Title: Commercial peach insect and disease recommendations
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Title: Commercial peach insect and disease recommendations
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Ball, J. C.
Publisher: Agricultural Research Center, IFAS, University of Florida
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/ ,! D B......



AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER MONTICELLO : 1 i i 3
Monticello, Florida

Monticello ARC Research Report 1978-1 February-2'-9' g.7-4

RE VISED

COMMERCIAL PEACH INSECT AND DISEASE RECOMMENDATIONS

J. C. Ball and W. J. Frc-nch1'2

Commercial peach production in north Florida would not be possible
without effective disease and insect control. Although the peach has a
relatively short development period in Florida. the fruit as well as the
tree is subjected to constant attack by a variety o' pests. A good dis-
ease and insect control program is important, not o ly in protecting the
maturing fruit but in maintaining the trees' vigor eason after season.
Today's peach grower is fortunate to have effective insecticides, fungi-
cides and improved spray equipment available to him Nevertheless, spray-
ing for pest control is rno easy task. Attention must be given to many
details, some seemingly uvimpontant. Many times the difference between
a successful and unsuccessful spray program depends on three factors:
TIMING: The foliage and tree should have a protective covering of
fungicide and insecticide at all times, from the pre-blossom stage until
fruit harvest. After the fruit is harvested, then tne problem of proper
timing becomes very important because of the interva s between sprays and
the nature of the pests attacking the tree at this time. The white peach
scale is normally controlled until harvest by the inecticides applied to
protect the fruit. After harvest, when insecticides are applied at less
frequent intervals, they should be timed to coincide with the "crawler"
stage of each generation of the white peach s-:ale.

COVERAGE: Economic pest control is dependent on uniform coverage of
the tree with the correct pesticide dosage. lany growers who have been
applying dilute sprays are using air-blast enjipment capable of applying
low volume sprays of 0lx (applv oil sprays at dilute rate only). When
sprays are concentrated x, or more, there is little possibility of move-
ment of spray solution from the point where fthe droplet hits the tree;
therefore, accurate calibration and placement of the spray is even more
critical for successful pest control.

The sprayer should travel at 1 2 miles per hour and should be noz-
zled to deliver the gallons as determined from Table III.


1Assistant Entomologist ,nd Associate Plant Ptholoist
S2This research report was- prepared in collaboration with R. S. Mullin,
Extension Plant Patholofst; a.ud J. Brogdon, :xten ion Entomologist.





-2-


RATES: Fungicides and insecticides are recommended at specific rates
which have been found to he effective and non-phytotoxic under Florida con-
ditions. Changing f)rmulitions or spray volume without changing the amount
of material used car give too much or too little toxicant. It is therefore
important to: (1) Inow required amount of formulation to apply per tree;
(2) know the gallons of spray per tree the machine will deliver at a given
rate of travel; (3) know the amount of chemical to add per tank. Examples:
The recommended rate of Thiodan 50% WP is I Ibs. per 100 gallon of water
when spraying dilute (2 gallons per tree). If the sprayer when traveling
2 MPH is found to be delivering 1 gallon of water per tree then 3 Ibs. of
Thiodan 50% WP would( be required per 100 gallons of water or 15 Ibs. per
500 gallons of water. The product label tells you how much active ingredient
is in the formulation. For instance, Parathion 15% WP listed in the guide
contains 15% actual parathion. If a formulation is used with a different
percent actual parathion, the amount put in the spray tank must be adjusted
accordingly.

SPRAY NOTES: he following spray schedule (Table I) will give commer-
cial control of important disease and insect pests. The rates given in
Table III are based on dilute formulations with 2 gallons water being ap-
plied per tree. One half to 1 gallon would normally be required to adequate-
ly cover a mature tree during the early season sprays, gradually increasing
to 2 gallons per tree at full foliage. If heavy populations )f white each
scale are encountered during the dormant season an Ethion-oi combination
spray can be used instead of a 3% oil spray. Prepare by mixi g 1 pint of
Ethion.46% emulsifiable concentrate in 100 gallons of water. To this add
3 quarts of 80-90% oil emulsion concentrate. High volume sprays should be
used when white peach scale populations are heavy. Scale population can
build rapidly from very low levels, therefore postharvest sprays must be
maintained.

