
the place of the British Government as the purchaser
of their wool production, in order to ensure a reasonable
return to growers and to maintain the stability of the
industry. Wool must be made available to world
markets at a price determined by world demand. Any
arbitrary attempt to fix prices at higher levels would
encourage substitution by other fibres. On the other
hand, violent fluctuations in price are inimical to the
wool manufacturing industry, and should be minimized
by the control of sales of surplus stocks by Govern-
ment agencies and the possible intervention of an inter-
national commodity pool. The depressant effect of
the American wool tariff on wool consumption in the
U.S.A. could be overcome if it were replaced by a
subsidy to U.S. growers.
19. Clunies Ross, I. : Dependence of the Wool
Industry on External Trade. The Aus-
tralian Quarterly. September 1945. pp.
Having surveyed the domestic and export markets
the author concludes that 'it cannot be anticipated that
this country, for many years to come, will be able to
process more than Io per cent of her clip beyond the
tops stage. The Australian wool industry must there-
fore remain dependent on the maintenance of exports
of greasy and scoured wool.'
(C) Monetary Policy, Banking, Insurance
20. McConnell, W. K. : The Origin and Develop-
ment of the Commonwealth Bank. Institute
of Public Affairs, N.S.W., Sydney, 1945.
Demy 8vo., pp. 33.
Written before the new banking legislation, this
booklet gives a short history of the Commonwealth
Bank, its origin and development. Freed from political
control the Bank developed on sound lines and served
the community well. On the other hand there is reason
to fear that under the proposed new legislation it may
be compelled to adopt unwise courses.
z2. Rural Finances. (i) The Impact of the War
on the Financial Structure of Agriculture,
by Sheila B. Fraser. The Rural Front,
April 1945. (2) Livestock Slaughtering
and Graziers' Incomes in N.S.W., by
W. A. Cunningham. Ibid, August 1945.
(3) Wartime Changes in Rural Income in
N.S.W., by W. A. Cunningham. Ibid,
In (I) an attempt is made to evaluate the effect of the
war on the financial situation of the farmers. As com-
plete figures are not available, the figures of the prin-
cipal agricultural lending agency of N.S.W. are used
to gauge the prevailing trend. The figures of the
Rural Bank show a decrease of the long-term and fixed
loans from 4.62m. in 1940, to 3.47m. in 1944, while
overdrafts declined in the same period from io.93m.
to io.oim. These figures reveal a decline of about
13 per cent in the liabilities of the farmers. Even more
striking is the decline in the value of liens on crops,
wool and livestock, registered in N.S.W. They have
decreased from 6.42m. in 1939 to 2.96m. in 1944, or
by 54 per cent. But this is only one side of the picture.
At the same time a considerable increase in the value
of farm real estate, equipment and stock has taken place
which is statistically not reflected because of the regu-
lations stabilising prices. Decreased liabilities based
on actually higher asset values and excellent current
incomes of farmers, as revealed in studies (2) and (3),
show that the farmers' present financial position is
(D) Public Finance
22. Commonwealth Grants Commission. Twelfth
Report, 1945. Government Printer, Can-
berra, 1945. pp. 155. Royal 8vo. Price
The Annual Report of the Commission (Professor
R. C. Mills, Professor G. L. Wood and Hon. J. J.
Kenneally) on the applications made by the States of
S.A., W.A. and Tasmania for financial assistance in
1945-46 from the Commonwealth begins with a brief
review of the changes which have taken place in the
finances of the Commonwealth and the States since
1933, followed by a survey of the important phases
in the development of the Australian war economy,
together with its indicators for each State, showing
significant changes in industrial and business activity.
The Commission, then, goes on to explain its policy
in assessing special grants according to the principle
of financial needs and the necessarily flexible methods
to give effect to the principle in the light of changing
circumstances, with particular reference to the claim
by Tasmania for a grant based upon a 'surplus standard.'
The grants recommended for payment are :-S.A.
1,400,000 (including an additional payment of
555,000); W.A. 950,000 (including a deferred grant
of 250,000); and Tasmania 646,000.
The report is supplemented by a number of highly
informative statistical tables regarding the relative
severity of State taxation, Commonwealth taxation and
other financial matters of Commonwealth and States.
23. Estimate of National Income and Public
Authority Income and Expenditure. Gov-
ernment Printer, Canberra, 1945, pp. 7-
This 1945-6 Budget paper surveys relations between
the income, expenditure and borrowing of public
authorities and the income, expenditure and savings of
the Australian people in each year since 1938-39.
Estimates are also given of Australia's financial relation-
ships with other countries (balance of payments).
The net national income produced in 1944-45 is
estimated at Iz56m. as against 795m. in 1938-39,
while the negative balance of payments of the years
from 1938-39 to 1942-43 has been turned in 1943-44
and 1944-45 into positive balances of 83m. and 7om.
The paper has been prepared by the Commonwealth
Bureau of Census and Statistics and it is emphasised
that the figures are approximate and subject to revision.
24. The Australian Balance of Payments. By
L. F. Giblin. Austral-Asiatic Bulletin,
March 1945, pp. 36-39.
After a brief survey of Australia's international
financial relations in the pre-depression, post-depression,
and war periods the author concludes that the limited
supply of exchange might make restriction of imports
necessary. 'This would be unfortunate, for under
these conditions substitution for imports will be sought
by setting up new industries which may be grossly
uneconomic.' 'We can only go forward piously hoping
for a reasonable stability in the balance of payments
under a system of unrestricted multilateral trade.
Until experience has brought confidence that the major
countries will pursue unflinchingly a domestic policy
of maximum employment and income, we must be
prepared to deal with vicissitudes of trade that will
from time to time threaten our international solvency.
To that end, the defences of our solvency-import
restrictions by whatever means, and currency depre-
ciation-though laid aside for the time being, must be
kept in working order for quick and effective use.'
25. War Damage Commission. Report for the
Period Ist January 1944, to 31st December
1944. Government Printer, Canberra,
1945, pp. 6.
Contributions since the inception of the Commission
have amounted to i4.72m. and together with interest
on investments to I5.35m. Claims, almost entirely
from New Guinea and Papua, amounted to 3.56m. of
which claims totalling over Liim. are in course of or
awaiting appraisement. Owing to the fact that these
claims represent the full value given to property by
claimants, they cannot be taken as even an approximate
measure of probable war damage. Administration
and claim expenses amounted to about 400,ooo.
26. Taxation in the Post-War Years. A Study
by the Institute of Public Affairs, Victoria.
Melbourne, 1945. Royal 8vo, pp. 61.
The level of taxation after the war is certain to be
far higher than ever before in our peacetime economic
history and this will raise vital issues concerned with
enterprise, production, employment and standards of
living. The entire problem of taxation therefore needs
to be examined from a fresh perspective. The authors
believe that a total reduction in taxation revenue of
approximately 8om. should be a practical objective
in the next three years. The major reduction should
be made in the personal income tax field, but company
taxes should also be reduced to the greatest extent
practicable in order to stimulate enterprise and initiative.
The authors advocate more liberal depreciation allow-
ances than those permitted under existing legislation,
the freeing of all expenditure on research from taxation,
and the abandoning of Super-tax and Wartime Company
27. The Valuation of Stock-in-Trade. (i) Ar-
ticle by Frank L. Horn. The Australian
Accountant, Jan., Feb. and March 1945.
(2) Recommendation of the Council of the
Institute of Chartered Accountants in
England and Wales, and comments on it,
by A. A. Fitzgerald. Ibid, Sept. 1945.
(3) Article by J. A. L. Gunn. Ibid, Nov.
1945. (4) Article by N. S. Young, The
Chartered Accountant in Australia, Oct.
1945- (5) Pamphlet by J. M. Greenwood.
Institute of Registered Tax Agents. Sydney
1945. (6) Stock Inventory Policy, Part 2.
Inventory Valuation. Cost Bulletin, No. 2.
The Australasian Institute of Cost Accoun-
The golden rule of 'Cost or market price whichever
is lower' at the date of the balance sheet purports to
afford a sound balance sheet value. However, the term
'Cost' is anything but unequivocal. Moreover, the
significance of the balance sheet in contrast to the income
statement is an open question between conservative
and progressive accountants on the one hand, and
between finance and cost accountants on the other.
