Title: New and potential peach and nectarine cultivars for North Florida
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Title: New and potential peach and nectarine cultivars for North Florida
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Andersen, Peter C.
Sherman, W. B.
Publisher: North Florida Research and Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Monticello, Fla.
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General Note: NFREC Monticello research report 90-3
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Bibliographic ID: UF00076559
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 154206562

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B VNorth Florida Research and Education Center
IFAS University of Florida
Rt. 4 Box 4092, Monticello, Florida 32344-9302

NFREC
Monticello Research Report 90-3



PETER C. ANDERSEN AND W. B. SHERMAN

NEW AND POTENTIAL PEACH AND NECTARINE CULTIVARS FOR NORTH FLORIDA

(300 600 chill units)



Introduction



This paper will document the characteristics of two peach

('Flordadawn' and 'Flordaglobe') cultivars and one nectarine

('Sundollar') cultivar approved for release in 1989 by the

Florida Experiment Station. In addition, several peach and

nectarine selections located at the AREC-Monticeilo-Whic'fnave
Central Science
not yet been released will be described. Library

JAN 10 1990
'Flordadawn Peach' University of Florida



'Flordadawn' peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] has been

released by the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station as the

earliest ripening peach with commercial potential in the United

States. 'Flordadawn' bears attractive fruit with yellow flesh and

ripens well before 'Flordaking' (Andrews et al. 1979) in northern

Florida.



- Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series No.








'Flordadawn' is the result of a 1976 cross of 'Flordagold' x

'EarliGrande'. It was designated G9-1 as the first seedling selected

in 1979. Budded trees have been observed in Gainesville and

Monticello, Florida, southern Georgia, southern Texas, southern

Louisiana, in grower ;locations in northern Florida and southern

Georgia, and in various countries of the world with subtropical

climates.

Major advantages of 'Flordadawn' are early ripening,

attractiveness, firmness, and resistance to bacterial spot

[Xanthomonas campestris pv pruni (Smith) Dye]. 'Flordadawn'

trees have an estimated winter chilling requirement of 300 chill

units (cu), in relation to established chill units of known

cultivars based upon the Weinberger model (Weinberger 1956).

Full bloom at the AREC-Monticello from 1982 to 1988 has averaged

@ 25 Feb., about 3 days before 'Flordaking' (Table 1). Full bloom

during 1989, an unusually mild winter, was 7 days before

'Flordaking'. 'Flordadawn' has fruited well where the coldest

month averages 14 to 17 C and in colder locations in the absence

of spring frosts. 'Flordadawn' is best adapted where

'Flordaking' or 'Flordagold' production has been proven reliable.

A protracted bloom period of 'Flordadawn', as in 'Flordagold',

may contribute to successful production in the northern limits of

its range. 'Flordadawn' should be planted in areas of low frost

potential in north Florida because of early bloom. Blossom

hardiness in the presence of spring frosts appears to be about

equal to 'Flordaking'. Trees are spreading and are easily

aL trained to an open center. 'Flordadawn' trees must be trained to








facilitate maximum light interception by the fruit. 'Flordadawn'

sets a moderately high number of flower buds compared to other

peach cultivars grown in north Florida, and requires a high

amount of fruit thinning in the absence of spring frosts.

First commercial harvest has averaged 25 April, about 12

days before 'Flordaking' although in 1990 some fruit were ripe by

1 April. (Table 1). Fruit development period from full bloom to

first harvest is about 60 days. Fruit size has averaged 5.1 cm

in diameter and 90 g in weight. Fruit shape is round with a

slight suture bulge and a slight pointed tip. An 80% red blush

covers an attractive yellow ground color. Pubescence is medium

short. Flesh is yellow, non-browning, melting in character, and

is classified as semi-cling with little separation of the flesh

from the pit when ripe. 'Flordadawn' flavor is sweet for an

early season peach. Pits are relatively small in size, and have

a moderately high incidence of split pits (about equal to

'Flordaking'). 'Flordadawn' fruit greatly increase in size if

left on the tree beyond the stage for commercial harvest.

