B VNorth Florida Research and Education Center
IFAS University of Florida
Rt. 4 Box 4092, Monticello, Florida 32344-9302
Monticello Research Report 90-3
PETER C. ANDERSEN AND W. B. SHERMAN
NEW AND POTENTIAL PEACH AND NECTARINE CULTIVARS FOR NORTH FLORIDA
(300 600 chill units)
This paper will document the characteristics of two peach
('Flordadawn' and 'Flordaglobe') cultivars and one nectarine
('Sundollar') cultivar approved for release in 1989 by the
Florida Experiment Station. In addition, several peach and
nectarine selections located at the AREC-Monticeilo-Whic'fnave
not yet been released will be described. Library
JAN 10 1990
'Flordadawn Peach' University of Florida
'Flordadawn' peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] has been
released by the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station as the
earliest ripening peach with commercial potential in the United
States. 'Flordadawn' bears attractive fruit with yellow flesh and
ripens well before 'Flordaking' (Andrews et al. 1979) in northern
- Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No.
'Flordadawn' is the result of a 1976 cross of 'Flordagold' x
'EarliGrande'. It was designated G9-1 as the first seedling selected
in 1979. Budded trees have been observed in Gainesville and
Monticello, Florida, southern Georgia, southern Texas, southern
Louisiana, in grower ;locations in northern Florida and southern
Georgia, and in various countries of the world with subtropical
Major advantages of 'Flordadawn' are early ripening,
attractiveness, firmness, and resistance to bacterial spot
[Xanthomonas campestris pv pruni (Smith) Dye]. 'Flordadawn'
trees have an estimated winter chilling requirement of 300 chill
units (cu), in relation to established chill units of known
cultivars based upon the Weinberger model (Weinberger 1956).
Full bloom at the AREC-Monticello from 1982 to 1988 has averaged
@ 25 Feb., about 3 days before 'Flordaking' (Table 1). Full bloom
during 1989, an unusually mild winter, was 7 days before
'Flordaking'. 'Flordadawn' has fruited well where the coldest
month averages 14 to 17 C and in colder locations in the absence
of spring frosts. 'Flordadawn' is best adapted where
'Flordaking' or 'Flordagold' production has been proven reliable.
A protracted bloom period of 'Flordadawn', as in 'Flordagold',
may contribute to successful production in the northern limits of
its range. 'Flordadawn' should be planted in areas of low frost
potential in north Florida because of early bloom. Blossom
hardiness in the presence of spring frosts appears to be about
equal to 'Flordaking'. Trees are spreading and are easily
aL trained to an open center. 'Flordadawn' trees must be trained to
facilitate maximum light interception by the fruit. 'Flordadawn'
sets a moderately high number of flower buds compared to other
peach cultivars grown in north Florida, and requires a high
amount of fruit thinning in the absence of spring frosts.
First commercial harvest has averaged 25 April, about 12
days before 'Flordaking' although in 1990 some fruit were ripe by
1 April. (Table 1). Fruit development period from full bloom to
first harvest is about 60 days. Fruit size has averaged 5.1 cm
in diameter and 90 g in weight. Fruit shape is round with a
slight suture bulge and a slight pointed tip. An 80% red blush
covers an attractive yellow ground color. Pubescence is medium
short. Flesh is yellow, non-browning, melting in character, and
is classified as semi-cling with little separation of the flesh
from the pit when ripe. 'Flordadawn' flavor is sweet for an
early season peach. Pits are relatively small in size, and have
a moderately high incidence of split pits (about equal to
'Flordaking'). 'Flordadawn' fruit greatly increase in size if
left on the tree beyond the stage for commercial harvest.
'Flordadawn' trees are vigorous and, in the absence of
spring frosts, yields have been high for an early season peach.
Leaves are moderate in size with reniform petiolar glands.
Leaves and fruit are highly resistance to bacterial spot, and
; about equal to that of 'Flordaking'. 'Flordadawn' is self-
fertile with showy flowers and yellow pollen.
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'Flordaglobe'-originated from a 1978 cross of 'Redglobe' x
'EarliGrande'. It:was selected and propagated in 1982.as Fla.
M2-2. Budded trees have been tested at the AREC-Monticello,.in
Gainesville and at grower locations in northern Florida and
Major advantages of 'Flordaglobe' are a moderate chilling
requirement, early ripening, excellent color and shape, firmness
and resistance to [Xanthomonas capestris pv. pruni (Smith) Dye].
'Flordaglobe' has an estimated chilling requirement of 475 chill
units '(cu), or about 125 cu higher than 'Flordaking' (350 cu).
Chill units were determined in relation to established chill
units of known cultivars, based upon the Weinberger model
(Weinberger 1956). Vegetative buds of 'Flordaglobe' have a 50 to
100 greater cu requirement than reproductive buds. Full bloom
occurs during late February or early March in northern Florida.