Finally the increasing importance of taxation lends a
new importance to the problem. For all these reasons
some change of methods or some new interpretation
of the old rule in the light of present-day needs becomes
of paramount interest. Articles (i), (4) and (6) deal
rather exhaustively with the different possible and tested
methods and principles of valuation, while (2) and (3)
are comments on the recommendation of the Chartered
Institute of London. Though the latter tries to inter-
pret the old rule in a flexible way, it is essentially con-
servative, and based on the balance sheet aspect of
accountancy. Mr. Fitzgerald tends to more liberal
principles, in particular to the 'Last-In, First-Out',
method, while Mr. Gunn considers the particular prob-
lems of the valuation of work-in-progress and the
meaning of cost price in connection with taxation
28. Scott, Walter : Managerial Accounting-The
Accountants' Contribution to Management.
Canberra University College, 1945. Royal
8vo, pp. 19.
In the Commonwealth Institute of Accountants
Research Lecture, delivered at the Canberra University
College, the author makes brief notes on general and
financial accounting and the evolution of cost accoun-
tancy. He then proceeds to an analysis of the develop-
ment of managerial accounting, devoting some thought
to its definition, its scope, its methods and its limitations.
Finally he indicates his own views in relation to the
obligation of the accountant, both professional and
commercial, in relation to this subject and to the promise
that it holds for the accountancy profession.
29. McCarthy, M. E. : Accounting Aspect in
Relation to Price Control. The Australian
Accountant, July 1945, pp. 230-237.
The system of price control was grafted on account-
ancy, and accountants form the framework of the
organisation. The inter-relation between price control
and accountancy is obvious. Author gives a detailed
account of the principles on which price control rests,
in particular of what reasonable profit is, how funds
employed and profits should be correctly calculated,
and then goes on to discuss some irregularities of a
minority of the profession. However, accountants
generally are doing a very fine job and it was a wise
decision to take the profession into partnership in order
to run price control.
30. How Accountants can Assist Industry and
Commerce in Australia in the Post-war
Era. Two essays by A. J. Gairns and V. G.
Gole. The Federal Accountant, June-July
and September 1945.
The two winners of the Federal Institute's Essay
Competition deal with their subject from different
angles. Mr. Gairns considers that the trends of war-
time will develop further, giving added importance to
the services of accountants. The most significant
trends have been technical advances and the growth of
cost consciousness and cost accountancy. The value
of uniform costing methods applying to whole industries
has been disclosed. Accordingly the author considers
in detail some of the important aspects in the technical
equipment of modern accountancy, cost accountancy
and standard costs. The best service the public accoun-
tant can render, according to Mr. Gole, is by concen-
trating on the most appropriate accounting method to
be applied, the most useful presentation of statistical
data, the most protective system of office routine in
respect of the particular business under consideration,
and on auditing and advice in the important field of
taxation. The commercial accountant has developed
from the high-stool bookkeeper of former years to the
executive of modern business, charged with respon-
sibilities for office organisation, book-keeping, statistics,
staff training, costing, etc.
31. Production Control. Two papers by W. R.
Greig and R. F. Pascoe. The Australian
Accountant, October 1945, pp. 348-361.
Mr. Greig deals with production control from the
point of view of factory management, while Mr. Pascoe
considers it as a cost accountant. Having discussed
the place of the Production Control Department in the
functional organisation of a factory, he goes on to
examine the functions, viz., control of delivery dates
and volume, project time and production scheduling,
sponsorship of production, control of production flow
and delivery achievement. In installing such a system
there must be a clear conception of every detail, with
well designed stationery and equipment. The system
must be freely accepted by all departments-not only
foisted upon them. All personnel involved must fully
understand the requirements of their particular function
and its effect on their sections. All routine matters
should be committed to standard procedure. Mr.
Pascoe suggests that cost accountants, because of their
training in the detailed marshalling of facts and figures,
are better equipped than most to realise the value of
planning and control in industry. The advantages
derived by the cost accountant may broadly be divided
into three sections, viz., job costing, costing of standards
and budgeting. He discusses these points at some
length and emphasises the importance of enlarging the
scope of cost accounting so that it embraces the science
of production control and its kindred activities.
(F) Transportation and Communication
32. Statistics of Australian Regular Air Transport
Services. Year ended 3oth June 1945.
Department of Civil Aviation, pp. 5.
All figures for civil aviation within the Commonwealth
show marked development against the preceding year.
In 1944-45, 323,953 persons, 2,338 tons of freight,
and 2,o i tons of mail have been forwarded, against
218,421 persons, 1,317 tons of freight and 1,965 tons
of mail in 1943-44. In passenger miles the progress
was even more spectacular, 142,902,187 miles against
100oo,937,o00 a year before.
33. Airlines. A Study by the Research Group
of the Left Book Club of Victoria. Mel-
bourne, 1945. Sm. 8vo, pp. 56. Price 9d.
Having considered the policies of the main countries
concerned in international transportation, the study
turns to the Australian scene and discusses the Govern-
ment's proposals, their effect on the companies as well
as the question of direct and indirect subsidies. In
conclusion the study advocates nationalisation, which
would fit well into the general Empire scheme, would
eliminate the challenge of private monopoly, and would
establish research devoted to the needs and develop-
ments of civil aviation.
34. Packer, G. : Australian Interest in Post-War
Air Transport. Austral-Asiatic Bulletin.
March 1945, pp. 71-88.
The paper was written before the Commonwealth
announced its intention to nationalise interstate air lines.
It is pointed out that Australian interests in post-war
air transport present problems not capable of simple
definition. The passenger traffic on internal air ser-
vices seems likely to double when hostilities cease, and
the expansion of air lines to meet this demand can
scarcely be achieved without government financial
participation and partial or complete ownership by the
state. The volume of passenger traffic on overseas
air services seems likely to increase seven times im-
mediately after the war. This extended demand should
permit the improvement of the services of Tasman
Empire and Qantas Empire Airways, and the intro-
duction of additional foreign services catering for
Australian needs. Australia is vitally interested in the
maintenance of Empire air trunk routes, but it is con-
trary to her best interests that conflicts over international
air control should mar good-neighbourly relations.
35. Standardisation of Australia's Railway
Gauges. Report by Sir Harold Clapp.
Commonwealth Department of Transport,
Melbourne 1945, pp. 87 and diagrams.
The recommendations in the Report are that the rail-
way systems of Victoria and South Australia, excluding
the narrow gauge line of the Eyre Peninsula, be con-
verted to standard 4 ft. 8 in. gauge, which is the gauge
of N.S.W., and, further, that a new independent line
be constructed from Fremantle-Perth to Kalgoorlie,
thus completing the standard gauge link between Perth
and Brisbane. The cost of this proposal, involving
a mileage of 7,561 miles, is estimated at 44m.
To meet the requirements of defence as indicated by
the Department of the Army, and also to facilitate
development, the construction of a trans-continental
south-north standard gauge railway, linking Bourke,
N.S.W., with Hughenden, Q'land, is also recommended.
From Hughenden the standard gauge line would con-
tinue eastward to Townsville, thus providing a less
vulnerable route to North Queensland, and westward
to Dajarra. From Dajarra the line would extend across
the Barkly Tableland to Birdum, and on to Darwin.
The total mileage involved is 2,505 miles at an estimated
cost of 33m. The conversion and construction recom-
mended would take approximately eight years to
complete, and the Northern Territory line an additional
three years. The cost of necessary locomotives and
rolling stock is not included in the above estimates.
(G) Labour and Industrial Relations
36. Clarey, P. J. : Industrial Relations after the
War. In Australia's Post-War Economy.
Australasian Publishing Co., Sydney, 1945,
The author, who is President of the Australasian
Council of Trade Unions, summarizes the immediate
post-war aims of his movement in the following words :
'We seek full employment, a reduction of hours to
40 at the conclusion of the war, progressive reduction
of hours as individual production increases, a rise
in the standard of living, and a successive rise in the
standard of living as fast as the national income rises,
and a general utilisation by the government of taxation
revenue to enable the biggest measure of social services
to be provided for the people, such as medical services
and education, to make the people intelligent citizens.'
AGRICULTURE, LAND AND RURAL
37. Wadham, S. M. : The Prospects for Aus-
tralian Agriculture. In Australia's Post-
War Economy, Australasian Publishing Co.,
Sydney, 1945, pp. 129-152.
Pre-war, about half of Australia's agricultural produce
was exported, Britain being the only important buyer.
