• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Hellenica
 The Anabasis of Cyrus
 Index to Hellenica
 Index to Hellenica
 Map to illustrate the Anabasis...
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Title: Xenophon
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Title: Xenophon
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Creator: Xenophon.
Publisher: W. Heinemann ;
Copyright Date: 193038
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
    Hellenica
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
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    The Anabasis of Cyrus
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    Index to Hellenica
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    Index to Hellenica
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    Map to illustrate the Anabasis of Xenophon
        Page 515
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    Advertising
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Full Text



THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY

EDITED BY
T. E. PAGE, LITT.D.
E. CAPPS, PH.D., LL.D. W. H. D. ROUSE, LITT.D.









XENOPHON

HELLENICA, BOOKS VI & VII
ANABASIS, BOOKS I-III











XENOPHON


HELLENICA, BOOKS VI & VII

ANABASIS, BOOKS I-III


WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY

CARLETON L. BROWNSON
COLLEGE OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK






















LONDON: WILLIAM HEINEMANN
NEW YORK : G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS


MOM~,XXT.


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---c~-




























First printed . 1921
Reprinted . 1932
































PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN




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et a



















CONTENTS

PAGE
HELLENICA-
BOOK VI ...... ..... .... .. 1
BOOK VII ................. . 115

ANABASIS-
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . 231
MANUSCRIPTS AND EDITIONS . . . ... 239
BOOK I. . . . . . . . . .. . 241
BOOK II . . . . . . . .... 343
BOOK III . . . . . . . . . . 415
INDEX TO HELLENICA . . . . . . . 495
MAP-THE MARCH OF THE TEN THOUSAND . At end










130622 v
















XENOPHON'S HELLENICA

BOOK VI














VOL. II. 8













ZENOCONTO2 EAAHNIKA


5

I. 01 pev oiv 'A9q~vaiot icat Aalfce8ailt~vtot 7rep'
TcDTa 'aav. ol S8 O17/a~oL fotnel icaTCEOpcY'r*avro
.Ta qV b BoIO'a 7ro'Xeth,, JUTpaTITEU0 Icat el6 T2'1
(DkoK18a. ck S' a ical ol 4Dwie c,7rpEao-/3vov Ecy
T-v Aalce8alpova Kal Xeyov lOc 61 1at i P' a-olev,
oi 8vVlGaotvTro /-L' 7r6'8E0-at roF,; 0h7/3atoty, alc
TOVTov ol A aquLvtoL olafLtM~ova 0a a ~a-
Xa7Tav Eal w,;c'ay KXe6/,8poTr0v 'rE T7z) /ao-Aaa
aLE UCT ai'oU rarrapa3 popay Ka't TOw aviIaXcv
'T~ F~l~pOy.
2 :8X8o&V86 7rEp't TOOV 7'-Ov Xpovov Icalt I/C 0EI
Ta?-aa trtcveL~at 0n-pay r~ ICOovPv T-Ow AaKc8at-
/IovI o foXvga8-ay Iapo-a6Xtog. o;rroy K ica' 4v
271 aEXX?7 O aia uta'Xa i?'8o/pIc', xai bv aI 7
T'^y 7TXEL 0L87wy E8OKEL IcaXoy 70 IcyaOZy Elvat
cooT tcat t7Tacta0aVTO; 0 (Iap-aaXtot 'wapa/ca-e'-
OEPTo avLof T?2v a'KpcrrOXiv, /cal Tay 7rpooio8ov;
7E'rTpe'av aXajj3cavovrPt, oQua E7Q ypajn-a fb TOZ9
V6/OLy, El'T Te Ta I\epA IvaXV-ICE6I Kai 61E T7j7v
2













XENOPHON'S HELLENICA


BOOK VI

I. THE Athenians and Lacedaemonians, then, were 37s B.c.
occupied with these things. As for the Thebans,
after they had subdued the cities in Boeotia they
made an expedition into Phocis also. And when the 74 B.C.
Phocians, on their side, sent ambassadors to Lace-
daemon and said that unless the Lacedaemonians
came to their assistance they would not be able to
escape yielding to the Thebans, thereupon the Lace-
daemonians sent Cleombrotus, the king, across to
Phocis by sea, and with him four regiments of their
own and the corresponding contingents of the allies.
At about this time Polydamas of Pharsalus also
arrived from Thessaly and presented himself before
the general assembly of the Lacedaemonians. This
man was not only held in very high repute through-
out all Thessaly, but in his own city was regarded
as so honourable a man that, when the Pharsalians
fell into factional strife, they put their Acropolis
in his hands and entrusted to him the duty of
receiving the revenues, and of expending, both for
religious purposes and for the administration in
general, all the sums which were prescribed in their
1 Four regiments was two-thirds of the Spartan army;
each one of the allies was therefore required to send out the
same fraction of its total forces.







XENOPHON

3 aixxyv 81oli0tr0V. IcaKcevoF ULVTOI, a7ro TOVTo
TWv XpOdlrWVu TrV e T6/cpav 0VXdcTTWr v &'Liea v
avrotL ical TaXXa tocov awreXoyierTO fcaT' 6v-
avTov. ical oo67rTe tLv evSeoaete, Trap' LavTov
rpoOEleTiL OT, o'rTe 6 Trepye'roITO 7TI rpoo-o8v,
aTreXah~gt3avev. 1v 6 xaIca aXXW oF rpdev's Te ical
pxeyaXo'rperi' Tbv OerTTaXtKv 7rpoTrov. oVTO*
oiv eFl alce'rETO ely TVp AaKce8alLova, elve
T70ote.
4 'Ey 7, c& odvpe, AaKe8atruIlvot, wpodevo bv~w&v
wAv cal evepy-erJI eCK radvTwlov peiv j L a rrpo-
'yOvCV, &LWt, Tdv r- Tn dtropCo, rIpov va' levat,
edv Te T( gaXe~rrov vblv v 71 OerTaXIa o-vvt-
aTrT7a, a-riualvetv. acaovere fev ouv, e8 ol' OTI,
cal V/eLi 'Idaoov bvoya= o yp cvip Kal Uvva/ilv
e' p .ea"ydtv7 Ka ivolpGoa-'Tor E'TIa OrTOir 8
'arovhaS 'Troirla'dievo' a'vveyevETo UOtL, Kal EIrTE
5 7Tade "O'On pIv, & TloXuvSdJia, Ka' a'covaav r7v
v/eTerpav 7r6 tv dpacraXov1 Svva7iiv av Trapa-
rijraao0rOa t E o orot c TOUvSe Xooyi'eaOat. dye
ydcp, e~'7, e'XO pv OeTTraXda TS q w7hr eO-Taf Kal
peylro-a9 "roXethcLv ovc-ut ovu" xaT7eafpe6ra/tLv S'
arTa? Vp) -v a v a-ral Ta T vavT ria cpLo orTparevo-
/ievov. xal 1i, olod i ye nTI ~EvovF 'XW pitL-Oo-
06pov E el's aicta-Xtlov, o, 9F, 4 y olptat, olSe-
piia 7roXtV SvaiT' av paSiqo, tdXe-EOat. dptOptsb
pLv y7dp, e'0, cal LLXOOev oblc av d) n rC v TT X-
S4pdpaaxov MSS. : Kel. brackets, following Schafer.







HELLENICA, VI. I. 2-5

laws. And he did, in fact, use these funds to guard 74 s.c.
the Acropolis and keep it safe for them, and like-
wise to administer their other affairs, rendering them
an account yearly. And whenever there was a
deficit he made it up from his own private purse,
and whenever there was a surplus of revenue he
paid himself back. Besides, he was hospitable and
magnificent, after the Thessalian manner. Now
when this man arrived at Lacedaemon he spoke
as follows:
"Men of Lacedaemon, I am your diplomatic
agent and 'benefactor,' 1 as all my ancestors have
been of whom we have any knowledge; I there-
fore deem it proper, if I am in any difficulty, to
come to you, and if any trouble is gathering for
you in Thessaly, to make it known to you. Now
you also, I am very sure, often hear the name
of Jason2 spoken, for the man has great power
and is famous. This man, after concluding a
truce with my city, had a meeting with me and
spoke as follows: 'Polydamas, that I could bring
over your city, Pharsalus, even against its will,
you may conclude from the following facts. You
know,' he said, 'that I have as allies the greater
number and the largest of the cities of Thessaly;
and I subdued them when you were with them in
the field against me. Furthermore, you are aware
that I have men of other states as mercenaries to
the number of six thousand, with whom, as I think,
no city could easily contend. As for numbers,' he
said, of course as great a force might march out of
SA title of honour which Greek states often gave to aliens
who had rendered them service.
2 Tyrant of Pherae, a city in south-eastern Thessaly.







XENOPHON


0otr A AXa TW Vl'v ~e TV 7rowXEOV arpaTrevtaTa
TOu9 ptev 7rpO6X7oeV'XvoTaa ts87 Ta' f]ttciat? e'xt,
TO7V 8' oi O aIC Ladov'rag. oawOpaaKovlu ye r
lzdXa AoXyot rtve ev Ey cia-Ty Ard)et rapt joit'o 6
ov1s8i fJorl o fopet, o-Trtl /' r ticavo ezaoTv /-o\ E 'o-a
6 rroveiv. abit9 8' e0-7, Xe'yev yap Xpq 7rpos vias
T7XXIr0f, cal TO o-&a l Xa eiLpa ipwaro Tosa, l AkXw
dsXoTorovo. Ical Trovv TrjV trap' avTr 7relpav
Xafi/3dveI KeaI' eca-Tr lv .I.'pa.v 7yeTai yap awv
Tro &ioiXot xal d4v Troq 7yvwvao'iot /cal 8'rav try
aorpaTe4rj7at. ical ob fiev v av aXaKcobv rTOv
ewovw alrOadvr7Tat, /cpr3dX e, ob 8S' av 6pi ctXo-
jTova) /Kcal fIxoicvw8VCa ')ovTraq rp O ro\vq 7roX-
tLovU, Tri ,4, 7ro0 p6 8t ,oploat, T70O 8 7ptpJot-
plats, TOuV 86 Kal TCTpaoLtplatl9, /cal aXXot
&Sipot(, cal voa'mv ye eparrveat' Kcal 7riepl rTaa9
KOO-fjf' W"TTE 7 raVTE 'aaat ol Trap' iCE a v
6-Tt ? IroXe/Uti/ auTro i apeTf) eVTiorTarTov re 8flov
cal A 9OovraTrov vrapgexeat.
7 'EvreSefUvve 84 ptot el8oTtSL Tt Kcal '7rvicoo& 'Sr7
auTr elev Mapacol tcal AoXo7rev Ialt 'AX/c'7av
Siv Ty 'H7rrp~ ) ;rnapXorV "'f-re, eC], r1 av
yo 0poflovftevo9 ov aa8lo9 &v vpaF oloitv
KaTao'rpF -aaOat; rada oyv 'UroXda/So av Trt
e/pov a~retpov Ti oyv FjieXXeVFs Kal OVbIK 7ri8 Opa-
revet; erl Trov;, 4apaaX-ovq; o'T v?7 Ala T7
ravr Kcpe7tTrov fo SoIce 8CE elvat eKdovra' v/al'
p aXXov 9 laKcovra '7rpo-ayayea8aOa. fStao-Er'eveS
uLev yap bvdeT' r' av /3ovXevoo-Oc e Tt 8v7vatoaOe







HELLENICA, VI. I. 5-7

some other city also; but armies made up of citizens s74 Bo.
include men who are already advanced in years and
others who have not yet come to their prime. Further-
more, in every city very few men train their bodies,
but among my mercenaries no one serves unless he
is able to endure as severe toils as I myself.' And he
himself-for I must tell you the truth-is exceedingly
strong of body and a lover of toil besides. Indeed,
he makes trial every day of the men under him, for
in full armour he leads them, both on the parade-
ground and whenever he is on a campaign anywhere.
And whomsoever among his mercenaries he finds to
be weaklings he casts out, but whomsoever he sees
to be fond of toil and fond of the dangers of war
he rewards, some with double pay, others with triple
pay, others even with quadruple pay, and with gifts
besides, as well as with care in sickness and mag-
nificence in burial; so that all the mercenaries in his
service know that martial prowess assures to them a
life of greatest honour and abundance.
He pointed out to me, further, although I
knew it before, that he already had as subjects the
Maracians, the Dolopians, and Alcetas, the ruler in
Epirus. 'Therefore,' he said, 'what have I to fear
that I should not expect to subdue you easily? To
be sure, one who did not know me might perhaps
retort, Then why do you delay, instead of prosecut-
ing your campaign against the Pharsalians at once ? "
Because, by Zeus, it seems to me to be altogether
better to bring you over to my side willingly rather
than unwillingly. For if you were constrained by
force, you, on the one hand, would be planning what-
ever harm you could against me, and I, on the other,







XENOPHON


KaKov E/PO, Eyr v vp. & daOfvTaTOv
p/ovXol piv elval el S reL'viavevr e IPT ePuo ye-
voiaOe, SFXov 5rt aootspev Av 6 Tt Svvap4elca
8 CXX7Xov?. yLyVwy0cI /pfv ov, (5 IToXlvp/ta, 6'Tt
i crai 7raTpL el'rT a rOa7roPh1e7rE* Ev 8 pot tXti-
KiCO aUvrv )XEtV 7rapaaCcevda?7, v'rtaOXyoviab crot,
0fr7, Ey() /j6eytiGTOv ae Tv E7 T E) 7'EXd8s /Le' C/iPE
iaTiaorTo7letV o'Ov 86 7rpay j7CoV Ta' 6evrepd o-t
818tso alcove, Kal P'q&/v 'O-TEVE L It Ti av pf7
XOYiOtfevY o(ot aXVr F Xooyoe'vp cot &1i74 batlav7rat. o ricoI TIoDro
Epv e'rf7Xov luv, ort C)apo-adov 7rpo -yevotEPVc7
icat T v e' vbyIov 97pTr/iev)OV 7oXeOwv evTrErETo av
yA Tayov 0eTraX6 Pv I7ra'vTwi Ka7ao7Talrv aw
'ye 7V, oTav rayeVpTwaLt erraXta, eI S actaYXt-
Vlov Lev ol tin7reVovTre yl'yvovTra, d7rXwrat6 Se
9 7rXelovs 4 /ivptoi callooITavTa. Wv ya) Kal Ta7
ao- aCV;Tv el caX rq T tF T7ri/teXolro, ovc elvat e0voq
oTrolc abv a4twcoatev b7rricoot elval OeTTakol.
TrXaTV"dTT7; ye Ip I 7Y? oIaol' er7TTaXl a, 7rdv7a
Ta KIip 6m 7vlrrjKIcoa -e'v r-7-tv, obrav Taybo
EvOdie fcarao7r Xyeb6ov 8 avT7O -E9 Ol TaVTy aKOV-
TtowTa eavw ware Ical treX7Tacr TKi eicKO iep-
10 X~tvw Tv pe epav vawtv. ica'l pv Botwrol ye
Kal o0 dXXot 7raYPT oo-ot AaKelsattjov1ot9 7roXe-
.LODvrevT ri7PXovoi po av/1PV aoor Lcal dKcoXov0etv
'Tovvv d toD tv eftoi, av povov afro AaKeSa lioviwv
eXevOepw avrov;. Kcal 'Arlvaiot &S ed o28' orS
'raVTa 7rojo-Eatv avt 60'Tyre LuPaaotE ~jPv yevE-
1 Over-lord, a Thessalian title.
2 Therefore Thessaly was famous for its cavalry, and pro-
duced hoplites also (see above); but peltasts-which were at







HELLENICA, VI. i. 7-10


should be wanting to keep you as weak as I could; s84B.c.
but if it was through persuasion that you joined
with me, it is clear that we should advance one
another's interests to the best of our ability. Now
I know, Polydamas, that your city looks to you, and
if you make her friendly to me I promise you,' he
said, 'that I will make you the greatest, next to
myself, of all the men in Greece; and what manner
of fortune it is wherein I offer you the second
place, hear from me, and believe nothing that I say
unless upon consideration it appears to you true.
Well, then, this is plain to us, that if Pharsalus and
the cities which are dependent upon you should be
added to my power, I could easily become Tagus1
of all the Thessalians; and, further, that whenever
Thessaly is under a Tagus, her horsemen amount to
six thousand and more than ten thousand men become
hoplites. And when I see both their bodies and their
high spirit, I think that if one should handle them
rightly, there would be no people to whom the Thes-
salians would deign to be subject. Again, while
Thessaly is an exceedingly flat land,2 all the peoples
round about are subject to her as soon as a Tagus
is established here; and almost all who dwell in these
neighboring regions are javelin-men, so that it is
likely that our force would be far superior in peltasts
also. Furthermore, the Boeotians and all the others
who are at war with the Lacedaemonians are my
allies, and they are ready to be my followers, too, if
only I free them from the Lacedaemonians. The
Athenians also, I know very well, would do anything
their best in a rough country-could nevertheless be obtained,
Jason urges, from the mountainous regions which adjoined
Thessaly and were likely to become subject to him (see
below).






XENOPHON


e-atav XX' yc' o~' atv pLot oKI 7rpoP aVTov' ;
txlav roo'rjaaaeOat. voplfw 7ytap eTt p'aov T7v
cKaTa Qa raTaj 9 'Tv KaTa yIqv apxv 7rapa-
icark Bda7rau 77v ca7A 70u ApX~v T apa-
Xa/edv dv.
11 El 86 el'o'Ta 'oyto.iat, a-KOd77-, 67, Kat
raDTa. 'xOV"c pev 'ye MaKeSovtav, lvev Kral
'A97rvaoc rAt ,uXa dayovTra, TroXb 87'Trov 7rXeow
elcelvwv licavol eo-o/ea vavF a roijoa)a at. av-
Spov y76 pv Tav'rav 7rXplpofv 'roirepov 'AOlvalovq
SfL(aq elfcEi JiaXXov U8vaor-at, TOoCOTOVOv ical
TOIOVTOV9 6OVTaq 7r6rVo-Taq ; Trov 'ye Ilv vavvTa
7pe'etvy 1-roepoV ? L9 IcavqrEIpovV el ic elvat
TOWv St' a tovliav cal aXXoo-e o 'irov er'/rov'Ta?
) 'Aorivalov Tov9 /j?8' avToEl icavov e'xora', av
12 ij 'irplovTat; Ical Xpi'aao ye elccok 8-rov i/ja?
d0ovwTepo tis Xpfolat l ) el? v7a-vSpta a7TroXe-
7rovras, AXX' rTrtepuvTLKa &Ovr K/ap-rovl~pvovs.
7rcvTa yap 8'7rov Ta i KVK c, (dpov fe'pet, o'rav
Tayyev7Trat Ta f KcaTa OeaXiav. olo-0a S8 87xrov
OT /cal Sao-tXels' o Ilepawv ov viaoovq dAX' '7jret-
pov cap7rov/ervo' 7rXova-tcoraTro ar vpO7rorv e'a-r
ov y(' vrrlicoopv roit7aao at eviccepaGo-To
Tepov r7yofifai elvat f Trv 'EXXadSa. olSa yap
nrdavTas TOUs El dIv0p rov? 7"rXrv Jvov juXXov
8ovXelav I AX dcv jeUeLXET7Kro'ca', olSa 8' bp'
oiT'a 8vvdea/ ical T79, /zerT KOpov dva/Sda-or Kca
T71? PfT' 'Ayo-)atXov el; 7rav dp&eKero 3aaro-tets.
13 'ETrel TVaDT' el67rovTO avTOvD Eyca a7T/cptva/ n7v







HELLENICA, VI. i. 10-13

to become allies of ours, but I do not think it best 874 B.C.
to establish a friendship with them; for I believe
that I could obtain empire by sea even more easily
than by land.
"' To see whether my calculations are reasonable,'
he said, consider these points also. With Mace-
donia in our possession, the place from which the
Athenians get their timber, we shall of course be
able to construct far more ships than they. Again,
who are likely to be better able to supply these
ships with men, the Athenians or ourselves, who
have so many serfs of so excellent a sort? And
who are likely to be better able to maintain the
sailors, we, who on account of our abundance even
have corn to export to other lands, or the Athenians,
who have not even enough for themselves unless they
buy it? Then as for money, we surely should be
likely to enjoy a greater abundance of it, for we
should not be looking to little islands for our re-
venues, but drawing upon the resources of peoples
of the continent. For of course all who are round
about us pay tribute as soon as Thessaly is under a
Tagus. And you certainly know that it is by drawing
upon the resources, not of islands, but of a continent,
that the King of the Persians is the richest of
mortals; and yet I think that it is even easier to
reduce him to subjection than to reduce Greece.
For I know that everybody there, save one person,
has trained himself to servitude rather than to
prowess, and I know what manner of force it was-
both that which went up with Cyrus and that which
went up with Agesilaus-that brought the King to
extremities.'
"Now in answer to these statements I replied
II







XENOPHON


OTI Ta dtEv hXXa too'-Iiacerra Xeyet, T6 Se AaKe-
8atcoviot' ovvTa, foiovb aroarT7vat 7rpo TOU,
evavrPov9, pJI78Zev exovra E'yJaXelvTO, 707, ,
arropov tpot 8ooe' e7vat 6 8' '7ratvo-ag pe cal
elftov &OT /fLakXoV /creov pL/ov e'l7, 0T "roT701rov
e 7v, Ei4fcK o10t jXOrVTb 7rp0o vb/aV Xehlyev 7TaX81j ,
OT7 8tavoo0ro a-TparevTev el tr' PaploaXvo, el ?p
7reLo-ol/ela. arteir oiv ice'Xeve 3oi4Oeiav rap'
bkw&v. Kai Ja'v /jpv 0eoL,1 EIf, S8cor v w Aare o-e
retleiv ilcav'v 7r' 7reLvw ovpjzaxlav 4) e/pot 7roke-
/elv, y, 77, C a, icai rov) XpwIjela b av ao-
/3aivy c/i 70To 7roXh ov" av Se a-ot pt 8o/c&oitV
licavv f3ovjelv, obc '8js a vEYKcXT7ro av i8ticalo
e'{' el2 79 'rarpl8t, 0ej 7rei/la, ica a-v -prot
Ta KpaTIcdTa;
14 IHepi TOVWeV 87 c)yo radvTa o0-a ice i avrT Te op Kial Eiceivov ducjicoa.
ICal vo/Jl, Or(W oT eXet, CO avUpeg AaKe8atfo'vtot,
el /IEV 7rcpgT fe dicefo-e Svvaptv, CW pL, e 'ol
ptvov dXXh\ Kal rToF a'XXot OeTraXoa licavivl
SoIcelv elvat vrpo 'Idaova 7roXe/eLv, d'ro77'jrTov7Ta
avcro at vroXeltr rac-a yap o/3ovvorat orot WorT
7rpoprja-erat 70) Avpo's 8vvaUt. el E veo8a-
/L,61St KaC av' pa I1T7 )v Oi o'E ae pIcc-aet, Ov/L-
15 3ovXev ) javXlav e'eiv. ev yap ta're, 07r 3 7rpdo
Te /EC'ydXlIV eorTat po/zrv 0 7roXeJo, Ical 7po'
1 0eof Cobet: ooi Kel. with MSS.
2 de Madvig: gv MSS.: v T-j 7rarTpS ... Kal o 7rpdresrT
Kel.
3 Omitted by MS. B: Kel. brackets.