'Flordadawn' trees are vigorous and, in the absence of

spring frosts, yields have been high for an early season peach.

Leaves are moderate in size with reniform petiolar glands.

Leaves and fruit are highly resistance to bacterial spot, and

; about equal to that of 'Flordaking'. 'Flordadawn' is self-

fertile with showy flowers and yellow pollen.







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'Flordaglobe' Peach


'Flordaglobe'-originated from a 1978 cross of 'Redglobe' x

'EarliGrande'. It:was selected and propagated in 1982.as Fla.

M2-2. Budded trees have been tested at the AREC-Monticello,.in

Gainesville and at grower locations in northern Florida and

southern Georgia.

Major advantages of 'Flordaglobe' are a moderate chilling

requirement, early ripening, excellent color and shape, firmness

and resistance to [Xanthomonas capestris pv. pruni (Smith) Dye].

'Flordaglobe' has an estimated chilling requirement of 475 chill

units '(cu), or about 125 cu higher than 'Flordaking' (350 cu).

Chill units were determined in relation to established chill

units of known cultivars, based upon the Weinberger model

(Weinberger 1956). Vegetative buds of 'Flordaglobe' have a 50 to

100 greater cu requirement than reproductive buds. Full bloom

occurs during late February or early March in northern Florida.

"Flordaglobe' has fruited well where the coldest month averages

12 to 15C and in colder locations in the absence of spring

frosts. 'Flordaglobe' typically blooms several days after

'Flordaking' in north Florida (Table 2); hence, it is less likely

to incur frost damage. During the abnormally mild winter of

1988/89, bloom of 'Flordaglobe' occurred 43 days after

'Flordaking' thus avoiding the late winter freezes and frosts.

Bloom was abnormally early during 1990 (Feb 10) and most growers

did not thin adequately. Blossom hardiness in the presence of

spring frost appears to be similar to 'Flordaking'. 'Flordaglobe'






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is best adapted where 'Flordaking' has been grown successfully

* and slightly further north in the northern hemisphere.

Trees are-semi-upright and are easily adapted to an open

center training.system. Early fruit thinning is required to

achieve optimal fruit size. First commercial harvest has ranged

from 3 to 6: days before 'Flordaking', usually during the last

week in April or first week in May. 'Flordaglobe' ripens 60 to

65 days after full bloom. Fruit size is about 5.2 cm in diameter

(90 g), but with heavy thinning (1 fruit per 15-20 cm shoot

length), fruit size will attain 5.4 cm (95-100g). Fruit shape is

round with virtually no tip when grown in Monticello or further

north. Fruit suture is smooth and pubescence is medium-short.

Color is excellent with an 80% red blush over a yellow ground

color at harvest. Flesh is firm, melting in character, yellow in

Color, and relatively non-browning. Flesh is semi-cling as it

clings slightly to the pit at soft ripe. 'Flordaglobe' has been

judged more attractive and superior in flavor to 'Flordaking'.

Pits are medium-small and have a low (less than 'Flordaking')

tendency to split.

Trees of 'Flordaglobe' are self fertile, moderately vigorous

and productive. Yields have been high. Leaves are medium in

size with reniform petiolar glands. Resistance of leaves and

fruit to bacterial spot is high, and about equal to 'Flordaking'.

Flowers are light pink and showy. Pollen is abundant and bright

yellow.







'Sundollar' nectarine


* *
'Sundollar' nectarine [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] has been

released for grower trial by the Florida Experiment Station.

'Sundollar' bears an attractive red fruit with yellow flesh.

