THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY
FOUNDED BY JAMES LOEB. LL.D.
tT. E. PAGE, c.H., LITr.n.
E. CAPPS, PH.D., LL.D W. H. D. ROUSE, rITT.D.
MEMORABILIA AND OECONOMICUS
MEMORABILIA AND OECONOMICUS
WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY
E. C. MERCHANT
SUB-RECTOR OF LINCOLN COLLEGE, OXFORD
HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS
WILLIAM HEINEMANN LTD
--% 7 t'-
First printed 1923
Printed in Great Britain
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INTRODUCTION . . .
MEMORABILIA . . .
OECONOMICUS . . .
INDEX TO MEMORABILIA
INDEX TO OECONOMICUS
. . . . vii
. . . . . 3
. . . . . 363
. . . . . 527
. . . . . 531
Note on the Titles: (a) The Memorabilia.
THE title by which this work is familiarly known
to us, dates only from 1569, when Johann Lenklau
prefixed it to the Latin version that accompanied his
great edition of Xenophon's works. Before that
time scholars had commonly used the Greek title
Apomnemoneumnala, i.e. Memoirs, or the awkward
description De factis et dictis Socratis memoratu dignis.
The correct Latin equivalent of the Greek name is
Commentarii, which, in fact, occurs in the description
of the book given by Aulus Gellius (XIV. iii.), viz.
libri quos dictorum et factorum Socratis commentaries
The Greek title itself is not altogether satisfactory;
for in reality the Memorabilia consists of four separate
parts, which were certainly not all composed at the
same time, and to the first of these parts the title
does not apply.
(b) The Oeconomicus.
In many respects," writes Cicero in a well-known
passage of the de Senectute, "Xenophon's works are
very useful. How eloquently he praises agriculture
in his book entitled Oeconomicus, which deals with
the care of one's property." Philodemus and Galen
refer to the book as the Oeconomica. The ancients
certainly did not suppose that the title meant the
Economist or Householder, but understood it to denote
exactly what Cicero's words suggest-a Discourse on
Estate Management. The same holds good mutatis
mutandis of the titles Hipparchicus and Cynegeticus.
The first part of the Memorabilia, which is con-
fined to the first two chapters of the First Book,1
is a Defence of Socrates, who had been tried and
condemned to death on a charge of "impiety," in
the spring of 399 B.c. At the time of the trial
Xenophon was absent in Asia. No speech delivered
by any one of the three prosecutors-Anytus, Meletus
and Lycon-had been published, and Xenophon in
consequence is only able to give the gist, not the
exact form, of the indictment (I. i. 1), which had
been drawn by Meletus. His reply to this indict-
ment extends to the eighth section of the second
At this point a surprise is in store for the reader.
For in the next sentence (I. ii. 9) Xenophon suddenly
refers to "the prosecutor" in the singular, and
proceeds to combat a series of accusations that he had
brought. This prosecutor" had charged against
Socrates: (1) that he encouraged his companions to
despise the laws (ii. 9); (2) that Critias and Alcibiades,
who had done great evil to the state, were his associ-
ates (ii. 12); (3) that he taught young men to despise
their fathers and their other relations, and to be
false to their friends (ii. 49); (4) that he encouraged
unscrupulous conduct and an anti-democratic spirit
by the use he made of the poets (ii. 56).
Xenophon at first sight appears to be replying here
1 The absurd division into books and chapters is, of
course, not due to Xenophon himself.
to a speech actually delivered for the prosecution.
But, as we have just seen, this cannot be the case.
To whom, then, and to what is he replying? The
correct solution of this problem was first given by
Cobet, and it has been supported by a series of
indisputable proofs by several subsequent scholars.
The man Socrates had died in 399 B.c., and had left
nothing written. But his ardent and gifted disciples
-especially Antisthenes, a fanatical admirer, and a
little later Plato-very soon began to publish works
about Socrates, especially dialogues in which Socrates
appeared as the chief interlocutor. One of these
earlier Socratic works is, of course, the Apology of
Plato. And so it came about that a literary Socrates
grew into being-a figure that retained much, doubt-
less, of the historical man, but was not identical with
him, and might be variously represented by the
different authors, and even by the same author in
This cult of Socrates actually provoked opposi-
tion. For shortly after the year 393 B.c. a well-
known "sophist" named Polycrates published an
attack on his memory, throwing his attack into the
form of an imaginary speech delivered by one of the
three prosecutors, Anytus, at the trial. In after
ages a belief not unnaturally grew up that Anytus
had actually employed this man, Polycrates, to
write his speech for the prosecution. In reality
the "Accusation of Socrates written by Polycrates
was nothing more than a literary exercise, based no
doubt on reminiscences of the trial, but strongly
coloured by the writer's own views. Xenophon was
now living in exile at Scillus near Olympia; and
there he must have read the work of Polycrates. He
resolved to compose a reply, traversing the accusation
step by step.1 The prosecutor then, is Polycrates,
or rather Polycrates masquerading as Anytus.
Xenophon's Defence of Socrates, therefore (occupy-
ing Book I. i. and ii.), has a double purpose. It
is intended, first, to be an answer to the actual
indictment, so far as Xenophon was aware of
its terms; and, secondly, to refute the attack of
Polycrates on the memory of the martyred Socrates.
As for the substance of the Defence, we note that
although Plato's Apology was certainly written
already, Xenophon has not drawn upon it. In
fact, throughout these two chapters there are
no trustworthy indications that he has laid any of
Plato's published work under contribution. At
I. ii. 20, indeed, Xenophon quotes in support of
his arguments two passages from the poets that
are in the Meno and the Protagoras of Plato, but
it would be absurd to suppose that he went to
Plato for two commonplace passages that would be
familiar to every educated Athenian. In one passage
(I. ii. 10) Xenophon expresses an opinion that is
known to have been maintained by Antisthenes; in
another (I. ii. 19) he combats that Cynic's doctrine of
the permanence of Virtue. In neither place is he
professing to report the views of Socrates; and even
if it is safe to conclude from these two instances that
he had consulted the works of Antisthenes, there
is, so far as can be ascertained, no trace in the
Defence that he borrowed such knowledge as he
shows of Socrates from Antisthenes. The most
likely inference from these negative facts is that
1 In after ages another rejoinder was written to Polycrates
by Libanius (fourth century A.D.), from whose Defence a
good deal more can be learned about the lost Accusation
he incorporated only such knowledge of Socrates
as he had gained himself by intercourse with
the Master. This knowledge, to be sure, is
superficial, and does not point to a close intimacy.
On the other hand, since Xenophon is concerned
only to rebut the specific charges brought by the
prosecutors and by Polycrates, we are scarcely
entitled to assume that he has told us all that he
really knew about Socrates in these two chapters.
The Socratic literature rapidly grew in bulk.
Antisthenes, who developed the Cynic system out
of the teaching of Socrates, was probably the first to
write "Socratic dialogues. Plato, a much younger
man, soon entered the field in sharp opposition to
the Cynic. And others tried their hand. It seems
that somewhere about the year 385 B.c., Xenophon,
who had perhaps now read what Plato had so far
published, and had certainly pondered on the works
of Antisthenes and assimilated much of his doctrine,
decided to compose a series of memoirs and dialogues
as illustrations of his Defence of Socrates." These
illustrations cover the remainder of the First (I. iii.
onwards) and the whole of the Second Book of the
Memorabilia. "I propose to show," he says (I. iii.
1), "how Socrates helped his companions both by
his deeds and his words: and, in order to do so, I
shall relate all that I remember about them."
Though he makes no reference here to his earlier
work, he follows its arrangement closely. He first
gives details to prove that Socrates accepted the gods
of the state (I. iii. 1-4). Then he insists on the moral
tendency of the conduct and teachings of Socrates
(5-15); and here he recalls an outspoken conversa-
tion between the Master and himself about love.
It is the only conversation in the collection in which
Xenophon himself takes part. Having proceeded
thus far, he suddenly modifies his plan; and writes
a new and controversial introduction to a complete
series of dialogues, dealing again with the two
topics already handled-the piety and the morality
of Socrates-before proceeding to illustrate his
third topic. He says no more about the actions of
Socrates; and the reason presumably is, that he was
conscious that he could not add anything new to
what he had already said in the Defence, little as
that was. At any rate, it is noteworthy that, having
undertaken to tell all that he remembers about the
helpful deeds of Socrates, he has after all told us
so very little, but has in the main confined himself
to the conversations.
It will be convenient to have a list of the ensuing
topics side by side with the corresponding passages
of the Defence :
1. I. iv., On Piety : I. i. 2-19.
2. I. v.-vi. 10, On Self-discipline: I. ii. 1-5.
3. I. vi. 11-14, On Taking Fees: I. ii. 5-8.
4. I. vi. 15-II. 1., On Obedience to the Laws and
Seirice to the State : I. ii. 9-48.
5. II. ii., On The Duty of Children to Parents:
I. ii. 49-50.
6. II, iii., On The Relations between Brothers:
I. ii. 51.
7. II. iv.-vii., On The Treatment of Friends and
Relations: I. ii. 52-55.
8. II. viii.-x., On Socrates as Philanthropist:
I. ii. 56-61.
Xenophon's statement that he himself "heard"
these conversations is a mere literary device. Some
of them may quite possibly be based on actual
recollection. But others are almost certainly pure
invention. Who could suppose, for instance, that
Socrates lectured his son on his duty to his mother
(II. ii.), or urged Chaerecrates to make up a quarrel
with his brother (II. iii.), while a third person,
Xenophon, stood by silent, storing up all that good
advice in a capacious memory ? The supposition
of Mr. Dakyns that such conversations were
repeated to Xenophon by Lamprocles, Chaerecrates
and others is very unlikely, unless we could imagine
that Xenophon went about Athens gathering reports
of Socrates' conversations before he left for Asia,
and when as yet he had no notion that he would
ever come to write Socratic memoirs. The opening
conversation of the collection, that on Piety (I. iv.),
probably owes much to the study of Antisthenes
The chapters on the education of the Ruler (II. i.)
and on the proper relations between parents and
children, brothers, relatives and friends, contain
much that we associate with Xenophon himself
rather than with Socrates; and it is difficult to
imagine Socrates declaiming to Aristippus a long
passage from a work of Prodicus which was often
part of its author's own programmes (II. i. 21).
Does Xenophon owe anything to Plato in this
part of the Memorabilia ? The question hardly
admits of a confident answer. The passage about
the Kingly Art" and "Happiness" in II. i. 17
bears a close resemblance to a sentence in the
Eutihydemts of Plato (p. 291 b). But we know that
the Kingly Art" was a commonplace with
Antisthenes, as may be seen from some words put
into his mouth in Xenophon's Banquet (iv. 6).
Again, the opening words of I. vi. 14 strongly
suggest a passage in Plato's Lysis (p. 211 d).
But a similar sentiment is attributed to Socrates by
Epictetus (III. v. 14) and reappears in Dio Chrysostom
(III. 128), and as both these authors borrow largely
from Cynic sources, the common source of all four
passages may possibly be Antisthenes again, though
it certainly looks as if Xenophon here had borrowed
/from Plato, so close is the correspondence.
However that may be, we have here a series of
imaginary conversations to which Xenophon's study
of the Socratic literature has contributed not a little.
But no doubt many of his reflections are really based
on his recollection of Socrates himself. There is no
proof in them, however, that Xenophon had really
been one of his intimate companions, and indeed he
nowhere makes any such claim. These remarks
apply equally to the Collections which make up the
Third and the Fourth Books.
The Third Book of the Memorabilia, which
consists of miscellaneous dialogues loosely strung
together, and an appendix of aphrisms, clearly
forms yet another separate work: The -frst seven
chapters are linked together by a common subject-
the civil and military service of the state. But
at the eighth chapter the writer passes abruptly
to the relation of a dialectical encounter between
Socrates and Aristippus the Cyrenaic, on the
identity of the Beautiful and the Useful, and
appends to it a discourse of Socrates on the same
theme. Next we come on a series of definitions.
definitions in the ninth chapter are not alien to
Socrates; but it may be that Xenophon drew them
from the works of Antisthenes, whose opinions are
known to have coincided with those expressed in
We may fairly accept as historical the explicit
declaration in the Defence (I. ii. 4) that Socrates
attached importance to physical culture. In the
Dialogues of Plato, so far as I recollect, he does not
display much real interest in the physical exercises of
the wrestling-ground and the gymnasium; at any
rate his chief interest is clearly in other matters
when he enters those places. But in the Republic
Plato on his part fully recognizes the value of
"gymnastic" in education, and indeed builds up in
his own way a complete theory of the subject.
The germs of this theory may very well have come
from Socrates himself. If that is true, then just
as Plato develops the opinions of Socrates in his
way, so Xenophon in the twelfth chapter of this
book colours the same opinions with notions of
his own, drawn from his experience in Asia, his
admiration of Spartan institutions, and very likely,
from his study of Antisthenes.
Lastly, what are we to say of the dispute with
Aristippus about the Good and the Beautiful (c.
viii.)? The truth of the account that Xenophon
gives of Socrates' views on this matter must clearly
be rejected if we suppose that Plato derived from
Socrates himself the theory of eternal, unchang-
ing Ideas or Forms of Goodness and Beauty; for,
according to the Socrates of Xenophon nothing is
good, beautiful or useful in itself, but only in relation
to something. But it is, to say the least, exceed-
ingly doubtful whether Socrates is responsible for
Then follow other conversations on detached topics.
The aphorisms that fill the last two chapters are
concerned with very small things: and they are quite
in the Cynic manner. The talk between Socrates
and the younger Pericles (c. v.) may really have
occurred in the year 411 B.C. ; but the ambitions of
Thebes are alluded to in a manner that suggests the
period of the Theban Supremacy, the years following
the battle of Leuctra (fought in 371 B.C.), as the time
of composition, and there is a suspiciously Xenophon-
tine ring in the allusions of Pericles to the excellence
of the Spartan institutions (v. 15-16).
The fact is, the whole of the subjects dealt with in
the first seven chapters of this Third Book are just
those in which Xenophon, the old campaigner and
worshipper of efficiency, took a special interest.
Ten passages in the conversations on the duties and
qualifications of commanders are repeated from the
Cyropaedia; and here and there the author of the
Anabasis and the Hipparchicus reveals himself pretty
Nevertheless, the spirit of these dialogues, with
their insistence pn Knowledge as the only sure basis
of efficiency, is genuinely Socratic. Nor does the
rest of the Third Book, from c. viii. onwards,
contain anything inconsistent with the Socrates of
Plato's early dialogues. Thus the cross-examina-
tion of the artists in the tenth chapter is entirely
in keeping with the Platonic Socrates, whose habit
it is to appose all sorts and conditions of men
respecting their special work. The amusing inter-
view with Theodot6, the courtesan, is surprising in
its context. The intention of it, apparently, is to
show Socrates in a lighter vein, in the mood that
we associate with the persiflage of a Banquet. The
the "Theory of Forms or Ideas," which makes no
appearance in the early Dialogues of Plato. The
doctrine of the Xenophontine Socrates is that all
things Good and Beautiful must contribute to the
advantage or enjoyment of man: nothing is Good
but what is Useful for the particular purpose for
which it is intended. The very same doctrine is
propounded by Socrates in the Greater Hippias
(rightly or wrongly attributed to Plato), but on
examination is rejected by him as untenable. But
Plato in the Gorgias makes Socrates declare that a
thing is Beautiful because it is pleasant or useful or
both; and the doctrine is unchallenged. Lastly, there
is a passage of similar import in the First Alcibiades.
If the Greater Hippias was really written by Plato,
it must be later in date than the Gorgias, but earlier
than the Third Book of the Memorabilia; and
Xenophon, assuming that he had read it, has tacitly
implied that the views of Socrates are not correctly
represented there. Whence did he derive his know-
ledge ? If not from the Gorgias, it is very significant
that his exposition agrees with what Plato puts into
the mouth of Socrates in that Dialogue.
We pass now to the Fourth Book. In the noble
and impassioned peroration with which this book
concludes, the virtues of Socrates are summed
up. Socrates was pious, just, self-controlled and
wise : he was masterly in exposition and defini-
tion, in refuting error and exhorting to goodness.
This concluding sentence is clearly a summary of
the contents of this Fourth Book in the form
in which it has come down to us; and it is
in itself a sufficient refutation of the widely held
opinion that large portions of the Fourth Book are
spurious. The peroration applies only to this last
book; at any rate it contains no reference to many of
the topics that have been dealt with in the preceding
portions of the collection, whereas it entirely covers
the topics of the last. The natural inference is that
the Fourth Book is yet another independent work.
This inference gains strong support from the actual
contents of the book. The subject throughout is
Education. Many topics already treated recur with-
out any indication given that they have already been
discussed. The style too differs to some extent from
that of the preceding parts, in that it is somewhat
fuller and more elaborate. The matter is arranged
in an orderly fashion, in striking contrast with the
desultory miscellany that makes up the latter part of
the preceding book. Most of the conversations (c. ii.,
iii., v., vi.) are carried on with Euthydemus, a hand-
some, bookish and self-confident young man, eager
to distinguish himself "in speech and action." The
first of these conversations with the youth shows how
Socrates convinced young men like Euthydemus
that their essential need was to get real education.
Next we are introduced to something like a com-
plete system of Socratic education. The first
object of Socrates was to make his followers
"'prudent," i. e. to train the character. Training in
power to "speak and act" came after training of
character, and it turns out presently that Socrates
put speech and action in the inverse order of
importance; and, moreover, held that sound action
could come only from one who was master of him-
self. Competence in "speech" depended on power
to reason and to define correctly.
We have seen that Euthydemus hoped to excel in
"speech and action." Socrates brings him to see
that the right way to attain the goal of his ambition
is first to learn Prudence, then to realize what is the
only sure foundation of right action, and lastly to
study the laws of sound reasoning.
We should certainly have expected that through-
out the book Socrates would have been represented
as addressing himself to Euthydemus, and to none
other. But this is, in fact, not the case. The
fourth chapter contains an argument on Justice. If
we regard the subject with which it deals, it is quite
in place where it stands; but it is strange to find
the series of hortatory discourses interrupted by
an argument addressed to Hippias, the "sophist," on
the identity of Law and Justice. Moreover, in the
opening sentence of the seventh chapter Xenophon
apparently disregards this argument with Hippias;
and yet it is clear from the wording of the peroration,
which is in exact correspondence with the topics of
the discourses, that he had, when he wrote it, dealt
with the topic of Justice.
All the conditions will be satisfied if we suppose
that when he had written the fourth chapter down
to the point where he was to relate what Socrates
said about Justice by means of a dialogue (iv. 5), he
incorporated this argument between Socrates and
Hippias, which he had composed at some previous
time, instead of writing a new dialogue in conformity
with the others.
The talk with Hippias is in itself remarkable.
For it represents Socrates as identifying Law and
Justice. We have read in the Defence of Socrates
(I. ii. 9) that Polycrates charged him with "despising
the established laws," and we find that Xenophon
there really makes no reply to that charge. Socrates,
of course, insisted on obedience to the laws and
held that "it was just to do what the laws ordain ;1
but that is a very different thing from saying that
he thought the laws to be the embodiment of Justice.
This latter opinion runs counter to the whole trend
of the Gorgias of Plato, and is indeed not wholly
consistent with what Socrates says in other parts of
the Memorabilia. Plato's work may well have seemed
to Xenophon to lend countenance to the very charge
that he had failed to rebut in his own earlier work;
and because Plato had written so, he may have felt it
incumbent on him to come forward with an answer.
He found a convenient place for its insertion here.
It is really unconvincing as an exposition of Socrates'
views on Justice, and the concluding sentence of
the chapter does not square with it.
The fifth chapter brings us to that "efficiency
in speech and action" coveted by such men as
Euthydemus, and it turns out that Socrates put
"action" before" speech." The secret and essential
condition of efficiency in action was Prudence or
Self-control.2 The curious passage appended to
this conversation, in which "sound reasoning," by a
fanciful derivation, is declared to mean sorting
things out, and choosing what is right and reject-
ing what is wrong in speech and action," looks like
a genuine, but rather crude, reminiscence of some-
thing actually said by Socrates, who was fond of
As for "efficiency in speech," that is arrived at by
SCompare IV. vi. 5-6, where the question, "Is what
the laws order necessarily just ?" is entirely shirked.
2 As a matter of convenience I have consistently rendered
aw-oppoZln;L "prudence" in the translation.
mastering the art of Reasoning; and the art of Reason-
ing depends on correct definition of terms. Accord-
ingly, in the sixth chapter we have a series of
definitions. Some of these overlap the definitions
contained in the ninth chapter of the Third Book;
but, as the Fourth Book is independent of the
Third, the omission of all reference to the earlier
passage need not c-.use surprise. There is much
in this sixth chapter that certainly reflects the
opinions of the historical Socrates; but, as usual,
the manner in which they are reflected is unmis-
takably Xenophontine. It is strange that there is
nothing about Pleasure and its relation to the Good
and Beautiful, seeing that this problem is handled
by Plato already in the Protagoras and Gorgias,
which dialogues belong to his earlier or "Socratic"
stage, and of which Xenophon certainly takes
account in his Fourth Book. One cannot but
suspect that, in thus ignoring the problem of
Pleasure, Xenophon was influenced by the works
of Antisthenes. The speculations on Pleasure
attributed to Socrates by Plato were, no doubt,
much too subtle for Xenophon, and they were,
outwardly at least, inconsistent. It was wiser for
a plain man to pass them by.