HELLENICA, VI. I. 13-15

that while the other matters which he mentioned 374 B.c.
were worth considering, nevertheless for people who
were friends of the Lacedaemonians to secede and
go over to their enemies without having any charge
to bring against them-this, I said, seemed to me
to be impracticable. He thereupon, after com-
mending me and saying that he must cling to me
the more because I was that sort of a man, per-
mitted me to come to you and say the truth, that
he was intending to undertake a campaign against
the Pharsalians if we did not yield to him. There-
fore he bade me ask assistance from you. And if,'
said he, 'the gods grant that you persuade them to
send a supporting force large enough to make war
with me, so be it,' he said, 'and let us abide by
whatever may be the result of the war; but if it
seems to you that they do not give you adequate
assistance, would you not justly be blameless thence-
forth if you should follow the course that is best
for your city, which honours you ? '
"It is about these matters, then, that I have
come to you, and I tell you the whole situation
there as I myself see it and have heard it from his
lips. And I believe that this is the case, men of
Lacedaemon, that if you send thither a force such
as shall seem, not to me only, but also to the rest
of the Thessalians, large enough to make war upon
Jason, the cities will revolt from him; for all of
them are afraid of the lengths to which the man's
power will go. But if you imagine that emanci-
pated Helots and a private individual1 as commander
will suffice, I advise you to remain quiet. For, be
well assured, the war will be against strong forces
1 i.e. not a king.






XENOPHON


av8pa 0, pdvopp ovt i ov0c oaTpanT'yl dear'TV o
o-ra Xe hav0dvtv tcal t a (fOdvew Ica'l o-a 3sa-
eeoa9at e'rtxetpec ob tidXa dclapapTrdvet. icavo,
'ydp do'rt ca' vUcTrl asTep iLepa Xpr Oaat, Kcal o0av
are vly, aptorov ical Se'7rvov 7rotl7o-dpevo & aa
7roveiraat. oL'erat 8e icat dvawravcoOat Xpijvat,
oTav d lcItqrac 'v0' av pppLy7e'voP y ical Sta7rpadi-
Tat t Set' ical rov; a peO' abroD T ratra eWticv.
e7roTaTat 8r'a Ical orav E~wrovla-avTres ayadov T
'rpd wow ol o-partIowat, edTrXcra(oat T9 IyVcltav
auvTwP o-re a Cal orT o T IT L Lfpa jlcaati TdrTES o"
pfer avrov, o r EiC Tv 7rtvoov Ical TA ,/aXa/ca
16 lyv6eTara. Kal Irpv eyiparTEOrarTs y' 6er1 v iv
)e ol8a r 'v rept T o-Capa 'ovv (orTe o'8
&tA Ta7Ta doXoXlav e'yei TO /7 TrpTTeV del TO
eO8ftevor. vfueL obv o-tcefrdievot et7ware Trpb' i e,
wc7rep V/lpv rporo-ctrKEL, OrOLa 8VVaeO8e TE Cal
IleXere 'TOL?7EiV.
17 '0 U6'v TraT' e7vev. ol 8e Aace3Saitu ov TOT
IEv ave/3dkovTo rT?7v rdicTOptoa-tL' 7r bv~ repala
ical 7~ 7piryt Xoyto-adUevoit Tad re T iadpaq
oa-at avTroi~ elv Kea' Traf 7rept Aatceoal/ova 7rp)o
TAF 1 Trv 'AOiVvalov 7rpLpeft' ial TOv rpO' TroVb
oodpov ETroXefjov, awricptvavro o"rt Ev 7r vapwYtI
Ocic av vYaLvro lKcav)v avr T(Pcre/if Eat eTruKov-
plav, a' artiovna a-vvri9co-Tat avrbov eiceevov
rly vva-ro pia-pra Ta Te eavTro Kaica TA T
18 roXecoq. Kaicehvof pEvroIT e7ratyveoaq T7'v ar'Xo-
1 After r-s the MSS. have w : Kel. brackets.







HELLENICA, VI. i. 15-18

and against a man who is so sagacious a general that 874 B.e
whatsoever he undertakes to accomplish, whether it
be by secrecy, or by getting ahead of an enemy,
or by sheer force, he is not very apt to fail of his
object. For he is able to make as good use of
night as of day, and when he is in haste, to take
breakfast and dinner together and go on with his
labours. And he thinks it is proper to rest only
after he has reached the goal for which he had set
out and has accomplished the things that are need-
ful; moreover, he has accustomed his followers also
to the same habits. Yet he also knows how to satisfy
the wishes of his soldiers when by added toils they
have achieved some success; so that all who are
with him have learned this lesson too, that from
toils come indulgences. Again, he has greater self-
control than any man I know as regards the pleasures
of the body, so that he is not prevented by such
things, either, from doing always what needs to
be done. Consider, therefore, and tell me, as be-
seems you, what you will be able to do and intend
to do."
Thus he spoke. As for the Lacedaemonians, at
the time they deferred their answer; but after
reckoning up on the next day and on the third
their regiments abroad, to see how many they num-
bered, and the regiments which were in the vicinity
of Lacedaemon to be employed against the triremes
of the Athenians and for the war upon their neigh-
bours, they replied that at present they could not
send him an adequate supporting force, and told him
to go home and arrange his own affairs and those of
his city as best he could. He, then, after commend-
ing the straightforwardness of the state, departed.
r5







XENOPHON


Tr7Ta T7r -rohXeo ai r)0XE. Kat TrV pfev aKdp0oro1V
Tr&v DapcaXiawv d eiro roi 'Idi-ovo0 t dAvay-
KIac-a av rv 7rapaSovvat, '07wo T70' r apalcara9e-
pcvot? SCao-r' To; 8E eavTroD 7raSay ewOIcev
oL17povq, vWroa)0oLEvo T avTq TIJV r 7 rord.v relo-a
eKcov-av a-vI.uiaxov rot'rj-ev ica Trayorv o'uicara-
oT7cjate aVTOV. (09 8 Tah rtI'Ta r Sooav aXilXost,
ev'v9 /p~v o'l apo-aXtot elpi5v?7v yov, Traxb S
6 'Id~oav do'oyou'YOVva' ray7o T7()V eETTaXiv
19 ica0eo'Ticei. eT~re ye Pwv eTayevo-e, rt&eagev
trwIrtiu TCe oov cda'lrl 7rr oti~ 8vvaTr 'v 7rape-
etv ical 07rXtTtKcov. Ical ~yevovTo abr I'reri
/ptv av To9 o-vd.oLaXov ov rXelovuJ i) OcTaKctaXLXktot,
oT X^Tat oeXOylo-OIoa obic Cl Xa TTOVu; StO7i plcov,
7reX-Tao'-TtiKov e /v licaVo'v 7rpoq rdvaTa9 dv9pct -
wrov9 avTiTaXO7vaL ,epyov yatp dcePivwv ye rac T h
IrhoXefr apt1Ooja-at. rrpoei7re Se 7ro0L reptoico19
7rat ial TO)V (opov (Io7eTp e't i/coTda Teray/ievov
7v bepetv. K ra vTa a pj v oV Tro eTrepalvero'
eyc S rdt tv errdvve1t, 80ev el9 T 7t repi 'IdovoF
ypd eL e;e'iflv.
II. 01 te'v yap Aaice atzovioI Kcal t0 ao-vtcpaot
avveXkeyovTro e r 70Tu (UOwiea, ol 8,ei8aot
avaxo)p1raavre; eEL 77v eavrcv E4fvarTTv 'ra
elo-RoXdq. ol 8' 'AOrva'ot, avbavoufvovv pev
opnovre~ &St o0-4i 70To BrPt/aovpU, Xp aitard e ob
o-vy aXno/Pevov(; e1 TO vaVticov, aoVT1 a e aro-
KCvatojevot Kca Xp ldraTv eaioopag9 Kal X.y-TeLati







HELLENICA, VI. I. 18-1. I

And he begged Jason not to force him to give over 374 a.o.
the Acropolis of the Pharsalians, his wish being
that he might still keep it safe for those who had
put it into his hands; but he gave his own children
to Jason as hostages, with the promise not only to
win over the city and make it his willing ally, but
also to help in establishing him as Tagus. When,
accordingly, they had exchanged pledges with one
another, the Pharsalians at once observed peace, and
Jason was speedily established by common consent
as Tagus of the Thessalians. Having become Tagus,
he assessed the contingents of cavalry and hoplites
that the cities were to furnish, according to the
ability of each. And the result was that he had more
than eight thousand horsemen, including the allies,
his hoplites were reckoned at not fewer than twenty
thousand, and there were peltasts enough to be set
in array against the whole world; for it is a task
even to enumerate the cities which furnished them.
Further, he sent orders to all who dwelt round about
to pay the same tribute as had been fixed in the
time of Scopas.1 Thus these events were proceeding
to their issue; I now return to the point at which I
digressed when I took up the story of Jason.
II. The Lacedaemonians, then, and their allies
were gathering together in Phocis, and the Thebans
had withdrawn to their own country and were guard-
ing the passes. As for the Athenians, since they
saw that the Thebans were growing in power through
their help and still were not contributing money for
their fleet, while they were themselves being worn
out by extraordinary taxes, by plundering expeditions
1 Ruler of Crannon and Tagus of Thessaly in the period of
the Persian wars.
17
VOL. II. C






XENOPHON


Ay Alyvr ica cvXa/caKa r7i X'wpa9, dreevlpjao-av
7rado-ao-at Tro 7roXreov, ial 7re/-iavTre 7wrpee'se
elb Aaxce8atlova elprvyv 7Erot'1oavTo.
2 Ebrbl 8' iceGWev 81o Trv 7rpc/3e&ov 'rXevo-avTes
KaTa 8G6yla 7 rrdX -X6ew etirov T TtLo90e'i adro-
7rXetv ot'/caSe ct' elpl'vrp oac"ip d6 8' ai~a a'roe7rVewv
TO7o To&v Zalcvvwiv vwyd8a? aTrtepl/ao-ev eli
3 7rV X awpav avT&v. '7rel 8A of dic rI 7ro&eEoW
Zatcivv9tot 7reiavre 7Trpo rov' Aace8atluoovio
Xe'yov ola rET7rovFO6Te el v '7rb TOO TTqo9eov,
euvO ol' Aalce8atpivtotL a8icedV re '7yovTro Trob
'A raloaiov ial v avrucov 7aXrdv Icave rcevaoov cal
OrvveTaTTOvro el,; e1jkfcovra va9' d'ar' avTr)'; TE
TvI AaKESat[Lovo; cal KoplvOov Kal AevKcado
Kca 'ApL3paKia Kal "HAt8oq Ical Zaic'vOov ical
'AXait'a ica' 'ETt8apov Kalt Tpotruvo? Ica 'Ep-
4 lutro Kical 'AXti&v. EroriTfaTjavTe' 86' vavapvov
Mvo7rrTWrov hEce'Xevov TwV re aXXOwv irteeX~u irOat
ToV KaT' E ceLvrv 'Tv O'Xarav Kal arpareTvei
'ri Kepicvpav. A'rep/av 8 Kcal 7po ALoIvvroov
SEtaiCKOVTeV (? Kail iccivco Xpaj'itJov e611 T1Jv
KIpicvpav y~ br' 'AOrvaor. elvat.
5 Kal Iev 8y' Mvao-tirTro, Eire ovveXy avrT)
To vavrTIcov, eTrXEU vEV el' rjv Kepicvpav elJe g,
Ica' pYt6Oo6pspovq abvy 'Vo edc AaKic8altuovo /LeTr'
avroD o-pacrevoILevotf oiuc E~aTTOVov Xt'1wv Kca
6 7revraKcooiwv. evrl 8 dArre/3i,, EKpdaTr re 7r ? ly?
ical dfjou JecpyaoirJvr&v pe v WayKcaow ical 7rev-
Trevrlv Tr j Xcopav, pLeyaXo7rperei 86 ol OK"aess
18







HELLENICA, VI. 1. 1-6

from Aegina, and by guarding their territory, s74 ..
they conceived a desire to cease from the war, and
sending ambassadors to Lacedaemon, concluded
peace.
Two of the Athenian ambassadors, acting in accord-
ance with a decree of the state, sailed directly from
there and gave orders to Timotheus to sail back
home, inasmuch as there was peace; as he was sailing
back, however, he landed in their country the exiles
of the Zacynthians. And when the Zacynthians in the
city sent to the Lacedaemonians and told them the
sort of treatment they had received at the hands of
Timotheus, the Lacedaemonians immediately deemed
the Athenians guilty of wrong-doing, set about pre-
paring a fleet again, and fixed the proportionate con-
tingents, for a total of sixty ships, from Lacedaemon
itself, Corinth, Leucas, Ambracia, Elis, Zacynthus,
Achaea, Epidaurus, Troezen, Hermion, and Haliae.
Then they put Mnasippus in command of this fleet
as admiral and directed him to look after all their
interests in that part of the sea, and especially to
make an expedition against Corcyra. They likewise
sent to Dionysius,1 pointing out that it was advan-
tageous to him also that Corcyra should not be
under the Athenians.
Mnasippus, accordingly, as soon as his fleet had
been gathered together, set sail to Corcyra; and
besides the troops from Lacedaemon who served with
him he also had no fewer than one thousand five
hundred mercenaries. Now when he had disem-
barked he was master of the country, laid waste the
land, which was most beautifully cultivated and
planted, and destroyed magnificent dwellings and
1 Tyrant of Syracuse.






XENOPHON


Kal olvOva; ca'reoaevao'.C vovv Ei'rl riv d'yp&v'
(oar' ~baaav T7Ouq opaTtcTra eld' ToDro rpv4,f
X0e8Ov r' O 01' odC EE Lei vetv, el pjL7 avoo-plaja
e'~'. ICaL avSpdrro a Kical /oo-fcrljiara 7rca'roXXa
7 XIrice'ro &Tc 7T&V aypv. e7re ta Ic aTreo-TpaTo-
wre8evdaTO T 7 /.e 7re( 7Tt rit1 X q drC'Xov'T 7TjF
roXEfw 'q 7rrwTre o-raSta, rrpo 7Tj Xpaw O8vTL,
o7rw(g a rOTCElvoLTo evrevOev, ef T(L e'7riT Trv X(pav
TMv KepKvpalOv fe'o Lr TOB varIVTicov els TcLrrl
ad'epa TI7^ 7rToAcOg KaTcn-TpaToTrecETevre, 'vFev
erT' av Ta rrpoa7rXfTovTa ca'l rrpoaato-Oveo-Oat Kal
StacwXvetv. 7rpos S TO' ro Kal E7Tl T7~ Xt/le'L,
8 7T7rOe XL" XeioI(v KWVXOI, ecfpipjet. erroXtopIce
eI}v 87 o7Sro Tr'V 7roXIv.
'Erwel Se ol Kepicpaiot dicK EL Tf r' y7; obS&V
EaXdt,8/avov Sth To KparTeo-a a Karah 'y~v, IcaT
OadXaTTav 8e obSev ello(/7ero avTrot, 8h bT
9 vavicpaTrefia0a, Edv rroXkg trropla 2oav. cal
rerLwrovre 7 rrpv Trov 'AOrvalowv p/oreiv wre
e8eovro Kal 61\ Sao-cov w9 pte'ya pEv aya9ov
drroj3dXotev fv, el Kepxipav a-Tepr6aele, Tols
Se 7roXefttplot te yaX'7v oav X'V1 rrpoatodotiev"
et ovbSetLtag yap vrroXew rXr7Iv ye 'AOr7vcv oire
vav9 oUTe Xp7'aTa XrXEt) av yeve'oBala. eTt
Kcecat 77a 7 v KE'p/cvpay v ecaV X tIbv TO7 Koptv-
9taKcov IKOTrov Kal T7v 0'roXerv at e 70i ToVoV
IatrjKtovor-, ev KaXh @ 70 O 7 v Aaicwvticv
Xycpav /3'drrretv, dv Icalor' cp 7r8 g Te aVTt-
20







HELLENICA, VI. u. 6-9

wine-cellars with which the farms were furnished; s74 B.c.
the result was, it was said, that his soldiers became
so luxurious that they would not drink any wine
unless it had a fine bouquet. Furthermore, very
many slaves and cattle were captured on the farms.
Afterwards he encamped with his land forces on a
hill which was distant from the city about five stadia
and situated between the city and the country, so
that he might from there intercept any of the Cor-
cyraeans who might try to go out to their lands;
then he had the sailors from his ships encamp on
the other side of the city, at a point from which he
thought they would observe in good time any vessels
that approached and prevent their coming in. In
addition he also maintained a blockade at the mouth
of the harbour when the weather did not interfere.
In this way, then, he held the city besieged.
When the Corcyraeans found themselves unable
to get anything from their farms because they were
overmastered by land, while on the other hand
nothing was brought in to them by water because they
were overmastered by sea, they were in great straits.
Accordingly, sending to the Athenians, they begged
them to come to their assistance, and pointed out
that they would lose a great advantage if they were
deprived of Corcyra, and would add great strength
to their enemies; for from no other state, they said,
except Athens, could come a greater number of ships
or a greater amount of money. Further, Corcyra
was situated in a favourable position with respect to
the Corinthian Gulf and the states which reach down
to its shores, in a favourable position for doing damage
to the territory of Laconia, and in an extremely
favourable position with respect to Epirus across the






XENOPHON


wrpa 'Hlwelpov ical roO ek HeXo'rovvrjcov awo
10 lceXla, r7rapar7rXov. dcovo-avTre s 8 Tavra ol
'AFOvalot evopav laYo-XvpoqX ev'TteXf7Teov elvat,
ical 'crpaTrf'ybv 7rEfwrovo- K trTiaCXE'K a el' Eaico-
ot'ovi lXovra 7reXTaoraT 'AXKe'rov 8' Eef'jlYao-av
11 ovvStaa/3dat rTOV'roV'. Kal oviroL /~pV v KTb
8taicopc-Orev' VT ov 71 Ti;9 Xpa? elo1-X0ov elf Tr2v
TroXtL. 'i7flobav7o Se Kca& ico VTa vac 7r-Xqy-
poiv, Tt)uoeov S' aVrr pcv arpariTyov e'XepoTWdvarav.
12 d 8' ov 8vvdgtevos aVT6~Bev Ta- vaDv 7rXhypow-at,
7rt vznjroiv 7rXevoaw iceffOev eretparo av/,WrXh po0v,
ob aGXov 'yo tevoT elvat 7r l avyyK/CpoT1rlevaT
13 vaGF elicy 7repLTrXevcat. ol 8' 'AOrvaiot vopl-
aovrv rov avaXoDv v 7O T4 pa3 els Trv rept-
7rXovv Xpovov, avyryvdytjv oVfc ~bo-ov avrT, AXXa
7ravaavrTes abvrb T o-TpaT7rjylai 'JoicpairTv
14 avtvatpovTrat. 6 eTreTl Ica'rer-Tr paTr-yo,
,u~Xa oEW9O TO vavf eTXrrypovTO cal T70P Tptl7p-
dpxovu 'vd'yicae. 7rporo-hap3e S' w7aph T&v 'ATOJ -
valov icat el' Trro TL vavi rrep'l rv 'ATTiicjv earXet
ical T7v TlHdpaXov Icai rTv aXafutvav, Xaycov c,
EJv' TIace icaXkow -yevrTat, "roXXa' auTrot vaGi
aCro'reLkoti. italt Eevovro abTo at a'raa at rep'
Gl3ogoLiovra.
15 'Ev 6 7ro 'r) T5i Xpov ol Kepicvvpaot obr"w
aqJ8pa erevtrv ore' T l Sta T rXijOlo T6ov abro-
jioXovrTwov eKcjpvUf 6 MVadc'r-TroF 're'rpiao-at
oO Tt avro/tOXObl. eel? o oev JT7rov 7)VTOIfo-
22







HELLENICA, VI. ii. 9-15

way and the coastwise route from Sicily to Pelopon- 374 Lc.
nesus. When the Athenians heard these things they
came to the conclusion that they must give serious
care to the matter, and they sent out Ctesicles as
general with about six hundred peltasts and requested
Alcetas1 to help to convey them across. Accordingly
these troops were brought across by night to a place
in the country of Corcyra, and made their way into
the city. The Athenians also voted to man sixty
ships, and elected Timotheus as commander of them.
But he was unable to man his ships at Athens, and 3'3 B.o.
therefore set sail for the islands and endeavoured to
complete his crews there, thinking that it was a
serious matter to sail light-heartedly around Pelopon-
nesus to attack ships with well-trained crews. The
Athenians, however, believing that he was using up
the time of the year which was favourable for his
voyage, did not pardon him, but deposed him from
his office and chose Iphicrates in his place. As soon
as he assumed office, he proceeded to man his ships
expeditiously, and compelled his captains to do their
duty. He also obtained from the Athenians whatever
war-ships were cruising here or there in the neigh-
bourhood of Attica, as well as the Paralus 2 and the
Salaminia, saying that if matters in Corcyra turned
out successfully, he would send them back many
ships. And his ships amounted in all to about
seventy.
Meanwhile the Corcyraeans were suffering so
greatly from hunger that on account of the number
of the deserters Mnasippus issued a proclamation
directing that whoever deserted should be sold into
slavery. And when they kept on deserting none the
1 cp. i. 7. 2 cp. I. i. 28.