S'Sundollar' was the result of a 1978 cross of 'Sunlite' x

'Armqueen'. The seedling was selected in 1982 and designated as

M2-4N. Budded trees have been tested at the AREC-Monticello and

at Gainesville, FL. It ripens well before 'Sungem' (Sherman et

al. 1987), and all other commercially recommended nectarine

cultivars evaluated at AREC-Monticello.

Major advantages of 'Sundollar' are a,moderately low

chilling requirement, early ripening, attractiveness, desirable

firmness and resistance to bacterial spot [Xanthomonas

campestris, pv. pruni (Smith) Dye]. 'Sundollar' trees have an

estimated winter chilling requirement of about 400 chilling units

(cu), about 50 and 150 cu less than 'Sungem' and 'Armking',

respectively. Chill units were determined in relation to

designated chill units of known cultivars, based upon the

Weinberger model (Weinberger 1956). Full bloom in Monticello

usually coincides with 'Flordaking', and about 6 days before

'Sungem'. 'Sundollar' trees have fruited well where the coldest

month averages 13 to 16C, and in colder locations in the absence

of spring frosts. It is best adapted in regions where the

production of 'Flordaking' and 'Sungem' have proven reliable.

'Sundollar' trees are semi-upright, but respond well to pruning

A: with the formation of an open center. Trees set a moderate to





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high number of flower buds and moderately heavy thinning is

required in the absence of thinning.by frost.

Fruit harvest of 'Sundollar' is typically during the first

two weeks in May in north Florida, about 5 to 7 days before

'Sungem' (Table 3). ;Fruit development period from bloom to

harvest is about 70 days. Fruit size is about 80 g (5.1 cm

diameter) when thinned to one per 10 cm shoot length, or 90 g

(5.2 cm diameter) when thinned to one per 20 cm shoot length.

Fruit size of 'Sundollar' is larger than that of 'Sungem' when

thinned equally. Fruit is round with essentially no tip. Fruit

suture is smooth. External fruit appearance is attractive.with

an 80% red blush over a yellow ground color. Fruit have yellow,

melting flesh, and are classified as semi-cling with little

separation of the flesh from the pit at soft ripe. Flesh

firmness and quality are good and equal to that of 'Sungem'.

Fruit flesh is relatively non-browning. Trees must be irrigated

regularly during rapid periods of fruit growth to minimize

longitudinal fruit cracking in years of intermittent drought.

Fruit cracking in irrigated trees was reduced to less than 5%.

'Sundollar' fruit has shown little tendency to incur split pits

(less than 5%) as compared to 'Sungem' (30-50%). 'Sundollar'

leaves and fruit are as resistance to bacterial spot as 'Sungem'.

Trees are moderate in vigor and productive. Leaves are showy and

medium pink in color. Trees are self fertile and pollen is

bright yellow.








Potential Peach and Nectarine Selections at the

SAREC Monticello



Peaches



'Flordaking' (350 hrs). 'Early Amber' x 9-67. 1986 Bloom date

2/19; Ripening date 4/29. 1987 Bloom date 3/2; Ripening date

5/13. 1988 Bloom date 3/2; Ripening date 5/10. 1989 date 2/1; No

crop. 1990 Bloom date 2/1; Ripening date 4/13. Size 2 1/4"+,

* 100g+. Crop load 10, Color 5, Shape 6. Advantages: early and

large; Industry standard. Disadvantages: early bloom, poor

color, high incidence of split pit.



M 3-8 (450 hrs). 'Redglobe' x 'EarliGrande'. 1986 Bloom date

S 2/26; Ripening date 5/17. 1987 Bloom date 3/14; Ripening date

5/24. 1988 Bloom date 3/2; Ripening date 5/17. 1989 Bloom date

2/21; Ripening date 5/17. 1990 Bloom date 2/20; Ripening date

4/29. Size 2 1/2"+, 125g. Crop load 9, Color 8+, Shape 7+.

Advantages: earlier, larger, better color and shape than 'June

Gold'. Disadvantage: lower chilling requirement than June Gold.

Considering release in the future.