The superficial account of Socratic induction and
assumption, or "hypothesis," with which the sixth
chapter concludes ( 13-15) has raised a sharp dispute
as to the sources of Xenopj hon'snformaion. Is all
this derived from Socrates himself, or is it gleaned
from the Phaedo and, possibly, other dialogues of
Plato? The question admits of no certain answer.
But if we assume that the information really comes
from certain dialogues of Plato, then it is surely
strange that Xenophon selected just this one point,
"hypothesis," from them, and ignored other theories
-for instance, Knowledge as Recollection and the
doctrine of Forms-that Plato in those same dialogues
attributes, truly or falsely, to Socrates.
In the seventh chapter we come to mathematics
and astronomy, and the views of Socrates thereon.
We are told that he recommended the study of
them for practical purposes only-just so far as they
were "useful." What Xenophon says is not incon-
sistent with the earlier Socrates of Plato, and can be
brought into harmony with the Clouds of Aristo-
phanes and, even with Plato's Phaedo. It is, on the
other hand, wholly inconsistent with the system of
education that Socrates is made to recommend for
the Guardians in the Republic of Plato. The very
uncomplimentary reference to Anaxagoras (IV. vii. 6)
is thought by some to be based on a famous passage
of the Phaedo, in which Socrates expresses dis-
appointment with the Anaxagorean theory of the
classification of Matter by Mind. But it is difficult
to think that Xenophon could have justified to
himself the taunt he attributes to Socrates by the
regretful complaint of the Platonic Socrates, or even
that he was capable of building this insult on so
slender a substructure.
In the sentence that immediately follows this
passage about the sciences, Xenophon refers to the
importance that Socrates attached to divination ( 10).
Then he argues that the belief in "the divine
voice "-the belief that gave rise to the charge of in-
troducing strange gods-was no delusion, and finally
launches out into a noble description of the attitude
of Socrates towards his trial and condemnation. The
total effect of this epilogue is not greatly marred by
one serious blemish it exhibits-the series of futile
questions,' so characteristic of our author at his
worst, in the third section of the last chapter.
Although this Fourth Book was written generation
after the death of Socrates, the tone of the peroration
is still controversial. The object of Xenophon through-
out the book is to prove that the system of education
inculcated by Socrates was the best possible; that
Socrates was himself the embodiment of that system,
and was therefore the pattern of a good and happy
man. Clearly there were many still who maintained
that the infamous Critias 2 had been trained by
Socrates, and that this fact was enough to condemn
the system. Nor can it escape notice that the
depreciation of the higher mathematics and other
sciences in the seventh chapter, and the sharp
limitation of scientific studies by Socrates in the
training of himself that is implied in the peroration,3
are argumentative. Evidently, even after so long
a time, controversy about Socrates had not been
silenced, and there was still something to be done
for his memory by an ardent believer.
The chronological relationship of the Oeconomicus
to Xenophon's other Socratic writings cannot be
1 Similar questions, in which the obvious is put in the
form of a conundrum, are often attributed to Socrates by
Xenophon. They are, of course, invariably the product of
Xenophon's own mind.
2 Aeschines, against Timarchus, 173.
The passage in the peroration referring to chapter seven
i., So wise that he was unerring in his judgment of the
better and the worse and needed no counsellor, but relied on
himself for his knowledge of them."
established with confidence. Certain linguistic indi-
cations point to a date earlier than the Memorabilia;
but the tone of the work, calm and detached from
controversy, strongly suggests that it was at least
put into its final shape after the so-called Fourth
Book of that work was written. The thoughts and
reflections, whether put into the mouth of Socrates
or Ischomachus, are so entirely Xenophon's own
that we may wonder why he did not frankly produce
a treatise on the management of an estate instead of
a Socratic dialogue. And it is evident that he found
the dialogue form which he selected inconvenient.
Socrates by this time was clearly a literary figure, and
almost any amount of freedom might be taken with his
name. But at least some measure of verisimilitude
must be kept up; and to represent Socrates, the
wandering philosopher, as a landowner, an authority
on household craft, land development and agri-
culture, devoted to his home, would carry the author
too far away from the truth. An ingenious com-
promise suggested itself. What was impossible in
the mouth of Socrates might be put into the mouth
of another, and reported by Socrates. But this
other person must be a man of standing and of
mature years, and therefore could not be Xenophon
himself, who had no established position during the
life of Socrates. Hence Ischomachus. According
to Plutarch this worthy but self-complacent gentle-
man is a historic personage; but little credence
attaches to the kind of story that he tells. Any-
how, Ischomachus, as he appears in this book, is
quite clearly Xenophon-Xenophon home from the
wars, living happily and prosperously on his own
estate at Scillus.
The beginning and end of the Oeconomicus are as
abrupt as the end of Borrow's Lavengro and the
beginning of The Romany Rye. Even tie name of
Socrates is not given in the first few sentences : he
is referred to as if he had been already mentioned;
and there is no epilogue. But of course this does
not show, as Galen supposed, that we have here a
continuation of the Memorabilia, intended to follow
on the Fourth Book. The second portion of the
Memorabilia ends (II. x.) and the third portion
opens (III. i.) and ends (III. xiv.) with similar
abruptness. We may group the Oeconomicus with
these miscellaneous dialogues, doubtless not all com-
posed at the same time, that make up the Third
Book of the Memorabilia. The plan of the work is
curious, for the first six chapters form a lengthy pre-
amble to the reported conversation with Ischomachus.
The work must of course not be judged as though it
were complete treatise on Estate Management, indoor
and outdoor. That is precisely what Xenophon has
not chosen to write. The practical value, therefore,
of the teaching is not anything like so great as that of
the treatise On Horsemanship. But so far as it goes,
the teaching is sound--for it is not certain that
Xenophon believed that straw added to the manurial
value, as well as to the bulk, of our old friends from
farmyard and stable.1
The abiding interest of the book, however, lies
less in the edification it offers and in its literAry
merit (which is not great), than in the light
that it sheds on Xenophon's intimate life, his
tastes and pursuits. Readers will differ in their
opinion of that paragon Ischomachus." None
will object to his having his boots and his pots and
1 See xviii. 2, where ls KicIrpov ai6A?~9 v means "thrown
on the manure heap," not "applied (to the land) as manure."
pans neatly set out in rows; but some will mock
with the wits at his notion that there was any
particular beauty in the spectacle afforded by these
homely articles so carefully bestowed. However
that may be, one cannot but sympathize with that
long-suffering little saint, his wife, the most arresting
figure in Xenophon's gallery of women. We glance
at Theodot6 in the Memorabilia and Syennesis in
the Anabasis, and we linger for a time over Panthea
in the Cyropaedia; but we return again and again to
this unnamed heroine of the household.
This unnamed heroine! But Ischomachus is
Xenophon, and the little lady is wife of Ischo-
machus-that is she is Xenophon's wife, Philesia.
"My dear, where is it?" asked her methodical
husband; and Philesia, not knowing the answer,
could only hang her head and blush. So she had
to listen to a long homily on the beauty of order
in the house, with illustrations drawn from the army
and the navy. It is pleasant to know, that hence-
forward, at least in one home at Scillus, regimental
order reigned among the household paraphernalia,
from the boots to the works of art.
And this regimental order in his house is the
mirror of Xenophon's mind; for his mind is a
series of labelled pigeon-holes, each hole filled with
a commonplace thought remorselessly analysed.
These elementary thoughts he produces again and
again, for his reader's edification.
The Oeconomicus was reviewed and criticized by
the Epicurean philosopher Philodemus, an elder
contemporary of Cicero, in his treatise On Vices and
their Opposite Virtues, but only a small part of what
he had to say has survived, recovered from the ashes
of Herculaneum. Further it was translated into
Latin by Cicero' in the days of his youth: it was
familiar to the Roman writers on agriculture, in-
cluding Virgil, was admired and imitated by the
Italians of the Renaissance, and in our own times
has found a doughty champion in Ruskin. Xenophon
writes with an infectious enthusiasm, and with that
easy charm of manner and diction of which he
is a great master. But as with his thoughts,
so with his words: he too often irritates the
reader by incessant repetition of the same pattern
of sentence, of the same formula, and even of the
same word. How prone Xenophon is to repetition
may be judged fiom the many references added in
the translation of both Memorabilia and Oeconomicus
to other works; and of course these references are
not exhaustive. His mind moves in a narrow circle
of ideas. But he is master of an extensive and
multifarious vocabulary; so that it is strange that
he constantly uses the same word over and over
again in the compass of a few lines. A translator
is often compelled to have recourse to synonyms.
I There is some ground for the conjecture that in the time
of Philodemus and Cicero an edition of the Oeconomicus divided
into four books existed.
MANUSCfRIPTS AND EDITIONS
I. Of the Greek text the following papyrus fragments have
1. Mem. I. iii. 15, IV. i. 3, third or fourth century A.D.
(Grenfell and Hunt, II., the original in the British
2. Mem. 11. i. 5-16, first or second century A.D. (Vitelli,
Papiri greci e latini, II.).
3. Oec. ii. 8-17; ix. 2, first century A.D. (G. and&H., II.).
The best manuscripts are the following :-
A. (Parisinus, 13U)i'thirteenth century, containing only
Books I. and II.
B. (Parisinus, 1740), fourteenth century.
These represent two different classes. Between them, but
nearer to B, stand:
C. (Pamisinus, 1642).
D. (Parisinus, 1643), fifteenth century.
M. (Marcianus, 511), thirteenth century.
E. (Laurentianus, lxxx. 13), thirteenth century.
M. (Lipsiensis, 9), fourteenth century, wanting c. xii. 9 to
F. (Laurentianus, lxxxv. 9), thirteenth century.
V. (Marcianus, 511), thirteenth century.
H. (Reginensis, 96), twelfth or thirteenth century.
II. Principal Editions:-
(a) Complete Works of Xenophon.
JUNTA : Florence, 1516. Editio Princeps.
ALDUS: Venice, 1525.
STEPHANUS, H. : Geneva, 1561 and 1581.
LFNKLAU, J. : Frankfurt, 1594; 2nd ed. with notes of
Aemilius Portius, 1506.
MANUSCRIPTS AND EDITIONS
. ZEUNa, J. C.: Leipzig, 1778-
SCHNEIDER, J. G.: Leipzig, 1790-
WEISKE, B.: Leipzig, 1798-
SCHAEFER, G. H. : Leipzig, 1811-
DINDORF, L. : Leipzig, 1824-
SCHNEIDER and DINDORF: Oxford, 1810-
SAUPPE, G. : Leipzig, 1865-
MARCHANT, E. C. : Oxford, 1900-
(b) Separate Editions with Commentaries.
(i) Of the Memorabilia:
BREITENBACH, L. : Berlin, 1854.
KitHNFE, R. : Gotha, 1858.
(ii) Of the Oeconmmicus:
BREITENBACH, L. : Berlin, 1841.
HOLDEN, H. A. : London, 1884.
(c) The best German critical edition of the Memorabilia next
is Gilbert's (Berlin, 1888-); of the Oeconomicus,
Thalheim's (Berlin, 1910).
Very important work on the MSS. was done by Karl
Schenkl, and has been continued by his son. A recent
work of great value is A. W. Persson's Zur Textgeschichte
The above list is, of course, very far from being complete,
and does not even include reference to some scholars of
the first rank, such as Cobet and J. J. Hartman, who have
dealt with the text.
The present edition follows the text of G. Sauppe, except
where stated in the footnotes.
I. HoXXdctv Mav paoa, Tio-t 7ro'r X6yoct 'A0ri-
valov ereto-av o lypardje1vot EoicpparlT, (0 dato;
efi1 OavaTov 7y *rr6eXL. 1 pu'v yap ypa'i xcar'
avToV To70Id T9 fv 'AP Aiucet icpaT9rh7 ? ,;e 1o7V 2
7roXLq volJeLCt eovF ov vOoUberu, eTrepa e KIcatv
atiJLovta elo- epwv A8iKce 86 ical TOV70U Veo
2 IIpcOTov /tw oVV, OP; obic d6EVuLe ov j1 7roXt&
vo/PIet Oeov1, 7ro0 7T'OT' erpjoaVTO TEK/lcPfi ;
Ovwv Te T ap a qavepo; 'v 7roXXdaCLt9 xLv OiKOC,
7roXXaict 8sE icat1 67r T(ov i ooWV 7I9 TroXea)
0 IoVCaL fLapuc XPWPLEV09 OVtie a4)avJ7
j3aICov icat tavTicy ypchyevor oic a av 17 2v"
SeTEOepVX77TO ydp, 6iq (al7 Zwicpdirr' T7 Sa\Isuovtov
Eavr() aoi7palvev 80ev 6 i7 Kal /pXtIO-Ta Uot
Solcovla vT aVrov alta-acao-at aLtva 8atLoVrta
3 elo-O'peiv. 0 8' ob&ev icatvC7 pov elT -4epe T(0V
dXXwv, oot ILaVTticLV vo/iorVTre; OlwVOl; 7T
Xpowvrat Ka ca~l at9 Kal o-ruav/ootv al Ovalatv.
oUToL T- 7yap v7roXa1/3dPvovo-tv O TOV'9 opvLtOa
0ol 70 To) AravT7i)VTaa el6svat T a v~puiEpoVTra r70o
p.aVTevop1oevo', XXa ToBV A eov' 8t A T70u7WV aral
1 Kal A: Sauppe omits.
I. I HAVE often wondered by what arguments those
who drew up the indictment against Socrates could
persuade the Athenians that his life was forfeit to
the state. The indictment against him was to this
effect: Socrates is guilty of rejecting the gods acknow-
ledged by the state and of bringing in strange deities:
he is also guilty of corrupting the youth.
First then, that he rejected the gods acknow- 2
ledged by the state-what evidence did they
produce of that? He offered sacrifices constantly,
and made no secret of it, now in his home, now at
the altars of the state temples, and he made use of
divination with as little secrecy. Indeed it had
become notorious that Socrates claimed to be guided
by 'the deity'": it was out of this claim, I think,
that the charge of bringing in strange deities arose.
He was no more bringing in anything strange than 3
are other believers in divination, who rely on augury,
oracles, coincidences and sacrifices. For these men's
belief is not that the birds or the folk met by
accident know what profits the inquirer, but that
they are the instruments by which the gods make
1 That immanent divine something,' as Cicero terms it,
which Socrates claimed as his peculiar possession.
4 orLc'alvetv, iCaKepvo9 8 oV5o Er vo4ltiev. dXX' ol
tev TXeloi av Xerro r e 7v opvi0ov Ical 7TV
ATravT&vTwv da7roTpe4'r6eOal re Kcal poTp6rrecaat"
Ei)K1padT'r do-rrep eyliyvwlcKev, OVTwO; Xeeye' bTO
Saturtov 7yap ei or7 a7plvEew. Kal 7roXXoiv T&V
oUvdrov 7rpor73ydpve T"a /Ilev rotelFv, Ta 8e pr
roteiv, (g roo atL/oplovo r7poptualvov'Tro. /Xal
T70O19L? fv TreifOopeoV abTirj Ovve'epe, TTo? S' pl
5 7ret0o/ovoftv L Te'reXe. KaltoT TI? OVIc apv oo-
Xoyjo-etev abrTov fovXEcrOat ftlr' riX1iov p~T'
aX',trova faiveo-Oat 70Tq a-voT-wt ; EBdiceL Av
ait p6r'epa Trava, el 7rpoayopevwv o< '7Tr O0eoi
OatV@leoea *6reu6S/Aeevo OaiveTO. SrXov oOv oTL
obcK aVv 'rpoEXE'ye, el Ui dETrlar'Tevev adrL io-eav.
rTa7ra 86 71T, av a'XX) trcreov'eterv ? E6);
'7r1rTEeO)V 86 0eolf 0lW9 OVcKL elvat a eov I evotSev;;
6 aXXa tr]v E7TrotLE xIal ide 7rpo? To'q E7TiT7r8eovq.
TA pIEv Tyap vaycala oavve/3ovXeve Ical 7rpwrTTEv,
6q vooil'otev adpior' Av 7rpaXO;lvaLt 7rep Se\
'r5v ) 8)aXoy( O)W'r a'roP/3jo-ot'0 IFaevTVO-/o ov4V
7 'Tre/tn-ev, ei rOt77Te'a' Kal 'TOVS ~teh ovrTaq o'icov"
Te Kal 7r6Xet( ICKaX olIC t7Ev av ritaVTK e(6
7rpoo-Sero-Oar' TeTcovLKOIV fev yap 1 Xa ceUtKobv
,q 'yeWpyicov j dvprrowv ap covP A TW7V TOtOVTWV
epywv ETiferaIcT V Xo7 toyIrucbv I oiK0ovo0ICvy
roTparrljy cKv yeveoOat, 7rac'Ta Ta TotarTa /aaO7-
/tara ical advpcrov yIvmuc] alpera devo~piev elvar
8 rTd E LyteY'Ta TrV Ev TOV ovo7J'te 70To Beob
EavTTo0 KaTaXetireulOat, v obp v Up Xov elva" Tro70
avO prwroiL. OV'Te /yp Tot TS) KxaaX~i ypbv
( evcuo-a/jevOc SfXov, or'rtgi cap7rwa oaat, OvTe
MEMORABILIA, I. I. 3-8
this known; and that was Socrates' belief too.
Only, whereas most men say that the birds or the 4
folk they meet dissuade or encourage them, Socrates
said what he meant: for he said that the deity gave
him a sign. Many of his companions were counselled
by him to do this or not to do that in accordance
with the warnings of the deity: and those who
followed his advice prospered, and those who re-
jected it had cause for regret. And yet who would 5
not admit that he wished to appear neither a knave
nor a fool to his companions? but he would have
been thought both, had he proved to be mistaken
when he alleged that his counsel was in accordance
with divine revelation. Obviously, then, he would
not have given the counsel if he had not been con-
fident that what he said would come true. And
who could have inspired him with that confidence
but a god? And since he had confidence in the
gods, how can he have disbelieved in the existence
of the gods? Another way he had of dealing with 6
intimate friends was this: if there was no room for
doubt, he advised them to act as they thought best;
but if the consequences could not be foreseen, he
sent them to the oracle to inquire whether the
thing ought to be done. Those who intended to 7
control a house or a city, he said, needed the help
of divination. For the craft of carpenter, smith,
farmer or ruler, and the theory of such crafts, and
arithmetic and economics and generalship might be
learned and mastered by the application of human
powers; but the deepest secrets of these matters 9
the gods reserved to themselves; they were dark
to men. You may plant a field well; but you know
not who shall gather the fruits: you may build a
T7 KaX& o/cIav oI lt/co3oprla/vw SIff rXOV, TOOTL'
evoicKrja9e, O1Tre T7 aTrpaTIy7i7LKC 8XOV, Cel cv-4'epet
O'TpaTryyev, oiT; 7r rOoXt/ct 8J SfXov, el arv/-u.peL
iv' EvipacivrTat, 8jXov, el Sta TaVTq77 avlao-Tat,
OVTie 7 ao Tq SvvaT 7o T~ r IC?7 ceTa' Xa80dYvT
3j7Xov, el 81a TOVTOVuS r7Tepj7o-erat 7F 7rodXEOw.
9 TO7v 8B 170 6ev T7(V TOtLirwv olo/iCvovg elvab
8at/tLvov aXXa 7ravTa T7 av0pw(0rivrj 7vL pI,
8atiovav l7r'" Satapovaiv e Kca' Trob? IUavrevo-
fievov & TOt? avOp6rfoto eSw~oav ol EOl pLaOoiJl
StaKtpiL'V o ov eL T L EpTTpw7rpTl, 7roTepov e7rtUTa-
,evov 9vIoXdv er'r e yoq Xap3ev Kpe6ZTTOV /L'
d7TLoa-Tiievov 4 rWOTrpov e7TrO-TadiEVov Icu3epvvav eir'
T7Vj vafvv icpeTTrov Xa/3ev '$ 11' E7artO-Tiaevov &a
e e -T apLt0lroav-aYsa /.ETp')J-avTaS A .r'cravra9
e8idvat, Tou0 TA Tota;Tca rapa TCOV Oeiov 7rvvOavo-
/pIEvovq aEJpLrTa 7roteV j'y7y0ro. e4ro S& SetV a e'v
paaOvrTas 7rotelv SworKav ol 0eol /LavOdavei, a Se
/ 8 SXa TO? aP vOpdtrOL o-tCi TELp' aOal It
pIavTtI1ni; raph T/OV Oeovy 7rvvrdeaEcTOal TO"o
Oeob0U yap otl av wJtv 'lXec orlwalveLv.
10 'AXXa upiv eiceievod ye delb v i jv v T( ) (avep6"
,rpoal Te yAp elf TOVS 7repLri'dTovr aK Tc A 7Tv/va-ta
jL ical wriX0oaro-lv dyopas dEiel OavepbF ?iv ical TO
XotrOV aCjd T79q 9 ECopad 7iv o7rov 7rXe'o-TOL /eXX
avre'eafeOavl Kal e' Cye ,ev (0a T6O TXoV, TOV 8' 13ov-
1 Cyropaedia, I. vi. 6.
MEMORABILIA, I. I. 8-10
house well; but you know not who shall dwell in
it: able to command, you cannot know whether it
is profitable to command: versed in statecraft, you
know not whether it is profitable to guide the
state : though, for your delight, you marry a pretty
woman, you cannot tell whether she will bring you
sorrow: though you form a party among menw
mighty in the state, you know not whether they
will cause you to be driven from the state. If any 9
man thinks that these matters are wholly within the
grasp of the human mind and nothing in them is
beyond our reason, that man, he said, is irrational.