DISEASES
This section will discuss only those problems not covered in the spray
schedule:

PHONY PEACH: Phony peach is a disease of peaches that is spread from
infected peach or wild plum trees to healthy peach trees by leafhoppers.
Without technical training it is difficult to identify infected trees in
the early stages of this disease. When in doubt, consult your county
agent, extension plant pathologist, or extension fruit specialist.
The longer the diseased trees remain in the orchard, the greater the
chance of diseases being spread by insect vectors. Unless annual surveys
are conducted and diseased trees removed, an infected orchard would rapidly
become unprofitable.
Control recommendations are: (1) to remove all affected trees immed-
iately after detection; (2) remove all wild plum trees within a minimum of
400 yards of all commercial orchards by spraying with Arrmate or 2,4,5-T
in the spring after laf-out; (3) use nursery stock certified to be free
of phony; (4) nursery stock suspected of harboring phony can be made
phony-free by soaking plants in water held at 118g for 40 min tes.










Bacterial Spot: This spray program does not control bacterial spot,
a disease which has not been a serious problem in Florida. When bacterial
spot appears, it is often associated with adverse cultural conditions which
cause tree stress, i.e. low fertility, spray burn, etc.

Post Harvest Decays: The two principal decays of peaches are brown rot
and rhizopus rot. Both rots can be checked by cooling the fruit to tempera-
tures below 50OF throughout the marketing period. Botran 75W added to the
hydrocooling water at a rate of 1 lb/100 gallons water will control rhizopus.
Benlate is effective against brown rot. If rainy weather occurs at harvest
use Ib. Benlate in hydrocooler along with Botran. Do not use Benlate in
place of Botran. Add 1 lb. Botran and Ib. of Benlate to each additional
100 gallons of water to hydrocooler during operation. Flush and clean hydro-
cooler every 1 or 2 days.

Wax Treatment: Botran (2-3 ppm on fruit) plus Benlate (Ippm on fruit)
incorporated into a wax treatment following chlorinated (25-50 ppm) hydro-
cooler water.

Rust: Peach rust, like bacterial spot, causes greater damaging injury
on weak trees than on those of high vigor. In central Florida orchards, es-
pecially those low in nitrogen, rust may appear in early June and cause heavy
defoliation by mid-summer. The disease usually develops later in north
Florida and seldom warrants control measures. Sulfur may provide some control.



INSECTS
White Peach Scale: White peach scale is one of the most destructive
pcsts on peaches in Florida. Heavy infestations will kill branches and en-
tire trees. The scale is found mainly on the trunk and older wood. They
secrete a waxy covering that is relatively impervious to pesticides; there-
fore, for sprays to be effective, they should be applied when the vulnerable
"crawler""stage is present. Crawlers are the motile larvae that hatch from
eqgs laid beneath the scale covering. They are barely visible to the naked
eye, aind are best seen with a 10x hand lens. After hatching, the crawlers
leave the protection of the female covering to search for a place to settle.
The protective wax covering is secreted after the first moult which occurs
around 7-9 days after hatching.
During the fruiting period, routine sprays keep the scale under control.
At post-harvest and on non-bearing trees sprays should be timed to the craw-
ler stage. Treat when crawlers first appear and apply a second' spray two
weeks later (a third spray may be necessary 2 wks. later if crawlers are still
hatching). Use either Guthion, Parathion, or Diazinon in a dilute spray to
obtain complete coverage of the trunk and branches.
To find infestations, look for white, cottony tufts on the trees. These
are cocoons of male scales. Once found, the grower should inspect the tree
every week for egg laying and crawler hatch.










Mites: Spider mites are generally not a problem ir north Florida or- W
chards; however, sporadic, heavy infestations do occur aind in some orchards
or parts of orchards, they can be a yearly problem. Because of the mites'
rapid rate of increase, high populations can appear, seemingly overnight,
and the grower should constantly monitor his orchard pacing particular atten-
tion to trouble spots. Spraying should be done before iite populations be-
come too high, as these are difficult to control; however, the grower should
also avoid unnecessary treatments. Use Kelthane, Plictran, or Systox at
recommended rates (Table III) and observe time liniitations (Table II). Use
high volume sprays as thorough coverage is essent al f', good control.