XENOPHON


Xovv, TeXevTEuv Kcal tao-aTtyCv arEreteTrev. ol
IflVot g' oWev 7Tov ye 8oXovq oc cBXOv'8 ro
rdAXIv ei Tb TreLXov, aXXa -7roXXol kOw ci-E'Ovfl-
16 -cTOV. 6 S' av Mvudawcrrov 6pCov raGra, vPtfiie
TE o-or obic i897 e'YEI TP roX v icaI 7ep' TO V'
.ti-OoJopov5 EKaivovpyet, cal TobV'; ev rtvaq av-
TioV AZroLL-ovc E'T7-rotLrKEt, TOF 8'e JvcvaO icaL
80vov 'i77 'I7voYv &i etxh e TroV pto-ov, o0c dtrop&Ov,
,; 6x6'yero, XPr-/IpdaTov Kal yap Trov wiXcrov ai
iroXXal avb.T apyprtov Ov71 7T4V v3py OV ErepJrov,
17 aTE Kal 8la7rovrov OT?7 ao-TparTLa'; O'7iF. ca'Tt-
S0VT6e 8' A7Ot T'v TrvIpyov ol Cc 'K ir6' 7rXew9 7T
re lXaCah? XePOT pv f rpoao-ev a vKaTnro/evaF
o-harapp vovF9 Te caTa Tr v Xdpav TObV av6pOd7Tov9,
e'er1c8paU6vrTe6' toV~s /.v rtvas avr&v 'Xa3ov,
18 TO7V 8e KcaTrKorav. alo-01pevog 86 6 Mdvao-ctwrog,
avTo' T6e e o7rXlE6TO Ical Jo-ovf elXev odrXlTa
a7raa-L e /3ori0e, Ka TOV0' Xoxayo b t Ka TOV';
Taaitdpxovw e'id'yev ieKXeve TOV' 9 tI0to opovm.
19 a7ro-ptvalc Lfvov Se LrtV XoXay/ojv r Oe ob pl&ov
ef /J7 ~~&iSTav Ta7tT7rl8eca 7retOo/[evovo Irape-
Xe6v, TOhV iev TWva /pacTr'pia, TOV 8' T) ar-Tpatc
eTraTagev. ovT' pro v 87l aOvtpO eXovTes Ical
tIJtoovJTEV avTo'v ovverXOhov 'ravTref" o0rep i/cKaTra
eltq aXdrv Uavlfepet.
20 '0 8' e7wel raperTaaro, avTos ~Lhv rTOV Kara
T-a wrvXag T'v 7roXeqfLtov Tpetdtievo9 j'rc8la-
icev. t01 dwel C' yy?\ T7O TeLIov y EyEovPTo,
ave-rTpefov e Kal a7aro' T7 Ov Ivrl7/iaTwv '/3aXdXov
24






HELLENICA, VI. i. 15-20

less, at last he even tried to drive them back with 73 B.C.
the scourge. Those in the city, however, would not
admit the slaves within the wall again, and many
died outside. Now Mnasippus, seeing these things,
and believing that he all but had possession of the
city already, was trying innovations with his mer-
cenaries. He had before this dismissed some of
them from his service, and he now owed those who
remained as much as two months' pay. This was
not, so it was said, because he lacked money, for
most of the states had sent him money instead of
men,1 because it was an overseas expedition. Now
the people in the city, observing from their towers
that the enemy's posts were less carefully guarded
than formerly, and that the men were scattered
through the country, made a sally, capturing some
of them and cutting down others. When Mnasippus
perceived this, he put on his armour and went to
the rescue himself, with all the hoplites he had,
and at the same time ordered the captains and
commanders of divisions to lead forth the mercen-
aries. And when some captains replied that it was
not easy to keep men obedient unless they were
given provisions, he struck one of them with a staff
and another with the spike of his spear. So it was,
then, that when his forces issued from the city with
him they were all dispirited and hostile to him-a
situation that is by no means conducive to fighting.
Now after he had formed the troops in line,
Mnasippus himself turned to flight those of the
enemy who were in front of the gates, and pursued
them. When, however, these came near the wall, they
turned about, and from the tombstones threw spears
1 Under the arrangement described in v. ii. 21.
; 25



% ;





XENOPHON


cal tKCvrtLov" aXXOt 8' edtcpad.ovre icae' eTepac
21 7rvXa ei'rtnitevraat aOp6ot TOiq Co-XdTO ot E7r'
0CTC0r TeTay/I.EOL, aafeve's voplo-avre; To aicpov
Tr dapdXa/yyo 'Xetv, avaorp Qeiv eTreLpivro.
(o 8' ip~avro 'rravaX)opelv, ol ae'v 'roXep'tot c)
(fevyovao-v E'7rEevrTO, oi 8' oiKEt e'ravio-vpe'4av*
22 cal oti XO/ievot 8' abvrv ei (OvyT'v 'pLoV. 6 8'
Mvado-twro? TO /,tU' WrteotzEo0L ob;IC edvaro
/3o?70eiV 8&a TrobVy E TO7 /caTavTItCpv 7rpoOCet-
1tevov', del 8' eXelI76Tr o-'bv eXTToo-. Terho 8
of TroXE/tot aOpooL yevO/IeVot radVTE eTreTLOfevTO
T70o' repl TOv MvdanTTrov, )8i ptdaXa 8Xilotv? o5o-t.
icat o7 aToX17at op~oV7e TO' ytyvv6evov E'rerao-av.
23 e7rT 8' 6eceLvov a7reKTeCtvav, 6iaLifcov i'8j7 S7raVT6e.
eKtvz8sevoav 8' av /ial T~O b paToTrOe8v deeiv acrv
Tm Xapat dcjarT, el /a ol &dicoPvreT TOv ayopaidv
re oXXov 18ovTre ical ov T&iv Oepa7rdvrwv Ica' TO
TjV Av3pa7rol8w, oli7OfEvTev OCeX6od Tt abvrTv evat,
24 TareorpefovrTO. Kal TOT7 /1Lv Tpo7raEov TE 'tUTa-
aav oi KepcvpaZot Tov; Te veicpo v v7roarTrovWov
aTre8S8oaav. CK Se TO6 TOv otl p ,v V T7 TIrXet
EppwCIevViTrepot deyeCIY4vvro, ol 8' E'a dv 7rdao 87?
OVJ/ta (~r]aav. Kal ryyp 'X.yeTO 'Tt 'I acpdTja Te
oo-ov oblc i 7 7rapeir, Kal ol KepKvFpaolt S eT
25 ovTr1 vas' e7rX5'povv. 'T7rep/[Invr S 08, ? j-'i"y-

1 The eararpoo) involved two movements, (1) a facing
about, followed by a march to the rear, and (2) a turning of
the line until it stood behind the adjacent troops, thus
doubling the depth of the phalanx. In this case the enemy's
26







HELLENICA, VI. i. 20-25

and javelins upon the Lacedaemonians; meanwhile 373 B.c.
others sallied out by the other gates and in mass
formation attacked those who were at the extreme
end of the line. These latter, who were drawn up
only eight deep, thinking that the outer end of the
phalanx was too weak, undertook to swing it around
upon itself.1 But as soon as they began the back-
ward movement, the enemy fell upon them, in the
belief that they were in flight, and they did not go
on and swing forward; furthermore, those who were
next to them also began to flee. As for Mnasippus,
while he was unable to aid the troops which were
hard pressed, because the enemy was attacking him
in front, he was left with an ever smaller number
of men. Finally, all of the enemy massed them-
selves together and charged upon Mnasippus and
his troops, which were by this time very few. And
the citizens, seeing what was going on, came out to
join in the attack. Then after they had killed
Mnasippus, all straightway joined in the pursuit.
And they probably would have captured the very
camp, along with its stockade, had not the pursuers
turned back upon seeing the crowd of camp-fol-
lowers, of attendants, and of slaves, imagining that
there was some fighting ability in them. At this
time, accordingly, the Corcyraeans set up a trophy
and gave back the bodies of the dead under a truce.
And after this the people in the city were stouter of
heart, while those outside were in the utmost de-
spondency. For there was not only a report that
Iphicrates was already practically at hand, but the
Corcyraeans were in fact also manning ships. Then
attack prevented the accomplishment of the second move-
ment:






XENOPHON


xavev Ert~aoroLao po, Tp MIvaa-nrr Wv, 7To e
vavrTIIov 'wav oov r v Elcei aovve7rX poooe, Kat
7rrept7rXewvo-aa; rpo 7o-b Xapdicma a T 7rwXoa 7rdvTa
yelulo-a TWCv Te avSparr6Swv Kal T'^ov XprlaTmwv
arro-reXXTev avrTb o a 6 -' re 70oT Trt3aLTat al
Trol rrepLroYiweL T&OV aTpaTtMTr&v c &ofkaXaTTre
26 Xapdecwapa- TeXOF 8e Kal obTrot IauXa TeTapa-
typl.vot ava/davTeq i'T1 T~ 7rpt tpet E7rrdr6Xeov,
roX v o ~iyv o~7Tov, rroXvv 86 olvov, roXXa Se Av-
8parro8a ical do-0evoivraq o-rpaTtwiraq KcaTaXt-
rovr-f' Se 8tvo yap 4e'7Tco/37vTro // KfaaXrfflelev
bvrb r&v 'AOrivalov v T7 viT O. Kcai diceK)VOL Lc
el, AeRhd8a drera;rlo-av.
27 '0 8 'ItIKpdaTr 7 6reit ?7paro TO 70'replTrXov,
apta .ev e'rXet, 1,4a a 7rdvTa b'oa efl vaviayxlav
7rapEo6-KevaeTO' evfv ,iyv 7yap aTh Iu~eyda iar ta
aubroD KaTeX7rlev, c e7r lA vavptaXyav 7rVa1W Ka
70To alcarTeotv 86, cKac ei opbv 'rveD a e'li, OXTya
ypfjo*' ^7 06 ;crchy T 7rXeov w orowogevos apIet-
vv Tr T76 o-CL/LaTa e'Xet Trov avSpa Kalt laietIov
28 Ta7 va, 7rXhev edrolef T-oXXadt6cts A Kai 8crr
ue\Xot AppCro-Trrteio'Eat TO o7TpdTev a Set7rvo-
7rotieo-1at, E'7rauvyayer v 0v Tocpaq adro TT7] yq
icaTa raiTa T' Xwptla e'rwl 8' e'rtcrp'ifra' aS
Kal avTtwrpppovq Ka/aor7'To7-as Ta TpIrTp117F n0
arryLerov alet avLapdtXXaao-0at el 7T\V yjv, Ieaya
8 vtrInic'ptov 0v 7rpT70rovF ical I8wp Xa3etv Kat
6f' T70 C aXov elovro, ical 7rpcrov' aptiaTIrgat.
TO7E E Vrdro TadTOcL tKO/oev'Os / faeydXfl rfla Jv TO







HELLENICA, VI. u. 25-28

Hypermenes, who chanced to be vice-admiral under saT B.C.
Mnasippus, manned fully the entire fleet which he
had there, and after sailing round to the stockade
and filling all his transports with the slaves and the
captured property, sent them off; he himself, how-
ever, with his marines and such of the soldiers as
had been left alive, kept guard over the stockade;
but finally they, too, embarked upon the triremes in
great confusion and went sailing off, leaving behind
them a great deal of corn, much wine, and many
slaves and sick soldiers; for they were exceedingly
afraid that they would be caught on the island by
the Athenians. And so they reached Leucas in
safety.
As for Iphicrates, when he began his voyage around
Peloponnesus he went. on with all needful prepara-
tions for a naval battle as he sailed; for at the outset
he had left his large sails behind him at Athens, since
he expected to fight, and now, further, he made but
slight use of his smaller sails, even if the wind was
favourable; by making his voyage, then, with the
oar, he kept his men in better condition of body
and caused the ships to go faster. Furthermore,
whenever the expedition was going to take the
noonday or the evening meal at any particular spot,
he would often draw back the head of the column
from the shore opposite the place in question;
then he would turn the line around again, cause
the triremes to head toward the land, and start
them off at a signal to race to the shore. It was
counted a great prize of victory to be the first to
get water or anything else they needed, and the first
to get their meal. On the other hand, those who
reached the shore last incurred a great penalty in
29






XENOPHON


Te eXaTTovO0aat 7raot TOTOrot ca &o ava/yeao-at
atta ASet, 7re' o-rl pvet6e avve/aL3ae ryap -ro /,tiv
-p6nots asbLKvovIEII'oI KcaO' 'Iao-vxlav a7ravra
29 7roteiv, TO7F e TEXeVTralo? Sta crTrov8~f. (vXa-
Kadv ye 1/v, El TvxOL el 7Tj wroXeplLa api'TOcrotocv-
/ervoq, 7v JuLV e 6 J 7y y?, ia-Trp irpoo)ijcet, caO-
ba'Tr, EV 8' rat' vavawv alpodpevos a3 rTOV o iToV?
atrTO vr v '01) o-CoreiTO. 7roXb obv er't 'rXeov o0TOt
KaOewpov A7 ol ec T70 6paXoD, do' v*7Xl orTpov
KcaOopwvTeS'. oTrov Se Sectnrvo7roitoF'o Kac KaO vf-
8ot, eV IJEV T() aopaTo7TrS&p VVIc'rp Trp O7bK OIcae,
jrpho 8 TOO upaTEpvaTroS OO eTroLEt, iva trJel
Xd6 7rrpooa-v. TroXXacts S', el eu8la e'j, e 10v,
etrvy70cras avevroT' cal /el fv aiSpa I)Epot, OeovTeS
apta adreravovTro l e'ave ot, a 'ra av
30 TOkv vavTav dvgTravev. bv SC TO? /IEOl' ?i'epav
7rXol aTrb ao~rteVTOTv torT p 77-v 2r ?, Tpo or
S' 6rti ;dXayyo wo0-Tare ala pev erXeov, aipa US
7rcdvTa o'-a eia vavuLaxlav Kai 70 Cr' X7Te ical
7ToTGrdf/i1eVOL El T71jy V7Tr Tr V 7rOXe/ta)W, to WCOVTO,
KcaT'reyoIr v OdXacTav a t ucvovvro. cal Tta /116
iroXXah ev T1 7roX6ep/a Kcai rplotrwv xal Setrvovp
8Lh 8 b TTdIvayTcaa t6ivov rrpadTrrw T al Tay
j3or6elaO ebf avev Avayop.evoO Kal TaX(v Erepatve.
31 IIEpL S& Tv Mvao-rrrIrov OavaToV ETyaVe wv
Tj) AaKvutUcK 7rep/i Tas debaytav. els Tr 'HXdeav
1x &' U17oripov ia00opiv;rTe MSS.: Kel. brackets, following
Hartman.
30







HELLENICA, VI. n. 28-31

that they came off worse in all these points, and in 878 B.o
the fact that they had to put to sea again at the
same time as the rest when the signal was given;
for the result was that those who came in first did
everything at their leisure, while those who came
in last had to hurry. Again, in setting watches, if
he chanced to be taking the midday meal in a hostile
country, he posted some on the land, as is proper,
but besides he hoisted the masts on the ships and
had men keep watch from their tops. These men,
therefore, could see much farther, from their higher
point of view, than those on the level. Further,
wherever he dined or slept, he would not have a fire
inside the camp during the night, but kept a light
burning in front of his forces, so that no one could
approach unobserved. Frequently, however, if it was
good weather, he would put to sea again immedi-
ately after dining; and if there was a favourable
breeze, they sailed and rested at the same time,
while if it was necessary to row, he rested the sailors
by turns. Again, when he sailed by day, he would
lead the fleet, by signals, at one time in column
and at another in line of battle; so that, while still
pursuing their voyage, they had at the same time
practised and become skilled in all the manoeuvres of
battle before they reached the sea which, as they
supposed, was held by the enemy. And although
for the most part they took both their noonday and
their evening meals in the enemy's country, never-
theless, by doing only the necessary things, he always
got to sea before the enemy's forces arrived to repel
him and speedily got under way again.
At the time of Mnasippus' death Iphicrates
chanced to be near the Sphagiae 1 in Laconia. Then,
I Islands situated off Pylos. 2 r






XENOPHON


8' daocKO~tLevo, K cal waparrXeo-a Tob ro 'AX Peto
aTorua v7rT TOV 'IX bV KaXov/levov oowpla-aTo.
7Ty S' UoaTpaacL evrevffev av'jryeTro i7r' T KeoaX-
X\lviav, ov'T7 Kal TeTa'y/t/voq cal TOv 7rXoDv
"rotovtLevo c9, el oo, o dvTrara oa Xpa 7rape-
-cxevaao-vov vav/.iaxoLl. ical yp Tah ITepI 70i
Mvao-at'rrov avrTO7Tov iLev- oV'evyb FicirC6e, brc-
rTTeve 86 \ P d7rTaT e'veica aXC'yTor, Kal 4&v-
XaTTrreTro' rel fV evTOt alicero elf 7Tlv KefaXXr-
viav, EvTavia 8 oao&z '7ivveTO, Kial dve'7rave
Tb o-TprdTev/ta.
32 Ol1a ptuv o 0v 5t Tara 7ravTa, oTav o1'&v'rat
vav/zaXjoetv vOpounrot, ial dIc-KerlTat Kcal /eXe-
T"Taat dXX\ ToTro dEratco, OTC 47rel aice'o-ata
Taxu t'et 'vOa Tosf T7roXe/potq vavax~roaetv 'e6ro,
T e v e 17h bv r~ofi
'ivpeTo OrwO; /7Te Stac TOV r-XoDv dverTr'pTiovala
elvat T /tLXerTav 3paov-repov TIs dtLiCKea-at.
33 KaTao7pTecdtevo, 8e Tar ev 7 T KecaXXyvla
7retr 'rXevo-ev elK' epcvpav. EKel & 7 rp0Tov
/-ev dicova-a OTC 7rrpocrk-rXTotev 8Iea Tpt4rpetq -rapa
Atovvolov, SoOQroaovo-at TO, Aaice8attovlrot?,
avro 'X o9 v ical KE*1fa/d6evo T" rO'paq Eoev
T70oV e Trpooa7rXovTra, 8vvaTryv dV pa)v Ial TOV'
o-tjLalvovTaq elw Trv 7rohXv caTra aveZi elvat,
34 e'vavT a KaTErcTfl-e TO'a o-Kcor7oO. i/cKceivoL'
LEIv -avvP~TO e rpooTrXeduvTov Te ical optovvoTrw
(h Seot cai/taIveYv. avro; 87 TV ptlpiapXy







HELLENICA, VI. 1n. 31-34

after reaching Elis and sailing past the mouth of the s73 aB
Alpheus, he anchored beneath the promontory called
Ichthys. From there he put to sea on the following
day for Cephallenia, having his fleet in such order
and making the voyage in such a way that, if it
should be necessary to fight, he should be ready in
all essential respects to do so. For he had not
heard the news of Mnasippus' death from any eye-
witness, but suspected that it was told to deceive
him, and hence was on his guard; when he arrived
at Cephallenia, however, he there got definite in-
formation, and so rested his forces.
Now I am aware that all these matters of practice
and training are customary whenever men expect to
engage in a battle by sea, but that which I com-
mend in Iphicrates is this, that when it was incum-
bent upon him to arrive speedily at the place where
he supposed he should fight with the enemy, he
discovered a way to keep his men from being either,
by reason of the voyage they had made, unskilled
in the tactics of fighting at sea, or, by reason of
their having been trained in such tactics, any the
more tardy in arriving at their destination.
After subduing the cities in Cephallenia he sailed
to Corcyra. There, upon hearing that ten triremes
were sailing thither from Dionysius to aid the Lace-
daemonians, he first went in person and looked over
the ground to find a point from which any who
approached the island could be seen and the men
stationed there to send signals to the city would be
visible; he then stationed his watchers at that point.
He also agreed with them as to how they were to
signal when the enemy were approaching and when
they were at anchor. Then he gave his orders to

33
VOL II. D






XENOPHON


wpoa'Traev et'lcoatv, o 8eejo-ot, eret KIcpvt;tev,
a/coovx evo el 8' rTU pt a'oXiov9?0rot, 'TpoeTre
14 ieolfj eOat rv 87~cUlv. 'rel 8' ao- fprLdv9iaoav
7rpoor-rXeovo-at caEl E~Krpv )Ol, cla edyveCr Oea<
n a-7rov0"' obvSetly p '50-T? ov Spo'p, rTOv UeX-
35 XovrTE 7rXeiv elo-9/3 el6t rT vaOs?. 7rXev'raq 8
'vOa ja-av at oroXe/itat 7Tptpeet, KcarTaXapp/dv
a1ro V ev 'rTv aXXoW Tpt ?PWv y 7r v 'y7v TroV
av8paq edic,8eGic3 ra%, MeXdvt'rwro' pvrot 6 'P0 -
Stov ToF T6re AXXOL9 avve/3poveve \ pevev TeravOa
ical avTo 7rXlpo)pa',cvo; T7)v vav EETrQhXe. e Kd-
vos p1,6v oZv ,cal7rep awaVrraTv Tral 'ItAcpa'TovU
vavo-rv o8tos ar7Tkv'yevW at SU A7TO :vpaKovoa-&v
36 v1es aTrao'at edaX woav avrol avtvpadcrw. 0 /e'VTro
'IfItIpa'Tr7T Tae p/E Tptipe'; a1cpwTriptacda/1evo
9XKWV KaT'aryldYeTO Etl rTO r&v KepicvpalOV
XpiEeva, GTV 8e avSpwv vuve/3rj Kcaarov Ta~KTOi
apypto, v dro7fteira, TrX]v KptvL7nrov trov p-
XoVrT"' roiTov 8' env'Xarrev, o ) 4 rpafievoq
7ra/ roXXa XprjfTa 6 w w'ao-Xtwv. Kaiceivow
/pev vTro Xiv'7rq ablatperyp OavadrT arooyva7-el,
Trob 8' aXov; 'IcKpdrT dl a(rjKe, Kepxcvpalov<
37 eyVJT77a Se~a/1evo T Ov XP7iafiTWV. ical 70;T
/Bv vav'ra" yE OpyoDrTaq ro0i KepKvpalot{ TO
TXECiToV 8tEirpeCe, T70O 8Se WeXTarTar cal -rov';
aTo *T& V vewv O Xa 6'ra Xwv 8te/atwvev elC T7v
'Acapvavtav ical eice TraL9 /kv OptXlati 'WroXewY
fTaeaovpes, el T71 T S0oeL0r, Ovpewio- 8e, /pha
Kal dv8pdacrv acXlpoi aot l Xwopiov Kaprepbv
34







HELLENICA, VI. n. 34-37

twenty of the captains, whose duty it should be to 878 B.c.
follow him when the herald gave the word; and
in case anyone failed to follow, he warned him that
he would not have occasion to find fault with his
punishment. Now when the signal came that the
triremes were approaching, and when the word was
given by the herald, the ardour of all was a sight
worth seeing; for there was no one among those
who were to sail who did not run to get aboard his
ship. When Iphicrates had reached the place where
the enemy's triremes were, he found the crews of all
save one already disembarked on the shore, but
Melanippus, the Rhodian, had not only advised the
others not to remain there, but had manned his own
ship and was sailing out to sea. Now although he
met the ships of Iphicrates, he nevertheless escaped,
but all the ships from Syracuse were captured,
along with their crews. Thereupon Iphicrates cut off
the beaks and towed the triremes into the harbour
of Corcyra; as for the crews, he concluded an agree-
ment that each man should pay a fixed ransom, with
the exception of Crinippus the commander, whom
he kept under guard, intending either to exact a
very large ransom or to sell him. Crinippus, how-
ever, was so mortified that he died by a self-inflicted
death, and Iphicrates let the rest go, accepting Cor-
cyraeans as sureties for the ransoms. Now he main-
tained his sailors for the most part by having them
work for the Corcyraeans on their lands; the pel-
tasts, however, and the hoplites from his ships he
took with him and crossed over to Acarnania. There
he gave aid to the cities which were friendly, in case
any of them needed aid, and made war upon the
Thyrians, who were very valiant men and were in







XENOPHON


38 eXovaiv, erroXies. Ical TOb A Kep =pav vav-
TtCKo 7rpoo-Xafa3 aXeSov 7rep't evefrjiOVTa vavi(,
wrporov pev del KeSfaXX7vl'av vrXeto-av XprpIara
drpdia ro, Ta phv rap' bcOVrW, a rap'
iaKcrwv' e* 'rta 83 wapeo-Ceudgero r70 e TcrWv
AaxeaEtaqpoovwv Xpav KaKCw 7fOLelv Kal Trwv
aXXcov Tv io ca' eiva rroXecov rroXef dl o'o-ov
TaO pL v jOeXvodiag 7rpoTXaP.Ld/aveLv, TOZ 8' 117
wretOo/e'votv 7roXe/eiv.
39 'Ey, tLeyv Sl7 TavrT7v rvjV orpaTr'yiav Trv 'Id4 -
KPparov ovX lctw'ra e&ratvw, eTretrra Kal T 7rOpoo--
eX&OaL K6ceXe60a eJavTri KaXXiarpaTro Te rTO
S1,a/y7opov, ov /.aIa ed7rTjSeL0ov aiOV, Ical Xapplpav,
pdaXa crTpaTI7yov vo dP op/Avov. ere 'yap 4ppovi-
povs avTrovv yovevoV elvat a-tvpLovoov? Xa3edv
e/3OVeTro, o-aBppov pot 8o/IcE Starrpd'aoOat, erTe
avT7rradXov vopimvoY, obTr Opao'e'vW' ire Kcarapa-
OVILJV CrLjT6 KaraTa.eLXv tl piv palveo-Ora, 'lya
OpovovTOv e4o' e'avTrD TOVTOr pLoit 80 vE pb;
elvat. Ircrcetwo'Eo IV Ta 7' e'arparTer.
III. 01 'S 'AOyvaiot, /cnrefrrrT)oTar ksev opuv-
Te6c T 7ir Bo(Trlav lXaraat&;v r lov olvrav,
Katl Ka7Tareevy7'Tra rrpo' alroveO, ticeTreovra Se
eo-wta? p/j a-f&v reptt8ev a7ro~la 7yevolvuovq,
oU ICTt er'vovV rob / O8aliovv, caXXA roXeuelv

1 paaweis: Kel. inserts after it rjpar-rrv 9s.