But it is no less irrational to seek the guidance of
heaven in matters which men are permitted by the
gods to decide for themselves by study : to ask, for
instance, Is it better to get an experienced coach-
man to drive my carriage or a man without experi-
ence? 1 Is it better to get an experienced seaman
to steer my ship or a man without experience?
So too with what we may know by reckoning,
measurement or weighing. To put such questions
to the gods seemed to his mind profane. In short,
what the gods have granted us to do by help of
learning, we must learn; what is hidden from
mortals we should try to find out from the gods
by divination: for to him that is in their grace the
gods grant a sign.
Moreover, Socrates lived ever in the open; for 1
early in the morning he went to the public
promenades and training-grounds; in the forenoon
he was seen in the market; and the rest of the day
he passed just where most people were to be met:
he was generally talking, and anyone might listen.
Yet none ever knew him to offend against piety
11 Xolaevo(L ~y dfIcovewt. ob8e&? S wr8r7oTe iOT pd-a
Tov o8yv ao-e3p ? obia, Ivoc-tov o 7e TpaToTOVTOG
el8ev oire XyovTro icovo-ev. ob8e' yap 7repij T27
TGv 7rdvrWv dpewI jrep TrV aI Xwv ol rXei~oroL
SteXEr76To aCKOTrw, O'Nrrw" icaXov evo bvro' T'&v
o-tILOOWv iKo-Aoiv el t ica& TUow ayicatt; eacao'Ta
lyveTrat TWV ovpatvlwv, d dXXa Kal TOV9 povTt'fov-Ta
12 Ta Tota ra ,JpwpalvovTav akre8eIcve. ical wrrp-rov
puV a-riV6 doa cr"C7Me 7iroepa IroTe voio-'avTre itcav6j3
'i;87 TdvOpdowriva el..va pitovTa e7 TO 7repi 'V
e va pXov7-at et o b TOW
ToLoVTOrV f)povrTtetIV T'a Uedv avOp(w'reta raph"ev,
Tia Satlidvia Se a-'KOroovvTre 7,yov7Trat Tr' rpoo--
13 Kovzra vrpdTTreL. ef'avd/,iae S' el e i avepbv
abTOit; e'rTt, OTt Tavra ob S0vaTov earTv ad V p(OprOl
ebpelv E'7re icatl rov /tIletcI-Tov (OpovovTraq e7r T"
'rept TOVTOr) XE etv ob TabvTd 80odev aXXij4Xotf,
dXXa Tros paivof/evo' LLotwe S 8taKceto69at wrp
14 a'XX7Xovu;. TCOV rT Tap piatvoljevwv T ov gv ov S
T Sewtva e8tivat, TObv? 8 ical Ta p fof3ep
copfetiat- i Kal TOGE pikv o'8' Ev oXXc" SooKeC
alo-povw elvat XEyev V )o e7 v OTIOUD, 70Ti 8 o0O'
e r]T ov el's avp(rrovf elvat 8ox0Ce Kal TOV
fLEv ou0' lep v oiTe PWOfbv OiU' aXXo ryv esl
obUv T. rta, Tobs Se Kail Xlov Kail VXaa Ta
7rvuXva Kal O~7pla ac/3eo-Oata T7O Te repl T71;
T )v 7TrdvrT v p(ofvewO 1iepLpvoTrwv TvoF Ilev Soxeev
evv LOvo TO ov elval, T70I 8' anrepa To w7 'oX "
cal TOGt Je1P ael 7wvTa ICLwEa9Oat, TOZ3 8 oove\v av
7roTe KXvrc?0vatL Kal Trot? pev rTavTa y'lyveao8al
-Kri at roAXvcrat, TOt' 86 oiUT a' cv Ecr-at rrOTE
15 ovSev o('re aTrokeaOate.1 ecore Se 7ep aVTr'v
~al rdSe, ap' 8i-rep ol TrvOpdwreta iaavOdvovrev
MEMORABILIA, I. I. 10-15
and religion in deed or word. He did not even 11
discuss that topic so favoured by other talkers,
"the Nature of the Universe ": and avoided specu-
lation on the so-called "Cosmos of the Professors, t
how it works, and on the laws that govern le
phenomena of the heavens: indeed he would argue
that to trouble one's mind with such problems is
sheer folly. In the first place, he would inquire, 12
did these thinkers suppose that their knowledge of
human affairs was so complete that they must seek
these new fields for the exercise of their brains; or
that it was their duty to neglect human affairs and
consider only things divine? Moreover, he mar- 13
veiled at their blindness in not seeing that man
cannot solve these riddles; since even the most
conceited talkers on these problems did not agree
in their theories, but behaved to one another like
madmen. As some madmen have no fear of danger 14
and others are afraid where there is nothing to be
afraid of, as some will do or say anything in a crowd
with no sense of shame, while others shrink even
from going abroad among men, some respect neither
temple nor altar nor any other sacred thing, others
worship stocks and stones and beasts, so is it, he
held, with those who worry with Universal Nature."
Some hold that What is is one, others that it is
infinite in number: some that all things are in
perpetual motion, others that nothing can ever be
moved at any time: some that all life is birth and
decay, others that nothing can ever be born or ever
die. Nor were those the only questions he asked 15
about such theorists. Students of human nature, he
1 &aroX mai Stobaeus: &roxeirlaO Sauppe.
/jyovTrat TroD' rt av dOwo-w eavoz re TE /cal
TWV adXwvy Toq a'v o0Xovwrat Otr7ojaeiv, OVTr0 Kal
o0 Ta Oela ~7TODVTE? voIJIIovO-v, dTreISalv 7vUov,
als dva'ycac excao-a yvyve'rat, W7rot ietv, OTav
3o;XovrTat, Kal Jvetovv /cal Sara /cal Wpa tKal
OTOU r v avXXov 8ewvoTat Tv rotovrm, 1 TroIODro
evp oS'vl oW8' ek'irL'ovoa', apiceE 8' avro, 7yvwval
povov, TWv TOCOVeT v fKaaTa yiyvETat.
16 Ilep't / v oSv Trjv TrarTa 7rpayp.a'revouJvov
TotavTa tLeyeve avOT 86 7repb T&7v avOpwnrri-
vov adt &(eXe'7lyeTro aorrc Ti EVbo-e/S, 7Ti a~e/3e1,
T7I caXov, Ti alaXpov, T7 SbtcatQv, T7i aSLcov, Ti
o-wpfpocr-vr77, T7 /avia, TI dvSpeta, r7 Se8tia, TI
r6X(V, T71 rOXtTtCK, TL PX' dvvOpcrrwv, Ti
adpxlwo avOpornov, cal rrepi TOv ia'Xwv, a TOV
CLEv el'tora, jyelTO KcaXovq Kcyaoi)v elval, TOV' 8'
ayvoovvTa dAv8pa'ro&o8Set Av 8tiaoy CLI cecXgr0ai.
17 "Oa-a /~v o'v /j ,favepo' v Orp OtV eylyvwoCev,
ovbev Oavao-arv' vbrrp rTOvrv rrept aTrov rrapa-
yvwavat T70O St/aO-Tard" B'a 8e radvTe'; 78qeaav, Oz
18 Oav/*arov el /17 TOVTrwV 'Y i lv /0fcav; /SoXe'ra
yap 7rOTe /cal TOV 83ovXevTtKOV 'pKcov ooo-ai, iv W
77v Kara TOVI vOfov /Sovx eo-evtV, e7rlO'TaT77r Ev TO7
SjAcjp yevo evoq, emrrtOvfp"oaaro o70 84&pov wrapa
'TOu VO O v vv ve'a oTpaT7r-yov'9 /Uli *'ijfo TOWi
A/r(l OpdaovXXov ical 'Epalo-tvbriv airoIcrevat
rrdvTas, obi o; r6ye'iav dTrrtrfyi-at, opyto/1evov
/6v abT 70To 8rt/ov, 7roXX\5v 86 Ical 8vvaTr&v
(7 eLovvTOCV' 1aXX. 7Tepi 7rXheTovo c7rot?7aTO
MEMORABILIA, I. I. 15-18
said, think that they will apply their knowledge
in due course for the good of themselves and any
others they choose. Do those who pry into heavenly
phenomena imagine that, once they have discovered
the laws by which these are produced, they will
create at their will winds, waters, seasons and such
things to their need? Or have they no such ex-
pectation, and are they satisfied with knowing the
causes of these various phenomena ?
Such, then, was his criticism of those who meddle 1
with these matters. His own conversation was ever
of human things. The problems he discussed were,
What is godly, what is ungodly; what is beautiful,
what is ugly; w- dt is just, what is unjust; what is
prudence, what i niadness; what is courage, what
is cowardice; what is a state, what is a statesman;
what is government, and what is a governor;-these
and others like them, of which the knowledge made
a "gentleman," in his estimation, while ignorance
should involve the reproach of slavishnesss."
So, in pronouncing on opinions of his that were 17
unknown to them it is not surprising that the jury
erred: but is it not astonishing that they should
have ignored matters of common knowledge? For 18
instance, when he was on the Council and had
taken the counsellor's oath by which he bound
himself to give counsel in accordance with the laws,
it fell to his lot to preside in the Assembly when
the people wanted to condemn Thrasyllus and
Erasinides and their colleagues to death by a single
vote. That was illegal, and he refused the motion
in spite of popular rancour and the threats of many 1
powerful persons. It was more to him that he
should keep his oath than that he should humour
ebopIcev ) Xapltoatral T 70- 4up t rapa T- S8icatov
19 Kal cvXcdaaat o-a roW' dretXovvTas. ical yap
mr/t.eXezEi aL Oeobv evoLttev avYpdrov ovX ov
TpO6rov ol 7roXXol vo1itovOavW or'70Ts v r ap
o'coTaL TOV1 ECVc T7a JiEv el'8vat, Ta 8' obI
elevaLr icKpaTi7,; 7ravrTa /LEV rjyE/to Oeo'v
elevate, T, Te Xeyo/Leva ical rrparTTOreva Kca' T,
crtYy /3ovXevt/eva, 7ravTaxoD 8e wrapedvat. cal
ao-r1paivewtv TO7 avv0pPwrrotv 7ep' r&v dvOp~vpretwv
20 Oav/dtw ovdP, o'7,Wq VTroTE e7rela-Ol-cav 'AO9valot
WicpdaT7V 7rTepi T7ob9 eobv tjU o-owpovev, rbv
OUT6 7rpa 6 t
do-ef3s? fevp oev 7rTOTE Te 9ri eovi OUT eTrov'ra
oirTe 'rpdavTa, 7votaira 8e cal' XEyovTra ctal
7rpdrTTvTa [7repti Oev], old 7T &av ical Xeyov cal
7n-pd7TTw et'l Te ical vopfoTo efb-e;p3-TaroTq.
II. OavarO-'rov 86 oalve'ratl ,Uo t cal TO VretCOt -
vai Ttva9, (u (ic)Kpad'rT TO7 vEovs &CEfSiELpev, 80
7rpo 70TE elpr7/LEvoLv 7rpW rov fIev dacpoSt~uiwv Ical
yauo-po 7TrraVTVroW) porov evy/cpaTaTraTro jv,
eLTa xrpoi Xet~iva tcal Opos ical ravra a rdovso
icaprTeplKrc(TaT', &TI 8e 7Tpb' TO pE7'rpT o ev S 0ai
rTEraitev/ievo0 oVTrOW, (AoTr 'rdTv ftipa KIceTIy7,rtvo0
2 wravuv pa98l eX apicovY7a. 7T&0o ovV auTro r)
70LovTro aXXovU av dace/3epi 7f 7rapavoIovq '
Xl'Xvov f4 dcpo8to-twv dicpaTre Al 7 p pbO 7Tb roveYE
aXa/colb e7roio-ev; AXX' e7ravoae fIEv TOVT"V
wroXXOV;, apeTrI 7i-ot,7-aa; e'rtv/jidv Ical e'7rrt8a
'rapaaX6Xv, av eavrowv e'rrt/1XioTrat, tKaXoBv
3 tcdyalobv' 6'eaeoat. Icatlrot ye ov8erwMroTe
brUwe'-ro 8taS-icaXo; elvat TOVTOV, dXXa TC\
favepo, elvat TOrtTOV1ro ov eX'Wletv role6l Tro
MEMORABILIA, I. I. 18-11. 3
the people in an unjust demand and shield himself
from threats. For, like most men, indeed, he be- 19
lived that the gods are heedful of mankind, but
with an important difference; for whereas they do
not believe in the omniscience of the gods, Socrates
thought that they know all things, our words and
deeds and secret purposes; that they are present
everywhere, and grant signs to men of all that
I wonder, then, how the Athenians can have been 20
persuaded that Socrates was a freethinker, when he
never said or did anything contrary to sound religion,
and his utterances about the gods and his behaviour
towards them were the words and actions of a
man who is truly religious and deserves to be
II. No less wonderful is it tome that some believed
the charge brought against Socrates of corrupting
the youth. In the first place, apart from what I have
said, in control of his own passions and appetites he
was the strictest of men; further, in endurance of
cold and heat and every kind of toil he was most
resolute; and besides, his needs were so schooled to
moderation that having very little he was yet very
content. Such was his own character: how then 2
can he have led others into impiety, crime, gluttony,
lust, or sloth? On the contrary, he cured these
vices in many, by putting into them a desire for
goodness, and by giving them confidence that self-
discipline would make them gentlemen. To be sure V
he never professed to teach this; but, by letting his
own light shine, he led his disciples to hope that
I Iv. iii, 2; Cyropaedia, i. vi. 46.
avvotaTpfiov7a V eavTr p.tpovP.ovovU dEcLov OPTOIOV-
4 TOWV yevreao-TcatL. dtXXh prv iKa 7l TO act/aro
abroT 7e orIC ?/lEXet roI T' A6eXo0 rav obiO
areoocipaee, 7O S oo-aa 7' E(o'i *f (vXr S Teral,
rTara KcavP, vcrovetv eSoiciptla. rTai&?v yap
TrV 6'tV vyeL6rv Ve 7 Icavp elvat Kal T7rv 7rj
5 ,vX L imPirtEXeiav ob~c jiro61iEtv nr. 4xx' oi
P"v Opv7TTriKO 76 OL, E b t aXaovico /v oi 0r'
d/j7reX6v? o068' VroGaee oi;re 7r aXql 8tair.
o0 Ip)v ovb' epaaotXplyPd7rov ye To 70 O-vvoVTaT
ET6rotE. 7TV PE.V 7yap aXXAv ETrrlv UjItv e'rave,
T70"V Se eavToO e'rtuiv/,toD1Vra9 OVic depdT7reTO
6 XprilaTa. T7070TV aETr6Xd/evoe dvOfyLev eXev-
Oeptas 6E7TLeXe TOa'L TOV70 8e Xap1/3avov7aTs T779
o6ztXiaa, tttaov avopa7rootSiTa9 eavTwv aV'redaXe
Sta Tob avayKcaoov avTrot Btva 8t aXyeao-at Trap'
7 wv Xad/otev rOV /PtI iG. 90adua e ', e'i 7Tr
aperI7v e7ray'yeXXo/6evov apyvpLov "7rparTOtTo Kal
p1) vo o014 TO 'eyI7Cov Kt'ep3oq ESELtV likov dyaOov
KT7loadp.eoV, adXa ckof/3olro, P\ 6 yevoPevoo y caXob
KAyabo9 7T 7a Ta~/ tElyra eVepyE7Tj -aV7L /12 T7 v
8 eytia'crTv XydpIv e'eot. ZWolpdT~rv 8 dE7rgY7yeiXaTo
P/iE o~lb evl OTW7T TOIO7TO7 oevV, erV'lTeve 8\
T7V TVVOVTo7W eavury 7ro aro7 ea/uevov, a'7ep
av7TO e8oici0jklav elts T O 7ravTa /flov EavT) Te Kaca
daXXiXoL9 iXovui dayaOobv'; secret. 7r'G9 av oav
0 T7010OVT avp taodeipot rov, veovw; el Pil apa
17 T7 9 Aper67j ITL/mleeta 8ta 0opd E o'TV.
9 'AXXA v7 Ala, 6 Ica7rjyopo0 i, vrepopavy Jroiet
TWV ticaOe-rT(T7TiV polwov TroV -VVOV7Ta' X\eyov, cF
pWJpoV eLr TO7aV /Vc T?19 VToXeO ? apXOVTav a7ro
MEMORABILIA, I. In. 3-9
they through imitation of him would attain to such
excellence. Furthermore, he himself never neg- 4
elected the body, and reproved such neglect in others.
Thus over-eating followed by over-exertion he dis-
approved. But he approved of taking as much
hard exercise as is agreeable to the soul ; for the
habit not only insured good health, but did not
hamper the care of the soul. On the other hand, 5
he disliked foppery and pretentiousness in the
fashion of clothes or shoes or in behaviour. Nor,
again, did he encourage love of money in his com-
panions. For while he checked their other desires,
he would not make money himself out of their
desire for his companionship. He held that this 6
self-denying ordinance insured his liberty. Those
who charged a fee for their society he denounced
for selling themselves into bondage; since they were
bound to converse with all from whom they took the
fee. He marvelled that anyone should make money 7
by the profession of virtue, and should not reflect V
that his highest reward would be the gain of a good
friend; as though he who became a true gentleman
could fail to feel deep gratitude for a benefit so
great. Socrates indeed never promised any such 8
boon to anyone; but he was confident that those of
his companions who adopted his principles of con-
duct would throughout life be good friends to him
and to one another. How, then, should such a man
"corrupt the youth"? Unless, perchance, it be
corruption to foster virtue.
But, said his accuser, he taught his companions to 9
despise the established laws by insisting on the
folly of appointing public officials by lot, when none
1 Cyropaedia, I. vi. 17.
KvdjLov Kcatardvat, KVt3epVCpvrYrjT 8 /m78va eeeltv
XpiaOat KvapievTr Ile7B T7icTOVL t ft'B abh~ rjT q78'
E7"' aXXa arotara, a 7roXX dkd'XaTTcova? 3X~3av
aLpapTavotleva Wrorfe TOWV TrepL T 7Tr6 tXv aIapTa-
oJvoLevwv TOV? 8~ roIovrovs X6o'youv 7ratpewv 'eO
Trov veov'c Kara povev Tr7i IcaOea'rcTo-17' roXtTela?
10 xal roieLv /tatovs. e'w 8' oi La rovg 'povrP0L
ao-KODvTav Kca VoiLovTa'; LKoavov' gaeoaL' 7TO
avtrc'povra Stdla'&cetv TOV 7roXITag 2IctTa
ylyveaOat Stalovq, elGUMa,, 5Tc 77^ p/E.v 8la
ipoo-eito-v i'pa Kcal /civ8vvot, Sta 8e T70D wtetleV
dicvWM' Tre ic al pLera otlas rarvTa 'yL'yveTat.
ol ieV yap 8taao0revTe'q (0 adoaLpe0EVTCeI p.Lao-va-tvw,
tol retoO'fvrev; s K6eXaptO-wvolo fLXovai'w.
oV ovv TWV (po'TotvJ- dLaCOVVTWV TO' Ptdeaai,
11 'prrp'nev] eari'T. dXXa' u.?Nv ical a-vypidmv o fiEv
d tea'ai TooX v C r 84oT' aV OC OXiyv, 0 8
relfetE 8vvadievo oSevao' ica' yap /Lovo 702yOT'
av 8vvaa0at 7relOe1V. KCal (ovevewV 8e To70' TOtOV-
TOts ?ic4 Ora a-vkl3alver tisF yap aroKcrevaabl t va
3ovXhotr' Av PcioXXov 'j rwVTI retio/jovw Xpf-Oat;
12 'AXX$' 60 y6 6 caryopos, wiOcpaT(e oiLtXk7rIT
yevoplevw Kprla' r7e ical 'AXKt/3cpi&dS' 'irXET-ra
Ka ch Triv 7Tr6Xt derotrO7-aTjv. KptTrla Itv ytap
T7W er T7y oXdyap.ta 'rav r~ V iCXKervTi'Tlard s Te
/cal Staoraro'aq Kal o ovIcTraTo7' eyevero, 'AX/CK-
/3Ld8Ts' Se aZ TWOV ev T)7 Sr2tpo/cpaTra wradvTrov a/cpa-
ETTaTO9 T6 KIal Uptor-TraTO9 cal tatOrTarTOq.
13 y\o 8S', el Itev T Katcov icelvw T3P Trothv
eroli7c-dT'7v, ov K airoXoyt'oioar TaVv U8 irpt'
MEMORABILIA, I. u. 9-13
would choose a pilot or builder or flautist by lot,
nor any other craftsman for work in which mistakes
are far less disastrous than mistakes in statecraft.
Such sayings, he argued, led the young to despise
the established constitution and made them violent.
But I hold1 that they who cultivate wisdom and 10
think they will be able to guide the people in
prudent policy never lapse into violence: they
know that enmities and dangers are inseparable
from violence, but persuasion produces the same
results safely and amicably. For violence, by mak-
ing its victims sensible of loss, rouses their hatred :
but persuasion, by seeming to confer a favour, wins
goodwill. It is not, then, cultivation of wisdom
that leads to violent methods, but the possession "
of power without rudence, Besides, many sup- 11
porters are necessary to him who ventures to use ;'- p
force: but he who can persuade needs no con-
federate, having confidence in his own unaided
power of persuasion. And such a man has no
occasion to shed blood; for who would rather take
a man's life than have a live and willing follower ?