"Flordaglobe' has fruited well where the coldest month averages
12 to 15C and in colder locations in the absence of spring
frosts. 'Flordaglobe' typically blooms several days after
'Flordaking' in north Florida (Table 2); hence, it is less likely
to incur frost damage. During the abnormally mild winter of
1988/89, bloom of 'Flordaglobe' occurred 43 days after
'Flordaking' thus avoiding the late winter freezes and frosts.
Bloom was abnormally early during 1990 (Feb 10) and most growers
did not thin adequately. Blossom hardiness in the presence of
spring frost appears to be similar to 'Flordaking'. 'Flordaglobe'
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is best adapted where 'Flordaking' has been grown successfully
* and slightly further north in the northern hemisphere.
Trees are-semi-upright and are easily adapted to an open
center training.system. Early fruit thinning is required to
achieve optimal fruit size. First commercial harvest has ranged
from 3 to 6: days before 'Flordaking', usually during the last
week in April or first week in May. 'Flordaglobe' ripens 60 to
65 days after full bloom. Fruit size is about 5.2 cm in diameter
(90 g), but with heavy thinning (1 fruit per 15-20 cm shoot
length), fruit size will attain 5.4 cm (95-100g). Fruit shape is
round with virtually no tip when grown in Monticello or further
north. Fruit suture is smooth and pubescence is medium-short.
Color is excellent with an 80% red blush over a yellow ground
color at harvest. Flesh is firm, melting in character, yellow in
Color, and relatively non-browning. Flesh is semi-cling as it
clings slightly to the pit at soft ripe. 'Flordaglobe' has been
judged more attractive and superior in flavor to 'Flordaking'.
Pits are medium-small and have a low (less than 'Flordaking')
tendency to split.
Trees of 'Flordaglobe' are self fertile, moderately vigorous
and productive. Yields have been high. Leaves are medium in
size with reniform petiolar glands. Resistance of leaves and
fruit to bacterial spot is high, and about equal to 'Flordaking'.
Flowers are light pink and showy. Pollen is abundant and bright
'Sundollar' nectarine [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] has been
released for grower trial by the Florida Experiment Station.
'Sundollar' bears an attractive red fruit with yellow flesh.
S'Sundollar' was the result of a 1978 cross of 'Sunlite' x
'Armqueen'. The seedling was selected in 1982 and designated as
M2-4N. Budded trees have been tested at the AREC-Monticello and
at Gainesville, FL. It ripens well before 'Sungem' (Sherman et
al. 1987), and all other commercially recommended nectarine
cultivars evaluated at AREC-Monticello.
Major advantages of 'Sundollar' are a,moderately low
chilling requirement, early ripening, attractiveness, desirable
firmness and resistance to bacterial spot [Xanthomonas
campestris, pv. pruni (Smith) Dye]. 'Sundollar' trees have an
estimated winter chilling requirement of about 400 chilling units
(cu), about 50 and 150 cu less than 'Sungem' and 'Armking',
respectively. Chill units were determined in relation to
designated chill units of known cultivars, based upon the
Weinberger model (Weinberger 1956). Full bloom in Monticello
usually coincides with 'Flordaking', and about 6 days before
'Sungem'. 'Sundollar' trees have fruited well where the coldest
month averages 13 to 16C, and in colder locations in the absence
of spring frosts. It is best adapted in regions where the
production of 'Flordaking' and 'Sungem' have proven reliable.
'Sundollar' trees are semi-upright, but respond well to pruning
A: with the formation of an open center. Trees set a moderate to
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high number of flower buds and moderately heavy thinning is
required in the absence of thinning.by frost.
Fruit harvest of 'Sundollar' is typically during the first
two weeks in May in north Florida, about 5 to 7 days before
'Sungem' (Table 3). ;Fruit development period from bloom to
harvest is about 70 days. Fruit size is about 80 g (5.1 cm
diameter) when thinned to one per 10 cm shoot length, or 90 g
(5.2 cm diameter) when thinned to one per 20 cm shoot length.
Fruit size of 'Sundollar' is larger than that of 'Sungem' when
thinned equally. Fruit is round with essentially no tip. Fruit
suture is smooth. External fruit appearance is attractive.with
an 80% red blush over a yellow ground color. Fruit have yellow,
melting flesh, and are classified as semi-cling with little
separation of the flesh from the pit at soft ripe. Flesh
firmness and quality are good and equal to that of 'Sungem'.
Fruit flesh is relatively non-browning. Trees must be irrigated
regularly during rapid periods of fruit growth to minimize
longitudinal fruit cracking in years of intermittent drought.
Fruit cracking in irrigated trees was reduced to less than 5%.
'Sundollar' fruit has shown little tendency to incur split pits
(less than 5%) as compared to 'Sungem' (30-50%). 'Sundollar'
leaves and fruit are as resistance to bacterial spot as 'Sungem'.