HELLENICA, VI. I. 37-mI. I

possession of a very strong fortress. Furthermore, 72s .o.
he took over the fleet which was at Corcyra, and
with almost ninety ships first sailed to Cephallenia
and collected money, in some cases with the consent
of the people, in other cases against their will. Then
he made preparations to inflict damage upon the
territory of the Lacedaemonians, and to bring over
to his side such of the other hostile states in that
region as were willing and to make war upon such as
would not yield.
Now for my part I not only commend this cam-
paign in particular among all the campaigns of
Iphicrates, but I commend, further, his directing the
Athenians to choose as his colleagues Callistratus,
the popular orator, who was not very favourably in-
clined toward him, and Chabrias, who was regarded
as a very good general. For if he thought them to
be able men and hence wished to take them as ad-
visers, he seems to me to have done a wise thing,
while on the other hand if he believed them to be
his adversaries and wished in so bold a way to prove
that he was neither remiss nor neglectful in any
point, this seems to me to be the act of a man pos-
sessed of great confidence in himself. He, then,
was occupied with these things.
III. Meanwhile the Athenians, seeing that the 371 .e.
Plataeans, who were their friends, had been expelled
from Boeotia and had fled to them for refuge, and
that the Thespians were beseeching them not to
allow them to be left without a city, no longer
commended the Thebans, but, on the contrary,
1 The fleet of the Corcyraeans (cp. 24 above) having been
added to Iphicrates' original seventy ( 14) ships. The text,
however, appears to be faulty.






XENOPHON


tev avroZ T r1 p6v 7aX(vovTro, "rA 8e a'vpSdpopw
eXeLV eXOr'yloVro' IowwvE E ye p/r avroF v
e'rparTTO oVKict i)0eXov, ETrel pwov r-TpaTevovrTaf
Te abrTobV; ed7r XLov- apXalov 7To ret cFnKicav,
Kal 7roeL 7 oTad T' Ta( 7 TpsO T7Ov /3dpplapov
2 7roXfp0 rcal ciXha, &avTro dabavtiovra.'. 'c roVTwO
8c *f~tto-d/Ievo 86 ioz e6lprjv v rroteioaat, -7rpr&ov
p~v el @ij/3a 'wpedraI-tve"s kre e 7rapacaXooivrac
AcoXovOei, el SoviXotVro, els AaaceSaltova 'rept
elpj7rv9' -etra 86 e'Trep/rav icai aVTro' rp'-
o'0-et. 8v 86 7ov alpe6evrTw KaXXlaq 'Ir7rovLiov,
Ab'roIKXfjc 1pop/3ltXPlov, Aiy/oarpaTaros 'Apt-
oaroi-pv7ro, 'ApwtroKiXA, Ktiyo-0o8oro, MeXade-
3 7ro, AvicatOo.x Ica 2 KaXXor-Tpa'rov 6 r8url-
yopoq rapv- u'roo-Xloevo Tyatp 'I ticpa et, el
aiTO'v 110etl, 4 XpiJ'i.ara 7rif ety 7T vavTiIc
I4 elp'rjYv wroirjoewv, OT7W 'A0jrvo1-ia 7e v /cal
hrpaT re 7epI eplpjiv' el Se caT e'ro-oavy 6'ri
Tovs cKIcX~irov9 7r TWV AaCKe8attovtirv aIC1 TOv'
o-vjIuxgaovq, 7rp&TroT 'Xefev avw7v KaXXlar 6
SaqoDXoq. v 8' oV'ro oo' /jLirJv 'Trov r r'eo- a
v,' abiroD 4 br' aXXwv "erratvofevor Kal TO'T
8N tipfaoo 8'o 7TWaO.
4 'fl v8pen AaKie8at0Lvato, T'rv 7l v vrpoteviav
V/iV OV/c CYew uo) o pvo0, AtXXA ical TraTpo
1 After ArcawOos the MSS. proceed: E're l8 vporiAeoov dx'
Tros CAIfhrTOvs r e Tv AaseBatIpovlv W al 'robs orvp.AUXOVS.
These words are dropped by Kel. and almost all editors.
after Cobet. 2 Inserted by Kel., following Koppen.
3 Inserted by Kel., following Fritzsche.
38







HELLENICA, VI. in. 1-4

while they were partly ashamed to make war upon 71 B.C.
them and partly reckoned it to be inexpedient, they
nevertheless refused any longer to take part with
them in what they were doing, inasmuch as they saw
that they were campaigning against the Phocians,who
were old friends of the Athenians, and were annihilat-
ing cities which had been faithful in the war against
the barbarian' and were friendly to Athens. For these
reasons the Athenian people voted to make peace,
and in the first place sent ambassadors to Thebes to
invite the Thebans to go with them to Lacedaemon
to treat for peace if they so desired ; then they sent
ambassadors to Lacedaemon themselves. Among
those who were chosen were Callias, the son of
Hipponicus; Autocles, the son of Strombichides;
Demostratus, the son of Aristophon; Aristocles,
Cephisodotus, Melanopus, and Lycaethus. Calli-
stratus, the popular orator, also went with the em-
bassy; for he had promised Iphicrates that if he
would let him go home, he would either send money
for the fleet or bring about peace, and consequently
he had been at Athens and engaged in efforts to
secure peace; and when the ambassadors came before
the assembly of the Lacedaemonians and the repre-
sentatives of their allies, the first of them who spoke
was Callias, the torch-bearer.2 He was the sort of
man to enjoy no less being praised by himself than
by others, and on this occasion he began in about
the following words:
Men of Lacedaemon, as regards the position I
hold as your diplomatic agent, I am not the only
member of our family who has held it, but my
1 The Plataeans and Thespians had, in fact, won especial
distinction in the Persian wars.
SOf the Eleusinian mysteries, cp. II. iv. 20.






XENOPHON


waTIrp Yrarpav eXwv 'rape&8ov T ,'ye've" /8ov-
XoLat Se Kal TODTO vJoiv ByX&roat, rA oXi6 Sarel7 el 'p'F ijucL. diceivn7 yCap, 8rav /eyv
TrdoXe/.ot o -TparyoI q'lFtap alper7a, oTav 8'C
-avovxiag E'rOvvrjay, eilpjvoroloov' Fa la eicr'irC'e/ '7.
Kaycy 'rpdoOev S'i ij ~X9ov 7rep't roX4Lov Ka7a-
Xo'-ewv, Kal dv a ior'pavs ra7a prpeo-felaty S e-
v-padadpqv Kal vp t' al a/ 'i. rp elpi'Vr-V vbv 8e
7pirov 77cw, cKal ,yotxtat 7roX' St&ca1oTaTa vviv &v
5 StaXXay 7rvXFv. opc ,yap obic LaXa /-ev bpuv,
'XXa 8' Fpv SOICovVToa, AXX' Vylav Tex axOoFvov/
Kaal j 7j; IIXaaTat6wv r ical @e0Trtlov avatpe'cet.
7r&; o obv o ebtKco Ta' avrT yyvcio-KcovTraq btAovq
/itaLXov aXXiXotT *j roXetilouv elvat; Ka'I o'w pdo-
vov fIEv 8rovU ETo-Tr' tLrj el /trcpKp Te Sta epovra
eYl 7rdXetov avatpeftcOav d e 8' S ical uoyvo-
pOvotpev,' OVb av rdva v T( Oav.rtaa-Tv d't?) Uf?
6 elprvriv 7otea-Oat; Siatov eVv o'v jv /7l' 6'7rXa
i-srtpetv aXXiXotv ii, eJrel Xyerat p~v Tpt-
wrXTO/esov 'l&'repov 7rp'yovoT A T TAj/fpov KIal
Kdpyj t applra lepa 'rpCo70G C vot Selat 'Hpa-
KtcXF 7 V'6 k pTepP aPX17y'r4" ica' AtOoo-icovpowv
TOw v jer7poIv 7roTl7aw, Kia' TOVo Aij~U7rpoy
Kap7rob el) s rpdrAv 6T v IeHXoTrwdvvr]oov a-v7p/a
1 f6poyvJiooevOtE MSS.: 6 poy'Yvwovotev Kel.

Triptolemus of Eleusis had, according to the legend,
carried from Attica throughout Greece both the cult of
40







HELLENICA, VI. in. 4-6


father's father received it from his father and handed sn7 B.C
it on to his descendants; and I also wish to make
clear to you how highly esteemed we have been by
our own state. For whenever there is war she
chooses us as generals, and whenever she becomes
desirous of tranquillity she sends us out as peace-
makers. I, for example, have twice before now come
here to treat for a termination of war, and on both
these embassies I succeeded in achieving peace both
for you and for ourselves; now for a third time I
am come, and it is now, I believe, that with greater
justice than ever before I should obtain a reconcilia-
tion between us. For I see that you do not think
one way and we another, but that you as well as we
are distressed over the destruction of Plataea and
Thespiae. How, then, is it not fitting that men who
hold the same views should be friends of one another
rather than enemies? Again, it is certainly the
part of wise men not to undertake war even if they
should have differences, if they be slight; but if, in
fact, we should actually find ourselves in complete
agreement, should we not be astounding fools not
to make peace? The right course, indeed, would
have been for us not to take up arms against one
another in the beginning, since the tradition is
that the first strangers to whom Triptolemus,1 our
ancestor, revealed the mystic rites of Demeter and
Core were Heracles, your state's founder, and the
Dioscuri, your citizens; and, further, that it was
upon Peloponnesus that he first bestowed the seed

Demeter and the knowledge of her art-agriculture. Heracles
was the traditional ancestor of the Spartan kings (cp II. iii.
3), while the Dioscuri, Castor and Pollux, were putative sons
of Tyndareus of Sparta.






XENOPHON


&opr ao-a0at. wir oZv 8itcatov ') ba's, 7rap' ov
dX/3eT r-7repji-aTa, TOb TOVT7ov TrorT KapTrov
he0eiv y)wa ovVa7, lykai re, OIT 9 X/cap6fev, uj
ovXl /3ovxeaoat 0 rX elr-Tr roVTrot1 atj0oviav
rpocT yevE&Y9Oat; el & apa ic Oe~ov 7re7rpowIe'vov
6o-Ti roX lovU 4v av6pod'rovt yty'yve-Oat, cpaj 'S 1
XP apXeco-0at pev aTroD 6Oq ayoXalTaTa, orav
S evv'rat, /caTaXveo&aOat y varTOv rdXT ra.
7 MerA TOiTov ATroKIXjL, uadXa 8octov Trtoa-Tpe-
07S4 elvat prjTwp, wSe fjyopeve "AvSpeg AaiceSat-
OYLovt, OTI /Lv a I iekXow Xeyedv o03 rpb X dptv
Vylv prA7l aerat oict apvo d6XXIha 80Eoce /uo,
oMtreE floV3ovo7at, 7jv av TrotrjawvTat 0Xlav,
raiar~v C 7rrhecTov Xpovov 8talteveiv, &Sa/CTeov
elvat aXX lXoovI Tr aitTa Tr6v 7roXe/ovm. vjale 8
adel teV (aTe' AVbrovItovS Tra 7rA Xet( Xpjl elvat,
avTol 8' eIaTT paXtso-a le/7rroSwv 7- avrovouia: .
o-vvrtOeaOe t v r~ p Trpho rTa ov/ppayX8a rSa' rXetv
T70or 7rpCOTov, IIoX0ovOetv TroIt &v bleig y4cra-Oe.
8 icatlTo T' rTDro abrovoyit 7rpoao~tr ; 7roteo- e 86
-rokXefltovg o/i avaicovovoevot rTo? aOvpULidXotL,
Kcat Eri TOVTOV; 9 ye6a20e 7"oaT 7roXXaK/t? e~TI TOVq
eVbXver0r-Tovw avay icdaovra ar'pareeerv ol Xey6-
pevro a rTovopot elva. e't e TO 7ravTwv evaVTrf-
Traro aVTrovopla, KaG ia'TaTe Ga p'v 8F/capxiav,
'vOa 86 Tp"aKovTapXl'a cal TOVT 7 TAV apXov-
Twv e'rtjlLEXeo-Oe obXv ) rwn voptw, apyow
aXh' o7rnu Sov rati ita i ca-e'xetv a7ro h6et(.
1 a MSS.: 8 Kel.







HELLENICA, VI. in. 6-8


of Demeter's fruit. How, then, can it be right, 71 B.c.
either that you should ever come to destroy the
fruit of those very men from whom you received the
seed, or that we should not desire those very men,
to whom we gave the seed, to obtain the greatest
possible abundance of food? But if it is indeed
ordered of the gods that wars should come among
men, then we ought to begin war as tardily as we
can, and, when it has come, to bring it to an end as
speedily as possible."
After him Autocles, who had the reputation of
being a very incisive orator, spoke as follows: Men
of Lacedaemon, that what I am about to say will
not be said to your pleasure, I am not unaware; but it
seems to me that men who desire the friendship which
they may establish to endure for the longest possible
time, ought to point out to one another the causes
of their wars. Now you always say, 'The cities must
be independent,' but you are yourselves the greatest
obstacle in the way of their independence. For the
first stipulation you make with your allied cities is
this, that they follow wherever you may lead. And
yet how is this consistent with independence? And
you make for yourselves enemies without taking
counsel with your allies, and against those enemies
you lead them; so that frequently they who are said
to be independent are compelled to take the field
against men most friendly to themselves. Further-
more-and there can be nothing in the world more
opposed to independence-you establish governments
of ten here and governments of thirty there; and in
the case of these rulers your care is, not that they
shall rule according to law, but that they shall be able
to hold possession of their cities by force. So that
43







XENOPHON


OT' eoi/caTe Tvpavr'i-t /iaXXov 'roXIkeaiav
9 6/7ievoL. ial oTe piev faatX ebFy rpoo-EaTTEv
avTovopJov a 7Th Xe elvat, ydAa ytYVcoic-xovrTe
ecalveaOe oTt el A idMCotev ol 01?3aFot e1idcT7TJ
TWYv roXeOr apXew rP e 7avTE Ka' oli dv /3ovX8rat
vo-totq Xpao-Oat, ob 7rot'o-ovo-a Kaca Tah 3aao-tie
/yppd/jIaraa derel 8e 7rapeXdf/ere Tv KaS/ueav,
ob8' aoe r]3alose oe'TrES'peTre7Tea aVTovopov'f cdvat.
8e S ToW piL AXovTraq tovN /'o-eo-eal oi rrapa
Tov aXXowv p)v aitoDv Trio S3calov Tvyo vivw,
avTov Se' 37rwt Av 7rheTo-a Svvwvrat 7rXeove-
icroDvTra,; caveaOat.
10 TaiTa el'Trv catcwOrv p/ev wrapa 7rTarv e7rol-
7 ev, *'SolJevovv Se Tov' qAOo/tevov; 70 o Aaxce-
SattIoviot 0rol,'eora. pETa TOVTOV KaXXto-TpaTov
EXefev 'AXX' b'rws pe'v, 5 avWpe AaKceSatLuo'vtot,
ObIK EyYey6'er'vTa( .tapraT ar7a IcaT l cdo' uicov ical
at' v/foLv ey()o /ev OK ity eav lt ot oICox c e6lwre
ov f'EVroi OVrT) vtyIV -OI o(0o Tro altapTavovo-tr
ovE'or6 eTt Xpa'Teov. opo) yap Tla V p v9ptOrO
ovSeva ava/a pTrrOV 8taTre OvvTa. SoicoDot 8
11O0 Kat evrTOpwTepOt e vOTrE yiyve!f6a0t vpo7ro
a/iapTavovTe9, aXXwT re cal eav co\Xao-&rwov ,wo
11 TOWV aLapT?7frdT'V, 0 op t Sta 7a ad'yvo iovos 7rpaXOevTa eCA-T o76
7roXXa aVT71TvTra y yvo6teva wiv xv ical iKaa-
X\lfdOeaa Ev Orjpat KaS/eLa- vrwv yoiv, A&
o'-rovSdo-aTe avTovo'ov 7roXer' 1 'yeveaOat, mra-
aat ?radXtv, 6r6el tlciOicroav ol @r/3alot, dTr'

S&s... rdAtFs Breitenbach: 4s ... T rd&s das MSS.: oTs
., T 6hs ts Kel.
44







HELLENICA, VI. in. 8-II


you manifestly take pleasure in despotisms rather 71 B.c.
than in free governments. Again, when the King
directed that the cities be independent, you showed
yourselves strongly of the opinion that if the The-
bans did not allow each one of their cities, not only
to rule itself, but also to live under whatever laws
it chose, they would not be acting in accordance
with the King's writing; but when you had seized
the Cadmea, you did not permit even the Thebans
themselves to be independent. The right thing,
however, is that those who are going to be friends
should not insist upon obtaining their full rights
from others, and then show themselves disposed to
grasp the most they can."
By these words he caused silence on the part of
all, while at the same time he gave pleasure to those
who were angry with the Lacedaemonians. After
him Callistratus said: "Men of Lacedaemon, that
mistakes have not been made, both on our side and
on yours, I for one do not think I could assert; but
I do not hold to the opinion that one ought never
again to have any dealings with people who make
mistakes. For I see that no one in the world remains
always free from error. And it seems to me that
through making mistakes men sometimes become
even easier to deal with, especially if they have in-
curred punishment in consequence of their mistakes,
as we have. In your own case, also, I see that
sometimes many reverses result from the things you
have done with too little judgment, among which
was, in fact, the seizure of the Cadmea in Thebes;
now, at any rate, the cities which you were eager to
make independent have all, in consequence of the
wrong done to the Thebans, fallen again under their
45







XENOPHON


eiceivots 'yey~Ua'vTai. re wJrat8ev~u vovu9 l a?
&? 7Tb 7rheovefrT6C d/cepS84 ao-T t VrV XTrl~io 7rdaX
12 iie'rplovq ev Ty 7rpop; atXX'Xovu 0/l[a 'o-eoa at. a
8 f3ovX11pevoi rtve6 dzro'rTpA retv r-jv elpjvrv Sta-
3dXXovoaiv, ;49 Ij Lze ob f iXas Seo ipevot, aXXa
fopo/3ov vot I1 'AvTaXKita, 9 \ Cy elyv 7raph
/3ao-iX't~s Xp4araa, Lat 70ToO' jiKopbe, evIOULrjIO'e
wa OXvapoDco-. /ao-teb? pIev /yap T'rov 6ypare
7raoa9 Tal v T-o 'EXhXAS& irhXen av'rovoyov
etvaL" )7Jpe 8' TauTa efcelpq) XyovTr? T7e IcaL
rpdrTov7Te T; tv oo/poit0 ea /3aotXea; ToTro
otTerab T(, ? d~,ceivo fSovE Trat Xp'zaa dvaXo\-
cra? lXXovs [eya/Xov; 7rooelat a ahXov i dvev
Sardivr a ev'yv appt ara elvat, Tarava eavw 7re-
wrpaFyOa;
13 Elev. T7 ,iv ficoAev; o'rt /iv oAv oiKc Aio-
povTIev I'volTVr av, el ptv RSoiXeaOe, rpo'" ra
ca' OdaXaarTav I8OvTE9, el 8B 9o0Xeo-0e, 7rpbo Ta
KaT? ly7v e T) 7Trapovirt. TI7 fO7TeV; ei8tryov
OTtI Tv avy /iaXY ovT 7r OVIC apea-Tr 7rpd77ovOw
I)Z uv. 'olaw S IcaK /3ovXolpea' av &v aveca 7repte-
a-0o-aTE )fLU9 a 0)9 f/P),Ev2 ip'iv e'wte a2t.
acrare 1/a & opo Yvmev/ vjtv 7rtS eat.
14 'tva, E Ka I 7ca TOV vLt6ppov e7Ttjivrby7aS), elal Cv
847rov vraow(V T<(V o7rewv al pJE T7a blbTepa, al
Se rTa fitTepa opovoDoac, Kcal v eJKaI'To7y rrhe
ol i v Xaicwvtlovaocv, ol 8' drTTTLciovo'vI. el obv
1 esVxAov ... l. Kurz: V'SfoAV b1T el ... iiY f ILUp
apeOrd MSS., which Kel. retains, while marking the passage
as corrupt.
2 & apO@s yvwmpev MSS.: 6S OpO@ f'yvwTe Kel.
46







HELLENICA, VI. iI. 11-14

power. Hence I hope that now, when we have been s7 B.c.
taught that to seek selfish advantage is unprofitable,
we shall again be reasonable in our friendship with
each other. Now touching the slanderous allega-
tions of certain people who wish to defeat the peace,
to the effect that we have come here, not because we
desire friendship, but rather because we fear that
Antalcidas may arrive with money from the King,
consider how foolishly they are talking. For the
King directed, as you know, that all the cities in
Greece were to be independent; why then should
we, who agree with the King in both word and
deed, be afraid of him? Or does anyone imagine
that the King prefers to spend money and make
others great, rather than, without expense, to have
those things accomplished for him which he judged
to be best ?
"So much for that. Why, then, have we come?
That it surely is not because we are in straits, you
could discover, if you please, by looking at the situa-
tion by sea or, if you please, at the situation by land
at the present time. What, then, is the reason?
Manifestly that some of our allies are doing what is
not pleasing to us. And perhaps we also should
like to show you the gratitude we rightly conceived
toward you because you preserved us.1 Further-
more, to mention also the matter of expediency,
there are, of course, among all the cities of Greece,
some that take your side and others that take ours,
and in each single city some people favour the Lace-
daemonians and others the Athenians. If, therefore,
1 At the close of the Peloponnesian war the Lacedae-
monians rejected the proposal urged by many of their allies,
that Athens should be destroyed. ep. ii. ii. 19, 20.