But his accuser argued thus. Among the 12
associates of Socrates were Critias and Alcibiades;
and none wrought so many evils to the state. For
Critias in the days of the oligarchy bore the palm
for greed and violence i Alcibiades, for his part, ex-
ceeded all in licentiousness and insolence under the
democracy. Now I have no intention of excusing 13
the wrong these two men wrought the state; but I
S1 Cyropaedia, I. iv. 21.
foea-Oa MSS. : elval Sauppe.
.icKpa qv o-vvovo~av abrolv Tw eye'verTO S&(yy-
14 aoiati. dyeve-crOrjv /Ev lyap 8S T~i dvspe TOVTw
4viet ptLXoroTIOTra'Ta d v 'A67)vavYalWVovXoI/ev
re rdvra t' eavrTnv rrpdT'reo-0a Katl 7raVTrw
ovoLaaorTordaT yeviao-at. QSecaav 8\ Sw/cpadTv
air' eXaXlo-Twv p.lv XpytaTrv auTapicEo-TaTa
(cSvTa, T&JV i8oviv S\ uTrao~Wv eyKpaToTarTOP ovTa,
T70o, r 8iaXeyo/u'vot aiT(o 7riat pOa/evov EV TOtV
15 Xo'yov o07rw /3o, hotTo. t av-a 86 opov-re tcal vre
oa'w 7rpoelpri-0ov, TrOTepOV Tt avTW 0; 7r00 p8lov
T70r WIpdaTov< eTrtfv/fio-aave cal Tr ao poavvrj;,
Ijv iceKvo; eltev, opeaaa i Tjl o u/jhla avrov T 7
voail'avre, el o[LurX-al7rv Kicelyv, yeveo-at atv
16 licav(oraTwr Xe'yetv e icatl rpaTreiL; eywo p1uv yap
ryov/at, 0eo 8tSov'ro, ab ro~ v o8ov TyO pl/ov
W'arep 6vTa owtcpdaTrv &~pawv T re9vvat, ehAC0a
av avTc /auiioXv Trevdvai. 8"jXa 8' e'yeveo-0'iv e
Sov dTrpaTdrr7v- 7s yap TraXCaTa ICpeVTrove r v
a-vyytyvo/mvwv 7yid~o-Opv elvas, ef O i, aTrowrj8-
oavre ~CWIpdTovU e'irpaTTT?7Q Ta 7wOXLtTIcd, Ai7vriep
eveKca Swolpdaov CpexyOiprjzvy.
17 "lo-OI o4v e6rot TV~ av rpho TavrTa, oTt C'Xpv
TOPv Swipdra'Tv pIj 1.rpoTeprpov Tra irOXLTIcat 8S8do-Cew
;. ,is 7TOVS a-vv6vTaq i/, eo'poi'i'. &yoS 7 rpbp 7ioDrTO
v i A f oicv aoM E dv ,i\ E'fii Ti-!dra r70oV 8L SidaovTa
opoa aVTOv' SeLiLcvuvTa'; Te TOti; ,avOdvovotv, 7rep
avb'O1 7otoova'- a StSalcovo-t, IKal T7 Xoy p 7rpoo-
18 /3Its dovTa;. oZ8a 8e ical wKcpadTlv SestVIvvra TOiq
avvorvD-tv avTrI KaXv IcKyaO v ovra Kal 8taXeyo-
Levov I/c aXXi~h a 7rrepl dpeTrj Kal TCv aXXcov
avOp~oTrToWV. ola'a 86 ica/CiKeLv c-tof ovVe,T o"T
i poicpaTe avvrC-TI7v, ov of)povPiev IA to1zLtOwTO
MEMORABILIA, I. n. 13-18
will explain how they came to be with Socrates.
Ambition was the very life-blood of both: no 14
Athenian was ever like them. They were eager to
get control of everything and to outstrip every rival
in notoriety. They knew that Socrates was living
on very little, and yet was wholly independent; that
he was strictly moderate in all his pleasures; and
that in argument he could do what he liked with any
disputant. Sharing this knowledge and the principles 15
I have indicated, is it to be supposed that these
two men wanted to adopt the simple life of
Socrates, and with this object in view sought his
society? Did they not rather think that by
associating with him they would attain the utmost
proficiency in speech and action? For my part 16
I believe that, had heaven granted them the choice
between the life they saw Socrates leading and
death, they would have chosen rather to die. Their
conduct betrayed their purpose; for as soon as they
thought themselves superior to their fellow-disciples
they sprang away from Socrates and took to politics;
it was for political ends that they had wanted
But it may be answered; Socrates should have 17
taught his companions priideno before politics. I
do not deny it; but fliiNdthat all teachers show
their disciples how they themselves practise what
they teach, and lead them on by argument. And I
know that it was so with Socrates: he showed his
companions that he was a gentleman himself, and
talked most excellently of goodness and of all things
that concernaann. I know further that even those 1i
two were prudent so long as they were with Socrates,
wrabowvTo brVTO Ewpdp'Tov, AdXX olotuvo TrTre
IKpaTtTOV eZva iTovTo ara'rTqa--.
19 1"o-a ov e6L7rote av troXoi TVov SaKc6TWVy
lXoao-eaZv, 5TI oba aIV a'OTe 6 Sicato9 a8tuco
ryEvoo o086 o 0c opov ./3pta'ra os68 a.XXo ov ev
Wv LB7ali eCo-7v 6 ftacfovj verrto-T'lljip av T wore
yEOLTO. 670Y 8e\ 7repl TOVTfV OVX ovUrw Y7) ytVO'WA"
op&o yap w(aorep Ta rTO o-awaro? epya aTOv vIq T7a
atocaTa cd-ccovTraW ob SvvatevovE; roeaiv, ov'07
Kcal 7a T')? 0 rvXfT ,pya rov; p)7 7v ^vX v
a-acovvTra o 8vva1E.y'ovv oVTe yap a Et 7r6Tp'rtrt7
20 obve A'v Sel aitre'ceOat 86vavTat. 8t Kcal T70o
vitet ol warTedpes, KaOV w70L 0Twcp)OPVE, 6t)(oz aTro
T))V 7rovrpcjv dvOp)rLTv poepovTtV, (q Tr2v fILv
T(OV Xprq-cTov op1/tlav aric'r ltv obo-av Ti7 aperf7;,
7rv SE 7 v 7rTOP7ovp& KadTXvO-t. p.ap7vpet 8 \Kai
TW Vy otrTjTVy o T6 X7yWv,
'EaOXi&v /epv yahp 7r7' eaOX cl dearr fjv 86
o-vf~lytfL'y'1, a7roXetq Kal T) eicda voov*
AvTrap pv)\p AyaOos 7TOTE07 UV a/CaK, ahXOTe S'
21 Kdy( 86e tiapTvp&~ ToUvrtOq op( yap wa'0rep Trco
ev leTpw) 7Tre7rotr]lJVeY ev brV TO p, L 6XEie rYTa
e'rtXiav0avodJevov9, ovTo Kal TWov S38ao-aXKicov)
Xdoywv 'rov AlejXoDo-t Xhj0lv E'yytLyvofLep7v. OrTa
3 TOi'V VOV6erCTiKcV Xodywv e'7rtXad rTal 7rt, de7rte-
Xao-rat ial l wv A rVXy 7IrdaXovo-a T~? o'wo4po-
ro-vr 9 e7re06/.,er TOVTWV 8' eThrXaOo/ievov obvSv
MEMORABILIA, I. i. 18-21
not from fear of fine or blow, but because at that
time they really believed inraidenconduct.
But many self-styled lovers of wisdom may reply : 19
A just man can never become unjust; a prudent
man can never become wanton; in fact no one
having learned any kind of knowledge can become
ignorant of it. I do not hold with this view.1 I
notice that as those who do not train the body
cannot perform the functions proper to the body, so
those who do not train the soul cannot perform the
functions of the soul : for they cannot do what they
ought to do nor avoid what they ought not to do.
For this cause fathers try to keep their sons, even if 20
they are prudent lads, out of bad company: for the
society of honest men is a training in virtue, but the
society of the bad is virtue's undoing. As one of
the poets says:
"From the good shalt thou learn good things; but
if thou minglest with the bad thou shalt lose even
what thou hast of wisdom."
And another says :
"Ah, but a good man is at one time noble, at
another base." 3
My testimony agrees with theirs; for I see that, 21
just as poetry is forgotten unless it is often repeated,
so instruction, when no longer heeded, fades from
the mind. To forget good counsel is to forget
the experiences that prompted the soul to desire
prudence: and when those are forgotten, it is not
1 Cyropaedia, viI. v. 75. Against Antisthenes.
3 Author unknown.
OavacrraTb al Txa r acopoo-vvr;l) eirtXa'o-at.
22 pw 8 ca roavT els tf XoTroatv 7rpoaxO'vrav acal
TOU?) ei' E'pWaK EKIcvlXo09iaevraq ',TTOV Svvapzevov4;
T(vV re BeoVTCv eIrtuLeXewo0at ical T'v pA? SeVrOv
ar-ire'eo-a. n-roXXol yap icaa XprlUaTrv Svvadesvoi
(Se'EorOat, 7rp'i1v pav, EpaaoGvTE6 OJICETL UvvapTar
Ical Ta Xpi5/ara IcaravaXd wavTre Cv rrpoaev
dTre'XOvPo IcepS&ov, alatcpa vopoVToeY eltva, roV-
23 T)wv obic a!TEovTrat. rt(& ovv o ,c ev8e'xe-ra
aompovw4-avra rpo-0aev aviOt p aw(opove v cal
8licata 8vviJ0EvTa 'rTpdaTre alT9 dSuvvaTrev ;
rvraa ~Lev o1 v epoyv7 s 8ot eT Ta KaXa Kcal TryaOa
b0-lC7Ta elvat, oVX 4#cIara Se awropoa-vvr. ev yap
7r- abTr a-6/1aTt cv1reiVTevr jEvat r/ ? ^vXYf at
fjoval IrelOovwat avTrrv P /L aowipoveiV, dXXa T7?v
TaXLo-T7rv eavTral' Te ical 7T ac-piaTn Xapl(ao-Oat.
24 Kal KptTriaS 8 cal 'AXict/tdSa'8r &n) Lhv
ioKpadr't ovvrUa-Vr~7V, fSvvaadrv 4iceIY XpWIoeVM
o-vftd rTO)v fJ K ica)iov E'ri0v/utiOv KcpaTeiv
Eceivov S' araXXvaye're KpLTtaq tIev (fvytwv ei
OervraXav ce? a-vvijv Ad vp rrotl Avo/ila /JiaXXov
7 Sucatoorvv- Xp0p0evovv, 'AIKt/3ctidr 8 a &Sth
pCiv KcXXo' X ,r 7Tro XX6v Ical o-epvwv lyvau/ccv
6Opwpfpevo,, 8ti SB SUvajuLLv T-v er 7v 7oeE KIal
TOF,; avUlaXot u7ro rroXX )5v ical 8vaTrOv
[KoXatceveev] av0pdrromv 8tatpvTrrTO'd voq, 6VTro 8
ro7 827/lov TtLz0u)Lvo? cal aSl T s rrpw(Tev; (t-'rep
otl 'V yvf uvLicKav y A vw d0vov 'i'ral paXo' s rrpo-
Teovoef dp/eIXOva0- T7? a'l hKro-ewo, OUrTO KcaICewoV
25 ijLiXrlaev avroD. TrotovTov 86 aOV-/VdvrT)Wv a-roiv
ial yKcowiev ) fev e 7r yve'), e'rthp/ie )vw 8' 'rl
wTXoO'TW, 7rT6el/VO -Ie r) 8' 7l SvvaJiet, 8taTeOpvUl-
MEMORABILIA, I. II. 21-25
surprising that prudence itself is forgotten. I see 22
also that men who take to drink or get involved in
love intrigues lose the power of caring about right
conduct and avoiding evil. For many who are
careful with their money no sooner fall in love than
they begin to waste it: and when they have spent
it all, they no longer shrink from making more by
methods which they formerly avoided because they
thought them disgraceful. How then can it be 23
impossible for one who was prudent to lose his
prudence, for one who was capable of just action to
become incapable ? To me indeed it seems that
whatever is honourable, whatever is good in con-
duct is the result of training, and that this is
especially true of prudence. For in the same body
along with the soul are planted the pleasures which
call to her: "Abandon prudence, and make haste
to gratify us and the body."
And indeed it was thus with Critias and Alcibiades. 24
So long as they were with Socrates, they found in
him an ally who gave them strength to conquer
their evil passions. But when they parted from
him, Critias fled to Thessaly, and got among men
who put lawlessness before justice; while Alcibiades,
on account of his beauty, was hunted by many great
ladies, and because of his influence at Athens and
among her allies he was spoilt by many powerful
men: and as athletes who gain an easy victory in
the games are apt to neglect their training, so the
honour in which he was held, the cheap triumph
he won with the people, led him to neglect himself.
Such was their fortune: and when to pride of 25
birth, confidence in wealth, vainglory and much
ieco 86 br 7roXXov Av'pcrrwv &" 1 8' rio-a
TOu0TOV [Stecj apievw] catl roXvv Xpovov Tro'
mW/pcpaTovF yEyovo'e Tib Oavlyaa'Tbv el Trep77(dvip
26 eyevea1ry7v; eTia el pLev T( 7XQteXly7l ayo-aT7rV, TOV-
TOV wKCpaT7rv 6 KCaTcryopo9 altraTaa; 6b't 86 vew
oVTe avTw, '7vlca ical ayvofi/oveaoTaTow Kca acpare-
aTdTC clicks evat, ~icpd7'r0 9 rapedo'e '; pove,
ovbevoi de'raivov oi0Ke T KCaTilop'ydO ) aio elvat;
27 ob /Piv Ta ye icXXa ouTw Kpi'veTra. TL, /aev yap
av7']rrj?, T7l 8e KiOapta77'9, Ti1 S8 "XiXo?
tBdt-cKaXo0 licavohI 7rou o-a'? TOV9 pa9ar7sT, eacv
7rpo? ai XXovq eXOOfvTe Xelpov9 avoawtv, al-riav
e'XE TO0TOU ; T71 S6 7raTrp, e6av o Trat aurov
a-vviaTrpi,/3v rTp oao( pov varepov e a"XXLe rpT
OV'Ygevo/.Levo 7Wrovr7po 7yevr77ra, ToV 7rpo-6EV
al-rt iat, dAX' obX b'ow av wraph T' V crre'
Xeplopv oalvrOTra, TOaOVTo O taXXov d rawel T V
Tpodrepov; aXX' o'' ye 7rarepe; abvol (UvvOdVT
ToLq viteo', T r 7ralcSv 'rrnhy/iiieXovvrtv, ovi aibTav
28 'ovo-wrt, eav avTol rwiopovwro-v. OVTW) 8 Kal
iOKpa~TrIV ScKatov Jv CKpIvY"e' eL IJcv a7TO? eLrolE
rTI fa ov, elicoTO); v e64iceI rovr]po; elva' el S'
aVTo9 acrcowpovaov 8tE7Te'e, 7rT( tav &ticaioS T79 oVK
EvoOaVyU avT Ia KicKia albTia e ot;
29 'AXe' el Kal ~irj7 auTo17 7rovrJpov 'rot(v
eceipvov9 ObauXa "rpdTTorTaq Opwv Er veL, &iKacIO
av d7rLTt/J.lTO. KptTb'av I~v Trovvv aloa0avopevo9
epJovTa EBuv8 G4jov Katl retptvTa XP(o-Oatic aOdarep
ol "rpb T7a(poBiota TWV Oo/Ua7dTWV iTroXavovTrf,
a'ne'pejre aicKcov daveXev0epov Te etvat Kal ov
'rpeTrov av4pl KaXa icdyali TOav Pp;Oevov, (
f3ovXe'rat wroXXoi a(to? (alveaOat, rrpoo-arTecv
MEMORABILIA, I. i. 25-29
yielding to temptation were added corruption and
long separation from Socrates, what wonder if they
grew overbearing? For their wrongdoing, then, 26
is Socrates to be called to account by his accuser ?
And does he deserve no word of praise for having
controlled them in the days of their youth, when
they would naturally be most reckless and licentious ?
Other cases, at least, are not so judged. For what 27
teacher of flute, lyre, or anything else, after making
his pupils proficient, is held to blame if they leave
him for another master, and then turn out incom-
petent? What father, whose son bears a good
character so long as he is with one master, but goes
wrong after he has attached himself to another,
throws the blame on the earlier teacher? Is it not
true that the worse the boy turns out with the
second, the higher is his father's praise of the first?
Nay, fathers themselves, living with their sons, are
not held responsible for their boys' wrongdoing if
they are themselves prudent men. This is the test 28
which should have been applied to Socrates too. If
there was anything base in his own life, he might
fairly have been thought vicious. But, if his own
conduct was always prudent, how can he be fairly
held to blame for the evil that was not in him?
Nevertheless, although he was himself free from 29
vice, if he saw and approved of base conduct in them,
he would be open to censure. Well, when lie found
that Critias loved Euthydemus 1 and wanted to lead
him astray, he tried to restrain him by saying that it
was mean and unbecoming in a gentleman to sue
like a beggar to the object of his affection, whose
SIV. ii, 1.
\ ''' / * **" - -s 25 ,
()7TrEp 'To 7rTWXov iCETeOVPTa Kcat Seoevov
30 rrpoar-8 vat, ica TarTa jrjevb' dyaloD. TOO o
Kprltov To9 To0LOVTOIt oVXy v7raKoVovoF ov;8
a'7roTpe ro/-ieov, X~ye'rai TaOv IocparTv aXXowv TE
7roXXCov 'rapovTWd v ical ToD EbIv voj/ov eI7reiv, OTI
VbLKO abT@ SOKOlfr 7IdaaXew 6 Kptta e'mLrtOvt.pv
Eb8vupSj rpoaKv~ro-at a n-rep Tah vita TroZ
KptTrla, "o-re Kcal Tr TOW TrpaKdcovTa wv vopwoOieTi
/LeTa XaputX6ovq eyfveTO, a7ree~Lvqrtovvoev aVT9
Kal dv TOt vo'ot; Al'ypa' e X?,wv 7'e'xvpv 1l
t8do-iceI, e7rped(ov EKeiv Kalt oVbc 'X(wv 0rry
rTLXd/SotLro, dXa TOb Icowv 70T 0LXOO-oOt? 'rbo
T"WV 7roXX?( v gTirttqL(6ievov eV7'nrt~po aLT@ Kal
StaP3cXXov 7rp ro TOv 7roXXhoV. ove 'Yyp e'owEy
OVT aVbTo TO rTO 7To rTOTe O eipaTov' jiKOo-a
Oi'' tXXov TOV 0 oaioKTovTo dc yrcovaL ro06flrvy.
32 4o8j'Xw-e t~' Erwl yap o 7TpdtaovTa 'rokXoi; lhv
T(o 7rXWTOv ia alO TOV EtpO-TOVlo E d'7KTEIVOV,
JokkobV Se 7rrpoeTp7rrovTO d8t6Eri eiTre wouv
wBcpdaTil7, Srt OavuaaTrv ol 01oioi] elvat, et' Tl
'yevo/Ieroi /3owv ayeXly vo/.ev Kal Ta; 8oo
eddTTOV wTe Kcal Xelpov 7rot&Ov /pI d6oLoyoir7
/caK~c 3ovKoXoq elvat, eTL S Oav/jaoTrdorpov, e '
Tt( 7rpoo-TT7? 7erVo/ LEvI roX ITrO~h X cal K roiov TOW'
iro-XiTa dEXdTTovwe Kal ea Xpovs /6 alcy-ve Tat
p8r)' oeTa icatKo elvat IT TaTI7 T7?9 TroXEs).
33 d7arayyeXWevTros S avTot' TOVTOV, icaXeo-avTe "b Tr
KpT6lai Kal o XapjcXj
26 *: *:
: *,' ., -,"
MEMORABILIA, I. 11. 29-33
good opinion he coveted, stooping to ask a favour
that it was wrong to grant. As Critias paid no heed 30
whatever to this protest, Socrates, it is said,
exclaimed in the presence of Euthydemus and many
others, Critias seems to have the feelings of a pig :
he can no more keep away from Euthydemus than V
pigs can help rubbing themselves against stones."
Now Critias bore a grudge against Socrates for this; I
and when he was one of the Thirtyand was drafting
laws with Charicles, he bore it in mind. He inserted
a clause which made it illegal to teach the art of
words." It was a calculated insult to Socrates, whom
he saw no means of attacking, except by imputing
to him the practice constantly attributed to philoso-
phers,1 and so making him unpopular. For I myself
never heard Socrates indulge in the practice, nor
knew of anyone who professed to have heard him do
so. The truth came out. When the Thirty were 32
putting to death many citizens of the highest
respectability and were encouraging many in
crime, Socrates had remarked: "It seems strange
enough to me that a herdsman 2 who lets his cattle
decrease and go to the bad should not admit that he
is a poor cowherd ; but stranger still that a states-
man when he causes the citizens to decrease and go
to the bad, should feel no shame nor think himself a
poor statesman." This remark was reported to 33
Critias and Charicles, who sent for Socrates, showed
1 i.e. the practice of "making the worse appear the better
argument." In Plato, Apol. 19b, Socrates makes Aristophanes
(Clouds) author of this charge against him. Aristotle in the
Rhetoric (B 24, 11) associates the practice with the name of
Protagoras: ep. Diog. Laert. ix. 51.