Most of our primary industries were artificially sup-
ported. If world trade increases after the war, higher
prices to the farmers will not necessarily follow, but if
world trade declines agricultural reconstruction will
have to be on a major scale. It follows that increased
farm efficiency is imperative. Small family farms are
no solution; in fact further land settlement should
not be encouraged. Better educated farmers, regu-
lated wages to stimulate good farm labour, and more
amenities for rural people are needed. The Australian
people have an obligation to help fulfil these needs so
long as they support a policy of tariff protection for
secondary industries, thereby reducing returns to
farmers ; they also have an obligation to see that
inefficient secondary industries are not protected.
38. Ives, Walter: War-time Agricultural Plan-
ning in Australia. Public Administration,
March 1945, pp. 198-208.
The background and development of Commonwealth
Food Control, Production Executive, the Inter-Depart-
mental Committee on Production Goals and other
war-time food-planning bodies are described. In
establishing goals, the Committee took into account
army and civilian requirements, production potential,
import prospects, difficulties in carrying out short-
term planning of farm production and limitations of
manpower and rural resources. Removal of com-
petition between important crops and presentation of
each production goal to Production Executive com-
pleted the preliminaries of establishing goals. 'Farm
machinery programmes were geared to these goals. After
planning at the Federal level, all goals are broken down
by States, some by regions, a smaller number by War
Agricultural Committee districts and 'a few Committees
have split goals right down to individual farms.' Plan-
ning 'seems to offer a way of improving on the price
mechanism' of market theory and therefore stimulates
required war-time farm production. Limitations to
agricultural planning are discussed in terms of inter-
national agreements, State rights and social objectives.
The effects of a number of commodities, personnel
problems, public administration and provision of incen-
tives on the efficiency of production planning are also
39. Wills, N. R. : The Rural-urban Fringe-
Some Agricultural Characteristics. Aus-
tralian Geographer, June 1945, pp. 29-35.
In rural-urban farming, 'economic rather than
physical factors are the prime determinants of farming
characteristics.' Natural infertility of soil within 25
miles of Sydney has been countered by 'drastic land
improvement,' the cost of which has been more than
offset by low transportation and distribution costs.
Compared with intensive farming practised further out
of Sydney, the following characterize rural-urban
farming: smaller areas; higher proportion of area
cultivated or irrigated to total area ; higher unimproved
values ; lower ratios of improved to unimproved capital
values. Small-scale, intensive and specialized rural-
urban farming does not lend itself to mechanization.
With the expansion of the urban nucleus of Sydney,
'the rural-urban fringe is pushed before it on to new
40. Robertson, S. D. : Crop Forecasting Ser-
vices. Review of Marketing and Agricul-
tural Economics, July 1945, pp. 175-181.
Describes the operation of the crop forecasting service
provided by the Department of Agriculture in N.S.W. ;
individual farmers as well as departmental experts
have given a full measure of co-operation in their
capacity of honorary correspondents.
41. Rothberg, M. : The Sociology of Soil Con-
servation in the United States. Journal of
Australian Institute of Agricultural Science,
June 1945, pp. 53-63.
The background and development of U.S. soil
conservation districts which, by 1945, numbered almost
s,zoo and included more than 3 million farms over an
area of more than 650 million acres. National soil
conservation programmes are created and implemented
by local group action operating through these legally-
constituted self-governing districts. The constitution
and operation of these districts are described and
42. Campbell, K. 0. : Price 'Spreads' Between
Farmer and Consumer. Review of Mar-
keting and Agricultural Economics, March
1945, PP. 55-61-
It is the aim of this article to present some preliminary
estimate of the magnitude of the distribution margin
insofar as the Australian producer or consumer is con-
cerned and to draw attention to certain characteristics
of such margins. The inference from the available
statistical data is that the problem of reduction in
distribution costs needs detailed investigation. An
improvement in the efficiency of the distribution is
essential lest studies in the field of nutrition become little
more than academic exercises.
43. Crawford, J. G. : Agricultural Reconstruc-
tion-The General Setting. Economic
Papers No. 4, pp. 3-26. Economic Society
of Australia and N.Z. in conjunction with
Angus & Robertson, Sydney, 1945.
The pre-war trends of Australian agriculture were
characterized by increasing government intervention
to assist farmers. During the war and immediate
post-war periods great industrial activity and demand
for foodstuffs assure profitable incomes to farmers. If
after the immediate post-war period of prosperity there
is a return to 1939 conditions then 'rescue measures'
will be inevitable. However, if industrial activity and
employment in Australia and importing countries remain
high, farmers will prosper. Under the latter conditions
some agricultural reconstruction will be necessary to
promote farming efficiency, provide stable farm incomes,
and raise housing, educational, cultural etc. facilities
generally. Social and political issues would also arise ;
for instance, an upward pressure on rural wages would
affect price structure, size of efficient farms, and the
question of the retention of the family farm as a
44. Report on the Administration of the Northern
Territory for the year 1943-44. Govern-
ment Printer, Canberra, P.P. 3 of 1945,
pp. 12. Price 9d.
Taking stock of the Northern Territory the adminis-
trator establishes the following assets : large areas of
fertile land suitable for cattle-raising ; ample mineral
resources; large areas capable of being farmed; and
others of being developed by irrigation. The future
is bound up in the development and prosperity of the
pastoral industry. This is preconditioned by the con-
struction of a railway from the Mount Isa system
through the Barkly Tableland to Newcastle Waters.
Upon that condition the administrator recommends:
the installation upon new leases and small holdings
of at least two fully equipped watering places; the
inauguration of an assistance to primary producers;
investigation of the Roper River Valley with a view to
irrigation settlement; the investigation of the Katherine
Gorge possibilities for hydro-electricity; continuation
of Katherine as a killing and meat-chilling centre; a
fast train service for perishables between Katherine and
Darwin; town planning of Darwin, Alice Springs and
Katherine; and administrative reforms. Appendix I.
summarizes the early history of the Territory.
(A) Government and Politics
45. Report of Committee of Inquiry into Systems
of Promotion and Temporary Transfer.
P.P. 18 of 1945. Government Printer,
Canberra, pp. 29. Price is. 4d.
The committee consisted of Professor K. H. Bailey
(Chairman) and representative senior administrative
officers and employee organisation's officials. Dis-
cussion was limited to the conditions of permanent
'Relative efficiency' should continue to be the basis
of selection for promotion except in specified positions,
where major differences in relative efficiency are not
usually found; there the basis should be the senior
Promotion Appeal Committees should hear appeals
against provisional promotions instead of Public Service
Inspectors; in certain cases, the Committees should
Short-term temporary transfers should be filled by
the senior efficient officer available ; long-term transfers,
by the most efficient officer available.
46. Local Government in Australia. Public
Administration (Sydney), March 1945.
Brief sketches of the structure, organisation and
functions of the local government system of five states
by men actively concerned in local government affairs :
Victoria, by F. A. Jenkins; South Australia, by V. S.
Shephard; Tasmania, by A. W. Knight; Western
Australia, by W. Tauman and Queensland, by C. E.
Chuter. A second article on Western Australia by A. E.
White, ibid. September, 1945.
Local government in the sixth state, N.S.W., is dealt
with by A. Mainard in Australian Quarterly, June, 1945.
He advocates 'a clear line of demarcation between State
and Local Government powers, based on principles,
rather than on political expediency,' and the assumption
by local authorities of additional functions.
47. Remington, G. C.: An Amateur Turns
Administrator. Public Administration
(Sydney), June 1945, pp. 250-259.
An informal account of the experiences of a lawyer in
the wartime Federal Administration-W.O.I., Man-
power, C.C.C. The moral given is: 'If you want to
get on in the Public Service, don't try any innovations,
don't try out new ideas, don't take short cuts.'
(B) International Relations
48. Wood, G. L. : Australia counts the cost of
the Atlantic Charter. Austral-Asiatic Bul-
letin, March 1945, pp. 9-13.
The economy of post-war Australia would seem to
involve a choice among economic nationalism, economic
imperialism, and economic internationalism. Australia's
desire to share in world economic planning, i.e., in 'the
regulation of world economic life by institutions design-
ing and operating policies of control' is qualified by
her claims to increased development of her manu-
facturing industries, freedom to pursue policies which
will alleviate the burden of external indebtedness, free-
dom to restrict movements of capital and to adjust the
exchange rate, and freedom to decide on immigration
policy. 'The one clear fact as Australia faces post-war
problems is the desire to be economically and strateg-
ically self-reliant . but it does not indicate unwilling-
ness on the part of Australia to accept commitments as
part of a co-operative world effort to restore stability
and security, especially in the Pacific area.'