XENOPHON


1ijes?? OIXoc 7yevopLela, rroev av elCa TW XaXeTrov
Tt TrpoSo-8c1jc'atev; Kal 'yap S KIcara 7yv Iev TLT
av bi&ov (1Xov ovr ayv tcavbpo iyvotro Ptaes XvjT-
a-ac; IcaTa OaKaradv ye IC]V TLi av b&iav /3Xf+at
15 wt f/iv VjtPv 6Trt7Selwv ovTrw; XaXh 1Le6PrTo OTI
pv TroXiOt del TroTe 'lyIvovrat KaIal O icarahX-
ovrrat avr7TE T Err ra4Lea, Kial OTI 'peEtF, av I7
'vv, CXX' aB,0F rrOTe elprjvy7 rtiOv/eurjao-jev. T
oZv Sei iceFvov Trv Xpovov avalpevew, ceo av VrT
TrXiov latccv anweirrorlev, pakLXov j oyX i
rTato-Ta 7rpiv .T davKceo-rov yeveo-Oat T'7v elpi"vrv
16 irotraao-0at; A XXa U'7v o' eKcivov eymoye eratvw
oi'Tve !aLY()vtra7Ta yevofevot cxal vKevcK9d-Ore' T6q
TroXIac'I Kal 806av 'XoTrev o657 (cJLovLKovLo-
warTe ov rrporepov 7-ravov'ra, TrpLt av '7TT7906evTe
v 4v aLtK1O-V KaTaXvao(ijLv, ovi e T&wV IC/vevrojv
otTiweV av cap cv rT e77r TUVXo-L, Irepi tTrXao-wBo
cKvf3eova-tv dpw yap KCal rw@ TOrOVToWvr roV
17 trXe ovi d ripov av rrao-i yroto evovo. a l.Xp?
ICal ?iyaT opOJvTa9 eL9 iuv TOLOUTOPV Ayva ay7cv -
roTre KaTa(TT7vat, i0-T 7'E raV hapeLA 4 w7raVr
drro/3aXeFi, oW' I Kal EppcMeOa Kial evTbrVXOv/v,
i1tov aXX.AxorA. yeve'roOa. ouTro 'yap p/tel? 7'
av &t' U'a / Kcal ve7'/ SUn 1 /n ueiOVw q' Trv
-rapeXOOdva xpovov &v Tryj X EXd8t Avao-rpe ol-
pte0a.
18 Ao5dvrov SA TOVTWoV KaXcLs elvrr E\IfrrG-avTO
Kcal ol AaKce8aLuJvoi 8xel6o-OaL 7TvP elprjvrv, Jo' w
TOv Te aplpoO-TaT EC TvP &vOXeeO 'ayetve, rd Te
Or-paTOrreSa S&aXetv ial Ta vauTt7a Kal Tra e-
Itxa, TdT Tre roXeL~ avTrovopov9 e v. Cl U TIT
rraph raGra rroto'l), TOPV TEv 6 ovXoe-vov p/3o10elv
48







HELLENICA, VI. mI. 14-18

we should become friends, from what quarter could s71 .c.
we with reason expect any trouble ? For who could
prove strong enough to vex us by land if you were
our friends ? And who could do you any harm by
sea if we were favourably inclined toward you?
Moreover, we all know that wars are forever break-
ing out and being concluded, and that we-if not
now, still at some future time-shall desire peace
again. Why, then, should we wait for the time when
we shall have become exhausted by a multitude of
ills, and not rather conclude peace as quickly as pos-
sible before anything irremediable happens? Again,
I for my part do not commend those men who, when
they have become competitors in the games and have
already been victorious many times and enjoy fame,
are so fond of contest that they do not stop until
they are defeated and so end their athletic training;
nor on the other hand do I commend those dicers
who, if they win one success, throw for double stakes,
for I see that the majority of such people become
utterly impoverished. We, then, seeing these things,
ought never to engage in a contest of such a sort
that we shall either win all or lose all, but ought
rather to become friends of one another while we
are still strong and successful. For thus we through
you, and you through us, could play even a greater
part in Greece than in times gone by."
Since these men were adjudged to have spoken
rightly, the Lacedaemonians voted to accept the
peace, with the provision that all should withdraw
their governors from the cities, disband their arma-
ments both on sea and on land, and leave the cities
independent. And if any state should act in violation
of this agreement, it was provided that any which so

49
VOL. II. B







XENOPHON


TaO, M8icove'vaK Tr6oXeoas, T745 8' fIf 3ovXOieaY
Selvat CvopIcov uCv1pagXeV ro,'F aStKcouVLoevt.
19 dj'7 TOVTOt Aoltoo-av Aaice8attLovtoi p PV vrrep av-
T&'v Kca Tl rv crvqICdXwv, 'AOrivaot 8' teal ol aTdi-
'XCq 'r aaToL. ct7roypa4fctEvot 8'
paxyo tcaTa 7roXt ca a6. roypaiarvot 8'
Ev Ta'F 3jLuoiuol cvat 7Vro ct IKal ol Orl3aiot, rrpoa-
eXO6vTE's 7rtXtv rTj v'Trepala ol 7rpo/3e- avri7v
EKeIEevov eTa7paypcetVz avT Orl3aiwv BOUorTol'
owo /pOKOcTa-. 6 8 'Ayiyo-~Xao,? ALrecplvaro OTI
/Ie'raypdefre l V' v oSV 7v TrpLTo oadv re
ical dre'ypcravrTO' El e4VTOL JTL /OAOLVTO Ev Ta a
rvovdaiq elvat, eae!et ietv ay 'n1?, el iceXevoev..
20 oiTCO 8\ elp jvyjv 7v &XXwv 7rcerotrjfevv, 7rpb?
O,8/3aovq pitovovu cv'rtXoytia oio-py, ol PuE 'Air7-
vatos or7f elXov T'V 'Yvfi7rv (9 vvvPP 0/3alov
TO XeyoPevov 8\ SeicaTev8va EX7Ti9 el77, abTrol 8S
o' OnTaXot 7raVTX ti7O SXouV T9 a'rX1o.
ot V1.6aioi eraveXw e oVrT6 airjhjov.
IV. 'Eic 8 Tov'ro ol ~I v 'A6r]valot 7 T Tr
4ppovpah dE T4Wv 7ro6 v d7riyov Ical 'IoticpairTv
Ical 'Ta vaiv /PiTe're'/7TroVTO, ial ocra Va-repov
AXa/3e PE'TC TOr 8p/cov 70Touv d Aalce8alt/ovi
2 yevo/~ev ov, 7ravTa Iavcay/cao-av adroSovat. Aa ce-
Saephlon, PJVoL EiC PE ToW dXXowv Or6oXewv O'rTo
T6 appoarTaa Ical Tovi 4povpov darijyayov, KXeo/t-
3porov 8 e'Xova T TO v fiwKevat rCTpadTev/a ital
e'rvpEorVTa Ta oktco TE7'Q TI" XP; q rotte, IIpoOcov







HELLENICA, VI. in. I8-Iv. 2

desired might aid the injured cities, but that any s7 s.c.
which did not so desire was not under oath to be the
ally of those who were injured. On these terms the
Lacedaemonians took the oath for themselves and
their allies, while the Athenians and their allies
took the oath severally, city by city. The Thebans
also signed their names among the cities which had
sworn, but on the following day their ambassadors
came in again and demanded that the writing be
changed to read that "the Boeotians" instead of
"the Thebans" had sworn.1 Agesilaus, however,
replied that he would change no part of what they
had sworn to and signed in the first place; but if
they did not wish to be included in the treaty, he
said that he would strike out their names if they so
directed. When, accordingly, under these circum-
stances the others had concluded peace, while the
only controversy was with the Thebans, the Atheni-
ans were of the opinion that now there was hope
that the Thebans would be decimated, as the com-
mon saying puts it, and as for the Thebans them-
selves, they went home utterly despondent.
IV. After this the Athenians, on their side, pro-
ceeded to withdraw their garrisons from the cities
and to send after Iphicrates and his ships, and they
compelled him to give back everything which he had
captured after the time when the oaths were taken
at Lacedaemon. But the Lacedaemonians, on the
other hand, while they withdrew both their governors
and their garrisons from all the other cities, did not
follow this course in the case of Cleombrotus, who
was at the head of the army in Phocis and now
asked the authorities at home what he should do.
Si.e. insisting upon their claim to headship in Boeotia.
5I







XENOPHON


Xav TO 876' av'r) 8oKOL'OI 8taXVeavTa TrO o"rpa
Tev/.a Icara TOW OpKov; Kal rneptayryei XaVTa TaE3
TrovXt aov/l3aXE6aL0aE els TV vabv To 'ATrOXXo(voq
doroaov /30ov'oiO eicaOTf VroXt1, Er.ELTa el t'j TI'n
er avTovodov; Ta hro elva' TOTE 7raXlv
7rapalcaxeo-avTa ,b -ot 7 aCrovoUia 7/3ohovro
/SoOelv, ayetv EM roVy evamVoutevouv o67w yap
av oer; oieo-Oalt rov; Tre Oeov\ eUbeveCOTrTov' eLvat
3 cal Ta w~roXet rlLo-T a a X a ea-aXsO- l 8' eKc/XtqaTa
arcovao-aa Tava eicetvov Ip-v oXvapetv iTyrqra'ao'
'87 yap, 6q eoKce, To 8a ivov 2oyev" '7'ore' Xav
8E 79 KXeo/j/3PpoT ) taXi &,ev T o- OTpdareUvIa,
1xv .OBv dyeIv e7ri T70)'; el/3alovu, el p/L abTo-
V0y1ovw aCloLev Ta' 7Th reoXetV.1 e'rel V o
O7Tr0 Ta4; 7Tro aet a ravTa, aX' obe XT rrpa-
Trevpa StaXVovTra, & avraTLTaTTOTwro 'rpy avTov,
oTw) 0 8ayEi TV oTTpaTtav el; T7) BoI'cav.
Kal 57 puv ol 7P/3aot( ep/iaXelv avTrbv Ei TO&V
(oce'ovr 7ipoo-E&c8KCwv /cal EnT O-TEv TIViL 'evXaTTOV
oVic E/1/dXXetr 8tah O(cr-38iv e opewvrv Kal dirpoa-
86icr7TOV 7rOpeve1i; (ac/ICvElTa elf; KpEi-tv, KCal
TO TeEog alpel, Kal Tpt4jpet; Twv fy/3Saiwv 80 4 Xa/~pd3ave. Taira 8 7rotliraav 'cal dva/3~;v d7ro
T7'F OaXaTTl7y, Ed-TpaTOvTre8Ce-aTo Ev Aev'Icpot;
Tr7j; eo-eKritT ot' S O0t/3aot eaoTpaTo7r'eEevoavro
E67r 7TT arawrTKpv\ X076) o0 7roXh 8taXel'7rovT6q,
SAfter wdSLts the MSS. proceed : Se KAeduBpoTor
EW7TdI E7dOETO YTiV elpflvyv yeY'Yev7 ;J., rqi.as Vrpbs Tobs
de9povs pC'ra 1r Xp1 WroelrY ol S' i4eovorav abrbv owpaTEVIE v
drTi rTob OnB8alovs, el p. a.lPtoLEv Tas Botw'rfas wTrdts abrov4Lovs.
These words are dropped by Kel. and all editors.
2 &S av-vrTIdrowrTo Trps abrd Brodaeus: &s avreTrdrnowT
rpbs ab'rovs MSS., which Kel. retains, but brackets.







HELLENICA, VI. Iv. 2-4

Prothous did indeed say that it seemed to him they s71 B.C.
ought first to disband the army in accordance with
their oaths and send round word to the various cities
to make contributions, as large as each city chose to
make, to the temple of Apollo,1 and afterwards, in
case anyone tried to prevent the cities from being
independent, to call together again at that time all
who wished to support the cause of independence
and lead them against those who opposed it; for he
thought, he continued, that in this way the gods
would be most favourably inclined toward them and
the cities would be least annoyed. The Lacedae-
monian assembly, however, upon hearing these words,
came to the conclusion that he was talking nonsense;
for at this moment, as it seems, Fate was leading
them on; and they sent orders to Cleombrotus not
to disband his army, but to lead it at once against
the Thebans if they did not leave the cities indepen-
dent. When, therefore, he learned that, so far from
leaving the cities independent, the Thebans were
not even disbanding their army, in order that they
might marshal themselves against him, under these
circumstances he undertook to lead his troops into
Boeotia.
Now Cleombrotus did not enter Boeotia from
Phocis at the point where the Thebans expected him
to enter and where they were keeping guard at a
narrow pass; but proceeding by way of Thisbae along
a mountainous and unexpected route, he arrived at
Creusis, captured its wall, and took twelve triremes
belonging to the Thebans. After accomplishing
this exploit and marching up from the sea-coast, he
encamped at Leuctra, in the territory of Thespiae.
And the Thebans encamped on the opposite hill not
1 i.e. for a war fund. _,







XENOPHON


ob&svac exovTre alvyI covX aXX' TObV Botw-
o70t. ~va 8' T7 Kheo3popT6l o(01 pc tot -rpo--
5 tovrT eX"yov- 'l KXeof/p0ore, el doaC LFS cr To
@r7/3aove avEv au'v ?, KiAvvvevo-ts v'ro Tq TrO-
Xeow Ta o g-ara ra9eiv. avapLv Ocr0'ovTa rydp
caov Ial Te el9 Kvvbo KeaX? d/ & cotpevoo oLbev
Ti7? XyOpa9 rT7v Orf3alwv '87 acraw, tcal ore verepov
orpaTevwv Errsepov a19 79rf Eci/3oXiq, 'Ayo-itXov
del ejPL/3dXovro th a 7TO KtOatppovoq. et'7rep oiv
2 cravTroD IC4qy Tr'j rarplO89 eWriOvjEi0', aI/crov
E7ri Toby dv8ppav. ol tiv thXos TrotavTa ekeyov. ol
8' evavTtor NMv &8, ao'av, 77X;e0O 6 avyjp el 7)
OvrTt cKrjrals rT7 @ '1/3aLw (wo-rep Xeyerat.1
6 '0 pl v 87 KXEof/3poro' TaDra &~covav 7rapwov-
VETO 7po0S To aX)v rovva7dTtv. T&V 8' av rflpat'ov
ol rpoeo-r&Teo eXAoytiovTo C(0 el L?7 utaolvTro, t7ro-
o'TrojaoVTro fpv at reptKostcKe avTrv roXetL, auTro
Se\ rOXLopicrao-oivTO el 61 8\ \'o0 6 7j/,LOq 6 O]-
3aloav rdTl7T78eta, STL KLV8vveV'oOL Ka 75 7~roXt9
avTOl;S Evav-ra yevto-Oat,. aTEe 8 I Kal 7rre evyoTbe
7rpooOev )roTXo' avrTv EAoyL'ovro 0 peTTrov elvat
7 flaX)otvov9 dajroOv ao'ceIv A 7rdXtv c(Eevyew. TrpO9
6 ToV'rolt r-apeOappvve pley Tt avrov tcal 0 Xprl-
O0I-U 0 XeyO/Levo os BSosb evTravOa AaKe8atLjoviovv
rjTTrOrvaat eva TO TWov WrapOeVm v 7 Uv /tzvC7a, a'l
X5eyovrat 8ta TO /aoa-O0vat vbro Aatcecatqtovtwv
TLV)V a7roKTEreivat EavTa'. Kall EKoojrf,7av 8\
TOVTO rTO Jiv@ta ol O73Paiot 'rpo Ti7 pai'XY .
1 AeyeTra MSS.: AE-yt KeL







HELLENICA, VI. iv. 4-7

very far away, with no allies except the Boeotians. 71n s..
Then his friends went to Cleombrotus and said:
" Cleombrotus, if you let the Thebans escape without
a battle, you will be in danger of suffering the utter-
most penalty at the hands of your state. For they
will remember against you not only the time when
you reached Cynoscephalae and laid waste no part of
the country of the Thebans, but also the time when,
on your later expedition, you were beaten back from
effecting your entrance, although Agesilaus always
made his entrance by way of Cithaeron. Therefore
if you really have a care for yourself or a desire to see
your fatherland again, you must lead against these
men." Such were the words of his friends; but his
opponents said : Now is the time when the man will
make it clear whether he is in truth partial to the
Thebans, as rumour has it."
Cleombrotus, then, as he heard these things was
spurred on to join battle. The leaders of the Thebans,
on the other hand, calculated that if they did not
fight, the cities round about would revolt from them
and they would themselves be besieged; further,
that if the people of Thebes were thus cut off from
provisions, the city itself would be in danger of
turning against them. And since many of them
had been in exile before, they estimated that it was
better to die fighting than to be exiled again.
Besides this, they were also somewhat encouraged
by the oracle which was reported-that the Lace-
daemonians were destined to be defeated at the spot
where stood the monument of the virgins, who are
said to have killed themselves because they had been
violated by certain Lacedaemonians. The Thebans
accordingly decorated this monument before the






XENOPHON


Ai7ry-yeXXeTO U Kal &K T? 7 TorXeow) abTro9 6 F o
Tf vee 7waIpvTe atotpa'roL ave6yov'ro, a'i Te tipetat
X\dyotev cv votxv ol 0ol falvotev. edc S& ToO
'HpaK\cheov ical T 7rXa paaav &tavi eltva, 0'
T70 'Hpa/cXeovu el 'rTv da'Xv e4wpLIpEeivov. ot
pLev P8 Ttve X4youo-tvw TraGva 7ravra TeXad-
8 acrtaa 'v T'oV 7poeCTrTijKcwv. els 8' oiv T77
,darjXv TO?, /Aev AalKeatL~ovtiots '~via e'avrla
eyL/ybrTO, TO? Se~ 7TraTa ical bro 7 TI T'Xr~ ica'Ka p-
8oOro. 7v -ev yap Jer' dapitoov Tr KXeotppLp'rT
7 TeXkevTaia /ovX?\ r'epi 7i' L dX97" deV 6B T"q
peoy38pppal V7roTTIVOVTWV Ical 7TOV olvov wrapovval
9 iT aVTOV; Xeyov. reI l o 7nrXl ovTro tcaTepoL
cal 7rp6SXov it8 7v OTt /aX eo'roTo, 7rp( Tov
pev a7tevat opp1JLevOv cK TOt BotoTIOV o-rpa-
TevfaTro9 rOv T77 varyopav 7rapeo6cevaKOTc6wv ial
acrcevopopwev 7tvwov i~al T7(ov oa fov0Xofvopv td-
XeaoOat, 7reptiovTe6 KVKXCj o0 Te P/hTa TOO 'Ilpowvo
JLo-OoPx pot ial oa T ov wOIde'v 7reXTao-Tai Kca
tiv lIrjre'ov 'HpatcXe(rat Kal a XeCado- rt er4-
/e. VOt TO?? airTOvao e7Trearpe6fdv re avTrovs ica
KaTretwoav TrpbI TO a-TpaTO're0ov To T&V Botw-
T()V. or7Te 'rotv fLev e6roirfaav ptetfv re Kal
A9opoQTepov 7 7TpOuo-Oev T' T'&v Bot&WTv aOTpa-
10 Tevpa. trera 8e, ae Kal re8'ov O' VTOv To
p/eTatvJ, IrpoeTaravTo leLv Ti4 eJavrTWv dXayyor
ol AaKeat~wvltot ToV t' I'Trea9, avTeTa'ravTo 8'
avTolq Kal ol O@,la ot TOV's eavTwcov. 7v 8~ To
lUev T7(V 0'7/3alwv It'ructov petpeXeITi/cJ? 81d Te TeO
56







HELLENICA, VI. Iv. 7-Io


battle. Furthermore, reports were brought to them 71 B.c.
from the city that all the temples were opening of
themselves, and that the priestesses said that the
gods revealed victory. And the messengers reported
that from the Heracleium the arms also had dis-
appeared, indicating that Heracles had gone forth
to the battle. Some, to be sure, say that all these
things were but devices of the leaders. But in the
battle, at any rate, everything turned out adversely
for the Lacedaemonians, while for the other side
everything went prosperously, even to the gifts of
fortune. For it was after the morning meal that
Cleombrotus held his last council over the battle,
and drinking a little, as they did, at the middle of
the day, it was said that the wine helped somewhat
to excite them. Again, when both sides were arming
themselves and it was already evident that there
would be a battle, in the first place, after those who
had provided the market and some baggage-carriers
and such as did not wish to fight had set out to
withdraw from the Boeotian army, the Lacedaemo-
nian mercenaries under Hieron, the peltasts of the
Phocians, and, among the horsemen, the Heracleots
and Phliasians made a circuit and fell upon these
people as they were departing, and not only turned
them about but chased them back to the camp of
the Boeotians. Thereby they made the Boeotian
army much larger and more densely massed than it
had been before. In the second place, since the space
between the armies was a plain, the Lacedaemonians
posted their horsemen in front of their phalanx, and
the Thebans in like manner posted theirs over against
them. Now the cavalry of the Thebans was in good
training as a result of the war with the Orchomenians







XENOPHON


'rpo 'OpXo/eviovw roXe/pov /cal &A Tv Trp' o
OBec7rL, ToFq 8' AaceSatftovioL; Kcar' dicevov T7
11 Xp6vov n7ovrlpooaTrov jv, TO' tirriKo. e'pebov /ltv
/yap TOb t7TroUv ol 7rXovLo-a aToTLao re'l 8
opovpa oavOebi, TOTE KiceV 6 oUVWVTayh/lvoq Xa-
Bonv 8' av TOv i'rrov KaC orX'a 6Trola foOel aVb
ec TOo rapaypjfa Av deaTpaTEeveTO Twv S' ab
aOpaTLWT&v ot T0 o-q -wpaoatv a8vvaT(?raTo ical
12 t/ctaTa tiXOTinOL E'l T70p L'TrwT jrYav. Toto7TOv
ftev obv To' itrvmrtcv ecaTcpaov 'v. 7 r & dX aday-
y robn TO iev Aalce8atoviovs '4aoav ea Tped TPis r?
evm/POTiav ayeipv Too 8o ov avL palvetv aTrozV o0
rXe`ov 4 elt &;Selca Trb /dOoz. ol Se Or7atot oinc
e'aTTOV ) 671Trl 7revTrijcova ao-TrLov avvecOpapu-
Sievot jo'av, Xotyi6ouevot < el vxticfeav TOb rep'
TOV 3ao-'tXa, TO cXXo 7rav EUXeLPOw TOV eCoTO.
13 'Everl 8 fparo IayLev KhXefp3poros 'rpbs
Tov 7"roXeyovF, rpTov rpiTv uvrv ical alo-0.-crat
To /JET' avTrov a-,pcpr'eva 'T L, yo'ro, 7cal 8' ,cal ol
ITWrE~ rovve/3epfe,3,ceeav Kal Taxv'b j7TTVTO ol TWV
AaKeSaLtoviaw. jevyovTr e' bv reE7rTiceo-av
70o eavTjv O'7rXlTatl, E'Te 8 Eva/3aXXov ol T7w
Ori3alcv XoXot. 6b',a S0e & ol fev 7Trepi TOV
KXe6/jfpoTov TOb rpcrov lcparTovv T7 pi py7 T o-ad
TOVT) Trc7pl yvotl) T(? av- ov yap av ewPavTo
avT.o AveXO'Gaa KCaL ioVTYa .Trev KyleFv, el /~ul ol
wrpo aUTOv IaXoCevot eTrEKpaTouVV E E/KCev W T7
14 XpovY. 6eTEt pvrotio adlTar 7e r aoXe-
58