1 Cyropaedia, vii. ii. 14.
VOLOV iet86LKVT7yv aT ia K rol T O viCo artre6rV
'0 86 E~Wlpatr' ETrTr7peT avlUr, el 17E i rUvvGd-
veOat, e' TI alyvooFTo TOV 7rpoayopevo/IvwP.
To 8' e'a Tyv.
34 'Ely TOLVUV, Ef '7,7rapecrKEVao-paat pev 7retOea'Gat
To0L v6potv' o07Tr) i St'V atlyvoita Xad0o T
7rapavo/,o'a9, TofITo 3oo/.iaio a o'a co flaOeQv 7rap
V/Lo)V, 7TOTepov T o7V TOW XoywV TeXVy ,vy Tot
opOFs X6e^/ofLvotq elvaL voptlovT6s ? O av TOs /M7
jp0ov a7e'XeaXBOal KEXEVeTE aVT-q. el /v yap prvv
T70o op0kS, 8lXov OT ad1etcJeov Av eti To op8&OJ
Xyelw' el 8e O- TOL? iF7 Op9O0s, 8ZXov ZoTt
TreLparTov oph0wo Xeyetv.
35 Kai 6 XaptK cX 6pytaO8el av T, 'Earvei e il,
5; oKpaTe?, ayvoeL%, Trde a-ot evyaeUa Tepa ovra
7rpoaayopevoeLEv, TOL viEov S'X(o p7I\ 8taXe'yeo- at.
Kal d6 O'iWpdT7ry,"Iva olvv, 'oer, jry d 3,ulp oXov
7s dl\o ro a oG w a e TrrporyopevUeva, opto'aTe
jOL, Xi ypt roaov 7 r ETv Se voftetv veovv el vat
Kai 6 XapticXM)f,"Oo-ovrep, ewre, Xpovov /ov-
Xevetv obic e6-TLV, 04 oiruc Opovi'o,; obowr JLke
a &tauEyov vecwrOpot 7'ptadiovra erov.
36 M178' edv TI wvtlai,, C 7 jv rwoXA veCwTepov
Tptaidcova edrT, epwotai, O6roaov wXeL ;
Nai Ta 7y TotavTa, 'o?7 6 XaptcXi"' dXXd TOt
a-ye, cc ICpaTEC;, ef'8Oa els8) 7TO QXELe Ta
7rXeFa'ra pepwrav. Tavra owv pi 'p ra.
Mr8' a7rOKpivw&/at o'v, e"r07, aiv T /)6e eprTa
Yeoc, erv ello\ olov 7rTO olice Xapt/AcX n roi 'eoT
MEMORABILIA, I. II. 33-36
him the law and forbade him to hold conversation
with the young.
May I question you," asked Socrates, in case I do
not understand any point in your orders ?"
You may," said they.
"Well now," said he, I am ready to obey the laws. 34
But lest I unwittingly transgress through ignorance,
I want clear directions from you. Do you think that
the art of words from which you bid me abstain is
associated with sound or unsound reasoning? For
if with sound, then clearly I must abstain from
sound reasoning: but if with unsound, clearly I must
try to reason soundly."
"Since you are ignorant, Socrates," said Charicles 35
in an angry tone, "we put our order into language \
easier to understand. You may not hold any con-
verse whatever with the young."
Well then," said Socrates, that there may be no
question raised about my obedience, please fix the
age limit below which a man is to be accounted
"So long," replied Charicles, "as he is not per-
mitted to sit in the Council, because as yet he lacks
wisdom. You shall not converse with anyone who i
is under thirty."
Suppose I want to buy something, am I not even 36
then to ask the price if the seller is under thirty ? "
"Oh yes," answered Charicles, you may in such
cases. But the fact is, Socrates, you are in the habit \
of asking questions to which you know the answer:
so that is what you are not to do."
Am I to give no answer, then, if a young man asks
me something that I know ?-for instance, Where
does Charicles live?' or Where is Critias ?' "
Na' -rdc ye rotaDra, bfn0 d XaptrcXKq.
37 'O Ze KpLtras, 'AXXh Tr&v48 Tob o(e are ao-Oat
7), Se-4"ae, & ZIcpaTre, T&v CICVTcrw Kal TWV
TeCTOPWOV icat T&v XaXewv' ical yap olltat avTrov'
S8r icaTareTrpTb9Pat &a0pvXovuc'vov( V'r OTOV.
Obicoov, 6~47 d EowicpdT~r,, Kca 7C)V Ero-OEVV
TOVTOL; TOO TE StIatov iKal TOO O'iLO Ical 7WV
aXXv T7WV TOTOUiToV;
Nal /h At', e'07 d XaptrcXj, ical T~Ov povIcd-
Xwv 7ye el 8e Pi', VXdoTTOv, b'rwy yji KIal a-c
38 eXa'TTro Ta'q /3o01v Trotroy-s'.
"EvOa ial 830Xov EyEveTO, OTt adrayyeX,0evToL
abTro TO 70 T epi TWn)V 0poOv Xoyov opyl ovTo T(
O'ia LEPv ov& 7 a-vvovoia eyey6ve' KpiTia 7rpob
.icKpaiTv Kcal 4a e'Xov 7opb Ip XXXrjovq, etpriat.
39 4ai'rv 8' av e'ywye pjl fevIl ~ttr8e/av elvat 7ralvcatv
7rapa T70 p17 apeaKtovTro. KptTa, as' Kal 'AXciL-
ldeip'1 OIp dpOG-COVTro avTrov IFOICparTOv9 6(ptX)-
aTr77v by Xpovov (OjIXelTr7v avto, aXX evfOs ef
apry,? wp/IicOTe 7rpoeoaTavet T7,rwXe'o. &veT
'yap oiKpCTral OvvOvrTEs OVK adXXotr TC0L Ja0XXov
eWTreetpovv 8taXeyeaeOat I TO dtiaXto-Ta 7rpdr'rovo
40 TA 7roXtrTdCa. XeyETrat yap 'AXKtictd8]v, -rplv
eLIcootv eTo() elvat, Hepic\el, E7rtrTpo7Trq pev oTvr
eavTov, 7rpoo-aTdT 8T 7 r 7rtXE n, TOtdie Sta-
XeXOglvat 7repi volwv.
41 EbTre pot, advat, 6 HlepIIcKetg, eXot" ? av fe
8tSa at, Tt earT vo'oS ;
HIdvTrow 8 ?rov, 4pdvat TOv T eptckXa.
Ai8a'ov 8r 7rpb? To)v OeOv, (advat TOv 'AXct-
etdi'8v E9 AIco) .K Ttvwv E )raLtov.EIvrW OTt
MEMORABILIA, I. In. 36-41
"Oh yes," answered (haricles, "you may, in such
"But you see, Socrates," explained Critias, "you 3
will have to avoid your favourite topic,-the cobblers, V
builders and metal workers ; for it is already worn
to rags by you in my opinion."
Then must I keep off the subjects of which
these supply illustrations, Justice, Holiness, and so
forth ? "
"Indeed yes," said Charicles, "and cowherds too: /
else you may find the cattle decrease."
Thus the truth was out: the remark about the 38
cattle had been repeated to them: and it was this
that made them angry with him.
So much, then, for the connexion of Critias with
Socrates and their relation to each other. I venture 39
to lay it down that learners get nothing from a
teacher with whom they are out of sympathy. Now,
all the time that Critias and Alcibiades associated
with Socrates they were out of sympathy with him,
but from the very first their ambition was political
advancement. For while they were still with him,
they tried to converse, whenever possible, with
prominent politicians. Indeed, there is a story 40
told of Alcibiades, that, when he was less than
twenty years old, he had a talk about laws with
Pericles, his guardian, the first citizen in the State.
"Tell me, Pericles," he said, "can you teach me 41
what a law is ?"
"Certainly," he replied.
"Then pray teach me. For whenever I hear
men praised for keeping the laws, it occurs to me
1 Cyropaedia, vI. ii. 37.
vo/1JtILt aiv pe's elo, ol/at/7) av 8t7calmo TOVTOV
vTUXEv TO7 E7raivov rbv TP eld'ra, 7i ear
42 'AXX' ovb6v Tr XaXe7roD 7rpady/ia'ro" ErtVivIjevL,
& 'AXcKi/3pidr, odvat 7T-V IHepLKXE'a, /ovX6evo,
y vval, TL eo-Tr voo6,9" TaPT6es yap ovrot, v1OpOL
delo-, obv Tob rXOos avvyeX0bv Ical BoKtbdcaav
TIrepov Se Taya9a voplo-Pav Se v WiroteLy A T
TdyaGa v7 Ala, divat, W /ietpdicloV, Ta' 8e
43 'Eav 8' IL' TO 7vX0o09, AX' &.o-rep 5o7ov
oXtyapyla EOTt'r, A XyoL avve60XdTef ypdfwatv
o Tt Xpr] rotewv, TavTa T7 eot ;
IdivTa, ddvat, o"aa v TOb cpaTovv Ti7j roXcheto
/3ovXeevo'dGvov & Xp t 7roev ypdify, vop.ov
Kai av r Tpavvo' ov tcpa'rTv T7'? r 7roX
ypa'dr Tro 7roXi Lat Xp"& p 7rote', ical raTra
Kai 50aa 'rpavvos apXywv, cdvat, ypd(fet, /cal
TavTa voP1l? KaXkhrat.
44 Bla U Odaval, Kcal Iavopia T1 eariv, C liepl-
KXvEL; ap' oyX OTavy /KpeirTwov TOv T 7TW TTrj
7rela-as, AXXa /tao-a/aevor avayKaay 7rotiely Tt
av ab'T OKrc ;
"Ewosye 8olcet, idLvatL rv HIepucXKa.
Kat oo-a apa -rvpavvo' p L)7 era-aa TO7V roXlTaS'
avayKi/'c t v'otdev ypadov, avo.La ErT ;
oiced pot, O/dvat Tryv HepiKca'a dvaLrTL/caL
yap TO oo-a rvpavvo pi7] ,relo-a q ypa et vofiov elvat.
MEMORABILIA, I. i1. 41-44
that no one can really deserve that praise who does
not know what a law is."
"Well, Alcibiades, there is no great difficulty 42
about what you desire. You wish to know what a
law is. Laws are all the rules approved and enacted
by the majority in assembly, whereby they declare
what ought and what ought not to be done."
"Do they suppose it is right to do good or evil ?"
"Good, of course, young man,-not evil."
"But if, as happens under an oligarchy, not the 43
majority, but a minority meet and enact rules of
conduct, what are these ? "
"Whatsoever the sovereign power in the State,
after deliberation, enacts and directs to be done is
known as a law."
"If, then, a despot, being the sovereign power,
enacts what the citizens are to do, are his orders
also a law ?"
"Yes, whatever a despot as ruler enacts is also
known as a law."
"But force, the negation of law, what is that, 44
Pericles ? Is it not the action of the stronger when
he constrains the weaker to do whatever he chooses,
not by persuasion, but by force? "
"That is my opinion."
"Then whatever a despot by enactment con-
strains the citizens to do without persuasion, is the
negation of law? "
"I think so: and I withdraw my answer that
whatever a despot enacts without persuasion is a
45 "Oo-a & i ol AXlyos TO7Vb orXXoX / r) relo-avTe9,
Axad lcparovre 4 uypduovor, TrEPrpov tSlav pGOflev
2 uj 1iwtevP elvat ;
dlavra Iot 8ocei, cdvat Torv IleptuXia, S-a rvL
?7 rwreita a vayicdxe rTva 'roieiv, eire lypda~ v eilr
pu71, /Sa ullXXov 7 vo'zoo elvat.
Kai b'aoa apa Tob 7rv irXa Oo icparoOv Trv Ta
Xyp jara eyOVTwo ypadeS pJAN 7rea-av, /3la UidXxov
\ vop/o av eL ;
46 MdXa TOt, 0dvat TOv IepucX a, w 'AXK/CeLdS3,
Ical eZ T rfk9XIKoroVTo OvrT E9 8vot Ta TotavTa
?1piev TotavTa cyap Ica e.ieXE'rGTOfev Ical eo-o bo6-
/~fOa, oltTrep Ial oa- vvv Edo't O8/ICe9 AfEX6Tav.
Tov 8 'AXXKIqa3tdL v (a'var* E1'6e ao-, a
IhepIKXEt, rTOTr a-vveyavo/rlv, ore SetvoTaTo9
47 oavroD TaGTa 15a-0a. 67rel rolvvv Trato-Ta Tv4
7roXLE vo/evow v vb7rEa/3ov KIpeTTrove elvat, Im-
IcpaTet /ev ovICE r 'Tpoopaeo-aZv oUie 'yap avroti
Alhnoq peflKev et T irpoo-aeh oev, wbrp wv
jLdpTavov EXe6YX/,EvOt jXOOvrTO' rTa e T;
v7roqe 'elrpaTTov, wvTrep gvecev Kal iwKpadTe
48 'AXXh Kpl'v aT ~Eicpa'Tov Iv doLtXrT? Kcal
XatpeGov Icac XatpeKcpadry T al 'Epf.oyevy cal
2(/wtlaq Ical Ke3Qijy /cal FaLtc8v8aq ical d'XXos, ot
icefivE aTvvio-rav oYx,.--va- .i o LOYpK o i S IaviKol
ryevovTro, aXX' Irva KaXot re1 cKyalo'/evoc ievoo Kcal
O'cIW Kat olcIKTatL Kcat Ka 0oi9t a aXot9 Icai 7rolXet
Kal TroXlTrat UvatVrTO K 5aXOkj Xpga-Oat. KIal TOV-
Tw7( Obel? ouiTr VEWoTpos oime w7pea-/vTepo9 (A
OUv' eTrolo7 KcatcKv ov0eV OUT' arTLav ea-yev.
MEMORABILIA, I. u. 45-48
"And when the minority passes enactments, not 45
by persuading the majority, but through using its
power, are we to call that force or not ?"
Everything, I think, that men constrain others
to do 'without persuasion,' whether by enactment
or not, is not law, but force."
"It follows then, that whatever the assembled
majority, through using its power over the owners
of property, enacts without persuasion is not law,
but force ? "
"Alcibiades," said Pericles, "at your age, I may 46
tell you, we, too, were very clever at this sort of
thing. For the puzzles we thought about and
exercised our wits on were just such as you seem
to think about now."
"Ah, Pericles," cried Alcibiades, "if only I had
known you intimately when you were at your
cleverest in these things "
So soon, then, as they presumed themselves to be 47
the superiors of the politicians, they no longer came
near Socrates. For apart from their general want
of sympathy with him, they resented being cross-
examined about their errors when they came.
Politics had brought them to Socrates, and for
politics they left him. But Criton was a true asso- 48
ciate of Socrates, as were Chaerophon, Chaerecrates,
Hermogenes, Simmias, Cebes, Phaedondas, and
others who consorted with him not that they
might shine in the cou he assembly, but that
they might becomnentlemen and be able to do "
their duty by house a -husehold and relatives .
and friends nA.aicityA itiaens. Of these not I
one, in is youth or old age, did evil or incurred
49 'AXXa owcp Trry 7', 'rl Ka7r-'yopov, 70T;
wraT~pa? ,'rpovrnXaKicetv 8eooaacre, 7rwelwv pev
Tovq ouvvovTaur eauv (o-o)rwepov; 7roteE TWv
Twarepwv, diacKwv 86 KaTa vLOV feie'ELvat 7rapa-
voaq Xvr VTi Kal Tov rarepa vo-ati, reiac7PL'p
TOvTp XypOYfevor', ws TO\V aIa0erToepov IrTO TO70
60 aooarTepov v4pplov eI77 6 8eo-OaL. iCKpaTd7r) 8e
TOPv dUEP aOtlay 'veca eao'/-efov'a 8ticaleo av
kca abrTv EwoE SeBoa ai Vr TTO T rtV rTa.Lvu)v
a p6r] aV'oy eTnrarTaTa cai TO T01OVTWV eveKa
vrolhXxcaK 6a-KTore, T7 Stale pep ,av'la aptaOla'
iKaL Tos' Lev piatvopevovS V ETO UVp~E povTWl; av
SeSeo-al Kalb avTro1, Kal T70 41>io;, roV; 8 p1i
eTri-Ta/yjevov Ta\ (SovPTa 8ticaLwSw av pavO'vetv
7rapa TWV EMTr-TaJievcv.
51 'AXXa :0)KpadTl' ye, e'f) o KIaT7'0Ypo', Ovb t/vov
To? raTerpaSl, aXXah Kcal rovb aXXov o-0v7yeveLC
eTroLet ev aTt/~ a elvat 'rapa Tovl eavTCo a-vvovat,
Xeywv, ( OVUre TOVI Kca/iVOVTas OUTC TOVU StKao-
/ vovS ol a-vyyeveCi oeXoOafiv, dXXa TOWVS' /I ol
52 laTpol, ToV' S8 ol G-vvolicev e'r7TTa/~Tdevo. e'O "e
cait reply TojV iXw)v avTOrv X YE v, 6s! oai~v 'bXekov
evvovS elvat, el u? Kal O)EXheiv Svvlo-jovrTat
poovvq Se cia'Cocew avC'ov atl ovw elvat TLfj7v TroVI;
eloTras Ta T~ ovTa Kal epfJcplvev-at ~vva/LevovP"
ava7Tel9ovTa oav Tro; veovq avrvy, (An auvTO eG77
TOcfXTaTo' TE Kal a\Xovs iKavr)TaToF Trotro-at
o-o )ov, OVi70T) iartvat TorV eavT (vUo'VTaS,
w)oTE p,8atLoD arap' avbro' TOv adXXovv elvat 7rpo0'
53 aTov. eyc 8' avab ovla v ical riept -r iaTepo
re Kat T4V a'XXwv UovyYevpv ica 7repti c1fXwv aTavTa
Xe'ovTa ical 'rpb- TourotOL 'ye 8 OTI Trlv lvXi7v
MEMORABILIA, I. n. 49-53
"But," said his accuser, "Socrates taught sons to 49
treat their fathers with contempt: he persuaded
them that he made his companions wiser than their /
fathers: he said that the law allowed a son to put
his father in prison if he convinced a jury that he
was insane; and this was a proof that it was lawful
for the wiser to keep the more ignorant in gaol."
In reality Socrates held that, if you clap fetters on 50
a man for his ignorance, you deserve to be kept in
gaol yourself by those whose knowledge is greater
than your own: and such reasoning led him
frequently to consider the difference between Mad-
ness and Ignorance. That madmen should be kept
in prison was expedient, he thought, both for them-
selves and for their friends: but those who are
ignorant of what they ought to know deserve to
learn from those who know it.
"But," said his accuser, "Socrates caused his 51
companions to dishonour not only their fathers, but
their other relations as well, by saying that invalids
and litigants get benefit not from their relations,
but from their doctor or their counsel. Of friends 52
too he said that their goodwill was worthless,
unless they could combine with it some power to
help one: only those deserved honour who knew
what was the right thing to do, and could explain it.
Thus by leading the young to think that he excelled
in wisdom and in ability to make others wise, he
had such an effect on his companions that no one
counted for anything in their estimation in com-
parison with him." Now I know that he did use 53
this language about fathers, relations and friends.
And, what is more, he would say that so soon as
feXOoi~a~;, ev y 6ovqy lyvvera, povyrOt, TO awCojta
Too olicetoh Tov adv'pOa rov a TV TayXIaTTv Eevfey-
54 KavTre' licavl ovcrtv. AXeye 8e, oT Ka6 C v I, Kaaro
eavTov, 8o 7TaTOW V aEiXtora t Xet, TO0 o-iIaroT
OT av aXpeov Kal ra dvoeX aTds eT6 d1asped
Keal a'XX 7rapXe't. avTrot r ye av'rv ovvxyd9 re
al 7pl'a'x ca ai TXovI &atcpoori Kail Toi larpoii
7rapexovot ftea r ovtov rTe ical AXy lvov ical
a7TorJlvetv Ical aroaiciew Kca Torov Xaptv otovrat
Sewv airo Kaical fo-LOv rTver t KaI T7 o- ciaov eic
ro0 o-Tro'arov aTrowrrVovo-tv Wvs iSvavrat Troppto-
TatTO, 8LOTt (eEXd /.lEV ovSev avTov' evoi /3xa,7TTe
55 ~B 7roXv ri& XXov. raF7' oiv AXeyev o TO'v ,uev
ararppa /wvra IcaopLTTnev &Y 8 -ica eavurov &
icaTrarTuvetv, aXX' diTrteticv6v, b'rT rb (ipov
aci&tv cort, 7rapexX/cet ertlXeto-'Oa Tro TO
4povtd(ra'ov elval ical coftelXtp7rarov, 57M'Ow, Edv
re i7ro 7arps Id'v 6e b'7VTO aSefXoD v re Vr'
tXXov Tw'tV /3ovXralrat tiatiaoat, p/2 T7i ot0LKCo
elval rto'C-Trev adeXlj, aXXh 7reipa'rat b"' 4v av
3ov\'rraL Triao-Oat, TOV'ro13 74Xt/lzo' elvat.
56 "Ei o 8S' avtrov canryo K poi al 7a v vSoorda'Crwv
7rOtl77T&Cv KcXeydoevov a Tr'rovirpoTaTa Kcal rOVToto;
)/apTvplot' Xppwkevov 8Lta-,cew TOv a-'vvOvTa
Kcacovp;pov re' elvat Kca' Tvpavvtcov;', 'Ho-a60v
"Ep7ov 8' ov'Sv Ovet8or depyly 8 6'vetSo" "
T70ro 8j7 Xe',yetv aVT'ov W d rot'Tr'; IceXevet ]7-
8evb\ e'pyov I4T7' a tlicov /T47 alo-apoiv areXeo-at,
57 dXXa i K ral vaa 7rotEzv e7Trt 7 icKpSe. WICpaTrTlv
8' T7re 8tto/LoXoy4raTalTO Tob Iv epyqiT'rv e vat
MEMORABILIA, I. n. 53-57
the soul, the only seat of intelligence, is gone out of
a man, even though he be our nearest and dearest,
we carry out his body and hide it in the tomb.