49. Burton, H. : Anglo-Australian Relations
after the War; Hill, W. E. : Relations
between Australia and U.S.A. Austral-
Asiatic Bulletin, March 1945, pp. 31-35
Mr. Burton argues that the war with Japan has con-
vinced the Australian people for the first time that
Britain may not always be in a position to give the
degree of assistance that they have enjoyed in the past.
In future Australia will have to look jointly to Britain
and U.S.A. for assistance in those defence needs which
she cannot provide herself. Consequently, it is to be
expected that Australia's communications and trade
with overseas countries will not have such an exclusively
British character as they had before 1939. On the
subject of migration the general Australian opinion is
decidedly in favour of preference for British migrants.
Mr. Hill argues that 'politically and strategically, the
United States and Australia have common interests in
any programme for the preservation of the peace of the
Pacific.' Australia can look to the United States for
four basic essentials for her further development.
(1) a market for raw materials,
(2) a source of population,
(3) a source of manufactured and specialty goods,
(4) a source of capital.
The importance of increasing Australia's trade with
America was recognized by the appointment of a Trade
Commissioner to the United States (1938), but the
American tariff and the strength of the American farm
bloc are still a hindrance. Expert salesmanship will
be required to win any relatively large market in the
United States. The population of Europe is declining
while that of the United States is increasing-America
therefore offers a better source of immigrants. As in
the past, so in the future, Australia will continue to
import American goods and capital, although increased
imports will depend largely on the willingness of
America to enlarge her imports of Australian primary
products. This programme for closer co-operation with
America might well mean that Australia may have to
forego some nationalistic aspirations in return for
50. Ball, W. Macmahon : Australia as a Pacific
Power. Austral-Asiatic Bulletin, March
1945, pp. 22-30.
The background to the Australia-New Zealand Agree-
ment of January, 1944, is the growing realization of the
inadequacy of Australia's defences. The British navy
is no longer considered sufficient for the task. The ob-
ject of the pact is to provide economic and social security
as well as military assistance for Australia in the South
West Pacific. The pact proposes a South Seas Regional
Commission representing Australia, New Zealand, the
United Kingdom, France and the United States. This
commission would be purely advisory, and concerned
with collaboration between the different administrations
operating in the area. The pact also establishes the
claims of Australia and New Zealand to a share in the
'interim administration and ultimate disposal of enemy
territories in the Pacific.' Examination of reactions to
the pact is mostly confined to Australian parliamentary
and newspaper opinion. The strongest criticism came
from the opposition benches in the Senate and from the
Melbourne Argus, and was largely along the lines that
the pact represented an effort by Australasia to segre-
gation from the British Commonwealth.
51. Wood, G. L. and Hill, W.: Australia's R6le
in Far Eastern Reconstruction. Pacific
Affairs, March 1945, pp. 22-39.
'The contribution Australia could make to recon-
struction in south-eastern Asia and the islands of the
Western Pacific will, necessarily, be intimately related to
the success which attends the national reconstruction
scheme and to the speed with which actual results are
achieved.' Assuming a considerable achievement in
this direction, Australia could make a substantial con-
tribution to far eastern reconstruction. A major need
of far eastern countries is for capital investments. The
prime source of these must be North America, Australia's
contribution could scarcely exceed 5om. Australia
should be of greater assistance in exporting primary
produce, although the limits of Australian production
and her commitments to supply Britain and the Pacific
forces will be restrictive factors. Any substantial export
of Australian foodstuffs to China could only be achieved
at the expense of supplies to Britain. Another difficulty
will be the development of a suitable export trade from
China to Australia. Some adjustment of terms of trade,
reduced tariffs and port dues, would seem to be called
for if Eastern countries are to increase their export
trade with Australia.
52. Stone, Julius : Harmonies and Disharmonies
in Intra-Commonwealth Relations. Aus-
tral-Asiatic Bulletin, September 1945, pp.
The Australian-New Zealand Pact suggests some
dissatisfaction with the machinery available for con-
sulting Australian interests in matters of vital Australian
concern. Mr. Curtin's proposal for a regular Imperial
Council was made to overcome this difficulty. Such a
development might allow for the expression of actual
or potential disharmonies between the dominions.
Stone advocates a more flexible machinery, similar to
that now in existence but more active. 'A thorough
review of personnel and technique available for con-
sultation at all stages of policy making, might be a great
contribution to harmonious intra-Commonwealth
53. United Nations Conference on International
Organisation. Report by the Australian
Delegates. Government Printer, Can-
berra, P.P. 24 of 1945, pp. 103. Price
The Report includes the text of agreements signed
at San Francisco, 26 June 1945, the historical back-
ground to UNCIO, and summaries of the British Com-
monwealth Relations and the United Nations Confer-
ences. Annexes contain speeches by Dr. Evatt and the
the Rt. Hon. F. M. Forde, and some Australian amend-
54. Menzies, R. G. : A Liberal's View of Aus-
tralian Foreign Policy. Austral-Asiatic
Bulletin, September 1945, pp. 72-76.
Criticising Australia's foreign policy, Mr. Menzies
says that it should consist in bringing into balance the
nation's obligations and powers, and with reference to
the Australian-New Zealand Agreement-'we are
making ourselves ridiculous by this gesticulating in the
face of the world.' Her foreign policy should consist
firstly in the close integration of her ideas with those of
the British Empire, but he gives a warning against the
belief that any regional pact is a substitute for a world
55. Evatt, H. V.: Foreign Policy of Australia.
Introduction by W. M. Ball. Angus &
Robertson, Sydney, 1945, pp. 266.
Australia's struggle against Japan and the part she
intends to play in the post-war world are the two main
The early speeches deal mainly with Dr. Evatt's two
trips abroad in 1942 and 1943 to urge greater military
action against Japan. He stresses security, economic
opportunity and living standards, and discusses the in-
creasingly responsible role of Australia and New Zealand.
Dr. Evatt emphasises Australia's right to participate
on equal terms with the Great Powers, particularly in
the making of armistice and later decisions. He insists
that the small powers be recognized on a basis of rights
and not power.
56. Commonwealth Housing Commission. Final
Report. Ministry of Post-War Recon-
struction. Government Printer, Canberra,
1945, pp. 328. Price 7s. 6d.
This report covers the full field of the Commission
and it forms a complete record of its recommendations,
mainly relating to the housing of the low-income group
of the community. After a brief survey of the history
and present position of housing, the report goes on to
deal with planning, administration, financing, housing
standards, slum clearance, community facilities, organi-
sation of the building industry, etc. In the last chapter
the Commission summarizes its recommendations. The
report is well illustrated and the different features
supplemented by detailed appendices.
57. Prest, Wilfred: Rents in Melbourne. The
Economic Record, June 1945, pp. 37-54.
The article is a partial report of a social survey con-
ducted by the University of Melbourne under the
direction of the author. It deals with the proportion
of tenants among householders in Melbourne in 1941-
42, the problem of the demand for housing based on
the proportion of the income which tenants spend on
rent, the alternative types of accommodation obtainable
for a given rent, and certain implications of war-time
58. Housing Commission of Victoria. Sixth An-
nual Report for the period Ist July 1943 to
3oth June 1944. Government Printer,
Melbourne, P.P. 23 of 1944, pp. 36. Price
Apart from reporting on routine activities like housing
inspection, building and housing designs, the report
contains an illustrated description of the improved
Fowler system of construction concrete walls and their
transportation, as well as the result of a housing survey
in the rural areas of Victoria. The survey revealed the
following figures in country areas of the State : Thous-
ands of houses-brick 17, timber 1oo, other materials
28, together 145, including 5,400 substandard houses
which ought to be demolished and 9,700 substandard
houses which could be repaired to comply with require-
ments. Estimated shortage of houses in all country
areas about 19,ooo.
59. Architectural Research Group. First Housing
Report : Prefabrication. Second Housing
Report : Temporary Housing. The Royal
Victorian Institute of Architects, Mel-
The housing shortage at December, 1945, will be
400,000 and by the end of 1950 about 700,000, which
should be overcome by 1950 or 1951. The first assault
on the shortage should be through large scale prefab-
rication of permanent houses. A survey of the pro-
duction, material and manpower resources of the Com-
monwealth indicates that the programme is possible of
accomplishment by the extensive use of prefabrication.
Failing this, only temporary housing can relieve the
shortage. Such housing can be provided by altering
existing premises, by transit camps, and converted army
huts, by short-life emergency houses or by 'transitional'
houses. Reduced standards are inevitable in tempor-
ary houses, but there is necessity for them to degenerate
into slums. A financial analysis shows that temporary
houses costing 450 can be amortized in ten years at a
weekly rental of I9s. Information regarding sizes,
localities, etc. should be found by means of a survey.