HELLENICA, VI. Iv. 10-14

and the war with the Thespians, while the cavalry of s71 B.o.
the Lacedaemonians was exceedingly poor at that
time. For the richest men kept the horses, and it
was only when the ban was called out that the ap-
pointed trooper presented himself; then he would
get his horse and such arms as were given him, and
take the field on the moment's notice. As for the
men, on the other hand, it was those who were least
strong of body and least ambitious who were
mounted on the horses. Such, then, was the cavalry
on either side. Coming now to the infantry, it was
said that the Lacedaemonians led each half-company
three files abreast, and that this resulted in the
phalanx being not more than twelve men deep.1
The Thebans, however, were massed not less than
fifty shields deep, calculating that if they conquered
that part of the army which was around the king,
all the rest of it would be easy to overcome.
Now when Cleombrotus began to lead his army
against the enemy, in the first place, before the
troops under him so much as perceived that he
was advancing, the horsemen had already joined
battle and those of the Lacedaemonians had speedily
been worsted; then in their flight they had fallen
foul of their own hoplites, and, besides, the com-
panies of the Thebans were now charging upon
them. Nevertheless, the fact that Cleombrotus and
his men were at first victorious in the battle may
be known from this clear indication: they would
not have been able to take him up and carry him
off still living, had not those who were fighting in
front of him been holding the advantage at that
time. But when Deinon, the polemarch, Sphodrias,
Si.e. the half-company numbered thirty-six men.
59







XENOPHON


1,apXor Ia c oa Sopia ra v 7V ep i dal oaiav Kal
KXed6vvULo 6 vito abroV, ical o0 phv Irretl 1 ial
ol vo-VLopet9 rov70 roXepapXou caXovtievot o' re
aXXoL VTO Tro To0 Xov 001ovzevot aveXwpovv, ol Se
TO7 evdwvvyOV OV 6e TOv Aaceoattloviov cs eipwvo
Tb Setov 50ovevov, vntckXwav b'0w 86 7rToXXv
Treve6Twcv Icat '2TTj7,fOyvoi rITEl te3i'qpaav T7jv Tri-
bpov, 1 wTr po 7r a-paTOIreoOv 'rTXev oioa aTroit,
e9evro Tar b7rXa KaTa Xcwpav b8ev Wp/fr7Vro. jv
flevTro ob worav C ETretSo, aXXa rpoo& orp9oI
IaXXXoV rt T'o oTpaTo7reov. eic 86 TOVTOV rjaav
IetV TtVE Ti7v Aaxie atiovLwv o1' a~ prPTov r\jv
acrvyophv '170yoVeVOI TO Te 7po0ratov 'Oacaav xp?--
vat KiwXve;I taoTavat Trov ITroXe/tIOV9, Tov7 Te ve-
/CpoV\ \/L vroaTrovoV, alXX \ th dtau a F reEpao-9at
15 avatpeao-at. ol 8e 'oXe/apxob, dp&Tvre ev T~ V
oavtwravTo AaKce atoviCov 7 v TEOVE~Ta ry v\ Xt-
Xlov;, opwvTeq 6' avbr&v 7rrapTraT@v, O67TOVy
ixel w A eTraKcoolwv, TelCOIKOTag 7rep, TerpaKo-
aiovs, al-Oaavo6tevot S\ rotc a-vydr /t.ouv rd'wraT
tpv CtIom? 'XovrTaq 7rp q Tp O /Xed'Xeal0a, O-rT S8
obv avbr-v obve aXo/lvopvovq T7 yeyPevP/JtI Vw, o-vX-
XVav-re Trov 7rtcatpLOTadTrov eE/3ovXeVovTo T7
Xypr roteEv. eTrd e 7rrT Tow EaojceL Vrocrov8ov'
Tov0 veicpov9 avatpeiZ-Oat, OV7wo 8~ eAretrav Kij-
pvca 'repi aorov8ov. ol0 Le'Trot 7 OrPaiot fieTa
raiva ical Tpo'raiov r em'oavro Kcal Tov0' veKcpobv
bvroo-'rovovS arre8oorav.
16 I 'evopievwv B TOVT(OV, 0 /jeV ei1 el Iv AaiceSal-
1 pev in7r's Stephanus: Ajv 'rtwro MSS.: /.vnrrol Kel.
2 After fii w the MSS. have TV : Kel. brackets, following
Hartman.







HELLENICA, VI. Iv. 14-16

one of the king's tent-companions, and Cleonymus, 371 B.c.
the son of Sphodrias, had been killed, then the royal
bodyguard, the so-called aides of the polemarch, and
the others fell back under the pressure of the Theban
mass, while those who were on the left wing of the
Lacedaemonians, when they saw that the right wing
was being pushed back, gave way. Yet despite the
fact that many had fallen and that they were de-
feated, after they had crossed the trench which
chanced to be in front of their camp they grounded
their arms at the spot from which they had set forth.
The camp, to be sure, was not on ground which
was altogether level, but rather on the slope of a hill.
After the disaster some of the Lacedaemonians,
thinking it unendurable, said that they ought to
prevent the enemy from setting up their trophy and
to try to recover the bodies of the dead, not by
means of a truce, but by fighting. The polemarchs,
however, seeing that of the whole number of the
Lacedaemonians almost a thousand had been killed;
seeing, further, that among the Spartiatae themselves,
of whom there were some seven hundred there,
about four hundred had fallen; and perceiving that
the allies were one and all without heart for fighting,
while some of them were not even displeased at
what had taken place, gathered together the most
important personages and deliberated about what
they should do. And as all thought it best to re-
cover the bodies of the dead by a truce, they finally
sent a herald to ask for a truce. After this, then,
the Thebans set up a trophy and gave back the
bodies under a truce.
After these things had happened, the messenger







XENOPHON


~ova ,/yyeXw@v Tob irdOog AitcPKveirat yv/.wo7rat-
StLiv T6 oi1vo 7T9? TeXevTala Ica' TO dvAvpI/coL
XopoD e'v8ov o'vro"' o el 8c kopot Edl 'ricova-av To
'rd0o;, EXV7oroVvTo pfv, a1Trep, ol/a, avayic'" TOv
f/evToi Xopov ovIc eIyayov, AXXa S8ayowvi~oaaorat
eowv. icat TA /rhV avobara TrpOa TO9 olIcelov9
eicdarov T&V Te78veLT2)v aTrreSooav 7rpoefrrav 86
Tral yvvatl pjz 'rowe~ v icpavyj'v, aXXa oby7 TO
tIrdOa bepew. Ti baoTpaia bv dpav, 0v piv
STeOvacaav ol 7rpoaricovTe, Xtrwapoi' KIcal at-
8polv Cv dT Sbavepo AvacrTpefopfivov0, &Vv 8
(lvTreqs 97yeX/Levot j av, boLyov av elSe ,, TOVTOV9
86 a-icuvpwrovsI ical Taravewov, 7reputtOTa9.
17 'Ec 8 e TOVTov (povpdhv /iev E'atvov ol a'bopot
vraiv bTroXol7&ov Cppatv /1LXpt T7(O TeTTapdaovTa
'0' n. 4e7re/p7rov 86 ical arro TWV e'f( pop@v
P/EXpt Ti) aVT9rj XftKdas T7b yp 7rpodOev el,
To ? Iioa9 /6 E plXptL r TpJV revre Kca covTa a '
? o-l3( s E'TpaTevvTro' ica ToVr 67' pyaaiL 8e TOTe
18 KaTaXE4levPTa9 Kacoov0elv dxICeevov. 0 Zenv oiv
'Ayn-triao 6'/c T7, daTOeve('a o"7rnw o-Xveve 77
86 vroXt 'ApXIt8aUov TOy viOV eic l vev aTroD2
77yelaOat. 7rpo~t09ws 8' aVT@ o-uvveo-TpaTevoVTr
Teye Ta" TI yap e'gwv ol 7rept CTad'a-rrov, Xa-
KCovlovTE I Iac obvc eXdXao-Tov Svvdaieovot 7v
1 &ayeA.@v MSS.: ayy-AA\wv Kel.
2 dKexeve abvTo MSS.: dEcicdEe av.r' ab'ro Kel.

1 A Spartan festival, celebrated with singing, dancing, and
gymnastic exhibitions.







HELLENICA, VI. iv. 16-18


who was sent to carry the news of the calamity to 71 B.c.
Lacedaemon arrived there on the last day of the
festival of the Gymnopaediae,1 when the chorus of
men was in the theatre. And when the ephors
heard of the disaster, they were indeed distressed,
as, I conceive, was inevitable; yet they did not with-
draw the chorus, but suffered it to finish its per-
formance. Further, although they duly gave the
names of the dead to their several kinsmen, they
gave orders to the women not to make any outcry,
but to bear the calamity in silence. And on the
following day one could see those whose relatives
had been killed going about in public with bright
and cheerful faces, while of those whose relatives
had been reported as living you would have seen
but few, and these few walking about gloomy and
downcast.
After this the ephors called out the ban of the
two remaining 2 regiments, going up as far as those
who were forty years beyond the minimum military
age; they also sent out all up to the same age who
belonged to the regiments abroad3; for in the
original expedition to Phocis only those men who
were not more than thirty-five years beyond the
minimum age had served; furthermore, they or-
dered those who at that time had been left be-
hind in public office to join their regiments. Now
Agesilaus as a result of his illness was not yet strong;
accordingly the state directed Archidamus, his son,
to act as commander. And the Tegeans served with
him zealously; for the followers of Stasippus were
still alive, who were favourable to the Lacedaemonians
and had no slight power in their own state. Likewise
2 cp. i. 1 and note. 3 i.e. now at Leuctra.







XENOPHON


7roXae. eppOpeIvoW Se Kal ol MavTrvel deKc r&v
icxwjuv avvecrTpaTreovTO' aptc-oicpaToovt'1evoI yap
rTvyxavov. cal Kop[vtot 86 Kacl Ittecvvtot Ical
MXetda'tot ical 'AXaLto'i /za 'rpoOaw pos ilcoXov-
Oovv, Kal aiXas Se' wroXet9 Erepaov atpaTrta av
e7rXripovv 8 ical TpCt pet? avrol re ol Aace8rat-
/iovo, ical KoptivtoL, Kal 68eovro Kcal Itcwvirtw
o-vurXiypovv, 4d' &ov 81evooVVTo T o TrpdTev/Ia
19 S8tat38dlewtv. xcal d iev 8' 'Apx ltapov' d0V'EO er'n
Trj7 8taL3o-et.
01 86 0773aoet evf', tlv ler' v Ip ,y lv
e7ref-rav eig 'AOwjva, atyyeXoov ETereCavwopevov,
Ial aLpa IpEv Tirp nbcrI? -T ptL,6eo6s 'oparov, & aa
se /3oj0elv eXcevov, Xeyovorev W9 vDv d~ ir
Aa/ce8atrovtov;9 7ravTrovv e' ednroirtKeaav aVTrov
20 Tir/ttp 'jao-Sat. T4Wv 8 'AO7lval cv /3ovX\ E Tvy-
Xavev ev Idcpo7r6Xes caOr/l evl). edre 8' j)ovo-av
to yeyevpi7/'evo, OTL pv a6-cpa 0 viddyr]aav rto0
8rXov Eoe'rVeTO OTe 'yap eI7rT evta TOP Kipvica
ElcaXd~ aav, 7repl Te 71o i0oylelal ovB8e a~irecpl-
vavro. Kal 'AO4ivOev iEwv oVT'rW) da7rXO0ev
KIcpv4. 7rpoq pLevroT 'Idacova, aivbuaxov avra,
erepirov o-7rov87 ol Oq)aloi, IKceVovrTe /3oljOelv,
21 8iaXoytlo'favot r 7r TO Ie'Xov d 7ro13 T aotrT. 6 S'
6eu0u9 ptPLPet9 /iL I7T\rXpou, 09 /3SoOo-rlja v Kcara
dhXarrav, a-vuXa/3cov 8 To Te evtKcv Kal TobU
7rept aVrTO lrenEaq, icairep a/ci~pvTcro wiroXe'i







HELLENICA, VI. iv. 18-2t

the Mantineans from their villages supported him sn c.
stoutly; for they chanced to be under an aristo-
cratic government. Furthermore, the Corinthians,
Sicyonians, Phliasians, and Achaeans followed him
with all zeal, and other states also sent out soldiers.
Meanwhile the Lacedaemonians themselves and the
Corinthians manned triremes and requested the
Sicyonians also to help them in so doing, intending
to carry the army across the gulf on these ships.
And Archidamus accordingly offered his sacrifices at
the frontier.
As for the Thebans, immediately after the battle
they sent to Athens a garlanded messenger, and
while telling of the greatness of their victory, they at
the same time urged the Athenians to come to their
aid, saying that now it was possible to take vengeance
upon the Lacedaemonians for all the harm they had
done to them. Now the Senate of the Athenians
chanced to be holding its sitting on the Acropolis.
And when they heard what had taken place, it was
made clear to everyone that they were greatly dis-
tressed; for they did not invite the herald to par-
take of hospitality and about the matter of aid they
gave him no answer. So the herald departed from
Athens without having received a reply. But to
Jason, who was their ally, the Thebans sent in
haste, urging him to come to their aid; for they
were debating among themselves how the future
would turn out. And Jason immediately proceeded
to man triremes, as though he intended to go to
their assistance by sea, but in fact he took his mer-
cenary force and his bodyguard of cavalry and, al-
though the Phocians were engaged in a bitter warfare
1 See v. ii. 5-7.
65
VOL. II. I







XENOPHON


riwv wocewOv XpwoLezwv, rey &&eropfevi el's T~
BotowOrav, Ev 7roXXaZs TWov rrdhecov 7rporepov
(dkel 4 A yyeXOel STL 7r ropvootro. 7rpiv yoIr
arvXXE'yeo -at T 'av7raXo'ev l G0ave 7roppao ytyvd-
I/evoq, lXov ITCOLTV rTer roXXaXoD TO TOrdov /atA-
Xov 7 T7 PIta STa7rpdTTreTa Ta 86ovTa.
22 'E'eiL & 8 (i'ceTo el's 7yT Bob)Tlav, XeyovTrv
rOV Or7fal tv 4 icaipo' e17" e7rtr'lelat Trot Aa/ce-
Satzotovot, dvWoev tav eicelvov ao-y 7T evuiwc,
0-tias B6 avTt7rTpoar'novq, arerperev avrov' 0
'Iaowv, 6iSaiKcov 4 x/caXov 'epiov eyevr?1JEvov OVKc
Gltov av7o09 ebl? SCaKiv8vveva0-a, o-re ef 'T ieIw
tKarTapaat, aoTepFpr lVvaL ical rT7 yeyevrE Ilt7Vj',
23 vl'/cr. ObX opaTe, e'rp77, OTt Kalt c pe, 67rel ev
avd'Yy Ir c yEVEOe, dicpaTra-are; oleo-at o'v ypr
Icat AaicSaqlovlovv av, el arvayiciaowro, 7ro0
ry a7TovorO7eV7aq 8tapda'Xeo-at. Kal 6 Oeot S8,
A) woice, o7rOXXaKitc Xalpt 70To pEv ltulcpov; I/eya-
24 Xovs IroLSv, T701OV e /.LydaXov9 /uICpov'. TOVS
LJBe orv Oqr/alov TrotaDra X",ywv adTrepelre T70
&8aKtiv8vveVwt TobV 8' a3 Aaice8a/.ovPiov iov E a-
a-ev oLov ILeV elr7 r7TT797 vovLE' oapdaTevua, olov 86
veumlicKk. El 8' dtritao0ea-,0 at<^, flovdeo-e TO
yeVyeV7lEoV iraOo9, oTVplJ13ovXevw a'ave-aava
ical ava7rava-a/jevov; icat /peiovV yeyerv'l/evovt
TO a a'TT7rj7 tO9 OiTor) el9 I/ad'XV let'at. OV, 84,
e'i, et iore6 0Tt cal TTOV a-vL/d1IXWO v v'v eio~v od
1 Before Tro the MSS. have eKyeVEar a: Kel. brackets,
following Madvig. 2 InAaeeaoOa MSS.: J.tdorai Oat Kel.
66







HELLENICA, VI. Iv. 21-24

against him, proceeded by land through their country s71n c
into Boeotia, appearing in many of their towns before
it was reported to them that he was on the march.
At any rate, before they could gather troops together
from here and there, he was already far on ahead,
thus making it clear that in many cases it is speed
rather than force which accomplishes the desired
results.
But when he arrived in Boeotia and the Thebans
said that now was the right moment to attack the
Lacedaemonians, he with his mercenaries from the
heights above and they by a frontal assault, Jason
sought to dissuade them, pointing out that since they
had done a good work, it was not worth while for
them to venture a decisive engagement in which they
would either accomplish yet greater things or would
be deprived of the victory already gained. "Do
you not see," he said, "that in your own case it
was when you found yourselves in straits that you won
the victory? Therefore one must suppose that the
Lacedaemonians also, if they were in like straits,
would fight it out regardless of their lives. Besides,
it seems that the deity often takes pleasure in
making the small great and the great small." With
such words, then, he endeavoured to dissuade the
Thebans from making the final venture; to the
Lacedaemonians, on the other hand, he pointed out
what manner of thing a defeated army was, and
what an army victorious. "And if you wish," he
said, "to forget the disaster which has befallen you,
I advise you first to recover your breath and rest
yourselves, and then, after you have become stronger,
go into battle against men who are unconquered.
But now," he said, "be well assured that even among






XENOPHON


StaXleyoTrat 7rept OXlag 7TO'i9 WOXeloeot' dXXa& dx
?avTo 7Tpo7rov TwetpaaOE- aTrovMS Xa/3hiv. TarTa
8', ~r7, deTy 7rpoOvovjiacta, co-at vuia ovXd-
p~evo ; 8td re r7v ro7) 7arppbv ctXtav 7rp o vtuas
25 Ica 8t h T 'rrpoevelv bFLv. AXe'ye fpv ov Tot-
afia, '7rpaTTe 8' t'o-t'q ro 8tdciopol ical ovrot
aXX21 ot OvTE' av f ilofTEpoI ~etvceov 8 owro. ot pIv-
TOt Aatce~atLpovtot, dacovCoavre aVTro, 7rpaTTtVe
Trept c7Tv a'rov87 v ie.eevo.w erel 8' 'r7yye'X0q
OT etlro-av at aTrovSal, 7rapr4y eiLav ol roXe'-
papXot 8etTrva-avrTa o-vvWeaevidat at rrdvTra,
Cs T742 vVKTO 7ropevo-oJievovF, o'7rT &la T7
lpeippa 'rpol ToV Ktlatpoiva avaa3votev. e're
8' eSeEirvoav, 7Tpyv IcaOe8ewv '7rapay /pElXavTeV
aKcoXov9eiv, j7yoVVTo edvOv j' eo -Tpaq 7Tv 8ta
Kp6evato,, T~ Xadelv 'rtrO-reovTE /t.XXov Tag
26 arrov8aK. ladXa S' Xace7Tr jropevdotevot, ola
Ev VVICT71 re ical b a 6 7qrLo'Tevy Kical XaXerqv
686v, ely AlydoOeva T7r Meyapt/ctl ad icvoDvvrat.
EKcef 8 'reptTrvY dvova-t Tr) te 7a 'ApxtSdiov
orTpaTEvPlaT. 'va 81 dvapelvae', ova Kal ol
avopiaXot 7irap-dvre rapeyevovro, ar ~ye 7riv opov
Tob OpaTrevLa plept Kopivzov ~ fceFtOEv Se TOVb
jhv cavjyXovi dV a Kce, Toby ~B oroVlraq o'ica8e
ajTr',yayer.
27 '0 pevrot 'Ido-av artuwv St& 7Tt v wKti'To
'Ta/LIrOXLT(7Jv IPev O re 7r6podaQ-rov e 6 ical 7Trv
Xcpav e7r6pOrqole Ical0 a're/crwe 7roXXo'"o T'v 8'
iXXi7v wKioa 8tiaOev adrpayodvwqo. ddtioucevog
68







HELLENICA, VI. IV. 24-27

your allies there are those who are holding con- 871 .c.
verse with the enemy about a treaty of friendship
with them; by all means, then, try to obtain a
truce. And I am myself eager for this," he said,
"out of a desire to save you, both because of my
father's friendship with you and because I am your
diplomatic agent." Such, then, were the arguments
he urged, but he was acting perhaps with the
purpose that these two parties, at variance as they
were with one another, might both alike be in need
of him. The Lacedaemonians, however, after hearing
his words bade him negotiate for the truce; and when
the report came that the truce had been made, the
polemarchs gave orders that after dining all should
have their baggage packed and ready with the pur-
pose of setting out during the night, in order that
at daybreak they might be climbing Cithaeron. But
when the men had dined and before they went to
rest, the polemarchs gave the order to follow, and
led the way immediately upon the fall of evening by
the road through Creusis, trusting to secrecy more
than to the truce. And proceeding with very great
difficulty, since they were withdrawing at night and
in fear and by a hard road, they arrived at Aegos-
thena in the territory of Megara. There they fell
in with the army under Archidamus. And after
waiting there until all the allies had joined him,
Archidamus led back the whole army together as far
as Corinth; from there he dismissed the allies and
led the citizen troops back home.
As for Jason, on his way back through Phocis he
captured the outer city of the Hyampolitans, laid
waste their land, and killed many of them, but he
passed through the rest of Phocis without any hostile
69






XENOPHON


Si el 'HpdKtcXetav IcaTe'TaXe TO 'HpaKXeworwv
TreXOT, SX0ov oTs o TOVTO (fo0/3o0VevoJ, /17 r7ve6
ava7re7rTar i7C'; TavrT] j T? 7rapoSov 7ropevofY0ro
7ri T V eiceiov 8vvawltv, XXa' tidXXov e'vOvtov'-
Pievo 1J, rTtves Tr v HppdkXEtav e!C71 rTevO. ovoaav
caraXa o36v'reV elpyootev a oov, e'd rot /o0oLTO To 7
28 'EXXdSo, ;ropevea-Oat. ETrel 8 a7r'gXOe 7rdXtv eil
Trj OecTaXlav, pe'ya9 pa'v v Tal 8th Si To vTowV
@eTTaxa>P raybO KcaOCeaT'vat Kal 8tUa TO jolaoo-
povw 7ToXXobv Tpef tv 7rrepl av7ry Kal refobv Ical
i'reaqa, ical TOVTOUV eKv e7rovwr7/evovF 0s av ipd-
TCtrTOt elev T' 8e pel v Ical th a ob o-v/LpatXov
,roXXov\ To' IJEv ~4817 elvat avTO, TOV~9 8 Ical e'T
/3ovXecroat yl yveo-Oat. /Ie'ytorTO 8' v T-ov ca0'
abVTO 7 P1 8't bS ~ vb evxcaTacpdv7Tro; elvat.
29 'EErtLVTWV & IIrIvOUv wrapriyetXe /iev ra, 7ro6-
XesOt o o09 Kca oZ9 /Cal at'ya9 Ital 9 vrapaoaceva'c-
o-at os el O TV Ovolav. ial e aaav 7ravv teTprpl
eicdan Trd Xet drayyeXXoErp, yev'o-ai /3oq /Lv
OVbI dEXTTrov XtXlwov, Ta\ Se aXXa flo0rK4j1aTa
TrXeimo Al uvpta. CdiKpvFe V S ical Vtlt7ptrTpov XPv-
aovv o'rTedOavov afeo-at, jTq Te V 7r6Xfev f3oiv
30 7rye/tova tcaXXtawor T(1 06e Ope'petee. wapr'yyetXe
e icaKl 4K aTpaTeVvao`JEOt el 69 TOv 7Tep&T T$ HVOta
yXpvov eTTaXoF 7rapaoKcevdrea-fOat 8tevoel o
rydp, w)s cgiaaav, Kal TVjY 7'avfryvpt 76 TOe w ical







HELLENICA, VI. Iv. 27-30

act. Upon arriving at Heracleia, however, he de- 371 .c.
stroyed the walled city of the Heracleots, manifestly
having no fear that when this passage-way I had been
thus thrown open anyone would march against his
own dominion, but rather making provision that none
should seize Heracleia, situated as it was at a narrow
pass,1 and block his way if he wanted to march to any
place in Greece. And when he had come back again
to Thessaly, lie was in great repute both because he
had legally been made Tagus of the Thessalians 2 and
because he maintained about him many mercenaries,
both foot-soldiers and horsemen, these moreover
being troops which had been trained to the highest
efficiency; his repute was yet greater by reason of
his many allies, including, in addition to those whom
he already had, also those who were desirous of
becoming such. And he was the greatest of the men
of his time in that he was not lightly to be despised
by anyone soever.
Now when the Pythian festival was approaching, sToBc.
Jason sent orders to his cities to make ready cattle,
sheep, goats, and swine for the sacrifice. And it was
said that although he laid upon each city a very
moderate demand, there were contributed no fewer
than a thousand cattle and more than ten thousand
of the other animals. He also made proclamation
that a golden crown would be the prize of victory
to the city which should rear the finest bull to
lead the herd in honour of the god. Further-
more, he gave orders to the Thessalians to make
preparations for taking the field at the time of the
Pythian festival ; for he was intending, it was said, to
be himself the director both of the festal assembly
Thermopylae. 2 See i. 18.