Moreover, a man's dearest friend is himself: yet, 54
even in his lifetime he removes or lets another
remove from his body whatever is useless and
unprofitable. He removes his own nails, hair, corns:
he lets the surgeon cut and cauterize him, and, aches
and pains notwithstanding, feels bound to thank
and fee him for it. He spits out the saliva from
his mouth as far away as he can, because to retain
it doesn't help him, but harms him rather.
Now in saying all this, he was not giving a lesson
on "the duty of burying one's father alive, or
making mincemeat of one's body": he meant to
show that unreason is unworth, and was urging the
necessity of cultivating sound sense and usefulness,
in order that he who would fain be valued by father
or by brother or by anyone else may not rely on the
bond of familiarity and neglect him, but may try to
be useful to all those by whom he would be valued.
Again, his accuser alleged that he selected 56
from the most famous poets the most immoral
passages, and used them as evidence in teaching
his companions to be tyrants and malefactors: for
example, Hesiod's line:
"No work is a disgrace, but idleness is a disgrace."
He was charged with explaining this line as an
injunction to refrain from no work, dishonest or
disgraceful, but to do anything for gain. Now, 57
though Socrates would fully agree that it is a
1 Works and Days, 309.
oce tAiiov Tre avfpor'T icait dya9bOo elvat, Tob 6
ap'ybv /3Xapepov Tr Kail catcov, ical rb p)v
Ep'ydCeOata L 'ya06v, To 8' dpyeEV KaKovC, TOk IAEv
agaOov TL rroLoDvTrav epydeaEOai re s qr Ical
eipyaTra elval, T7ro 86 Kvs3evovTa Ti a Xo
7rovlpbY Kica irtg/jtov rrotovivra ayobv a7r-
CeKdea dE 8 TroUTrWv WpiW av E'oi To
"Epyov 8' obi3ev gveiOsO, depylri 84e' 0vet8Os.
58 To 86 'Opr6pov &~' 6 KcaT'r4jopoq roXXa#ic avTov
A wyeLv, on 'Ovo-a'evC
"OrvTwa fIev Rao-iXla Ical 'oyXov alv8pa tKLXI'1,
TOPv ayavo; e4rreeo-atr epr7Tvo-aO-K rapaarTaG'
8alopvt', o oae 'otice KcaxcKv w( 8ei86t oaeraOat,
dXX' aVdT T6 Ka'ric 0o cal aiXXov? "'Spve Xaovv.
ov 8' av 84jtov 7' av8pa '8Soi ood~wvrd T' er evpoi,
TOyv o-KcrTp A edo-acaaev 6 dOKic ao-jaaci e TC'6w
8atlIovt', a'Tpepaa fo-o Kal a'XXcov jpOov alcove,
o't 0ro eo prepol elo'E- Oa 8' aTr'TXeL/o' ical
oir~e TOT roXe'i evapiO Oyo oriT' evi /ovkn.
Trava 8] avbov 'iyeZaOat, ( o 7rOti77T e; 7r'aivoi/r
59 wratelOas TOV 8 7uo'Ta ical 77-reTag. SwicpdrTy
8' ov 7arv7' Xeye, Kal ryap eavTov OVT7 'y' av VETO
dev rraiteaat, aXX' '0? SEE TOVro p17ITe Xoy 11 rjT
eplyW ~eXioovi ovraq icat r7Te e apaTevlaaTt PFLre
?ioXeCL, Trej avT, rI 84ij 6e' ,t 8eo, 3Sonev
itcavoiw, aXXws T eav rrpos TovrT Vcal Opaoelv
worr, 7ravra Tpporrov icKXvac6at, Kica&V ivv 7rXot-
60 a-ot TVyXd'OvTos iv Tre. XXah OWKpaT'77]v ye
MEMORABILIA, I. n. 57-60
benefit and a blessing to a man to be a worker, and
a disadvantage and an evil to be an idler-that
work, in fact, is a blessing, idleness an evil-" work-
ing," "being a worker," meant to him doing good
work; but gambling and any occupation that is
immoral and leads to loss he called idling. When
thus interpreted there is nothing amiss with the
No work is a disgrace, but idleness is a disgrace."
Again, his accuser said that he often quoted the 58
passage from Homer, showing how Odysseus:
"Whenever he found one that was a captain and
a man of mark, stood by his side, and restrained
him with gentle words: Good sir, it is not seemly
to affright thee like a coward, but do thou sit
thyself and make all thy folk sit down. . .' But
whatever man of the people he saw and found him
shouting, him he drove with his sceptre and chid
him with loud words: 'Good sir, sit still and
hearken to the words of others that are thy betters:
but thou art no warrior and a weakling, never
reckoned whether in battle or in council.' 1
This passage, it was said, he explained to mean
that the poet approved of chastising common and
poor folk. But Socrates never said that: indeed, 9
on that view he would have thought himself worthy
of chastisement. But what he did say was that those
who render no service either by word or deed, who
cannot help army or city or the people itself in time
of need, ought to be stopped, even if they have /
riches in abundance, above all if they are insolent as
well as inefficient. But Socrates, at least, was just 0
1 Iliad, n1. 188; Leaf's translation.
TavaVTla TOVTO)V oavepbFq jv ical S7y1OTIeKOc KIal
ftX'dvQ pwroT wv. dKicvoq ,yap 7roXXob' deT'Ov-
L77rTar icatl darobv ical ~Eov hap"3'v ov,'va
7Ir(7roTe /pwLtBv T7 aovvovorlaV, e7rpdaTO', aXXa
7riaaov o0vw TipKIe Tr avTo" rAv T
pjicpa LepIt 7rap' Eeivov 7rpoica af vTe' 7wroXXo
Trol aXXoti 6'w ddovv ical otc Ijoav laO'rep e dcevoq
8>aorticolt. TOt? yap /pr plgovea Xppiara 8dW vat
61 oVic ?OeXov taXe'ye6e0at. AXXAh l Ecp'irf ye al
-p' 'ob aiXov av9ppdroov i'o-ov u-v r -et
7rpo? TO;O aX'XOvq JVqpw'rOv9 KO0C"-OV q ro'xdet
wrapede, 7roXXro /itaXXov 1 AiXa? Tr Aaice-
8at/joviwv, T OVo/ao-TO eT ri TO 70v9a yeyove.
AiXaT /lev yap TalT yvtvo7rateia T~ robVT dTItSq-
pUOv'raFv v Aafcefaliiovt evov, dS6elirvcte, 2o-
KpdacTr7 8\ &S 7ravro troT /3tov Tah avTov
Sauav4iv TA Le'Iywara rdvTal To's SX3ovXoYe'vovq
4efe- /3eX'r6ovT yap ITOvU ToVS ovyy/yvo~LIevovc
62 'Efuo\l tev S~) XZiKpaTr17'r TotoTo? A'V 8ocet
TtL/.ffi atoF elvatl 7q 7 rdet aiiXXov ~ Oavadov.
Kac Ka ica. Tov vb)ov9 86 o .ovrw Av Tv TI ro0'
eipot. Kcara yap Torv voILovVS, Edv T 9 oavepog
yevrrat icKXe'i rwv X&ouro8vr iv /3aXav7LoTO/J iv
97 rooXswpvX^wv Wj avopaTro8LtolievoT A? lepoovXkov,
TTovroLgV OcvaToV eo-TItv ,1 ~7/la" cO celvoO 7radvTW
63 advv8p(7rov 7TrXelaov dwreiXer. XXah /~ v T7r1
7roXhe ye oU7 e W'okeov cacd v o-vVl3dTro o're
-Tao-eto oUre 7rpoooataq ov e itXov cKacov
oi8veb' 7ro'rote af'To? lyovero' oy\8 uv / 18j la ye
ovt8va 7W7Troye avOpyrwv ov0ie aya&wv adre-
O-TeprYOe oi;e Kcaicoq rwepe'/3aXev, dAc ovb'
MEMORABILIA, I., i. 60-63
the opposite of all that: he showed himself to be
one of the people and a friend of mankind. For
although he had many eager disciples among citizens
and strangers, yet he never exacted a fee for his
society from one of them, but of his abundance he
gave without stint to all. Some indeed, after
getting from him a few trifles for nothing, became
vendors of them at a great price to others, and
showed none of his sympathy with the people,
refusing to talk with those who had no money to
give them.' But Socrates did far more to win 61
respect for the State in the world at large than
Lichas, whose services to Sparta have made his name
immortal. For Lichas used to entertain the strangers
staying at Sparta during the Feast of the Dancing
Boys; but Socrates spent his life in lavishing his
gifts and rendering the greatest services to all who
cared to receive them. For he always made his
associates better men before he parted with them.
Such was the character of Socrates. To me he 62
seemed to deserve honour rather than death at the
hands of the State. And a consideration of his case
in its legal aspect will confirm my opinion. Under
the laws, death is the penalty inflicted on persons
proved to be thieves, highwaymen, cutpurses, kid-
nappers, robbers of temples ; and from such criminals
no man was so widely separated as he. Moreover, 63
to the State he was never the cause of disaster in
war, or strife or treason or any evil whatever.
Again, in private life no man by him was ever
1 Aristippus especially is meant.
2 According to Eusebius this festival, which was held in
the summer, was instituted in honour of the Spartans who
fell fighting against the Argives for the possession of Thyrea.
64 ai Tav '70V eprlfevuo ov8evO's 7ro7roT eo'X. 7r(w
ovv av evoXo? e6n? 7 T ypao, ; k adP7 fLEV 70TV
jLr vopliew 6eoiv, 69 ev T71 ypai Eye'parro,
Oavep' 'yv Oepairevowv Tro' eovv /ahXto-Ta 7rdvrTov
fv~pol/ov, / a
avlpcw7rwv, ad avT' 8 ToO Sta(0eitpetv TobV veovs, 0
87o ypatirdpevo; abrov 7rtTiro, oavepop Jv TWIV
avvPOTovTWv TOVU 7Tr pa' w-rtUv/ulaV 6e orTa? rTv-
TOV htev 7ravov, T719 8' caXXilo'CrT ical l~eyaXo-
7rpereo-TaTi7 aperT 7, y 7roXet 7re xcal oLIcot e6
olicovat, porpoTpTrcov E'rtOFv"6vt ravTa 86 TrpaTTirw
7r)cO0 o) PeLyaX17T altoF 'V T/I27Jj 77 7ro^ e ;
III. '12 8 Kaal XeXEv 6 e8d/ec /aL0t 70Tob9 vvov-
Tal Ta ,ev epyC Seticvuior eavT v olo 77V, T 8A ical
StaXeyo'lero, t70ovT y ) ypadqrco oroa av Stapvlr-
TA 1v ro TvvVv 'rpo' ro70V eob9vs Oaveph 7v ical
7roLcv Ical Xe'yov jtrep 7 j Ilvoia dTroKpLve6ra
TOtI ep(Ta0-t, 7T,; SeFt iroteiV 7repit Ovola, A
7repti rpoyovcwv GepaTreta9 2 7repl aXXov TtVOw TrV
ToLOVTv 77 re yap Ivfla vo'/,p Tro Xew avatpeF
7rotoDvvraq evba-e3S; Av 7rotelv rWKcpaTr'f 7e oVT()
Ical aro? droaet ical rol7 XXot '7raprvyt, T70' 8S
XXop) 7rwg 7rotovTaraS 'repiepov' ical taraloS'
2 evo/lte6v elvat. Kal 6 e1ero 8E 7rpb? rov9 60eob
trXco9 Tdaya0a 6L8oval, (o T rou 0eo;v Ka'XXto-Ta
eai'o7a, rTrola (dyaod eorT' TouV S' ebXO0IEov1 U
Xpva1ov 72 apyvptov l 1rvpavvt8a 1 aXXo7 Tt T7v
7TOLOVTV OS Pv Stad)opov evotiev e SaEo-ac 7 el
icv13eav 'L $d Xrv 2 aiXXo 7t ElXOtwTo T7v Oavep6o
3 S!XAv 'Tor7rw ba7ro/0r'o-orTO. OvOla 8' Owv
MEMORABILIA, I. In. 63-111. 3
deprived of good or involved in ill. None of these 64
crimes was ever so much as imputed to him. How
then could he be guilty of the charges ? For so far
was he from "rejecting the gods," as charged in the
indictment, that no man was more conspicuous for
his devotion to the service of the gods: so far from
"corrupting the youth," as his accuser actually
charged against him, that if any among his com-
panions had evil desires, he openly tried to reform
them and exhorted them to desire the fairest and
noblest virtue, by which men prosper in public life
and in their homes. By this conduct did he not
deserve high honour from the State ?
Ill. In order to support my opinion that he
benefited his companions, alike by actions that
revealed his own character and by his conversation,
I will set down what I recollect of these.
First, then, for his attitude towards religion; his
deeds and words were clearly in harmony with the
answer given by the Priestess at Delphi to such
questions as "What is my duty about sacrifice ?" or
about "cult of ancestors." For the answer of the
Priestess is, "Follow the custom of the State: that
is the way to act piously." And so Socrates acted
himself and counselled others to act. To take any
other course he considered presumption and folly.
And again, when he prayed he asked simply for 2
good gifts,1" for the gods know best what things are
good." To pray for gold or silver or sovereignty or
any other such thing, was just like praying for a
gamble or a fight or anything of which the result
is obviously uncertain.
Though his sacrifices were humble, according to 3
1 Cyropaedia, i. vi. 5.
JIcpac T7ro fLK IKpcv ovrev ?7yeTro feto0elOat TWV
adrb 7roXXCv IcaL p.eywdXv 7roXoXha Kca peydXa
OVOVT0V. o'Te 'yAp T0i OCeoI E~r KcaX(, e'ev,
el TaZu pieydXarv Ovo-laiss fiaXXov r Tatqv tciKpati
Xatpov 7roXXa'ict yap av avToZt TA 7rapa Tov
'rovr7pwov upaXXov A Ta rapa T(v Xpra'TO)v elvat
Kceaptoirteva ovr' av TOt avOposrot1 a'ltov elvat
Njv, l Ta' 7rapA T&V rovrppov /,paixov Av
IKeaptrpf'va TOE9 OEo0l i' T a Iraph TA( Xppr0oTwv'
IXX' vdo/pt1e T70oq eovs Ta,' rapa T7V evEe-
-earTCWaOV T/IaLS /doXra-IToa xalpetv. E'rratveTr 8'
,qv Kca 7TO e'iroTU TOV'TOV,
KaWvapttv S' 'pSetv lep' daavdToto-t Oeotit.
Kal 7rpbq 4lXovo9 6 Kcal e'vove Icalt 'pb1 i7 Tl aXX77v
altTav /caX)v efj 7rapalveotv elvat Tv KasoW-
4 vatv 'pSetv. el TI eo E1Ev avo crlaLalve~'at
7rapa TCOV Oe6v5, rTTO v tv eTreao-G 'rapa TA
o-irflatropeea 7rotjoati i4 et' Tt aVToW 6re7tev
68o0 Xa/3ewv freIdva TVOpXbv Kalt I) eld7 a T)V
o6bv aVT /3eXovTrowO Ka a eldTO9" ia TWV a 'XXv
8 puoplav KiaTr7Iype, oltTVEq 7rapa Ta r ro T0OV
Oe )v o arjatvOdiveva rotoD o- T(t vXarTTO/avot Tr\v
7rapa TOFT av0po7rot9 a4ootav. avTo's '7rdTa
Tav0pwr7rtva vrepewpa vrpby 7Tr 'rTapa T&v e7&v
5 Ata'Tp Se 71 TV Te vfrX?\v eralieva-e ical T
0oiypa, i XpmIloevo; av Tr7, El /I TL SataLO ov E'iL,
OappaXew' Kcal do-aaX? Sitd'yot Kal oVc av
a'Iop'7jete To-ravT?7)y Savirvr]p. ov'rw TAp eTve XI\
1 Hesiod, Works and Days, 336.
MEMORABILIA, I. in. 3-5
his means, he thought himself not a whit inferior to
those who made frequent and magnificent sacrifices
out of great possessions. The gods (he said) could
not well delight more in great offerings than in
small-for in that case must the gifts of the wicked
often have found more favour in their sight than
the gifts of the upright-and man would not find
life worth having, if the gifts of the wicked were
received with more favour by the gods than the
gifts of the upright. No, the greater the piety of
the giver, the greater (he thought) was the delight
of the gods in the gift. He would quote with
approval the line:
"According to thy power render sacrifice to the
immortal gods," 1
and he would add that in our treatment of friends
and strangers, and in all our behaviour, it is a noble
principle to render according to our power. If ever 4
any warning seemed to be given him from heaven,
he would more easily have been persuaded to choose
a blind guide who did not know the road in
preference to one who could see and knew the way,
than to disregard the admonition. All men, in
fact, who flouted the warnings of the gods in their
anxiety to avoid the censure of men, he denounced
for their foolishness.- He himself despised all human
opinions in comparison with counsel given by the
He schooled his body and soul by following a
system which, in all human calculation, would give
him a life of confidence and security, and would
make it easy to meet his expenses. For lie was so
1V, &er' OVK ol"' et T~ ovrTO av okvya Epy40td o,
woT0e /IL7 Xa/Pf3,pvEv T'a 'ICWpaTEt adpcovvTa. o-T
p.Ev yap To0rooVTW eXP-Tro, o-o7v '&O'e o-Ote*" ital
erml TVoTO OIT ) 7rapeao rvao-fievoqo "'e, ware 7v
e'ritvuav 7TO aiLTov orov avT;r evat" rVOTOV
7rav '8 v v aria ti L 7To rVELv, el fL7 e l rp w.
6 el e' 7rOTe IKXcleO't MfeXjoertev ert Se ieTVov edX0ev,
8 To70i rXe-LTOtF ep'ywSeTa 'TaTOv ETar, ware
cvXadaoaOa To re p 'iv KGopov e/L'1ri7rXao-0at,
TOVTO pa&'w( 7r'vv EVX\dT"rero. TotS Se pr7 8vva-
poevoI' Touro iroteLv covve/3oXeve cavXTrTeEoat
Ta 'reLOovTa /i' ireLvWVTTaq dfo-'iev uLq78 8tejf&Ta,
rveive- Icai 'yap Ta Xv/iatv6ofeva yaarTpa' ical
7 Kc aX\9 /cal i*v ah Ta~T' a ip0 elvat. o'io-Oat 8'
E7 ErtfTaW rTv cacl Tv Kpcipcyv 5 TroIEtv TtOv-
TO(S 7roXXo6 SetLrvlovo-av TOr 86 'O\ vroa-a
'Ep/ioO T'i VroOr/oa-d'Y, Ical aVTOV cry/cpaT'T- tVra
Icatl Jaoc-O'o vLOV TO\ b rTp TOV tCOOV TiV TOOVT.OV
S a'rrTeo-tfait 8 Tav7Ta o; yeveclat B`v. TotaovTa pev
7rept TOVTwV e'ratev atpa o VrovSLawv.
'A po8to Kv & 7raplrvel TGiV XKa v Icryvup
a7ve'e(Oat' o ryaip 'Oi7 p&rtov elvat T(iv 'TIOV-
T'O aiTno7deIvov O'-Cpovew. avXX ical Kptro-
P3ovXOv iror e Tov KpiTwvoo 7rv06oevo' OTI E t Xihrae
TOV 'AXKCtPdoov viov icabXv O'vTa, rapowTO' TO70
9 Kptirol3ohov ijpeTo FevofwOvra, ElTrEi ot, 'i7,
co Sevo(av, ob oav KptrTfovXov 0rvot/eg evai TWv
fwo povtic )v avOpci-rwv taiXXov '1 T'WV Opaaewv
calt TW-V 7Tpovo7LTtKWi v C1iXXovr 1 T&iV avorjTwv 'e
~Kal pL"oKctv8vJo ;
HIIdv oLv oli, or7 SivoPSv.
Ntv TolPvv vopbLe avToV Oep/UOVpyoTaTov elvat
MEMORABILIA, I. II. 5-9
frugal that it is hardly possible to imagine a man
doing so little work as not to earn enough to satisfy
the needs of Socrates. He ate just sufficient food
to make eating a pleasure, and he was so ready
for his food that he found appetite the best sauce 1:
and any kind of drink he found pleasant, because
he drank only when he was thirsty. Whenever 6
he accepted an invitation to dinner, he resisted
without difficulty the common temptation to exceed
the limit of satiety; and he advised those who
could not do likewise to avoid appetizers that
encouraged them to eat and drink what they did
not want: for such trash was the ruin of stomach
and brain and soul. "I believe," he said in jest, 7
"it was by providing a feast of such things that
Circe made swine; and it was partly by the prompt-
ing of Hermes,2 partly through his own self-restraint
and avoidance of excessive indulgence in such things,
that Odysseus was not turned into a pig." This was 8
how he would talk on the subject, half joking, half
Of sensual passion he would say: "Avoid it
resolutely: it is not easy to control yourself once
you meddle with that sort of thing." Thus, on
hearing that Critobulus had kissed Alcibiades' pretty
boy, he put this question to Xenophon before
Critobulus: "Tell me, Xenophon, did you not 9
suppose Critobulus to be a sober person, and by
no means rash; prudent, and not thoughtless or
"Certainly," said Xenophon.