M 2-5 (350 hrs). 'June Gold' x 'Rio Grande'. 1986 Bloom date

2/20; Ripening date 5/11. 1987 Bloom date 3/2; Ripening date 6/2.

1988 Bloom date 2/26; Ripening date 5/21. 1989 Bloom date 2/1; No

crop. 1990 Bloom date 1/28; Ripening date 4/26. Size 2 1/2",

dA 150g. Crop load 6-, Color 7+, Shape 6. Resembles 'Rio Grande' in








size and color but earlier; ripens with -'June Gold'. Advantages:

large size, better color and shape than 'June Gold'.

Disadvantages: prominent suture and rather late.



June Gold' (650 hrs). 1986 Bloom date .3/6; Ripening date 5/23.

1987.Bloom date 3/22; Ripening date 6/1. .1988 Bloom date 3/19;

Ripening date 5/24. 1989 Bloom date 3/26; Ripening date 6/1:

Size 2 1/4 to 2 1/2", 100g+. Crop load 8, Color 4, Shape 3.

Industry standard. Advantages: dependable producer (late

bloom), fairly large size. Disadvantages: poor color and shape

with prominent tip, uneven ripening.



M 2-6 (350 hrs). 'Harken' x 'EarliGrande'. 1986 Bloom date

2/22; Ripening date 5/23. 1987 Bloom date 3/5; Ripening date NA.

1988 Bloom date 2/22; Ripening date 5/25. 1989 Bloom date 2/12;

No crop. 1990 Bloom date 2/4; Ripening date ?. Size 2 1/2"+,

150g. Crop load 10, Color 8-, Shape 8. Advantages: large size,

good color, size and shape. Disadvantages: low chill, rather

late ripening.



G 82-21 (400 hrs). 1986 Bloom date 2/19; Ripening date 5/8.

1987 Bloom date 2/28; Ripening date 5/18. 1988 Bloom date 2/25;

Ripening date 5/27. 1989 Bloom date 2/1; No crop. 1990 Bloom

date 2/6; Ripening date 5/4. Size 3"+, 150g+. Crop load 5,

color 8+, shape 10. Advantages: large size, excellent color,

shape and flavor (very sweet). Disadvantages: often has a light

crop, rather late.







Nectarines



'Suncem' (425 hrs). 1986 Bloom date 2/25; Ripening date 5/10.

1987 Bloom date 3/10; Ripening date 3/21. 1988 Bloom date 3/5;

Ripening date 5/15. 1989 Bloom date 2/15; No crop. 1990 Bloom

date 2/14; Ripening date 4/24. Fruit size 2", 80 g. Crop load

7, Color 8, Shape 8. Advantages: early, good color and shape.

Disadvantages: small size and must be thinned heavily.



M 2-7NX (475 hrs) 'Sunlite' x 'Sunfre'. 1986 Bloom date 2/26;

* Ripening date 5/14. 1987 Bloom date 3/4; Ripening date 5/30.

1988 Bloom date 3/7; Ripening date 5/24. 1989 Bloom date 3/20;

Ripening date 6/5. 1990 Bloom date 2/10; Ripening date 5/3.

Fruit size 2 1/2", 135g. Crop load 9+, Color 9, Shape 9.

S Advantages: excellent size, and shape. Disadvantages:

speckled, ripens after 'Armking'.








Literature cited



Andrews; C.P., W.B. Sherman, and P.M. Lyrene. 1979. 'Flordaking'

peach. -HortScience 14:81-82.



Sherman, 'W.B., P.M. Lyrene, P.C. Andersen, T.E. Crocker and R.H.

Sharpe.:1987. Sungem A nectarine for north central and north

Florida. HortScience 22:167-168.



Weinberger, J.H. 1956. Prolonged dormancy trouble in peaches in

the Southeast in relation to winter temperatures. Proc. Amer.

Soc. Hort. Sci. 67: 107-112.




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