XENOPHON


Trow ay&va, avio'q 8tart9evai. 7rep't i pEvTOt rT
iepv Xplar'Twv oITO tev 8LeVoero eTL xcal vv
a'8 lov XeAyeTrat BS repoyovwv T'&v Ae6X0f v T
Xpr roteLv, eJv Xha/tJdvy Trcv T70 06o0 XPo f aTpwv,
31 arvotcpivaro-at rov Oebv sTt abT, 1 eX4"afe. 6 8'
ofv av'lp TrlXtcovOro'; v ica Tocravra Ka 7ota'ra
Stavootv'evog, e'Trao-a v rre7roiltcr0 Kaat 8otcpltao-lav
TOi 'Depalwv iTrTnicov, /cal '7j' KcaOrjievov ical
atroicpLwoLevo, ei' T( o TeOeV6o TOV 7rpoao-LO, VTr
veavtloarcv e7rTA 7rpoo eX0o'rW0V c4d StabepoLfevwv
rIt aXX4 o1 aoo-Tea'Terat cai /cavTarcoTrerTat.
32 3orl7r]oadvTovy Se ppWoieovw' 'V V 'rapayevofefvwv
8opvoopwv el' pt66 e' TV'lrTOV TOrV 'Idaova -Y67X?
y7Tr),y deroOvo-icv' e'rpo9 86 davapSatvov de'
rI'nov dEyKaTaXhyipetv cal IrooXhX 7pavaT'a Xa-
P3wv a7r7Oavev' ol 8' t'XXot vaTr y84rravTrev dTr
TroW 7Tapeo-Icevao-aevov; 0tr7rov dr 'fvyov OTro

7r at EVETO OTL
e dtl'oivTwo TrV 'E\XXyviSoyv TjrErPv, ev Tra?
TXEao-L9a e 'TttiYvTo. w ical 80ov ye'veTo lTI
loXvpw, A'Sictav ol "EXXryew awrov /p -rvpavvos
y/Evotro.
33 'A7ro0avov wo; PVTOt eicelVOv loX 8wpo d8eX-
06, aV'TOo ical HoXv'pov ra yo't carT-Taiaav.
Ka1 d peev lIoX8oOpo, 7riopEvo/yPvov dj, orepwv
el Aadptiav, VVcKTWp cKaOEcvwv AiroOaKeL 7 w
nlloXVpovov 70T 41o8eXo (04 8dicer o 7lp Odva-
To7 aVTOD) e^aartvalo' 'e ical ovbi cXv avepav
34 7rpoiaaiv eyeve'ro. 8' av ILoX' pwv jpe pev
evitaUov, icaTeo-icevawaTo 8' 7r7v Tayelav rvpavvitt
72







HELLENICA, VI. iv. 30-34

in honour of the god and of the games. What he 370B.c.
intended, however, in regard to the sacred treasures,
is even to this day uncertain; but it is said that when
the Delphians asked the god what they should do if
he tried to take any of his treasures, Apollo replied
that he would himself take care of the matter.
At any rate this man, great as he was and purposing
deeds so great and of such a.kind, after he had held
a review and inspection of the cavalry of the Phe-
raeans, and was now in his seat and making answer
if anyone came to him with any request, was struck
down and killed by seven young men who came up
to him as though they had some quarrel with one
another. And when the guardsmen who attended
him rushed stoutly to his aid, one of the young men,
while still in the act of striking Jason, was pierced
with a lance and killed; a second was caught while
mounting his horse, suffered many wounds, and so
was killed; but the rest leaped upon the horses which
they had in readiness and escaped, and in most
of the Greek cities to which they came they were
honoured. This fact, indeed, made it plain that the
Greeks had conceived a very great fear lest Jason
should become tyrant.1
When he had thus been slain, Polydorus, his brother,
and Polyphron succeeded to the office of Tagus.
Now Polydorus, while the two were on their way
to Larisa, was killed at night in his sleep by Poly-
phron, his brother, as people thought; for his death
was sudden and without manifest cause. Then Poly-
phron, in his turn, held sway for a year, and made
the office of Tagus like the rule of a tyrant. For in
1 i.e. an absolute and irresponsible ruler, whereas the
position of Tagus was a legal, elective office.






XENOPHON


doolav. e ry& p capaoahdp rv loXv8adavra
Kal aiXXov0 TWO oX)VTroLTv IC TO oV ICpaT' Trov
adrreictewe, ec re Aaplayo 7roX-XoVb cvy/d a
edroro-'e. TaDra 86 roto&jv al OVT0ro aiVo9Vffj'ce
vr' 'AXeddvSpov, 6' TtJrI)poivro Vr 7 IoXvSopP3
35 Kca' Trv 7vpavvala KcarTaXvovTro. ETrrdl avro
TrapelXa/e TRV apx'v, XaXejro? ae'v h OeraXot;
TayO0 eyevero, XaXeror 8' Or /alots /cal 'A9r]-
valoit 7r-oX1itoq, ai8Ucoq S& X7\r-7 Kca KTl caT yyJv
Krea KaTra Od6arrav. TO7tODTO 8' iv kcal avo';
a' a1Vrov'aiCe avTroeipia ev P 7Tr 7TV 70 '
,yvvauctK ie&Xcov, f3ovX, 8' -r' ar- eKe'dvcrlf.
36 T70 E y 7ap dSe & oFs d8eyyetXev ( 6 'AXiEav8pov
e7rt/3ovXevot abvroi c Kal e"pvrp ev abrov' Evov
ovTras O"rv Tr'v fiepav. Kxa' SeabLev'a v /ae6ovrTa
7v' 'AXVav8pov, eTrel K aTCecotLtOe-v, V 1v' ovo
eKCelEr, v 8e 1'0,9 avrov erzjvecyKe. (Oj 8' O11ETo
OicvoDuTa' ela-tivat eirl Tov 'AXlav8pov Tork
aSefX0ov;, eL7rev &4 e)l 717r8q 7pSr cidoev, eeyepel
abrov. 64 8' ela-TX6ov, etrro-orr ao-a Trv 76 pav
37 e''Xero TO70 p07rpov, emo taTrCfavev 6 avrjp. 2
e eX(pa Xyyefrat aTrf; 7rpoF 'Tov dv8pa yevea'Oal
V7T rb aV 7TLVW9V (l w-et erj87o- Ta JavTrov rat8tcka
6 'AXeav8poq, veavlo-mov ovTra icaXov, 6e9elao]us
avTir XiDrat 6eayaylvo abTrv d7r ooaaev ol 8o
7'vey 694, E7reL 7ral e9 arT(p obi/C EyivVOVTO /C
rTavT'rJ, 07TL 7Tri6w/r)V E' E)/9aq' eJL'iO-'TCeve 'T]7V
'Ido-ovoq yvvaFKa.1 Ta /Ev ov' a'Tta T7, irrn-
SovXgF V7TTO Trj yvvalaKc o' r O) XEyeTrav r7ov
Tavra 7Tpadv~uwv tiXpL o5 08e 6 Xo&yo9 7ypCdero
1 After y'vvaKa the MSS. have hvapa 8el : Kel. brackets,
following Stephanus
74







HELLENICA, VI. Iv. 34-37

Pharsalus he put to death Polydamas and eight more s0o B.c.
of the best among the citizens, and from Larisa he
drove many into exile. While thus engaged he, also, 69 B.C.
was slain by Alexander, who posed as avenger of
Polydorus and destroyer of the tyranny. But when
Alexander had himself succeeded to the position
of ruler, he proved a cruel Tagus to the Thessalians,
a cruel enemy to the Thebans and Athenians, and
an unjust robber both by land and by sea. Being
such a man, he likewise was slain in his turn, the 38 B.c.
actual deed being done by his wife's brothers, though
the plan was conceived by the woman herself. For she
reported to her brothers that Alexander was plotting
against them, and concealed them within the house
for the entire day. Then after she had received
Alexander home in a drunken state and had put him
to bed, while the light was left burning she carried
his sword out of the chamber. And when she per-
ceived that her brothers were hesitating to go in and
attack Alexander, she said that if they did not act
at once she would wake him. Then, as soon as they
had gone in, she closed the door and held fast to the
knocker until her husband had been killed. Now her
hatred toward her husband is said by some people
to have been caused by the fact that when Alexander
had imprisoned his own favourite, who was a beautiful
youth, and she begged him to release him, he took
him out and slew him; others, however, say that
inasmuch as no children were being born to him of
this woman, Alexander was sending to Thebes and
trying to win as his wife the widow of Jason. The
reasons, then, for the plot on the part of his wife
are thus stated; but as for those who executed this
deed, Tisiphonus, who was the eldest of the brothers,
75






XENOPHON


Tto-l'ovov 7rpeo-/fivaTo9 Wv rTWv d8e6fSv Tr'7v
apxjv elxe.
V. Kai Tah pv @eTTaeXtda, Taa 7repT 'Idova
d'rpdaXfl Kai /eTa TOV dEKC vov OavaTOv P/tXPt
T1j' Ti tdovov ApyX 8e86XwSTat vPv 8' ETrve/Li
'vev d6r a Td aa e4e/3rlv. '4rel yap 'ApXySa/o
edc Ti-F 6w7rl AeDicpa Bor letag ar iryaye Trb crpd-
Trevfa, evfOv/jOdVre ol 'A09ravaot TI ol II Xolrov-
vartoe e'rT o'ioTraL Xpvat acoXovBeO v Kal O"0lw
8talceotwro ol AaKce8atiuv tAo "o-wrep ToT 'A97-
valovf 8tileo-av, jpera7Tr eLTovrat T7T roXet or-at
flOvXOtVTO T7i9 elp?'rvF IereTXEty 3a o-ttev'BF
2 KIaTe'ervrev. e'7ret afvvj8XOov, 8oy/a Ewrotj-
aavTo pelh rOT KV ICOLvO fSovUXofpe'vv ouio-at
TovSe Trv opicov. 'EV tevo TaFT o-7rov8a9 &s9
3ao-itle; Karerevte ical o TO fr7ylao-rtaot TOlV
'AWOvaolv ical Trwv aovpd o(wv. 4Av 84 TI9 Tpa-
Ue6,7 eTrl riva TmOXwIv T-Ov 04oaaaOv Tov8e Tov
opicov, /3poqy1'w 7rav'rI a-ovet. oat tev oiv a'Xxot
ravPre9v eatpov rp optc 'HXeIo Se av' Teyov
<09 ov 84ot av'rovotovv 'notelv oVTe Mapyaveav
oUTe cKtXeXouV7Tov oivTe TptfvXUov u' a~erepa
3 lyap Pelva Tavrag Tah wroXeL ol 8' 'AOffvawoi
cal ol aiXot fr 1 o-adpLevo, 'oTrep /3aotXev
ey1pa'aev, avTovoiuovI elvat tftoiw Ical tKpapc
Kait IeydXa9 7rodX u, e% re/fav rob9 TOV pxTd,
syf~~uowt Tag,







HELLENICA, VI. Iv. 37-v. 3

held the position of ruler up to the time when this ass a.o.
narrative was written.1
V. All the events, then, which took place in
Thessaly in connection with Jason, and, after his
death, down to the rule of Tisiphonus, have thus
been described; now I return to the point from
which I digressed to discuss these matters. When,
namely, Archidamus had led back his army from 71n .c.
the relief expedition to Leuctra, the Athenians,
taking thought of the fact that the Peloponnesians
still counted themselves bound to follow the Lace-
daemonians, and that the latter were not yet in
the same situation to which they had brought the
Athenians, invited to Athens all the cities which
wished to participate in the peace which the King
had sent down. And when they had come together,
they passed a resolution to take the following oath,
in company with such as desired to share in the
peace: I will abide by the treaty which the King
sent down, and by the decrees of the Athenians and
their allies. And if anybody takes the field against
any one of the cities which have sworn this oath,
I will come to her aid with all my strength." Now
all the others were pleased with the oath; the Eleans
only opposed it, saying that it was not right to make
either the Marganians, Scilluntians, or Triphylians
independent, for these cities were theirs. But the
Athenians and the others, after voting that both
small and great cities alike should be independent,
even as the King wrote, sent out the officers charged
with administering the oath and directed them to
I Xenophon probably died in 354 B.c. Hence this portion
of his narrative was written between 358 (see above) and
354 B.c.






XENOPHON


Ical etcexevaav Ta 1yJrL7-Ta Telj e)v eKdo7Tp rXetX
dopKlcaa. Kcal c/Itoav 7ravT; 7Trv 'HIelcov.
'E SCv 8 Icai ol MavTtelv, dcv jy ai2rvoiot
7ravTa7rao-rv OTres, avvjXhOov Te 7ravTeV Icai fr-
plo-avTo Ilav 7rotXv 1 TVv MavTlvetav 7roitev Kcal
4 TetXieV T~7V 7rroX. ol 8' ab AaiceatuIlviot
)rov0pro, el 7TOVTO avev T7) 0- aeT'pa; yv&j6T'v
eootro, XaXae7rov ea"'o at. ireCpTrova-wv obv 'Ay-
t- laov 7rpec0-/evTv Trpo' TO MavrIveav, OrT
diceSL 7raTpiKo' t'o, a Trot elvat. 'rel 8'
dlit ceTr 7rpo? avTovg, TO'V Pev 8ktpov Tirv Mavrt-
ve)v ol aipXOVTe oVKc qOeXov acvXXUfat aVT ,
'pos B oFas IetceXevovP yewi OTOV USTo. 6 8C
WKroJrXVTO aTrolt, 6av viv E'rl'yw-cr 70rj Tyl-
oE6(Bo, 7ro070eLP WaTe /t1ETa T Aace8artloVpo
uyv(i?7f Kaicl / a Sarav7rp&,j TeqLXLOfuvat To TeiXoq.
5 e7rel aIrecKptvavro oTI aev'varov e'1 c7rro-XeT v,
yJlaTO / yeyev 7/v/Evovu rda 7rj rXet 8I1 ret 7 -
ewLV, 6Kc TOVTOV 0 pjev 'Ayao-lXaog aTeit 6pyeth7 -
ILevova o-TpaTevetv y LEPV TO r' aVTOVs o euvvaTor
eSoKe el vat, br' avrovof~ia T?796, elprjv yeyevrV-
iLv60Yr. To70, S MaVrtvC'e-t 7rreL7rov tIiv cal T@v)
'ApxcaStKcv &XwTedov rtve a0vvTrTetXtovTa;, ol 8'
'HXeot Kcal Apyuvptov rTpa TdXaVTa avve/3daovro
aLTroi2 elS 71v 7repl TO' T EXO 8a7Tav7rdvr. Ical ol
pLv MavPTveZi 7rrepi TaVr' ra-av.
6 Tcv Se Teyear@v ola ev '7rep rTvl KaXXlpov
Kal IIp0oevov evijyov E 7Tb '-Ovelva Tr~e Wta TO
1 rdAwv MSS.: wdAwL KeL







HELLENICA, VI. v. 3-6

administer it to the highest authorities in each city. 371 Bc.
And all took the oath except the Eleans.
As a natural result of these proceedings the Man-
tineans, feeling that they were now entirely inde-
pendent, all came together and voted to make Man-
tinea a single 1 city and to put a wall about it. But
the Lacedaemonians, on the other hand, thought that
it would be a grievous thing if this were done without
their approval. They accordingly sent Agesilaus as
ambassador to the Mantineans, because he was re-
garded as an ancestral friend of theirs.2 Now when he
had come to them, the officials refused to assemble for
him the Mantinean people, but bade him tell them
what he desired. He then offered them his promise
that, if they would desist from their wall-building
for the present, he would arrange matters so that
the wall should be constructed with the approval of
Lacedaemon and without great expense. And when
they replied that it was impossible to desist, since a
resolution to build at once had been adopted by the
entire city, Agesilaus thereupon departed in anger.
It did not seem to be possible, however, to make an
expedition against them, inasmuch as the peace had
been concluded on the basis of independence. Mean-
while some of the Arcadian cities sent men to help
the Mantineans in their building, and the Eleans
made them a contribution of three talents in money
toward the expense of the wall. The Mantineans,
then, were occupied with this work.
Among the Tegeans, on the other hand, the fol- 370B.c.
lowers of Callibius and Proxenus were making efforts
to the end that all the people of Arcadia should

I cp. v. ii. 7. A cp. v. ii. 3.






XENOPHON


'ApKca8icKv, Ical 8 TI VIK ia 7e A T IcowL, rTOVT
iKprov elval ial T70V r7TOev ol Si rnepa TOv
7~ri-tr7TWov rpa7rov Cav T6 Kar ypav T7jv
7 7r6Xtv cKal ToZq 7rarpotvl V~oLt xpaOa. fT77T-
pEovot 8r o 7re' ov po'evov Kcal KaXXli/ov dv
T70oF OapoZt, voio-aravTe, el o-vve6Xot Sjuov,
7roXt av T7 7rXOLet Kparlc o-at, 'K epovTat Ta
0TrXa. 8L6deT S TOVTO eol 'rep TO'V lTd-cvTrov
Kica abT1 AdvOwrlo-aavTO, lcal Apt0ji Iv I1
EdraTrov e'yvOdVTO' ciEl pvTOin elf jUi'aqjv wppj,-
aoav, 7TO peIv Ilpoevov ical AXXov? ovlyov ~cT'r
arTOV aTroCTEtvovo-L, TOV S' a XXov 7Tped*aievos
obac e18lwcov Ical ryAp TOIOVTO' 0 T7ado-Tr-oT v
olog pL flo6~Xeara 7roXXovob dWTrOK'Ttvvvat T7&
8 wroXhriv. ol S 7repi Toy KaXXlpLov davaKceXo-
p17KOT/d VTO TO 7T rpb 9 Maavrtveia~ TeXO ical T
rwvxaq, e'7el ovicet aVTotO o0 1 avarlot dreelpoov,
77arvxav elXov 7Opoto-0Lpevot. Kal 7raXkalt iv ehTe-
'opoeoaTv eLr TO"v? MavTivcaq /3o Oeiv iceXLv-
ov7re* 7rpo 86e TOv'; rept Y7TaCo-t7ror LteXeyovro
wrep v arvvaXXay,Yv. ewel S K c7aTaaveg o-av ol
MavTtvet9 '7polo-iVTe, ol /ev avTvY dAva7rrlp8iJVT
7 7ri Teb TX9 ef'Kc evov 3oOeFv T7v TVaXao-TfY Kal
o0jvTres OrrvSeLtv tLEICEXB1VovTo" A10ot U 'vo -
9 yovo-t Ta TOP wCo g 170VTovro 7 yL'y7VoieVov, eIC7TL7rTovot KaTa
7Tr r1 TO IaXXaLdvTIov epovra wirXav, Kai
QOadvovaot 7rpiv /aTaaxy Bv9pat bro T7)V StLKCOdPTv
e's T7v T7r 'ApTePtiLSo veryv IaTaavyovTre,'2 /cal
eylXetord-tevot jo-a'vxav elXov. ol Se\ .eTatc-
1 After pur the MSS. have obsV: Kel. brackets, following
Dobr6e. KaraiuvydvTis MSS.: Ka"ra bTovTrs Kel.
8o







HELLENICA, VI. v. 6-9

unite, and that whatever measure was carried in the s70 ac.
common assembly should be binding on the several
cities as well; but the followers of Stasippus made
it their policy to leave their city undisturbed and
to live under the laws of their fathers. Now the
followers of Proxenus and Callibius, defeated in the
council of the magistrates, and conceiving the thought
that if the people came together they would prove
far superior in numbers, gathered openly under arms.
Upon seeing this the followers of Stasippus also
armed themselves in their turn, and they did indeed
prove fewer in number; when, however, they had
set forth for battle, they killed Proxenus and a few
others along with him, but although they put the
rest to flight they did not pursue them; for Stasippus
was the sort of man not to desire to kill many of
his fellow-citizens. Then the followers of Callibius,
who had retired to a position under the city wall
and the gates on the side toward Mantinea, inasmuch
as their adversaries were no longer attacking them,
remained quietly gathered there. They had long
before this sent to the Mantineans bidding them
come to their aid, but with the followers of Stasippus
they were negotiating for a reconciliation. When,
however, the Mantineans were to be seen approach-
ing, some of them leaped upon the wall, urged the
Mantineans to come on to their assistance with all
possible speed, and with shouts exhorted them to
hurry; others meanwhile opened the gates to them.
Now when the followers of Stasippus perceived what
was going on, they rushed out by the gates leading
to Pallantium, gained refuge in the temple of Artemis
before they could be overtaken by their pursuers, and
after shutting themselves in, remained quiet there.
81
VOL. II