"Then you are to look on him henceforth as
1 Cyropaedia, I. v. 12.
2 In Odyssey, x. 281 f.
K ial XeWpyo6TaTov oros xi2v el c p axalpa; Kv/3t-
crG-Tree KaIv els 7rp haXoto.
10 Ka'i 71 8, 7 d6 Qevo fyv, 18ov rrotODVTa
TotavTa icaTryvCcKa aVTro ;
O0 y7ap o0Zro, bj, e'dxLo-e 7Trv 'AXKtflc3dov
vioy tXijo-at, o'ra eubrpoa-wTo'raTov cal wpato-
'AXX' el /-ivrtO, '7 d evoc;o)v, TOLtoVTO eo-rT
'TO pto/civ8Vov eopyov, cKav ey(l SOKW /.ko Trv
IciLV8VOV TroDov brope ivat.
11 '0 TrXjjov, 'k77 6a >KpOaTiq, Kcal T71 a o'e
wraOe v KaXov ctXuo-a~ ;ap' ovlc av al'rica pcdXa
8oiJo; p/v elvat dvT' edXev9pov, roXXa 8c
Saravav del /3lXapephcv iSovdv, TroXXl)v Se
ao-uoXlav EXev Tro0 et ^teXl97jvaL TIvoF KXo
IJcyaOoD, o-rov8Sdetv 8' avaylcao'ivat d'" olv
oSb' av ia~atwevo'l a oov8daerev ;
12 'lHpadcXets, 6017 q Z EvoowV, w0 Se86LvV rtva
Xe'ye( 8vvajt.Iv 7TOD c(X/7aTOV el.vat.
Kai ro'ro, ey017 d cKPip'rVT9, Oav/idies? ; olK
olo-a, E'bi, TA baXdfyyta ot~' t ~p 3oX6taFa Tb
pLyeo0,o ov'ra 7rpoo-a'trdpeva IJovOw 7r CTofta'l
TaL~ re o~8vais e7Trt'rplf3e TroV avOpc'wovU cKal TOD
cpovelv eilo-T7rt ;
Nal /ia Al', er7 d Eevoiov* evi-crL yap rt TrI
aaXd'yyta Ka'a TO SGj y/a.
13 'k2 It&pe, (fr d6 EoiWfcpa'rT?7, Trob Se KaXoob osic
o'et 4tioIDvrav ivtevat TI, OTt o0V ovX dope ; obV
olo-', ort TOVTO Tob Oirplov, o KcaXoDo- KtaXbv Kal
opaoov, Toovd o VTSevo'Tepov eaT TWOv OaXayy iv,
o0w dEKetva p~tv drd/Ueva, T70T70 o S' a7ndTop6evov,
Cav TS 7Tr aTvo ecrat, 'evl/la T c Kal w7rav
MEMORABILIA, I. iI. 9-13
utterly hot-headed and reckless : the man would do
a somersault into a ring of knives; he would jump
"What on earth has he done to make you think 10
so badly of him ?" asked Xenophon.
"What has the man done? He dared to kiss
Alcibiades' son, and the boy is very good-looking
"Oh, if that is the sort of adventure you mean,
I think I might make that venture myself."
"Poor fellow! What do you think will happen 11
to you through kissing a pretty face? Won't you
lose your liberty in a trice and become a slave, begin
spending large sums on harmful pleasures, have no
time to give to anything fit for a gentleman, be
forced to concern yourself with things that no
madman even would care about?"
"Heracles! what alarming power in a kiss!" 12
"What? Does that surprise you?" continued
Socrates. "Don't you know that the scorpion,
though smaller than a farthing, if it but fasten on the
tongue, inflicts excruciating and maddening pain ? "
"Yes, to be sure; for the scorpion injects some-
thing by its bite."
"And do you think, you foolish fellow, that the 13
fair inject nothing when they kiss, just because you
don't see it? Don't you know that this creature
called 'fair and young' is more dangerous than the
scorpion, seeing that it need not even come in
contact, like the insect, but at any distance can
7rpoowo erV TOO1rTOV, w're palveoOat Trotevy ; [L'o-a
86 'cal ol "Epwores~ TroOrat StL Too icaXoivrTat,
OTt Kca 7rpowo8e6v ol itaXo TLTp~OaIoCovwtt.] dXXa
avpt3ovXew aot, S' Sevoo6Pv, rro'Tav 'i189 TAva
KaX6v, fcevyev n7poTpoTr~diS o-oi ', 8 KptTr-
/3ovXe, crv-u/1ovXEvw dJrevtavTriat"' oXig lyap av
'Cao eDv ro-oor0V Xpovq/ [TO Sijypa] v/'ytr'; voto.
14 Ob'ro 8 icaCl apo8Pto0 d'ev TO 70 ./' ao-'aXv
6eovTag irphos 4poiStc a Wero Xpyvat 7rpos
TotaGra, ola rt 7rtvvu p1ev Seo8Le'vov T70 aowLtaTro
olc atv Arpoo-8'EatTo "7 *VX, ,eoptdvov 86 oKc av
7rpy/iaTa ra apfo. avT'o 6 7rpo? TavTa oavepo'
?7v ovTrw rapeoa-evaoptevo, orWTe paov acrEXeo-fa
Tro icaXXLtioTwvo al ic paLorTrwv 4 ol daXXo T4v
15 ala-X'korTwv Kal, aporaTwv. Vrept tiUv 8 /3pC-e(o';
Ical 7rouoews Ical arpob alowv oVrTW KaTeuacevaacrjvo'
iv, Kcaal eTo oiS' av o a TTOv aptcoVww*s i8eo-at
r-wv 7roXXa e7rT TOUTOi l 7rpay1iarTevojvLwyO, Xv-
wreEaat e 6 roXvb ~Xa'rrov.1
IV. El 8e T ctve OWKpdr-l voDIovC/Iv, 49s 'viot
ypda ova rTe IKal e'yova-t 7rept avToV rTEKclpapopevot,
7rpoTpIa'raat /lev AvOpdrpiov e' T aper v Kicpn-
(aTOV yeyovevat, wrpoayayelv 8' 6dr' arrTv oiX
atcavov, a-lce'arpevot ir] Uovov ta Ecelvov KoKa-
arTrlpiov eveca TOUq 7ravr olo~divovE ele'vat epworwv
,XeeyXev, aXXa Kal a Xe' ywv acvvrlydpeve ro4 a-v-
8taTplP3ovao-, 8BoKica rovT7wv, el lcavo'v v /3eX'rTov
1 15 Sauppe and others bracket as a spurious addition.
MEMORABILIA, I. in. 13-1v. I
inject a maddening poison into anyone who only
looks at it?
Maybe, too, the loves are called archers for this
reason, that the fair can wound even at a distance.
"Nay, I advise you, Xenophon, as soon as you
see a pretty face to take to your heels and fly :
and you, Critobulus, I advise to spend a year abroad.
It will certainly take you at least as long as that to
recover from the bite."
Thus in the matter of carnal appetite, he held 14
that those whose passions were not under complete
control should limit themselves to such indulgence
as the soul would reject unless the need of the body
were pressing, and such as would do no harm when
the need was there. As for his own conduct in this
matter, it was evident that he had trained himself
to avoid the fairest and most attractive more easily
than others avoid the ugliest and most repulsive.
Concerning eating and drinking then and carnal in- 15
dulgence such were his views, and he thought that
a due portion of pleasure would be no more lacking
to him than to those who give themselves much to
these, and that much less trouble would fall to his
IV. If any hold the opinion expressed in some
written and spoken criticisms of Socrates that are
based on inference, and think, that though he was
consummate in exhorting men to virtue, he was an
incompetent guide to it, let them consider not only
the searching cross-examination with which he
chastised those who thought themselves omniscient,1
but his daily talks with his familiar friends, and then
judge whether he was capable of improving his
2 VroLElv Trov aovTra. ?etw 8' 7rpwTrov a wore
avroD ficovaa irep T70 Saiuoviov o taXeyopevov
jrpo 'Apto-TaO'78ov TOV Icp'V 'ticaXo4gevov.
IcaTra/aiv 7yp aIrov oieTe OoVrTa TOq 0feois
ob're 1 P aVTtK?7
Xpwipevov, aXXa ical T77V 7rrOtovViJV 'ravTa icaTa-
yecXovra, ElTre' pot, fij, &' 'Apitord1'8tre, '"ortv
oiaTtrva,; AvOpirovs rTeOavfaKaca ooiia ;
3 Kai 's, Alfov fp tv, Ttr9, Ta vol/ara aVrYCv.
'Erri pv roLVVV CrW rov v roirte1 o 'Oer" pov e'ywye
paXChTa TreOa/taIca, ed7ri e SiLvpdp,1P3 MeXa-
v'8TrrlSrv, i7r 86 Tpaypota 0oooKcXea, e7rl 8
avSptavrTro7ra HoXVIcXetTov, e7Tr 8 Se 'ypafia
4 IIfoepd arot 8/oo oiv ol aTrepyaofevvot e'8roXa
SOpov' 7e Ical Kcivrr7Ta ato0av/zaa'TTepol elval
7 ol fPa "'e povcd e tcal evepy ;
IIoX;.y vY Ata ol Pa, et' rp ye /r77 Tr X Tril,
aXV' io yryYer/l Tav7 a ylyve7Tat.
Tov 86 dAei/,ae dpWa EdXyTvyrw OTOv veecd da-T
Ical TV avepa&p dTr' ,aeXeia rVTw rdV 7roepa. TvX 7
ICal r'oTepa yvo~4lv e'pya IKpivet ;
lIpreTret ie Ta E7r o('eXeala yiyvo/ieva ryv(/Ir
5 Ouicovv So/cel o-o o o p aX 7rotov AtpdvOp7ov9
E7r' aisXela rpoo-Oeivat avTroEq Vi' (v aladvoavrTat
eIana, o aXlpovb ALEv WCO' 6opdV Ta 6pard, wT a
Se (CO-T' AiovIew Ta' aicovo-Ta; da'-pOCOV ye jfV, el 41
ptvev 7rpoca-eTe 6yo-av, T71 v '7i/Uv 6'ieXo9v v; TL7 8'
a 'v atarl'7crlv 'Yv yXVKEiOV Kcal 8ptiefov Ial 7ravTrov
7TV 8it orToparo'v f8(i0v, el /p 'y^o TTa TOVr T)
MEMORABILIA, I. Iv. 1-5
I will first state what I once heard him say about 2
the godhead in conversation with Aristodemus the
dwarf, as he was called. On learning that he was
not known to sacrifice or pray or use divination, and
actually made a mock of those who did so, he said:
"Tell me, Aristodemus, do you admire any human
beings for wisdom ?"
"I do," he answered.
"Tell us their names." 3
In epic poetry Homer comes first, in my opinion;
in dithyramb, Melanippides; in tragedy, Sophocles;
in sculpture, Polycleitus; in painting, Zeuxis."
Which, think you, deserve the greater admira- 4
tion, the creators of phantoms without sense and
motion, or the creators of living, intelligent, and
Oh, of living beings, by far, provided only they
are created by design and not mere chance."
"Suppose that it is impossible to guess the
purpose of one creature's existence, and obvious that
another's serves a useful end, which, in your judg-
ment, is the work of chance, and which of design ? "
"Presumably the creature that serves some useful
end is the work of design."
Do you not think then that he who created man 5
from the beginning had some useful end in view
when lie endowed him with his several senses, giving
eyes to see visible objects, ears to hear sounds ?
Would odours again be of any use to us had we not
been endowed with nostrils ? What perception should
we have of sweet and bitter and all things pleasant
to the palate had we no tongue in our mouth
1 These words are wanting in the MSS. but are supplied
from the papyrus fragment.
6 y7Vw/yyOV vetpydafl ; erpo' TOVTOI.; oV' 8oceL
ot c\al 'Toe Trpovoila' 'pyot? eo'iceval, TO eelt
aO-9evrj ,eov oartv 7 i o'jrL, /3e)odpot e avr7T
Ovp6owat, a oTav Iuv auy' Xprp9al Tr y, a r
"C, 8 '. va
rTavvvTat, e bi 7 T Vrvy) a-viX'y eratc ; bT &' av
ITj8c wivejoU /8XdarroTwovt, OpLobv k3XEapiSaq
i Gata o-av pv t 1e droyeto-(Cra Ta v'rep Tov
adr)VV 69 /r,8' 0 6C d T Iv KcofaXrj; 18p<;q
KaKcovpy r T70 77va aICOv7 3XE r iGOat puLev a'wa
(wvcd, cpirl7rXao-0a SeB /I7trore' ical TOv phv
Srpor9ev o68vra? 7racot N9ot? oovf rt7evet e'vat,
TOV F8e 70Yoiov.? ovtou 7rapa TOVT0V "eta/ievovs
Xealvetv a Ical ao/Ja p e, V' o0 Ov 67rtOv/Jei Ta
oa elo-'rE/f-reTat, rX7ir-lov b0daX6t(5v teal pwtvv.
KaTaletva' edwel & rT aIrox&OpovvTa 8vaXepj,
aTrocrTpearat T70o TOVTWv o0X7 ov cal areveyetiv
r SvvaTOv 7rpoao0rd7- w aro TOv atolo-Orvor Taira
obVrw 7rpovorticW7cov re7rpay/Lteva tAope,; 7rTepa
TyVXrv ?7 jva1tj,; epya eCrFV ;
7 OW pi\ Tovb At', e'07r, aXX' Oi7TO ye aco-rov/uev,
ravv 'ouce vava (oo o 'twvov SBiitovpyoD vcal
7rtvv eo1ce TaVTa 0o0oi0 TtVOIUPYO ,a;
cbXo &ov Tevfv aTrt.
To 6 Se\ eVo at I pev e"pwaa 7T.? TeKVOroTlav,
E/y a ravaat TE yetvayepvatv AporTa TOV ej/cTpe'0P6v,
70o? 86 Tpaeoit t6/'lyO-TOv f1v r dov TOD Nyv,
p.e-yLTov S (14po/ 70o OaVadov;
'Apeiket ical ravra eotKe irjXav4 'aa' Trtvov? a
8 IV 8\ oavTIv TpoVI/Lov Tt 8oiceiF e6XL ;
'Epc 'a y' oiv ~cal dTroicptvovlat.
"AXXoOt S6 ob8aoD ov 'af v ovleo tpovtov elvat ;
Ical TavT' elSt 0, l7t o 7 Tre It/Cpov IV jpos ev T
MEMORABILIA, I. iv. 5-8
to discriminate between them ? Besides these, are 6
there not other contrivances that look like the results
of forethought ? Thus the eyeballs, being weak, are
set behind eyelids, that open like doors when we
want to see, and close when we sleep: on the lids
grow lashes through which the very winds filter
harmlessly : above the eyes is a coping of brows that
lets no drop of sweat from the head hurt them. The
ears catch all sounds, but are never choked with
them. Again, the incisors of all creatures are
adapted for cutting, the molars for receiving food
from them and grinding it. And again, the mouth,
through which the food they want goes in, is set
near the eyes and nostrils; but since what goes out
is unpleasant, the ducts through which it passes are
turned away and removed as far as possible from the
organs of sense. With such signs of forethought in
these arrangements, can you doubt whether they are
the works of chance or design? "
"No, of course not. When I regard them in this 7
light they do look very like the handiwork of a wise
and loving creator."
"What of the natural desire to beget children,
the mother's desire to rear her babe, the child's
strong will to live and strong fear of death ? "
"Undoubtedly these, too, look like the con-
trivances of one who deliberately willed the
existence of living creatures."
Do you think you have any wisdom yourself? 8
"Oh! Ask me a question and judge from my
"And do you suppose that wisdom is nowhere else
to be found, although you know that you have a mere
speck of all the earth in your body and a mere
da4LaTt 7roXXj9 ovoYF" e'Xet K vca ypov /3paXb
7rohXov OVTO' iccal T-OnV a Wv 84sov peydXwv
OVTwv Elao-rov /IUpI pIopov Xhap/p vT rT aO&cja
Crvvrppoo-~Tal o-o vowiv S /Uovov dpa o8apa/ov dvra
at eWTVX(F Wra's SOKceI o-vvap7rdoaat Ical TaSe Ta
Vrepfpey-]1 Kal rX8j9o0 l7retpa St' i pocrvvv
TWVa OVTW' ole at EvTaKT(; XELV ;
9 Ma At', ov 7yap op& Tov KvpLov;, w0o-rep TW
Ev)O8e ytr~voJLevwv Trov SIoup'yov;?.
OW& yap T7v caavTroD aye *vX)(v 6opc, 4 To)
c-oiaTro ICvpla Co-rt woTre icawra ye TOVTO e ~o-Tt
a-oL XeyeLv, &OT ovevr yvw~~P7, aXXa TVY 7rav'Ta
10 Kai 6 'Apto-arrluoI, O;0ot, Cr1, eyc,, (o
/icpaTe V7repop0 Ob BaL/j.U ov, aXX' dicevo
JeyaXo7rpe're'-Tev C p yoDvJiat 'B T I? eF il
Oeparetia 7rpoo-a Zelat.
OicoiK0, E07 S0a9 I/-JyaKorrperTE7-rpov aitoFi oe
OepaTrevetv, TOOVT-OW) iaXXov TLrf7TEIov avTO.
11 E5 io0-0, O77t, OTC el vopJIos0t. OBovs av0p;(rwv
Tt 4PpoVTL'~IE OcK av d/jEX0ol7v ab'rTv.
"E7T6Tr' OKIC 0o'eit fpoPriTetV; o? -rp5rTov pUv
JLvov T ov wav idv0pw7rov pOByv dvecT7r-av- j
Se 3pO,?r7 ical rpoopavovw ov 7rotet SvvaaoOats cal
Ta vITrepOev auiXXov Oeea-lOat ca l TTOv KaicoTraSelv
7reira TO7? fiev aXhoXIs ?pTreTolF9 7ro8aq C8mcav, of'
To 7ropeveo-Oat uovov 7rapeXovao-t, avOpotir, 86
icat XeipaE rpoao-8eeav, at' TA krXfecnra, otl
evtatisoveorCTpot eiceivwv Eo-LeV, eSepydaovTat.
12 cal /Ufv yXCOjTT-v ye 7ravToiV Tov oyv eXOVTC w
OP77V T7VP Tl&V lavPpw7owv EdTrolr)7av otav atXOTe
MEMORABILIA, I. Iv. 8-T2
drop of all the water, and that of all the other
mighty elements you received, I suppose, just a
scrap towards the fashioning of your body? But
as for mind, which alone, it seems, is without mass,
do you think that you snapped it up by a lucky
accident, and that the orderly ranks of all these
huge masses, infinite in number, are due, forsooth,
to a sort of absurdity ? "
"Yes; for I don't see the master hand, whereas I 9
see the makers of things in this world."
"Neither do you see your own soul,1 which has
the mastery of the body; so that, as far as that
goes, you may say that you do nothing by design,
but everything by chance."
Here Aristodemus exclaimed: "Really, Socrates, 10
I don't despise the godhead. But I think it is too
great to need my service."
Then the greater the power that deigns to serve
you, the more honour it demands of you."
I assure you, that if I believed that the gods pay 11
any heed to man, I would not neglect them."
"Then do you think them unheeding ? In the first
place, man is the only living creature that they have
caused to stand upright; and the upright position
gives him a wider range of vision in front and a
better view of things above, and exposes him less to
injury. Secondly, to grovelling creatures they have
given feet that afford only the power of moving,
whereas they have endowed man with hands, which
are the instruments to which we chiefly owe our
greater happiness. Again, though all creatures have 12
a tongue, the tongue of man alone has been formed
by them to be capable of contact with different parts
Cyropaedia, vin. vii. 17.
AXXaX7] *raovaav 70i oDT7r/aToz ApppoDv Te Tjv
Wvbrv tcal -971jawew 7r-vTa dXXrj'ot', a 8ovX6-
faEOa. TT KaL 7c r T70v dcpoPSta-ov Sjova' TO~9
puv Xx ot o 8oovat 7reptypdifravTaq T70
rovI? XypOov, ^LVt 86 o-vve xo ie'XypXt yp~ p'aG raa
13 Ob TOL'VV povov 7ijpiKe 7 T( TOD Co/.LaTov
7erL9/j eX/i0va, IXX' Trep P/1LeyC-TOV cOrTI, ical Trv
qivX7v IcpaiTLarOY T7~ davOep7ry eve vaCe. rtvo3
,yap adXov oov *urvuXi rp/rTa 6iv Oeov TWoV Ta
/i'yCo-a ical tcaXXLtia OavvTaavTov j'c-OtTrat 67r
eio- ; Ti O8 piXvov d Xo 'i dvUpTrot o eov; Uepa-
7revovUt ; 7rola & *rvX j T av jVpw7r'lv17 liavO-
TEpa 7rpovXaTTe77eo08at A XtJov Ai ZSros 1 ) #"71 )
OdX77Trq q voaotr dTrtcovpljoat pw'a7v ao-Kca-at
q4 "rpb? ftaLrtv d]a Erovj-rat, 7 baa av Kcovo-y v
14 tY87 '1 p~ 'O ifcavo)Tpa e'TL Sta/i Ljvfo-Oae ; ov
yap 7rdvv aot KaTa8rdiov, oTt 7rapa TrXXa 3a
00arep 0eo1 aEvOpw&rot P/3LOTOv L,, qO-vELt Kal Tp
a-,o/aTt cal T~ rvXy /cpaTto-evovTre ; OVCre yap
0o4 av ov a'wv oa, dv0pnpwrou Se qyvoylv e'pvaT'
av 7rparTTEL & ce3ovXeTO, ov0' oo-a Xeipac eXet,
adipova 8' eo-T7, 7rXeov o8ev e'Xet. aOv 8' I/ 0o-
Tepwv TO&v WrX6elTOV lov IC TervX17cCW9 OVK oaiet
arov Oeov E'7rit/LeXeta-0at ; WXX' OTaV L 7T arWoii,
volu6rie avTOv O c ov POVTlrtV ;
15 "OTav retwirwowt, Wa-rep av (f7v t/refvew
aVTOV';, a-v/,fo8Xov9 oT P Xpr roiev Kal 7 vrotev.