[This has been done in Queensland. See Economic
News, Aug. 1945. Ed.]
(B) Social Security and Public Health
60. Social Security. Eighth Interim Report of
the Joint Committee on Social Security.
Government Printer, Canberra, 1945, P.P.
21 of 1945, pp. 50. Price 2s. 3d.
This is a supplement to the Sixth Report of the Com-
mittee presented in 1943, dealing with the nature and
extent of health services necessary and adequate for
the Australian people. Meanwhile a sub-committee,
the 'Medical Planning Committee' met and compiled a
comprehensive and unanimous report, which is appen-
ded to this report. The committee supplements its
recommendations in the Sixth Report in respect of
health centres, hospital and specialist service, maternal,
infant and child welfare, mental health, flying doctor,
dental and optical services and surveys the effect of war
service on doctors and nurses. As basic principles for
future national health services the committee recom-
mends :-Preventive medicine to have priority over
remedial, provision and servicing of hospitals to have
first priority, planning of medical services should pro-
ceed and co-operation and goodwill should prevail
between the Government and medical profession.
The recommendations concerning medical care of
International Labour Conference, Philadelphia, 1944,
are appended to the Report.
(C) Social Surveys
61. Social Services Survey of the Municipality of
South Melbourne. Compiled by the De-
partment of Social Studies, University of
Melbourne, under the direction of Ruth
Hoban. Municipality of South Mel-
bourne, Melbourne, 1945. Crown 4to,
pp. 155. Not for sale.
A stock-taking of social services available in 1943 to
the 43,600 residents of the Municipality of South
Melbourne, viz. child welfare, health services, education,
housing and town planning, churches and missions,
relief and charitable services and recreational facilities.
The study is accompanied by a number of charts and
62. A Township Starts to Live. The Valley of
Barossa. South Australia's New Com-
munity. A Common Cause Publication.
Adelaide, 1945. Demy 8vo, pp. 75.
This pamphlet discusses community centres, in par-
ticular the Nuriootpa War Memorial Community Centre
Incorporated. It shows the essential features of a
community centre and provides some guide to those
other suburbs, towns and villages who want to turn
heterogeneous groups of people into real communities.
63. McIntyre, J. J. and A. J. : Country Towns
of Victoria-A Social Survey. Melbourne
University Press, 1944. Demy 8vo, pp.
xxiv-292. Price los. 6d.
This is a social survey of nearly all the country towns
of Victoria with populations between 250 and Io,ooo,
a very few are excluded for special reasons. The sub-
jects covered are : location and size of towns, their
layout and appearance, their livelihood, their transport
and communications, local government, public and
social services, certain dominant attitudes of country
town people, and some of the effects which the war has
had on these towns. The broad historical background
to many of the subjects is discussed, notably the location
of towns. The conclusion reached is that many of the
faults of country towns are due to their individualistic
development. If the conditions of country towns and
people are to be improved there must be a far wider
acceptance of the idea that the general good must
dominate short-term individual gain.
64. Coaltown : A Social Survey of Cessnock,
N.S. W. Walker, Alan.: Melbourne Uni-
versity Press, 1945. Crown 8vo, pp. x,
141. Price 2s. 6d.
A study of the human resources of a coal-mining town
of 15,ooo population 'built upon the richest and most
extensive coal deposits in Australia' and commercially
40 years of age. The approach, by way of social anthro-
pology, examines the effects of various social factors and
their inter-relationship on the structure, function and
future of this community. Details of social history,
politics of coal-mining unions, the family, religion,
community life and use of leisure are presented. Par-
ticipant-observer technique was used, the author living
in Cessnock for five years.
Social insecurity following the lock-out of 1929 and
the Great Depression, left its impress on every level of
life. Pessimism and lack of confidence in the future
has produced suspicion, bitterness and antagonism
directed against absentee mine-owners and government.
Remedies suggested include a survey of prospects ahead
for the industry, establishment of additional industries
and intensive investigation of the industry with special
reference to the 'strike habit.' In addition, cultural
reconstruction, revival of community activities, a re-
awakened Church and greater civic consciousness would
improve life. Cessnock's isolation produces paroch-
ialism and mental inbreeding. Hostility of national
leaders and press towards miners has engendered a sense
of inferiority and lack of worthwhilenesss.'
(D) Population, Migration
65. Elkin, A. P. : Re-Thinking of White Aus-
tralia Policy. The Australian Quarterly,
September 1945, pp. 6-34.
'The operation of a selective Australian immigration
policy' or the national dogma of 'White Australia' needs
reconciliation with the dignity of such nations as India
and China. 'It would be unwise for Australia at this
juncture to experiment with minority groups situations,
or to risk cultural or biological inter-mixture with
peoples, whose history and background of life is very
different from our own.' We are entitled to our policy
of Australia for the Australians and for those whom we
choose to admit on condition that in administration of
our immigration restrictions we shall endeavour to
avoid hurting the feelings and dignity of other peoples.
This could be achieved by introducing the quota system
and letting in a small number of Indians and Chinese
under certain conditions. Of course we have still to
show that we plan to make full use of our continent,
within its economic and psychologic absorptive capacity.
On the other hand we should do all we can to raise the
standard of living wherever it is lower than ours,
thus easing the pressure of emigration.
66. Borrie, W. D. : Peopling of Australia:
Post-war Problems and Prospects. Aus-
tral-Asiatic Bulletin, September 1945, pp.
This paper is based on the assumption that Australia
will be committed to a policy of immigration after the
war. The thesis maintained here is that British mig-
ration, as a one-way movement from the parent country
to the Dominions of the Commonwealth, has run its
course, and that the only place for British migration
in the future is to be found in a policy of encourage-
ment of the mobility of labour as a reciprocal movement
throughout the whole British Commonwealth. The
problem of British migration is placed in its demographic
settings, and Australia's position in the light of the
revolutionary changes that have occurred in this field
during the twentieth century are reviewed.
67. Immigration-Government Policy. Govern-
ment Printer, Canberra, P.P. 23 of 1945,
pp. 8. Price 6d.
Outlining the Government's policy of immigration
in the post-war period, the Minister of Immigration
pointed out that Australians cannot continue to hold
an island continent for themselves and their descendants
unless they greatly increase their numbers by stimulating
the birth-rate, lowering the infant mortality, and im-
migration. Taking the maximum effective population
absorption capacity in any expanding country some-
where about 2 per cent of its numbers and making allow-
ance for the natural growth of the Australian population
according to the present trend, the migration ceiling
on this basis would appear to be about 70,000 a year.
After the rehabilitation of the men and women of the
fighting services, the overtaking of the lag of national
housing, and provision of adequate shipping, large
scale immigration could be started, provided that the
desirable types of migrants can be found.
68. Price, Charles A. : German Settlers in South
Australia. Melbourne University Press,
1945. Demy 8vo, pp. 92. Price 3s. 6d.
In 1939 there were some twenty-six thousand persons
of German origin in South Australia. Author examines
the extent to which the national and 'racial' self-con-
sciousness of these settlers has hindered their absorption
into the general community. He outlines the policy
of Germany towards its migrants abroad and reviews
some of the factors making for absorption and some of
those acting against it. His general conclusion is that
the process of assimilation is far from complete. Indeed
he thinks that only a few months after the defeat of
Nazi Germany, the Deutschtum in Australia is shaking
off the effects of the defeat and is turning once more to
the people and outlook of the Fatherland.
69. Witten, Arno : Psychology of Antipathy to
Immigrants. Social Horizons, July 1945,
Migration as a mass movement is an essential factor
of human progress. It must be regarded as a correction
of situations which have become socially unhealthy.
The effect of such wanderings has gone far beyond the
immediate aims of the migrants. The exchange of
ideas and experiences has always been essential for the
development of civilization. Human progress thrives
on contacts with other groups and stagnates by isolation.
Still, instead of being welcomed, immigrants are mostly
received with reluctance or even with open hostility.
This results from group anxiety for its possessions.
Author, then, examines some typical charges against
immigrants and concludes that immigrants should
neither become weighed down by despondency nor
throw overboard what they had built up in their past, in
order to adapt themselves as quickly as possible to the
new country. There is no reason for it. Not by
forgetting and losing their cultural assets do they gain a
firm foothold within the new country, but by building
up their lives again through planting the old experiences
in the new ground. So they help to unite two layers
of culture to the benefit of mankind.