PRECAUTIONS

Parathion, Guthion, and Systox are especially toxic to humans and should
be applied only by properly trained and equipped operators. Read the precau-
tions and warnings on pesticide labels. Store pesticides in original labeled
containers out of reach of children, pets, and li/estocK. Stare all pesticides
in a secure area, under lock and key. Dispose of left-over spray materials and
all empty containers safely and promptly. Do no reuse empty pesticide containers.
Follow the recommended dosage and waiting period to avoid excess residues
and possible injury to plants and animals. Avoic drift of pesticides to
adjacent areas. Do not be responsible for further polluting our environment.


TOXICITY TO HONEYBEES

Lorsban, Penncap M, Parathion, Guthion, and Sevin are highly toxic to
honeybees. Severe losses of bees can be expected if these materials are
used when bees are in the orchard at time of application or for 24 hours
thereafter.
Thiodan and Systox are moderately toxic to bees and can be used in the
vicinity of bees. However, these materials should not be sprayed directly
on the bees in the field.
Kelthane and Ethion are relatively non-toxii and can be used around
bees with a minimum of injury.



Table I. PEACH SPRAY SCHEDULE SUGGESTED FOR COMMERCIAL PLANTINGS

NAME AND TIME PESTS CONTROLLED AND MA ERIAL
NO. OF SPRAY RECOMMENDED _REMARKS_

1. Dormant... Leaf curl. Ferbam If scale is a problem, 1
After all leaves application lime-sulfir
are off and before for San Jose scale; 2
buds begin to swell applications of 1% oil or
in late winter. *White peach Liquid lime- Ethion oil spray 14
scale sulfur or 3% i apart for white peace
*San Jose scale or Ethion-oil scale._ .









'able I (continued)

NAME AND TIMF PESTS CONTROLLED
NO. OF SPRAY RECOMMENDED


AND MATERIAL


2. Blossom...


3. Petal-fall...
After all petals
are off and before
peach is showing.


Blossom blight.


Scab


Tarnished
plant bug.

Lesser peach
tree borer.


Wettable sulfur
or Benlate (see
remarks) or Liquid
lime-sulfur.


Wettable sulfur
or Captan or
Benlate.
Parathion or
Guthion or
Imidan.
Thiodan.


Mainly for brown rot prob-
lem areas. Apply several
sulfur or Benlate sprays
during bloom to reduce
blossom blight damage.
Benlate resistant strains
of fungi may develop and
become a serious problem:.
Benlate resistance may
develop where Benlate is
used throughout the season.
Alternate fungicides to
reduce the buildup of
resistant strains.

Spary tree thoroughly
including trunk and larger
limbs.



Do not apply Thiodan
more than 2 times during
the fruiting season.


4. Shuck-fall or
first cover...
(3/4 shucks off)


5. Second cover
14 days later5


Brown rot,
Scab

Tarnished plant
bug, Southern
green stinkbug,
Plum Curculio.


Brown rot,
Scab.
Lesser peach
borer.
Tarnished
plant bug,
So. green
stinkbug,
Plum Curculio


Wettable sulfur or
Benlate or Captan.

Penncap M4 or Guthiont
or Imidan.


Wettable sulfur or'
Benlate or Captan
Thiodan.

Penncap M4 or
Guthion or
Imidan.


Penncap M should not be
applied more frequently
than 14 days apart.


Do not apply Thiodan
within 30 days of
harvest, or Guthion
within 21 days of har-
vest, or Imidan within 14
days of harvest.


6. Tlird cover...
14 days later or
4 weeks before
harvest of each
0 v.irietv.


Brown rot.

Plum Curculio,
So. green
stinkbuq.


Wettable sulfur or
Captan or Benlate.
Same as 2nd
cover spray.


For preharvest control
of brown rot apply 1 or
2 sprays of Benlate be-
ginning 3 weeks before
harvest.