"Orav 8 'A0rlvatoti, eqI 'rrvvavopLevo1t t St'
tpavTrlK1c' Cpdaco-tv, o Kai: l o-ol oiceEi qpdretv
S 12 6i BE r apeXe is bracketed as spurious by
MEMORABILIA, 1. iv. 12-15
of the mouth, so as to enable us to articulate the
voice and express all our wants to one another.
Once more, for all other creatures they have
prescribed a fixed season of sexual indulgence; in
our case the only time limit they have set is old
Nor was the deity content to care for man's body. 13
What is of yet higher moment, he has implanted in
him the noblest type of soul. For in the first place
what other creature's soul has apprehended the exist-
ence of gods who set in order the universe, greatest
and fairest of things ? And what race of living things
other than man worships gods? And what soul is
more apt than man's to make provision against
hunger and thirst, cold and heat, to relieve sickness
and promote health, to acquire knowledge by toil,
and to remember accurately all that is heard seen,
or learned ? For is it not obvious to you that, in com- 14
prison with the other animals, men live like gods,
by nature peerless both in body and in soul? For
with a man's reason and the body of an ox we could
not carry out our wishes, and the possession of
hands without reason is of little worth. Do you,
then, having received the two most precious gifts,
yet think that the gods take no care of you ? What
are they to do, to make you believe that they are
heedful of you?"
I will believe when they send counsellors, as you 15
declare they do, saying, 'Do this, avoid that.' "
But when the Athenians inquire of them by
divination and they reply, do you not suppose that
arroy ; ob8' orav "70rI 'EkXX)qt rpara 7r6'rovTrev
Trpoar7atvow -tv, obS' o'rav rao-tv dvOpCp 7rots, X
bovov o-E BEatpobvreF 'v dapeXeta icaraTIevTrat;
16 Otet 8' Av Trov' eoV Tro4s !dvp(Lrotq 86/av
p -crat, cs licavot eiow e cal KatK;ov roetv,
el pr] SuvaTolt *7 -av, Ical TOvS Av9Opwjrov; efara-
oTwOEvov T'o 7rravra XpOVOV o'r8 o07r av alae-
oat ; ovX o'opa o'T Te vor6OXvpoviYwTaa Kat
a-ocTraTa Twv avpOpw'r-ov, 7roXetg Kcal e0vP,
Oeo-e6e'rTaTard Err ical al ppovapTararT atc uc*at'
17 GeOv emrt/LeeXaara7t t; yaOe', 4Ir, IcarTa/la9e, O6T
ica6 0 a-;0 vouk Evav TO c-o aijiTa b7ra9 /3ovXeTar
erTaXetplev'Tat. o'e-O8at oa) Xp7 Kcal Tvj dv e7v
7ravTt Spovr-tv Taa 7ravra orOT &v abv aT s 771 ,
o06T A Tilet0a, lcal / o ov TO V o/tI- a vrSa t V
7ri ,roXXoa 0-Ta'ta d ticveiao-at, Toy 8$ 70Ti leoo
o0aaXLov aSUvaTov elva& ifta 7ravTa pav, rj18S
7TrV 0`v aE L6V *vjav catl rept r&v av0de scal
irept T&v ev AlyrrT', ial v it EcelXa SvvaaOat
4pov-ritev, T?7V 8e TO) Oeo0 Op6v7o-cv Ip iicaviv
18 elvat ayua ravrwv .teLeiao-at. .v leProI
ao-7rep av9po(wrovs OepaIre;vwv ytyvwaoxets TOv;
avrt9eparrevetv 40e'ovras icatl apat6o/;evo9 TOV
avTtXaptio'fjevov' Kal a-vtpovuXeuevovotO KaTraliav-
Odvef9 TO7VF poviUov9, oTr) Kcal rtCv BEW ov re'pa
Xau/3dvy], Oeparreuov, e'l T7 oo 0eXljOovo-t rept
TrWV dS18Xa AvOp(trote aO-vjt~3ovXe6et, yvGdo-'y Tb
Oelov 7t ToO rorov /cat -OIOTOIV e 'T, a -9' & Ia
'raTra opav ical 7rdava aov'etv ical rravraxov
rapelvat cal p'ta 'rdv, v 7 'ro pelreXa Oat.
19 'E/ota I~ev ov ravTa Xe'yov ovb uovov ro' a-vvy-
ovTra eo/ce t 7rorZiv, d'ro6re 'b rw v AdvOpIrwv
MEMORABILIA, I. iv. 15-19
to you, too, the answer is given? Or when they
send portents for warning to the Greeks, or to all
the world ? Are you their one exception, the only
one consigned to neglect? Or do you suppose that 16
the gods would have put into man a belief in their
ability to help and harm, if they had not that power;
and that man throughout the ages would never have
detected the fraud? Do you not see that the wisest
and most enduring of human institutions, cities and
nations, are most god-fearing, and that the most
thoughtful period of life is the most religious? Be 17
well assured, my good friend, that the mind within
you directs your body according to its will; and
equally you must think that Thought indwelling in
the Universal disposes all things according to its
pleasure. For think not that your eye can travel
over many furlongs and yet god's eye cannot see the
the whole world at once; that your soul can ponder
on things in Egypt and in Sicily, and god's thought
is not sufficient to pay heed to the whole world at
once. Nay, but just as by serving men you find out 18
who is willing to serve you in return, by being kind
who will be kind to you in return, and by taking
counsel, discover the masters of thought, so try
the gods by serving them, and see whether they
will vouchsafe to counsel you in matters hidden
from man. Then you will know that such is the
greatness and such the nature of the deity that
he sees all things and hears all things alike, and is
present in all places and heedful of all things."
To me at least it seemed that by these sayings he 19
kept his companions from impiety, injustice, and
1 Cyropaedia, vii. vii. 22.
opoVTO, arve'XcoOat T )V davoo-tL v rTe ca'l 1ov
cal aloxpiov, hhXX ical drOTe ev Epillu/a elev,
E7reItrep rjyo-aivTO lirj8Ev av 7 Toe rpaTTOero
V. El 8' 87 Kcal dyIcpaTeta icaXv re Icyabaov
avIpl KTF7tJd ado-'TI, dTratocefrwe'a, e' t 7r rpo0l31-
3afe X'yowv elt TraVTrv Totde'
"' aZvppeV, el 7roXe'/ov fiuv yevouEvov f3ovXol-
peBa AXeo0a tl vSpa, L4'' o5 FLidXIrTr' Av aTro't /Ev
acwoi oLeOa, To? & 7TroX6elov Xepol9e0a, ap'
OVTLv' aloOavoliJeOa 77TTrW yao-poq j ot'vov 7
&dpoStolov 1 VTrvov, TOVTOv av avpoiLteOa ; Kal
7ro av ole78fEI ev r TOy otirOTOV q 27jp1a acdoetv ?
2 TOUV 'roXe/.LovV ICpaTitr-ev ; el 8' e'ri TEXCevr To7
3lov uyevo evot ovoiuL'o/e9 To dTrtapdeat ? rai~ap
appevaV Trate&f-at a Ovya'rOpaV 7rapOefvovV S8a-
OvXa'dati Xprq/.aa &taaTo-ra, ap' Ad~tOTLrroV
elv avTra ryrio-Oa'iea rbv d/cpari ; 8oVX0. 8'
aKpaTEL de7rtTpE'*atiev nv av SoOr/citara 4 Ta/teZa
SepymCO eto-rao-lav ; tataKoovv /ical ayopao-T'rv
3 Troitorov EOeXirjasiev v Av potica Xa/3ev ; aXXa
fv e't ye S/i oDXoe Soov dicpaTrj 8eafbalte' av, 7'wT
ovnc dltov aT.ov ye pvXadaaao-at TOtODTOV yeve'Oat ;
ical yap obv wor-rep ol trXeo'cKTra ToV dXXwO
adatpov'tevot Xp4/AaTa avTroNI 8oicoio-t 7rXov-
Tiewt, OVT'rW o aicpaTr] ToL /aev aXXoL /3Xap3epoF,
eavT( S' ; le'Xt/Lov, Xha Kicatcovpyoq p~V T'rv
dXXov, lavroD Se' 7roXlb caicovpyoTrpov, et ,ye
cKaKoup'yTraTov eott /a\ )avov 16v oliov T~O
eavTroD 0elpetv, AXXa ical To o-tj^a Kal 7'TV
4 *vy7rjv. ev owvvovola 86 T71 &av j0-06eb7 T7
To0LOVT, OV el6 ei) TW q Tt TE Ical T7 o0V
MEMORABILIA, I. IV. Ig-v. 4
baseness, and that not only when they were seen by
men, but even in solitude; since they ever felt that
no deed of theirs could at any time escape the
V. But if Self-control too is a fair and noble posses-
sion, let us now consider whether he led men up to
that virtue by discourse like the following:
"My friends, if we were at war and wanted to
choose a leader most capable of helping us to save
ourselves and conquer the enemy, should we choose
one whom we knew to be the slave of the belly, or
of wine, or lust, or sleep? How could we expect
that such an one would either save us or defeat the
enemy ? Or if at the end of our life we should wish 2
to appoint a guardian to educate our boys or protect
our girls or to take care of our goods, should we
think a loose liver a trustworthy man to choose?
Should we entrust live stock or storehouses or the
management of works to a vicious slave? Should
we be willing to take as a gift a page or an errand-
boy with such a character ? Surely then, if we should 3
refuse a vicious slave, the master must look to it
that he does not grow vicious himself? For whereas
the covetous, by robbing other men of their goods,
seem to enrich themselves, a vicious man reaps no
advantage from the harm he does to others. If he
is a worker of mischief to others, he brings much
greater mischief on himself, if indeed the greatest
mischief of all is to ruin not one's home merely, but
the body and the soul. In social intercourse what 4
pleasure could you find in such a man, knowing that
1 Sauppe adds h rdvov with the MSS. and Stobaeus, but it
can hardly be right.
Xyapovra ,F ~h ov i) To1~ cbiXotL /cal wra rr6pva
ayaTnrvTa jiaFXov T TOV eTaipov ; apa ye or
XP? 7TrvTa ldvpa g~jyrL a'evov Tv1v eyKpcpetav
apjeT17 eZvat Kpicp r 8a TaiTryv wrpnorov bv Ty l'v^X)J
5 KaraacKeva'aaOat ; Ti, ;yap 'ivev TafTy?79 7K /da'ot
t av ayao8v A7 pfeXeTreterv (toX6ywa ; "j Tig obV
av Tats 7}8ovaiv 8ovXevwv al~rXpco StaTeOel6r Kcal
rTO C-rcIa ical 7TV n *rvXV ; f.ol av SOK 0cel v T,7)v
"Hpav eXevOepcp /IevY av8pl ebcKTOV e7vat l rv elv
8okxovu TO OTOV, SovXevovTa 8E Tal9 TotauTatv
Sorva Icee Ev e TOV 70T eobv SerOTOwv aiya aov
TVXCev- oVT r7 yap av /1ovo d TLO'tOTO? ac F elr.
6 TotaTara B Xywv 'eT edyicpa rcorepov Tolb eipyOti
STolq Xoyotc eavurov ereS'~ eicev" ob 'yap Iovov
T&V Sta TOO o(-cotaTro9 i8ov&v EicpaTeL, jXXa ical
Tv9 &8t TOW Xp1tdJiTWV, vouiLrov TOv rapa TOO
TvyovTo9 Xprp a.Ta Xa,/3)avovTa Sc'roT77V gavTro
icaOto-rdcvaL ical ovXeVetv SovXelav ovefutas fqTTO
VI. "Altov 6' abaroD > ai 'a rps 'AVrTt(Sora
TOV aoarTjv 8teXfE'Oj 1i TrapaXtrFcv. o yap
'Av'rtc]wv fro're 3ovud6fpevo' ToOy "v'ovUlaaTa9
'AnV~t o0V 77-OTo 30f T -vvovo-tao-fa(
avroDv rapeX&foat 7rpoo-eXO'ov T1 5 o)cparte
7rapovTrw ab~rv TV'Xe TaSe
2 'l o'icparT, eyw (ev (jL)V 7OV' o\o tXooOovvTra
e'8atgoveOr-'povT XpCLvaLt yvyveoOat ar b p~ot
o/0ce' TarvavTra T)9 c(tXoao-o~ [a dAroXeXav/cevat.
iyovy OVTW;L, i 0ovW' aV eCT 3oovos 67TO 8er oroTd 7
8tatTbr7y/voy pEIVEL6" a ~d re arL7 ICRa TroTa 77T '
Ta OavXo6raa xca' IdrwTLv fjpie/o-ab o tdviOov
OaGXov, aXXa TO adTo OQpovF re I6al Xeta.yvo?,
3 alvvurr Sr7O T6e Kal aXtTov 8taTEXels. cal I~tj
MEMORABILIA, I. v. 4-vI. 3
he prefers your sauces and your wines to your
friends, and likes the women1 better than the
company ? Should not every man hold self-control
to be the foundation of all virtue, and first lay this
foundation firmly in his soul ? For who without 5
this can learn any good or practise it worthily? Or
what man that is the slave of his pleasures is not in
an evil plight body and soul alike ? From my heart
I declare that every free man should pray not to
have such a man among his slaves; and every man
who is a slave to such pleasures should entreat the
gods to give him good masters: thus, and only thus,
may he find salvation."
Such were his words; but his own self-control 6
was shown yet more clearly by his deeds than by
his words. For he kept in subjection not only the
pleasures of the body, but those too that money
brings, in the belief that he who takes money from
any casual giver puts himself under a master and
endures the basest form of slavery.
VI. It is due to him that a conversation he had
with Antiphon the Sophist should not go unrecorded.
Aritiphon came to Socrates with the intention of
drawing his companions away from him, and spoke
thus in their presence.
Socrates, I supposed that philosophy must add 2
to one's store of happiness. But the fruits you have
reaped from philosophy are apparently very different.
For example, you are living a life that would drive
even a slave to desert his master. Your meat and
drink are of the poorest: the cloak you wear is not
only a poor thing, but is never changed summer or
winter; and you never wear shoes or tunic. Besides 3
1 Employed to entertain the guests at the banquet.
Xyprj/ard ye ob XaaL/3avets & Ical fT KIT evov9
e6vpalvet xcal IceIcT7rlEvov' E'Xev0eplwrepOv re Kai
4 'tovr roteE yLv. EL OVw uW7rep ical Tov a'Xwv
epoywv ol Bao'/caXoi To'S p.a8OriqTa9 ft pri'
CavT&)v d'roSEtICVVovirtv oV7( ical ca v ro'v avv-
ovTas L8aO'jaeti, vo'/LIaecatKoat/povia, SCaoicaXoq
4 Kai 6d Iicp'priv 7rpb? TaGrTa eltre Ao/ce, pot,
o 'Avrtwv, V7reLtXr7vat ,e E OI'Tog Ivtapgos fv,
wo-e r drre'ect.ar -at cc/aXXov awroOaveiv a&v h)eoat
S v ) do-rwep dyT. t'O ov dTrto-Ke#ftelOa, TI
65 aXa~rv ,,aOirjat rovbjov /3tov. 7rrTTepov 7Tt
TO7i /CPv XalPdavova-tv apyvptov avayKatov e6TLV
rwep/yaeaOat TOvTO, 9' Av pjo-0v a3d-
vwoao-, Epot 8 p\I Xa/z3avovw obKi advaT'y
taXd'ryeolaa w av tp 83ovArp/tat; q r?7v S'aiTrdv
Lpov avXihet. 9 r rTTOV vv vytetava eOLovTro'
ptoiD n acov, Tno0V ea lo-yv 'irapeXovua ; 7 (,
XaXeTrcorepa 7ropio-aao-a Ta e'ia S LatT7rjaTa Twv
a-v 8t 70o c'aravtLraepa re ica 7riOXVTEXEO-Tpa
elvat ; oi) M& Siw a-ot a b rapao-acevdy vrTa i)
eoL a E/y ; OIK olo0', OTI a pte i L8tora oa-OtBv
itcta-'a 'ov SelTat, d 8 ta-ic 78ta 7rIvwvo' ctra
6 TO 70i 7- ap17rov0 eITlOv/et Tror0T ; ird ye pIv
tiLadTa olao-' oTt ol ETrap3aXXO'tevot #rvXovL' cal
OAdk'ov9 evelca ieraL /3S ovrat ical bTro8rjnaTa
Vro8oovura, o7ron uto ? t1a Ta-b XvrroDvra r70o
rd7 oioa O ovrat rropeveaOart C87 oIv Trora
yaOov Cu 8tOlh '~ioP fidXXov6dv rov evSov fLevov-ra
17 8oL 0d\Xrov /lacyo/levov '7- repi TeL s a/Ct ld 70T
dAXyelv robv 7ro'as ob /aSl&ovra OTrot av pov w-
7 utat; o8IC ola-', OT( ol (fva-et da-Oev6'a-Taoi 7T
MEMORABILIA, I. vi. 3-7
you refuse to take money, the mere getting of
which is a joy, while its possession makes one more
independent and happier. Now the professors of
other subjects try to make their pupils copy their
teachers: if you too intend to make your companions
do that, you must consider yourself a professor of
To this Socrates replied: 4
"Antiphon, you seem to have a notion that my
life is so miserable, that I feel sure you would choose
death in preference to a life like mine. Come then,
let us consider together what hardship you have
noticed in my life. Is it that those who take money 5
are bound to carry out the work for which they get
a fee, while I, because I refuse to take it, am not
obliged to talk with anyone against my will? Or
do you think my food poor because it is less whole-
some than yours or less nourishing ? or because my
viands are harder to get than yours, being scarcer
and more expensive? or because your diet is more
enjoyable than mine? Do you not know that the
greater the enjoyment of eating the less the need
of sauce; the greater the enjoyment of drinking,
the less the desire for drinks that are not available ?
As for cloaks, they are changed, as you know, on 6
account of cold or heat. And shoes are worn as a
protection to the feet against pain and inconvenience
in walking. Now did you ever know me to stay
indoors more than others on account of the cold, or
to fight with any man for the shade because of the
heat, or to be prevented from walking anywhere by
sore feet? Do you not know that by training, a puny 7
Oa/caTt / eeTro-r'aTeq T7WV lo-XvpoTo)v /i.eX?7-
-TadTOwV ipcp/TTov e rlyVOVTal 77rpO' AP /LeXeT(rio-
xKai pov abrVTa epovOv ; ebi oe' apa oVic o'et T7
oa-(oaaTt del Ta' o-vvTvy ydovra felerervTa icapcre-
8 pewv 7rciva v a ov 0epetv cov f1p pieLXeTWVTrov ; TOD
8' /Il t3ovXEvetiv yaorpl r q8' vrrvw Kca Xayvela
oet T' dXXo alrtTIrepov eCvat 4 TO eCrepa eXetv
TOVTroWV tjo, a o puovov ev Xpela Tvra evppalvet,
XXha icat AX7rUFaq rrape'ovTa (OeX7rlewv dei ; Kab
tjv ToDTO ye olo-a, rei ol lev olopervot lj6Sv eS
7rpdTTewV OIV eu cpalvovrat, ol SE ?7yovtevo" KcaXCo
7rppoywopev eaVTroiE9 yempylav I vavKXiapiav q7
aXX' oVr av Trv'yXdvaoov epyaoeevot (6 e9
9 7rpdaTTOvTerC evpalvovTat. ot0e ouv a-o 7raPTl)v
TOVT)V TOO-avT77v 7jSovrv dvat o-7v atelr TOD
eavTOd Te 7ye1
adaelvov KTcriTOlat ; dy&' TroLvvv S&arTeO ravra
'Eav 8' 87} (l'Xov A 7 r viv OheXtetv 8Cr, wroTrdp
7 rrXela)pv aXXOXk6 TOVTOV e7irrtLeeXE Oat, T7 os 6ey;
vpv q T7 4o a;v /Eafcapt'etq 8tat otwie'q ; acrpa-
TevoTo 8e 'roTepos av paov, 6 j SvvadevoS a.vev
7roXXVTXeoV 8talrTl n~v 1 TO 7rb rapov apiool ;
eCK7roX opKr90eIr7 8 7bOTrpoE av OarTov, 0 T&V
XaXe rnTaTrwv evpeLv eozLevo9q 2 o TOi pd'o-roT1;
evvyXaveYt apKcovvTr0 XPpo/fevo ;
10 "EOL/Ka, c 'AvTIrPOv, T7 v eb8atl8ovav olo/ Lev)
rpv~b v ixal 7ro' vrTeeav eZvat- e'y S vo8 l a TO
iev Jr,8evob9 8EFto-Oat, 6iov elval, TO 8' 6 eXaX-Ol-Twv
1 9 -ya ... vopg Sn is bracketed by Sauppe as spurious.