70. Cumpston, J. H. L. and Heinig, C. M.:
Pre-School Centres in Australia. Depart-
ment of Health, Canberra, 1945, pp. 232.
During 1939 and 1940 a Lady Gowrie Child Centre
was established in each Australian capital by the Com-
monwealth Government working through the Depart-
ment of Health. These centres provide an education
and health programme for children from 2 to 6 years of
age, and serve as demonstration and research centres.
Sites were chosen in densely populated suburbs but
away from noise and traffic. The buildings are not
uniform in design but all are spacious, airy and func-
tional, and contain nursery, kitchen, dining-room, and
social and medical units. Furniture and fittings have
been chosen for attractiveness, durability, and usefulness.
Play materials are educational and hygienic, and lib-
raries cater for parents, teachers and children. The
emphasis is on individual guidance. Case studies are
thorough, records comprehensive. Parent education
is an important part of the work. Suggestions are made
for planning, equipping and financing full-time, half-day
and temporary centres. The first kindergartens in Aus-
tralia were opened in 1895. The movement has
developed from a small philanthropic organisation to
the present position in which 87 free kindergartens
cater for nearly 6,ooo children. State Education
Departments are taking an active interest.
71. Thompson, A. B.: Adult Education in New
Zealand. A Critical and Historical Survey.
New Zealand Council for Educational
Research. Whitcombe & Tombs. Wel-
lington, 1945, pp. 378.
The first part of this book traces the beginnings of
adult education in New Zealand to the transplantation
from Britain of the Mechanics Institute, then in decline.
Details are given of the activities-classes, lectures,
libraries and forms of entertainment of some of the
eighty or so Institutes which probably existed in New
Zealand by the end of the 19th century. Reference is
made to the work of the churches, to temperance
societies, the Y.W.C.A., the Y.M.C.A., the establish-
ment of the Labour Party, the establishment and exten-
sion of libraries, etc., during the period following the
decline of the Institutes. The author then deals with
the establishment in 1915 of the Workers' Educational
Association largely through the influence of Meredith
Atkinson and David Stewart. Graphs and tables are
used to show the effect on the movement of the depres-
sion, the stimulus of aid from the Carnegie Corporation,
fluctuations in student enrolment, composition of student
groups, enrolments for various subjects, etc. The his-
torical section finally gives an account of the develop-
ments following the coming into power in 1935 of the
Labour Government. The second part of the book
gives a cross-section account of the agencies in the field
at the present day. It includes details of the age-
composition of the groups attending classes, of their
occupations, of their previous education, of their reasons
for attending, and so on. A further part of this section
deals with 'borderline' activities such as the press, the
radio, the cinema, art galleries, musical societies and
dramatic societies. Part three deals with the future,
gives a scheme for organisation of the whole field, and
discusses important issues such as the relative functions
of central and local authorities.
72. N.S.W. Child Welfare Advisory Council:
A Report on the Girls' Industrial School,
Parramatta. A study in the Principles and
Practices of Child Welfare Administration.
Melbourne University Press, 1945, pp. xv,
III. Price 3s.
The study underlying this report was made, at the
request of the Minister for Education, by the Delin-
quency Committee of the Child Welfare Advisory
Council of N.S.W. It is based on case studies during
1942 of all girls in the Industrial School, an institution
for neglected and delinquent girls, and on personal
observation by one of the authors during one week's
residence in the school. Only a small percentage of
the girls are truly rehabilitated, owing to unsuitable
arrangements within the school and the Child Welfare
Department generally. These in turn are caused by the
failure to clarify the function of the school, which is at
present used as a place for punitive detention, for
treating venereal diseases, for very limited rehabilitative
training, and for confining mental detectives who cannot
really be held responsible for their actions. In addition
the whole concept of treatment of juvenile delinquency
needs clarification. The authorities should create
machinery for contacting potential delinquents (e.g.
truants) early, and undertake genuine rehabilitation for
those who could not be helped in time. Detailed recom-
mendations designed to put such a policy into practice
are included. This will mean abandoning the present
'inflexible departmental procedure,' and paying due
regard to after-care and outside influences.
73. South Australia-Education Inquiry Com-
mittee : First Report, I6th May 1945.
South Australian Government Printer,
Adelaide, 1945, P.P. 15 of 1945, pp. 42.
There is need for a greater adaptation of the schools to
the interests and capacities of individual pupils. This
requires more flexible curricula and a highly trained
teaching staff. The most pressing problem is to secure
sufficient recruits and to ensure their quality. The
committee recommends the abolition of the junior
teacher system and the adoption of matriculation as the
minimum educational requirement. Three years of
professional training should be provided and a first
degree in education established. Provision should be
made for. the recruitment of discharged soldiers and
adults who have been engaged in other employment.
Women teachers should be retained in the department
after marriage. The present series of teachers' cer-
tificates should be replaced by a single certificate but a
modified skill-mark system should be retained.
General decentralisation of educational adminis-
tration is not regarded as suitable for South Australia,
but recommendations involving some decentralisation
will be made in a later report. There should be estab-
lished an Educational Policy Board, consisting of the
Director, a teachers' representative and three members of
the general public to advise the Minister on general
educational policy and to recommend long term plans.
74. Campbell, A. E. : The Feilding Community
Centre, Wellington, N.Z.C.E.R., 1945, pp.
77. Price 4s. 6d.
The Feilding Community Centre (N.Z.) marks an
outstanding experiment in intensive adult education. It
was established seven years ago in a small country town
by Mr. and Mrs. Somerset, of 'Littledene' fame, in
conjunction with the headmaster of the Feilding Agricul-
tural High School. Age, sex, and occupational statistics
indicate the type of people for whom the centre caters.
Its activities and the nature and scope of its relations
with the Feilding community are discussed at length.
Some twenty group studies have already been organised,
ranging from foreign languages and astronomy to mar-
riage-planning and the practical arts of spinning and
bee-keeping. Especially popular are the Family Film
Club, the Open Forum, Child Study, and the Drama
classes. Help in individual problems, a child guidance
clinic, a journal and extension lectures are a few of the
services the centre provides. It works in close co-
operation with all outside clubs and agencies. The
building and equipment, staff training, administration
and finance of future centres are discussed.
75. Social Studies Standing Committee of the
Schools Board, Victoria. Social Studies
for Schools. A Handbook for Teachers.
Melbourne University Press, 1945, pp. 8o.
Price 2s. 6d.
After stating the case for Social Studies, the handbook
deals with teaching methods and includes suggestions
for the organisation of excursions, classroom activity
methods, projects and workbooks. A short discussion
of sources of information and the use of current and
local material is illustrated by an account of a survey of
the city of Northcote, Victoria, carried out by the pupils
of Northcote High School. The Social Studies course
from primary to leaving standard is surveyed and two
sample courses presented, one planned by a Victorian
Girls' School, the other by the New South Wales
Education Department. Methods of testing, a sample
examination paper, and a list of reference books grouped
according to suitability, complete the book.
76. Department of Labour and National Service,
Industrial Training, Division: Hints on
Interviewing. Prepared by the A.C.E.R.
Technical Publication No. 17, July 1945,
Written for officers with little or no previous exper-
ience in personnel selection or vocational guidance. The
function of, and the successive steps in, the selection
interview are explained, with a brief description of some
of the psychological factors which enter into the inter-
view and usually determine its success or failure. There
are, in addition, 30 hints on interviewing condensed
from Bingham's reference book on the subject and 13
examples of common faults in interviewing.
77. Council of Public Education, Victoria:
Report on Educational Reform and Develop-
ment in Victoria. Government Printer,
Melbourne, 1945. pp. 42.
This consolidation of reports submitted to the
Minister includes discussions of present conditions, and
recommendations for State provision of pre-school
education, improved facilities in primary schools, im-
mediate thorough reorganisation of post-primary
courses ; with expansion of technical, adult, and rural
education. Sections deal with health and physical
education and the treatment of sex topics, the raising of
the leaving age to sixteen years, the payment of fees and
allowances, and the recruitment and training of teachers.
Significant divergence of views occurred on the place of
registered schools and of religion in education. The
sub-committee report on technical education is ap-
pended. In the foreword, the Director of Education
lists some measures already taken by the State to carry
out the recommendations.
78. Kirby, F. G. : Libraries in Secondary Schools.
Melbourne University Press, 1945, pp. 48.
Price Is. 6d.