XENOPHON


poavrvE Opol a av&v cvap,8a'dvTe dv TOP veLov Kica
TjoV OpoIlv S1t~eXoPTre' 4'rraov TaF, IcepapIo-wL. oi
68 , 9 r C .7/Y, ..8 O. T /Cd-
86 7T6El 6'yvwcrav 7T7V dvcyKrjv, 7rav609a1 e 4C
Xevov Icalt etevat 'aa-av. ol F' evav7rtt oS
vTroXeLplov e'Xa/3ov avrovv, 7ja'avr7e ical dva-
3aXdovreIf E'' apaavl d7rnyayov 'e Teyeav. eKce
8e pTah rTv Mavrti'ev IcaTayvovreS' a7reKrTtvav.
10 To1rTov (r S yvo1tefvwv' k'ovyov el' Aa/ceSaluora
7W)v raep Trao-t7rrrov Teyearnwv 7rep't orTaco-olovq.
fteT t 86 Tara r70o, AaKleSat/tovloiF e iKEL /3or?-
"e'ov lvat /caTa To79 OpKov9 Tol7 TelveO-iL 7re TW
TeyeaTWv al EicT'er or7T CLOO- KCa OTaVr aO-par 6ov-
a-tvw r 70To Mavrtve'a, W4 rrapa 70To Sp/covU o-V
oTrXotq EXrXOv6dorwv avOTrv d lr T7OV TeyeaTra.
Ial (povphv [L'v ol "'opot cbOatvov, 'Ayiljalaov S'
11 eicKevev 7 TrojXtrv )daeu9at. ol pev oav aI\Xo
'ApicadSe el 'Aadav o-vveXeyovro' 'OpxoItevILv
86 oic EfhX06'70d V coLv veiV 7TO 'ApcaSucofi Sth
7~v 7rp; Mavrteav a 'X pav, aXXa Kai t Seeyfeo v
el riv r6rXtV 7Tb & KoplvOw o-vveLtey/ievov tevt-
Kov, O '" I' Lo
ov, oa HiHoXvrporro9 7pXev, 'efevov O'Lot ol May-
TLVe1 7TOVeTWV E7riL/eXfjevor, 'THpae ic& Kal Ae-
ropeaTat aovveoTpa7eVovTr 70T?, Aaiceatioviot; ECl
12 TO?; MaTImEvaq. 8e 'AyraoiXaoF, 4-e7e EyEvero
aTr rTa 8ta/3aT7ipta, ev 00vX eXpet ei7Tl 7v 'Ap-
KcaSav. ial KaraXafl/3v 7r6Xtv oopov oicav
1 f4p' ipaav Hartnian: &irl iTv &paUi/jaav MSS., followed
by Kel.
82







HELLENICA, VI. v. 9-12

But their foes who had followed after them climbed 370 s.c.
upon the temple, broke through the roof, and pelted
-them with the tiles. And when the people within
realized the hopelessness of their situation, they bade
them stop and said they would come out. Then their
adversaries, as soon as they had got them in their
power, bound them, threw them into a wagon,
and carried them back to Tegea. There, in company
with the Mantineans, they passed sentence upon
them and put them to death.
While these things were going on, about eight
hundred of the Tegeans who were partisans of
Stasippus fled to Lacedaemon as exiles, and subse-
quently the Lacedaemonians decided that, in accord-
ance with their oaths, they ought to avenge the
Tegeans who had been slain and to aid those who
had been banished. So they decided to make an
expedition against the Mantineans on the ground
that, in violation of their oaths, they had proceeded
in arms against the Tegeans. The ephors accord-
ingly called out the ban, and the state directed
Agesilaus to act as commander. Now most of the
Arcadians were gathering together at Asea. But
since the Orchomenians refused to be members of
the Arcadian League on account of their enmity
toward the Mantineans, and had even received into
their city the mercenary force, commanded by Poly-
tropus, which had been collected at Corinth, the
Mantineans were remaining at home and keeping
watch upon them. On the other hand, the Heraeans
and Lepreans were serving with the Lacedaemonians
against the Mantineans. Agesilaus, then, when his
sacrifices at the frontier proved favourable, at once
proceeded to march against Arcadia. And having







XENOPHON


Ev'ratav, cal ebvpoaev cel TO'S peV 7rpeo'SvT4pov9
ical 'wT 7vvaiicaa ical Trois 7raa' oicoDvraF ev
rais olicatS, rowv S' eV T7y opaTevo-bt ( ictia
olXojEvovy el' 7-0 'ApiaSticov, ,W Ol obc fSitCo6
7TV ro7 X, aLX' et'a re avrov otlce, ical wvov-
pevoi el X J3opavov Bawv lo ivo- el 8 rt ical Ip-
7rdiCIrl, 'Tre elo'-e, e9 7roJly tv, euevp&wv adTeSWce.
Ka 7r)wpicoSlo/tei 8 T6 reiTXOq aLTOv oaa E4etro,
woMT7rep avToD 8'Tpt/3ev avaLEvv TO'rov fIrTa
IIoXvrp7rov tpwOodpopovV.
13 'Ev 8e TOVuT( ol MavTreve cTrpa'rcvovaotv e67r
TroU 'OpXo~IeVIov'. Icai aro' tlv T7Ov reti ovo
/jdXa XaXE7rew d1ArX0ov, ical d'ilrcavou Trive a-
Trev* Eer~ e aljroxoppovvTe re~ v T7 'EXvplAa '7Y-
voTro, Ical 0t Itev 'Op.o/e'vbot o-XT.7as o/cTri
I/tcoXodo vvv, ol Se6 rep 't HoXvrporrov eroeVTL
aal padXa Opaao'- e'DraOOa yV'VTeI ol MavTt'veC
tI ,'
(Bq, el plf a7TroKcpova-ovTra abTOV"0, 5T' rroXXo
a-p01v KaraTKVT'rlrorj ovrat, v'rocrplTp avreFv d 6o-e
14 eXwppioav TOls" e7r2-lei/votS. Kcal 06 cv HIoXv-
TpoTOq pay/evo avrovo aTroa roOvlyjolcer T&rv 86
AXXov pevyo rwv 7rdp'jrroXXot &v adr7Tavov, el fL?
ol XeaLLctOL ITTres 7rapayevolevot ical el's T
o7rrtra-v TrrpteXacaVTe9 Tr&v MavrtvEov e 7rea-ov
abVrob' Trq &s LE0d( al ol p1Le MavrTL Ei ravra
crpdaavrPT o'xca8E d1ri7XOov.
15 'O 86 'A'yo'lXaoq d/covaa Tra~ a, xcal voplbo-a
o0c av 6 eT a-vl~UILeat aVrT Tobr nc TO7 'OpXo-
pLEvo8 4 Ia'0o46pov9, ovTW 7Tpoyes. cal 7' /v
84







HELLENICA, VI. v. 12-15

occupied Eutaea, which was a city on the border, 7o B.c.
and found there the older men, the women, and the
children living in their houses, while the men of
military age had gone to the Arcadian assembly, he
nevertheless did the city no harm, but allowed the
people to continue to dwell there, and his troops
got everything that they needed by purchase; and
if anything had been taken as booty at the time
when he entered the city, he searched it out and
gaye it back. He also occupied himself, during the
whole time that he spent there awaiting the mer-
cenaries under Polytropus, in repairing all those
portions of the city wall which needed it.
Meanwhile the Mantineans made an expedition
against the Orchomenians. And they came off very
badly from their attack upon the city wall, and some
of them were killed; but when in their retreat they
had reached Elymia and, although the Orchomenian
hoplites now desisted from following them, Poly-
tropus and his troops were very boldly pressing
upon them, then the Mantineans, realizing that if
they did not beat them off many of their own
number would be struck down by javelins, turned
about and charged their assailants. Polytropus fell
fighting where he stood; the rest fled, and very
many of them would have been killed had not the
Phliasian horsemen arrived, and by riding around to
the rear of the Mantineans made them desist from
their pursuit. The Mantineans, then, after accom-
plishing these things, went back home.
Agesilaus heard of this affair and came to the con-
clusion that the mercenaries from Orchomenus could
not now join him; under these circumstances, there-
fore, he continued his advance. On the first day

85






XENOPHON


7TpdCry rIV TeyedrtSt Xc)pa dEetmrvovrotLra'aTo, T7
8' varepala Stapaivet els Trjv MaVTtVlcVjv, Ical
ec-rpaTOTre8euo-aTO V'7T0 TOP? Trpo co- rEpav opeaO
Ti, Mazrtveiarr" Ka e'C e ala Tyov Trv (Ldpav
Kcal 7-ple r op i a)ypo0v. TioW Se 'ApKdaSov o
orVXXkleyrVE ev 7r^ 'AAoea VVKTOr 7rap2lX-ov elh
16 Tr-V Tey av. Ti 8' vaTrepaia o pE v 'Ayro-lIaoy
carEXwv Mavrwelaq b'o-ov 6eKco-c 1aTa8lovy eaTpa-
T07rE8evo-a7a ol 8' eIc T79 Teye'a, 'AplcSe9,
EXO I voI T&V p ETrafb Mavrtelaey cal Teyea/
opwv 7rap-arav apdXa 7roXXo o7rXEriat, avp tel-
4at /ovX'/evo0 TOiro MavrTtvfo-V icala ryap ol
'Apyeot o0b TavSy?7/'L t IKoXoLovv avTrov' ical
oav pev rtvey o' rvby 'AyTo-iXaov 6'retsov
X)wpb TOVTOI; eT Oredo-a 6 86 f)o 3ovpuevor
1.7 eV 00o) 7rpo eicetvov9 7ropevotro, CIC T7?q
troXewq ot MavTurvev eX9Covres0 aa Kcpa' re
Kal 6K TOV O7T drtev e7TL7TrreCOL avT r, ,yi'w Kpd-
T'-Trov elia Eaco-at avveXC0e aTrov ical el
o/3oXotvrTO 'o td Oa, dKo TOi Stcalov Kal oavepoD
Trv iaXxyv 7rotelaoat.
Kai ot phev 8 'ApcaSe ov OUo0 S'r7 Eyey4vVTro.
17 ol 8' cc T70r 'OpxoItevo e rYeXo rao-Tra ical oc Tov
('Xetaa owv 'TrrreZ /eT' avTTv 7T?; VvICTO Vw te-
eXOOvrTe rrapa T7v MavrTveav ea vojivi T ()
'Ayyo-tXao wp 7p TO paToTreSov ei -ab"voVra
alia r, 7 Jeppa, /cal e'ro]'7aav TobV jLv alXova
ely Taq rTaevl 8pa/iev, 'Ay27o-~ aov 8' c'rava-
Xowplo0at 7rpoS 7T o'rXa. e'Tre 8' 'cenvot i v
'yVcoo-o-7aav eliot owvre, 'Ay7ao laoy eKctcaX-
XepipTro, e aptO-Tov rrpoTi/e bTO O(Tprevua.
e07repaq e8' irrtvyvop.evi7 eXae a-7paTr7reSevo-d-
86







HELLENICA, VI. v. 15-I7

he took dinner in the territory of Tegea, and on the 70 B.c.
following day crossed into the territory of the Man-
tineans and encamped at the foot of the mountains
to the west of Mantinea; there at the same time he
laid waste the land and plundered the farms. Mean-
while the Arcadians who had assembled at Asea
made their way by night to Tegea. On the next day
Agesilaus encamped at a distance of about twenty
stadia from Mantinea. But the Arcadians from Tegea,
a very large force of hoplites, made their appearance;
they were skirting the mountains between Mantinea
and Tegea, desiring to effect a junction with the
Mantineans, for the Argives, who came with them,
were not in full force. And there were some who
tried to persuade Agesilaus to attack these troops
separately; he, however, fearing that while he was
marching against them the Mantineans might issue
forth from their city and attack him in flank and
rear, judged it best to allow the two hostile forces
to come together and, in case they wished to fight,
to conduct the battle in regular fashion and in
the open.
The Arcadians from Tegea had by now effected
a junction with the Mantineans. On the other
hand, the peltasts from Orchomenus, and with them
the horsemen of the Phliasians, made their way
during the night past Mantinea and appeared as
Agesilaus was sacrificing in front of his camp at day-
break; and they caused the Lacedaemonians to fall
hurriedly into line and Agesilaus himself to retire to
the camp. But when they had been recognized as
friends, and Agesilaus had obtained favourable omens,
immediately after breakfast he led his army forward.
Later, as evening was coming on, he unwittingly
87






XENOPHON

peLvo; ely T7y T oI 7raev KIXrroOv T7r/ Mavrtvijq,
18 adX'a aidveyyv, icaK KdCoai 6p? e'yovra. 7j 8'
vo-repail &aa A= ?7 eiepat efveq o M LO v 16 rpb TOV
aTpaTeLaTro9"' itov B crvXXeyop vovq 7? )c T7& rv
MavTtlveiVr 7-oXdewS 97-1 TOF9 pent Troe VTrCp T71
ovpa& r70o avT7r 0r7paTrevf a7ro, 'evw e aicTe'ov
e rvaL T j ToaXIT7 Et 70 ~TOy Xrov. el p v obv
atv-o ac,'/ yoEro, E6o/3Etro ? 72 ovp OrrltowV'r
ol WroXeIor jacrY-vX'av Se 8elv Kca ra' oT'rXa o'rpo
TOV 'iroepLov;F falvva, avao-rpe4Frav'raV EcEXev
T7b adr' ovbp& eEL 8Sopv oTrirlOev T7j da'a/Tayyo
eo'y a Oat rp0' avrdrv Kcalb O'Tw; alpa ecf T6 7OV
-Tevov erjiyf ical loxavpoTrpav Ael 7Tjv i oXayya
19 7T0rotiLT0. e7re8 S6 e8 SeSit7ra)To 1' e'XOVT TO O7TVX7IC) 7poeX80ev e' r T7 W'rel8ov
E&etreve rdaXLtv 7r' evvea Af 8eca Tb o 'rpaTevfla
aiTrrliSv. ol /QvTLot MavTtveZE9 oice'rt Jdoaav" ical
y/ip ol 'HXeaFo avro-paTrvo evot abTo;9 eiretOov
tL7 7rotr7elaf Oal rX?7v, 7rpiv ol 073atort wrapa-
yevowvTO' e. 8\ ebiavat el'acav arI rapea-otiro
Kal yap 86eca 'rdXavTa Seaveia-Oal arov' 7Irapa
20 ac)tv el; 72rv /3ojesLav. ol itEv 8f 'ApicadS
Taora atcoa-avTe9 jvavXo av XOV elov Tr MavreveTla

I The scene is a long, narrow valley. The rear (ovpd) of
the Lacedaemonian line is at the head of the valley, while
the van, where Agesilaus has his position, is at the opening
of the valley into the plain. The enemy are gathering upon
the hills on one side of the valley. Agesilaus first faces his
troops toward the enemy (T& Sa.. p.aivwv). The march-
ing line is thus transformed, technically, into a "phalanx,"
88







HELLENICA, VI. v. 17-20

encamped in the valley which lies behind the town sv0 n..
of Mantinea; it is surrounded by mountains which
are only a short distance away. On the follow-
ing day at daybreak he was offering sacrifices in
front of the army; and seeing that troops were
gathering from the city of the Mantineans on the
mountains which were above the rear of his army,
he decided that he must lead his men out of the
valley with all possible speed. Now he feared that
if he led the way himself, the enemy would fall upon
his rear; accordingly, while keeping quiet and pre-
senting his front toward the enemy, he ordered the
men at the rear to face about to the right and
march along behind the phalanx toward him. And
in this manner he was at the same time leading
them out of the narrow valley and making the
phalanx continually stronger.' When the phalanx
had thus been doubled in depth, he proceeded into
the plain with the hoplites in this formation, and
then extended the army again into a line nine or
ten shields deep. The Mantineans, however, now
desisted from coming forth from their city, for
the Eleans, who were making the campaign with
them, urged them not to fight a battle until the
Thebans arrived; and they said they were quite sure
that the Thebans would come, for they had borrowed
ten talents from the Eleans themselves for the ex-
penses of the expedition to aid them. The Arcadians,
then, upon hearing this, remained quiet in Mantinea;
or line of battle. Then, by the &vaorposPj (see note on ii. 21),
the oupd, i.e. the original rear of the marching line, is folded
back and gradually drawn out, "behind the phalanx," to the
open end of the valley. The entire army now marches out
into the plain. There the process just described is reversed,
so bringing the line back to its original form.






XENOPHON


S8' 'Ayo-lXao 'Xo al a AdXa 3ovXo/jevo; atrdryetw
To cr(Trpaevpa, I yal 7Ap 7v IEG'o; XcftJew, SfLAW
eiced KaTrEl.etve Tpety 7u/cpa9, o0 froV avreXv
7Tj Mavrtvevov 7rXEw, eO'r F Soco r /, Itof 3o-
pevoP ore'vdeV8 tv 'TV o Soov. T7 T8erdpry Trpw
apst-TO7rOt?7Capjdevo' aWT7yer an' aorpaTOreTfeva'o-
pe/voq evOaTrep rT 7rpc-rov a 7ro0 T Ei Eraia
21 e!pfji/rTO. E7EL Sei oStelf epalvero T(v 'ApIcK-
Swv, ~y~e Tv rTaXyr-Tr el 7Ti v EViratav, iKalnep
fdXa 6ifr*ov, /3ovXdi/evov rra7yayFev To' dTraXiTa
7rpic Kal Ta rrvpa TW)V 7rOX6epIwv 18ev, 'va plr
TT efrLrol Wp bevywv ara'aydyot. dex yap T71
rpfoaOev vpltiav edcKEl TL avetl7 hvat rrv 7rXtLv,
SrO Kal dvesf3ep/3 ces el Tr v 'ApKaSlav Ka' Sy-
oDvrT 7jv Xwpav ovel' rjBOeXiKet ptkeao-at. Erel7
8' v rTf Aalcwvtoic? dE ero, roVb p[I(V XrapTrdTra
a7reiXvcev olica8e, TOyb 86e 7reptolicovq aibijcev 67Tl
TS jaVTOjo TrooXEtS.
22 01 86 'ApIca8Ie, e rwel 'Ayo'oao aTreXrl'Xv9e
ical ?aoOoi'vo 8taXeXvjfevov avTQ TO a-rpdaevJa,
avroi 86 ?5)poio-avot iTvyXavov, o0-paTC'ovo-v
E7'l To 'Hpaita&, 'Tt re oKIc ?)j9ov roD 'Apca8t-
cKO) [LeTe'ieV Kcal oTt( cvvoesce/3ep/3SA)icav el' 77y
'Apica8iav /IETa T Ov Aatce8a[poviwv. dp3aXv'r~T
8' Evew7r/i7rpwv TE T a o'l OlaS ical KO7rTOV Ta
Sev8pa.
'E7re\l 8 ol O@7/aZot B3e3ory0rl9coTe' 7rapdvat
eXeyovro ely 7T7 MavTrvetav, OvTOI dAraXXdr-
To0VTat ec T7? 'Hpaiaq Ical a-vjLuyv'ovo-i Toi
90







HELLENICA, VI. v. 20-22

and Agesilaus, even though he was exceedingly de- o B.c.
sirous of leading back his army-for it was mid-winter
-nevertheless remained there for three days, not
far away from the city of the Mantineans, that he
might not be thought to be hurrying his departure
out of fear. On the fourth day, however, after
breakfasting early he began his homeward march,
intending to encamp at the place where he had
originally made camp on his departure from Eutaea.
But since none of the Arcadians appeared, he con-
tinued his march as rapidly as possible to Eutaea,
even though it was very late, with the desire of
getting his hoplites away before they even saw
the enemy's fires, so that no one could say that
he had withdrawn in flight. For he seemed to
have brought the state some relief from its former
despondency, inasmuch as he had invaded Arcadia
and, though he laid waste the land, none had been
willing to fight with him. And after he had arrived
in Laconia, he let the Spartiatae go home and dis-
missed the Perioeci to their several cities.
As for the Arcadians, since Agesilaus had departed
and they learned that his army had been disbanded,
while they themselves were still gathered together,
they made an expedition against the Heraeans, not
only because they refused to be members of the
Arcadian League, but also because they had joined
with the Lacedaemonians in invading Arcadia. And
after entering the territory of Heraea they proceeded
to burn the houses and cut down the trees.
It was not until the Thebans with their supporting
force were reported to have arrived in Mantinea
that the Arcadians departed from Heraea and united







XENOPHON


23 E0lalot(. ct 68' Eoor ~yevovro, ol pIv Oj/3a;ot
KcaXt, a-taoitv o0v7o eXeV, e7el be/3eJor01iKCea-av
i ov, 7roXetov Se ov?8'va et eoPcoWV ev 7T X(wpa,
Kcal artEvat rapealcevaovTo- ol 0 e 'ApicadSe Ical
'Apyetot Kcal 'HXEeLL ereLtov ai 'roo v f' ca0az c
rdXiTa el; Tr v Aawvcovu, v, -rtSeLKVVov0rev Ipv
To Eavrv&v 7rXi8o, blepe'ravwovTres Se T? 'TV
Orf3?alwv aTrpdevta. ical y7p ol ptev BotwBrol
e'yv/.ivdovro 'ravTe7 7repl Tr OrTTa, jyaXXo'fievot
,7 ev AeICTrpos vqlry' ?KcoXovOovv 8' abroi; ial
(wtceK lrjdIcoot yyeyevrl votL cal Eyfoeds !7ro
7rao-Wv Trv w~h.'Xev Kca Aocpolt a/IrTepot p cal
'AKapvaivec ical 'HpaiXe&irat ical MyXteiv 7Ko-
XoB6ovv 8' aTro KIca ~iK eTtaXl av t7r''reiv re
Kal VreXXao-raL. rar7a 8\ -uvtS4erot Kcal trIv
ev AaKeSatl/tovt pqoyplav XEyov'es lic revov Ji-
Sa/. &V da7rorpe'reao-at, rrp~tv EfuaXv 6I, e v To7V
Aace8aclovdwv Xydpav.
24 01 86 On7lPaFoot 'jcovov p)yv raiTa, ivreXoyt-
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HELLENICA, VI. v. 22-24

with the Thebans. When they had joined forces, the 370 uc.
Thebans thought that matters stood well with them,
inasmuch as they had come to bring aid and there
was no longer an enemy to be seen in the land;
they accordingly made their preparations for going
back. But the Arcadians, Argives, and Eleans
urged them to lead the way with all speed into
Laconia, pointing out the number of their own
troops and praising beyond measure the army of
the Thebans. For all the Boeotians were now train-
ing themselves in the craft of arms, glorying in
their victory at Leuctra; and they were reinforced
by the Phocians, who had become their subjects,
the Euboeans from all their cities, both the Locrian
peoples,2 the Acarnanians, the Heracleots, and the
Malians; they were also reinforced by horsemen
and peltasts from Thessaly. The Arcadians, then,
seeing all this and describing the dearth of men in
Lacedaemon, begged them by no means to turn back
before invading the country of the Lacedaemonians.
But while the Thebans listened to this request,
they took into account, on the other hand, the fact
that Laconia was said to be exceedingly difficult to
enter, and that they believed garrisons were posted
at the points of easiest access. For Ischolaus was at
Oeum, in Sciritis, commanding a garrison composed
of emancipated Helots and about four hundred of
the youngest of the Tegean exiles; and there was
another garrison also at Leuctrum, above Maleatis.
The Thebans likewise weighed this consideration,
that the force of the Lacedaemonians would gather
1 The Theban army according to Plutarch (Ages. 31)
numbered 40,000 hoplites, while Diodorus (xv. 62) puts the
combined forces at more than 70,000 men.
cp. iv. ii. 17.







XENOPHON


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94




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