REMARKS


___ --


--I I-I----


_~__~____--------------------_---------









NAME AND TIME
NO. OF SPRAY


PESTS CONTROLLED AND MATERIAL
RECOMMENDED'


7. Fourth cover...
Two weeks before
harvest of each
variety.

8. Fifth cover...
Preharvest one
week before
harvest of each
variety.


9. Sixth cover...
Pre-harvest
one day before
harvest.


10. 1st borer spray...
After all fruit
is harvested.
White peach scale
sprays...


Brown rot. Dusting sulfur 80%
SCaptan or Benlate.
Plun Curculio, Penncap M4 or Imidan.
So. Green stinkbuq.


Brown rot.

Plum Curculio,
So. green
S stinkbug.


Brown rot.


Dusting sulfur 80%
or Captan or Benlate
Sevin.


Benlate


POST HARVEST SPRAYS
Lesser peach Thiodan
tree borer,
Peach tree borer.
White peach Parathion or Guthion
scale. or Diazinon.


Do not apply Penncap N
or Imidan within 14 dcys
of harvest.


Sevin can be applied up
to one day of harvest
on peaches and 3 days
of harvest on nectarines.


if weather is hot and
dry, it may not be ne:-
cessary to use Benlati;
in this spray.


Thoroughly wet scaffold
limbs, trunk, and soil
at base of tree to control
borers.
Apply 2 sprays 2 week;
apart when crawlers a-e
active.


11. 2nd borer spray...
30-45 days after
1st borer sDrav.


12. 3rd borer spray...
30-45 days after
2nd borer spray.


Lesser peach Thiodan
tree borer,
Peach tree borer. Lorsban


Peach tree
borer.


Thiodan


Apply Lorsban only orce
per season. Registered
on peaches only. _

Thoroughly wet trunk to
crotch and soil at bise
of tree,


*White peach scale and San Jose scale are usually controlled by the cover sprays of
Parathion and Guthion. Liquid lime-sulfur for scale control rate: 12 !al/100 gal.
wi ter.
1 See Table II for residue tolerances and limitations for pesticides recommended.
2 See "Spray Notes" page 2.
3 During cool weather Parathion will not give effective control and Penncap M, Guthio'i,
or Imidan should be used.
4 Penncap M is a slow release formulation of methyl-parathion with longer residual activity
to provide extended control.
5 For best control of scab during wet weather, a / day fungicide spray interval should
be followed.


REMARKS


--- -- -----









RESIDUE TOLERANCES AND LIMITATIONS FOR PESTICIDES RECOMMENDED FOR
PEACHES AND NECTARINES IN THIS PUBLICATION.


RESIDUE
CHEMICAL TOLERANCES (PPM)


Bnnlate




P, tran



Captan







Diazinon


Ethion


INTERVAL BETWEEN LAST APPLICATION AND
HARVEST, AND OTHER RESTRICTIONS.*


Nectarine Peach Nectarine Peach

15.0 15.0 No time limit. Do not graze treated
Do not graze treated orchards. orchards.
Max. 1 Ib. per acre per appli- No time limit.
cation. Max. 1 lb. per acre per
application.
20.0 20.0 1 day 1 day


50.0


0.75


Max. 5 Ibs. per acre per
application as spray; 3.6 Ibs.
as dust.
50.0 No time limit.
Postharvest same as peaches.


0.75 10 days


Max. 1 lb. per 100 gal.
per application as spray;
3.6 Ibs. as dust.
No time limit at 5 Ibs.
per acre.
1 day at 6 Ibs. per acre.
Postharvest 1 to 1.2
lbs./100 gal. spray or
dip. Recharge when vol.
down 25% with .5 lb. for
each 25 gal. added.
20 days


Do not apply within 30 days of harvest. Do not apply


Ferbam


7.0


7.0


Guthion .0 2.0

Imidan 5.0 10.0


Kelthane 10.0


10.0


more than twice during fruiting
Do not apply later than
immediately after bloom.
Max. 5.7 Ibs. per acre per
application.
21 days

14 days 6 Ibs. max. per acre
per application.
14 days


season.
Do not apply within 21
days of harvest. Max.
11.5 Ibs. per acre per
aDplication.