The basis for this report was an analysis of 51 replies,
to a questionnaire sent to government and private schools
in Victoria. The questionnaire covered library accom-
modation and stocks, classification, cataloguing and
staffing. The findings of the Munn-Pitt report (1935)
are confirmed ; great diversity exists between library
facilities in state and private schools. Development has
been sporadic, and there is no clear-cut policy regarding
the organisation of school libraries. The fact that
many schools are dependent upon parents for main-
taining an educational service such as the school library,
is deplored, and the policy of the State of Louisiana on
school libraries contrasts sharply with that of Victoria.
The need for trained librarians in schools is emphasised
by the lack of technical knowledge revealed by answers
to the questionnaire. An analysis of each aspect of
organisation of the school library is made, and sugges-
tions for classification and cataloguing, accession lists
and general use of the library are made. The question-
naire is reproduced. Sample talks on the care of books,
general library organisation and a scheme for state school
libraries in Victoria are included, and reports on school
libraries in other states are summarized.
79. McRae, C. R. : Teaching at the University
Level, The Forum of Education, August
1945, pp. i-11.
A survey of many investigations into the relative
importance of teaching and research at the university
level shows that 'first class honours plus the spirit of
enquiry do not necessarily add up to a good teacher.'
In a study made by Luella Cole, factors such as pub-
lications, new degrees, and completion of research were
found to carry more weight than teaching skill in the
award of promotions. Opinions on good and poor
teaching are discussed and an American method of
measuring teaching efficiency by students' ratings is
described in some detail. Experimental evidence has
established the reliability of these ratings, and the in-
ference is that University teachers might well heed the
opinions of their students regarding their own skill,
and profit by them. There should be a higher regard
for teaching skill, and for research by University
teachers into the 'teaching of their subjects as well as
in their own specific subject fields.'
80. Passmore, J. A. : Talking Things Over.
Melbourne University Press, 1945, pp. 96.
Price Is. 6d.
A discussion of the technique for good discussions as
distinct from conversation, debate and disputation.
The dangers of coloured, vague and ambiguous language
are stressed, the commoner rules of argument are refor-
mulated, and sophistry and its devices exposed. The
group leader should act as the group's conscience, but,
'like conscience, he should estimate the value of his
work, not by the number of times [he has to] interfere,
but by the fact that it is less and less necessary for him
to interfere at all.'
81. Remington, G. C. and Metcalfe, J. : The
Free Library Movement-1935-1945. Aus-
tralian Quarterly, June 1945, pp. 87-97.
Before 1935 Australian libraries were wholly inade-
quate in number and in the services they offered. The
Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was becoming a
model of its kind, but the state libraries catered for
research rather than popular education, and in only one
case was any prominence given to technology. The old
'library institutes' in most suburbs and country towns
had degenerated into 'cemeteries of old and forgotten
books.' Free up-to-date local lending libraries were
almost non-existent. In 1935 Australian complacency
was shaken by the Munn-Pitt Report conducted under
the auspices of the Carnegie Corporation. The report
advocates free local libraries as an immediate necessity.
The Free Library Movement was formed in New South
Wales to carry out these proposals. Thirty-two met-
ropolitan and country councils have undertaken to
provide free libraries. A Library School, to train lib-
rarians from and for all states, opened in Sydney in
1939. Most of the other states, e.g. Tasmania, are
organising Free Library Movements on the New South
82. Water Supply and Hydro-Electric Power in
Cairns-Tully Regions. Report of Com-
mittee appointed by the Co-ordinator-General
of Public Works to formulate a water-supply
scheme for Cairns City and Mulgrave
Shire and Recommendation by Co-ordinator-
General. Q'ld. Government Printer, Bris-
bane, 1945, pp. 22.
The Committee estimates that twenty years hence
Cairns will require a water supply of 4,500,000 gallons
daily. The Freshwater Creek scheme, already inade-
quate, can supply only z,ooo,ooo gallons. After exam-
ining the relative merits of seven schemes for supplying
the additional 2,500,oo0 gallons, the Committee recom-
mends using the Behana Creek. A brief account is
given of the present electricity supply in the area, and
the need for additional generating capacity proved.
Eight proposals are investigated. Of these, the Tully
Falls scheme is recommended.
83. Artesian Water Supplies. First Interim
Report of Committee appointed by the
Queensland Government to investigate certain
aspects relating to the Great Artesian Basin
(Queensland Section) with particular refer-
ence to the problem of diminishing supply,
Government Printer, Brisbane, 1945, P.P.
AI of 1945, pp. 36.
The report presents information concerning the his-
torical development, geological structure and usefulness
of the Artesian Basin. It is demonstrated that, except
in local areas, the water is meteoric in origin. The
diminution of flow is explained. The drilling of a bore
permits a lessening of the distension of the aquifer,
producing an initial flush flow, which gradually sub-
sides to that which can be maintained by the head from
the intake beds. Appendices by technical officers
provide details of the geological and hydrological surveys.
84. Winterbottom, D. C. : Water, Australia's
Problem. Australian Geographer, June
1945, pp. 20-29.
The author discusses the possibilities for water con-
servation in Australia. Rainfall statistics are analysed
to emphasise the aridity of the continent. It is shown
that, in general, in South Australia, Western Australia
and the Northern Territory, low and seasonal rainfall
limits opportunities for water conservation. Schemes
may be developed in northern and eastern Queensland,
eastern New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania. The
river systems with which these schemes would be
associated are mentioned briefly. Other aspects of
water conservation considered are : preservation of
forests, reduction of loss by evaporation, economy in
the use and distribution of surface and artesian water.
85. Maze, Wilson H. : Settlement in the Eastern
Kimberleys, Western Australia. Australian
Geographer, June 1945, pp. 1-20.
A general description (with map) is given of the land
types of the whole region. This is followed by a detailed
examination of the landscape of the Ord River Valley.
The climatic problems, the present settlement and pros-
pects of future development in the eastern Kimberleys
are then discussed.
86. East, L. R. : The Millewa Problem : What
Can Pipelines Do ? State Rivers and Water
Supply Commission, Melbourne, 1945.
Demy 8vo, pp. 23.
Mr. East opens with a short account of the failure of
closer settlement in Millewa Country. This is followed
by particulars of the present water supply scheme.
The proposal to establish small irrigated fodder plots
on each farm is shown to be impracticable. Several
alternative proposals for replacing the present open
channel system by pipelines are next examined. The
expenditure might be justified if the land were recon-
verted to large grazing holdings. The substitution of
pipelines for channels would not increase the farmer's
income and would decrease employment in clearing
87. East, L. R.: Wimmera-Mallee Water Sup-
plies, Pipe Lines versus Channels. State
Rivers and Water Supply Commission,
Melbourne, 1945. Demy 8vo, pp. 20.
Mr. East demonstrates that the costs of pipe lines for
irrigating fodder plots throughout the area would be
fantastically high. He then provides some details of
alternative proposals for pipeline systems for stock and
domestic supply only. The annual charges for depre-
ciation on the capital cost (4,500oo,ooo) of the cheapest
scheme would be greater than the present costs for
channel clearing, and farmers would still receive about
the same quantity of water. The water saved (by
reduction of seepage, etc.) would only irrigate 15,ooo-
2o,000 acres near the headworks. It would be better
to replace channels by short lengths of pipe where
drift is particularly bad and encourage soil conservation.
88. Thomas, R. G. : Wind Erosion in The Mallee.
Soil Conservation Board, Leaflet No. 5.
Crown 4to, pp. I.
This leaflet treats wind erosion under three headings :
i Incidence of erosion. In the Southern Mallee,
erosion is a major problem only in drought years
and can be met by emergency methods. In the
northern Mallee, it is a permanent problem.
ii Causes of erosion. Emphasises the need for main-
taining adequate vegetation cover, and enumerates
tillage practices and other factors contributing to
iii Remedial measures. Discussed under two head-
(a) Land capable of normal cultivation-suggests
modifications of methods of cultivation.
(b) Land already badly eroded-suggestions for
re-establishing vegetation cover.
89. Mineral Resources of Australia. Report
No. I: Zirconium. Report No. 2: Titanium,
Rutile and Ilmenite. By H. G. Raggatt and
P. B.. Nye. Revised by N. H. Fisher.
Government Printer, Canberra, 1945.
Demy 8vo, pp. 16 and 21 resp.
Australia is the world's leading producer of zircon and
rutile, which is being obtained from beach sand deposits
on the eastern coast. Except for a very small local
consumption the whole output is available for export.