Trees are moderate in vigor and productive. Leaves are showy and
medium pink in color. Trees are self fertile and pollen is
Potential Peach and Nectarine Selections at the
'Flordaking' (350 hrs). 'Early Amber' x 9-67. 1986 Bloom date
2/19; Ripening date 4/29. 1987 Bloom date 3/2; Ripening date
5/13. 1988 Bloom date 3/2; Ripening date 5/10. 1989 date 2/1; No
crop. 1990 Bloom date 2/1; Ripening date 4/13. Size 2 1/4"+,
* 100g+. Crop load 10, Color 5, Shape 6. Advantages: early and
large; Industry standard. Disadvantages: early bloom, poor
color, high incidence of split pit.
M 3-8 (450 hrs). 'Redglobe' x 'EarliGrande'. 1986 Bloom date
S 2/26; Ripening date 5/17. 1987 Bloom date 3/14; Ripening date
5/24. 1988 Bloom date 3/2; Ripening date 5/17. 1989 Bloom date
2/21; Ripening date 5/17. 1990 Bloom date 2/20; Ripening date
4/29. Size 2 1/2"+, 125g. Crop load 9, Color 8+, Shape 7+.
Advantages: earlier, larger, better color and shape than 'June
Gold'. Disadvantage: lower chilling requirement than June Gold.
Considering release in the future.
M 2-5 (350 hrs). 'June Gold' x 'Rio Grande'. 1986 Bloom date
2/20; Ripening date 5/11. 1987 Bloom date 3/2; Ripening date 6/2.
1988 Bloom date 2/26; Ripening date 5/21. 1989 Bloom date 2/1; No
crop. 1990 Bloom date 1/28; Ripening date 4/26. Size 2 1/2",
dA 150g. Crop load 6-, Color 7+, Shape 6. Resembles 'Rio Grande' in
size and color but earlier; ripens with -'June Gold'. Advantages:
large size, better color and shape than 'June Gold'.
Disadvantages: prominent suture and rather late.
June Gold' (650 hrs). 1986 Bloom date .3/6; Ripening date 5/23.
1987.Bloom date 3/22; Ripening date 6/1. .1988 Bloom date 3/19;
Ripening date 5/24. 1989 Bloom date 3/26; Ripening date 6/1:
Size 2 1/4 to 2 1/2", 100g+. Crop load 8, Color 4, Shape 3.
Industry standard. Advantages: dependable producer (late
bloom), fairly large size. Disadvantages: poor color and shape
with prominent tip, uneven ripening.
M 2-6 (350 hrs). 'Harken' x 'EarliGrande'. 1986 Bloom date
2/22; Ripening date 5/23. 1987 Bloom date 3/5; Ripening date NA.
1988 Bloom date 2/22; Ripening date 5/25. 1989 Bloom date 2/12;
No crop. 1990 Bloom date 2/4; Ripening date ?. Size 2 1/2"+,
150g. Crop load 10, Color 8-, Shape 8. Advantages: large size,
good color, size and shape. Disadvantages: low chill, rather
G 82-21 (400 hrs). 1986 Bloom date 2/19; Ripening date 5/8.
1987 Bloom date 2/28; Ripening date 5/18. 1988 Bloom date 2/25;
Ripening date 5/27. 1989 Bloom date 2/1; No crop. 1990 Bloom
date 2/6; Ripening date 5/4. Size 3"+, 150g+. Crop load 5,
color 8+, shape 10. Advantages: large size, excellent color,
shape and flavor (very sweet). Disadvantages: often has a light
crop, rather late.
'Suncem' (425 hrs). 1986 Bloom date 2/25; Ripening date 5/10.
1987 Bloom date 3/10; Ripening date 3/21. 1988 Bloom date 3/5;
Ripening date 5/15. 1989 Bloom date 2/15; No crop. 1990 Bloom
date 2/14; Ripening date 4/24. Fruit size 2", 80 g. Crop load
7, Color 8, Shape 8. Advantages: early, good color and shape.
Disadvantages: small size and must be thinned heavily.
M 2-7NX (475 hrs) 'Sunlite' x 'Sunfre'. 1986 Bloom date 2/26;
* Ripening date 5/14. 1987 Bloom date 3/4; Ripening date 5/30.
1988 Bloom date 3/7; Ripening date 5/24. 1989 Bloom date 3/20;
Ripening date 6/5. 1990 Bloom date 2/10; Ripening date 5/3.
Fruit size 2 1/2", 135g. Crop load 9+, Color 9, Shape 9.
S Advantages: excellent size, and shape. Disadvantages:
speckled, ripens after 'Armking'.
Andrews; C.P., W.B. Sherman, and P.M. Lyrene. 1979. 'Flordaking'
peach. -HortScience 14:81-82.
Sherman, 'W.B., P.M. Lyrene, P.C. Andersen, T.E. Crocker and R.H.
Sharpe.:1987. Sungem A nectarine for north central and north
Florida. HortScience 22:167-168.
Weinberger, J.H. 1956. Prolonged dormancy trouble in peaches in
the Southeast in relation to winter temperatures. Proc. Amer.
Soc. Hort. Sci. 67: 107-112.