21 days


14 days

14 days


Liquid
1ime-sulfur
Lorsban





Parathion


none


none


Apply during dormancy or delayed dormance.


0.05


Penncap M 1.0 1.0
Q5


Do not apply within 14
days of harvest. Do rot
allow spray to contact
fruit. Do not graze meat
or dairy animals in
treated orchard.


Do not apply more than 5 Ibs. Parathion per acre per
year. Do not apply within 14 days of harvest.
Do not use more than 5
Ibs. active per acre per
year. Do not apply later
than 14 days before har-
vest. Do not graze or feed
cover crops from treated
orchards.


TABLE II.


--


----


- ------------- ---


--










RESIDUE
TOLERANCES (PPM)


INTERVAL BETWEEN LAST APPLICATION AND
HARVEST, AND OTHER RESTRICTIONS.*


4.0 Do not apply more than 9 bs/acre per season. Do not
tank mix with spray oils. Do not apply within 4 wks.
of spray oils. Do not graze or feed livestock on cover
crops growing in treated areas.


10.0 3 days 1 day
3-9.7 lbs/100/A spray or 10-60 Ibs/A dust.


Sulfur none none No time limit.


No time limit.


Systox 0.75 0.75


Thiodan


2.0


2.0


*Rates are expressed as active ingredient.


Do not apply within 30 days of harvest. Do not apply
more than three applications per season.___
Do not apply within 30 days of harvest. Do not apply
more than twice dLring fruiting season.


TABLE III. AMOUNT OF PESTICIDE REQUIRED PER 100 GALLONS


Dilute (IX)


Gallons of water per tree:

Gallons of water per acre:


Chemical
Benlate 50% WP
Botran 75% WP


200


2X 5X 10X


.4 1.2

40 0O


Pounds of wettable powder per 100 gallons.
0.50 1.0 2.5 5.0
1.00 2.0 5.0 10.0


Captan 50% WP 2.00 4.0 10.0 20.0
Ferbam 75% WP 2.0 __ 4.0 10.0 20.0
Guthion 25% WP 1.25 2.5 6.25 12.5
Imidan 50% WP 1.5 3.0 7.5 15.0
Kelthane 85% WP 2.0 4.0 10.0 20.O
Parathion 15% WP 2.0 4.0 10.0 20.0
Plictran 50% WP* .25 .38 --- ---- --
Sevin 50% WP 2.0 4.0 10.0 20.0
Sulfur, wettable 80% 6.0 12.0 30.0 60.0
Thiodan 50% WP 1.5 3.0 7.5 15.0

Chemical Ounces of emulsifiable concentrate/100 gal.
Diazinon AG500 4 bs/gal E.C. 16 32 80 160
Ethion 4 Ibs/gal. E.C. 16 32 80 1)0
Guthion 2 Ibs/gal E.C. 20 40 100 200
Kelthane 4 Ibs/gal E.C. 16 32 80 160
Liquid lime-sulfur* scale insects 12 gal. -- -
leaf curl 6 gal. -
blossom blight 1 gal. -- --
Lorsban 4 Ibs/gal E.* 96 -- --
Parathion 4 lbs/gal 10 20 50 100
Penncap M 2 Ibs/gal 32 64 160 3 0
Systox 2 1bs/gal E.C. 16 32 80 1
Thiodan Miscible 2 Ibs/gal* 48__ -- ---- -
OUse as dilute only.


CHEMICAL


Plictran


Sevin


IU.U


--


- I


_ II


No time limit.











i NOTE
This schedule is a guide to aid the grower, however, all pertinent informa-
tion relating to the pesticides cannot be included. It is the responsibility
of the grower to read the label for information on restrictions and correct
use. Use of a pesticide inconsistent with the label is illegal.




Common Conversions

1 pint = 16 oz. = 473 milliliters
1 qt. = 32 oz. = 2 pints
1 gal. = 128 oz. = 4 qts. = 8 pints
1 oz. = approximately 30 milliliters
1 lb. = 16 ounces
.1 lb. = 1.6 ounces
.4 lb. = 6.4 ounces
.8 lb. = 12.8 ounces







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