The overseas market in zircon is at present over-supplied,
though demand may increase when war-time restrictions
on the ceramic industry in U.S. are lifted. Ilmenite is
for the most part unsaleable because it contains a small
percentage of chromium. The demand for rutile from
the U.S. and U.K. is sufficient to maintain all plants
operating at full capacity. The reports give all details
of the sources of production in Australia, the firms in-
volved, the buyers and prices, oversea trade and domestic
consumption, and are accompanied by statistics and
90. Department of Mines, Victoria. Annual
Report, including Gold and Mineral Statis-
tics and Boring Records, for the year 1944.
Government Printer, Melbourne, 1945,
Gold mining operations throughout Victoria have
been very seriously restricted since 1942. Production
for 1944 was 54,086 fine ozs. the lowest yield for the
State since 1932. Every effort is being made to make
Victoria independent of outside sources of supply of coal.
At Lakes Entrance good progress is still being made
with the sinking of the shaft for the development of
oil deposits. Various tables of statistical information
in regard to the mining industry are appended, together
with a statement (accompanied by plans) showing the
boring work carried out during the year by the Depart-
91. Carroll, Dorothy : Census of Western Aus-
tralian Minerals. W.A. Dept. of Mines.
Mineral Resources of W.A. Bulletin No. i.
Government Printer, Perth, 1945. Demy
8vo, pp. 72.
This is a list of Western Australian minerals and the
localities in which they occur. It is fairly complete to
the end of 1943. The minerals are listed alphabetically,
and the places at which each has been recorded are
localised in the areas into which the State has been
divided as shown on an accompanying map. It is
proposed to make supplementary lists of mineral records
from time to time.
92. Gardner, A. J. A. : Aspect of Dicey's Essen-
tial Condition of Federalism. Historical
Studies, Australia and New Zealand, July
1945, PP- 95-110.
This article is an examination of Dicey's thesis that
the essential condition for a federal state is a desire for
union but not unity. The inadequacy of Dicey's
definition is demonstrated by examining the federal
movement in Australia and the United States of America.
The reasons for desiring a political union in both coun-
tries and the interests opposing a unitary state are re-
viewed. The writer has made use of material in C. D.
Allin : The Early Federation Movement of Australia;
E. Jenks: The Government of Victoria; B. Fitz-
patrick: The British Empire in Australia; and the
Federal Convention Debates.
93. Kiddle, Margaret: Caroline Chisholm and
Charles Dickens. Historical Studies, Aus-
tralia and New Zealand, July 1945, pp.
After transportation ceased there was a demand for
labour in New South Wales which could only be supplied
by free immigration. The bad conditions in England
encouraged emigration to North America, but so little
was known of Australia that comparatively few immig-
rants came to the colony.
With the object of popularizing emigration to Aus-
tralia Caroline Chisholm returned to England in 1846.
Two years later the influence of her work and that of
Dr. John Dunmore Lang was indicated by a quickening
of interest in the colony. In 185o, Mrs. Chisholm
founded the Family Colonization Loan Society to help
those with small savings to emigrate, and Charles
Dickens, whose interest in Australia had been kindled
by her activities, gave this society publicity in his
periodical 'Household Words.' He continued a success-
ful campaign in favour of Mrs. Chisholm's work until
after the discovery of gold in Victoria.
94. Cubis, D. E. M. : A Great Australian
Administrator-Sir Hubert Murray. Royal
Australian Historical Society, Journal and
Proceedings, 1945, pp. 133-153.
Sir Hubert Murray (born 1861 ; educated at London
and Oxford Universities ; called to the Bar in 1886;
later Crown Prosecutor of New South Wales ; served
in South Africa, 1900-oz) became Chief Judicial Officer
of British New Guinea in 1904, Administrator of Papua
in 1907, and Lieut-Governor in 1908. A man of broad
vision and progressive ideas, he was substantially in
control of the Territory, though he was assisted by an
Executive and a Legislative Council. His task was
difficult especially in view of the backwardness of the
native inhabitants, the absence of any large-scale tribal
units through which control could be exercised and the
constant feuds between such units as did exist. Murray
sought to bring order to the Territory, not by punitive
expeditions directed against whole villages, but by
seeking the individuals responsible for disturbances. By
means of appointing natives as Village Councillors, he
was able to make plain the good intentions of the
Government to the native subjects. He sought also to
safeguard natives in the possession of their land and he
attempted to prevent undue depletion of the labour
supply. Force as a means of driving natives into
European employ was not permitted, and the indenture
system, though not desirable as a permanent institution,
was shorn of all possible injustices. His general aim
was not to make the natives merely labourers for
Europeans, or to turn them into third-rate whites, but to
train them as cultivators of their own land.
95. O'Brien, Eris: Maturity in Australian
Historical Scholarship. The work of Mr.
Justice J. A. Ferguson. Royal Australian
Historical Society: Journal and Proceed-
ings, vol. XXXI, part III. Sydney, 1945.
Ferguson's Bibliography of Australia (vol. I, 1784-
1830; vol. II, 1831-1838) is, outside the Historical
Records of Australia, perhaps the most useful com-
pilation that has come from Australian historical scholar-
ship. It shows a ripening of historical studies in Aus-
tralia. The two volumes specify about 4,000 items
relative to Australia and published between 1784 and
1838. They record an industrious zeal in writing which
began with the foundation of the Australian settlement.
Qualitatively also, a natural development of Australian
historical scholarship which from the beginning has in
in many cases been characterized by research. But it is
the contemporary period which is the scientific period
of Australian historical writing. The emphasis of
professional work has come to be on the writing of
history as an exact science. The popular historians
who summarize the work of others also show greater
care and wider reading. Magazine and newspaper
reviewing lags behind such standards. Until recent
times the art of historical criticism has never been
seriously undertaken. But reviews by such men as
Professor F. L. W. Wood and Dr. C. H. Currey in
Historical Studies have the quality of overseas reviews.
Dr. O'Brien advocates more attention to historical
criticism. The rest of the article reviews more speci-
fically the bibliography which is its occasion.
96. Murphy, B. Buller: People in Glass Houses
Should not Throw Stones. Australian
Law Journal, Sept. 1945, pp. 138-143.
This article deals with a technical problem, but one
that is very important from the sociological point of
view. It is a general principle of British justice that
evidence of the bad character of an accused cannot be
placed before the jury, as this may lead to conviction
when the evidence of the commission of the crime is
not sufficiently strong. There is, however, an exception
to this rule-the Crown may introduce evidence of
character if the prisoner attempts to show his own good
character or the nature and conduct of his defence is
such as to involve imputations on the character of the
prosecutor or the witnesses for the prosecution. This
section has been discussed in many cases. In Curwood
v. The King  Argus Law Reports 25, the prisoner
was tried for carnally knowing a girl. He had confessed
to the offence, but at the trial gave evidence that the
confession had been extorted by threats and violence.
The majority of the High Court held that his evidence
that the police had used violence was an attack on the
character of the witnesses for the prosecution and there-
fore that the prisoner's past record was admissible. As
a result an innocent citizen with a conviction may be
wrongly charged with a subsequent offence, battered
by policemen into .providing the only evidence against
himself in a written confession and then suffer the
grievous detriment of having his prior conviction ex-
posed as a penalty for asserting that the confession was
extracted by violence.
97. Phillips, P. D. : Recasting Workers' Com-
pensation. Australia Law Journal, August
1945, pp. 62-66.
This article discusses the social insurance plans of
the British Government and considers their applica-
bility to this country. From this angle the most dis-
tinctive features would appear to be :
(a) the abolition of the legal conception of a duty
imposed upon the employer and a corresponding
right in the employee enforceable by litigation;
(b) the introduction of administrative determination
of the right to benefit;
(c) the abolition of compensation varying with pre-
accident earnings or post-accident economic
capacity as distinct from medical or physical
(d) unlimited pension total during disablement and
irreducible pension (total or partial) even after
resumption of work; and
(e) the retention of the traditional expression of the
compensable accident 'arising out of and in the
course of the employment.'
This series of definite and in some respects revolutionary
principles is critically discussed.
The source of the funds which would be used to pay
benefits in Australia is not a matter of fundamental
economic importance-though without doubt it would
form the almost inevitable 'hot spot' of political con-
troversy. ... In a community already used to compulsory
insurance there seems no reason why the necessary
fund should not be built up by an assessment upon the
wage bill .. There is something to be said, however,
for imposing a portion of the burden upon the income
receiving groups of the community who are not engaged
in industry, and even the higher wage earning brackets
who contribute to income tax. This might suggest
that the costs of administration should be borne by the