Title: Commercial peach insect and disease recommendations
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 Material Information
Title: Commercial peach insect and disease recommendations
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Ball, J. C.
Publisher: Agricultural Research Center, IFAS, University of Florida
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Bibliographic ID: UF00076550
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 153985864

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AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER MONTICELLO
/ IMonticello, Florida
Monticello ARC Mimeo Report BB 1976-1 -;January.l6, 1976
H^f."E 1JBRARY
REVISED

COMMERCIAL PEACH INSECT AND DISEASE RECOM0ENDATffi 13 1976
J. C. Ball and W. J. Frenchl, 2
Jiv. of Florida
Commercial peach production in north Florida would not be possible..
without effective disease and insect control. Although the peach has a
relatively short development period in Florida, the fruit as well as the
tree is subjected to constant attack by a variety of pests. A good dis-
ease and insect control program is important, not only in protecting the
maturing fruit but in maintaining the trees' vigor season after season.
Today's peach grower is fortunate to have effective insecticides, fungi*
cides and improved spray equipment available to him. Nevertheless, spray-.
ing for pest control is no easy task. Attention must be given to many
details, some seemingly unimportant. Many times the difference between
a successful and unsuccessful spray program depends on three factors:
timing, coverage, and rates.
0 TIMING: The foliage and tree should have a protective covering of
fungicide and insecticide at all times, from the pre-blossum stage until
fruit harvest. After the fruit is harvested, then the problem of proper
timing becomes very important because of the intervals between sprays and
the nature of the pests attacking the tree at this time. The white peach
scale is normally controlled until harvest by the insecticides applied to
protect the fruit. After harvest, when insecticides are applied at less
frequent intervals, they should be timed to coincide with the "crawler"
stage of each generation of the white peach scale.
COVERAGE: Economic pest control is dependent on uniform coverage of
the tree with the correct pesticide dosage. Many growers who have been
applying dilute sprays are using air-blast equipment capable of applying
low volume sprays of lOx (apply oil sprays at dilute rate only). When
sprays are concentrated 2x or more, there is little possibility of move-
ment of spray solution from the point where the droplet hits the tree;
therefore, accurate calibration and placement of the spray is essential
to successful pest control.
The sprayer should travel at 1 -2 miles per hour and should be noz-
zled to deliver the gallons as determined from Table III.

1Assistant Entomologist and Associate Plant Pathologist

2This mimeograph was prepared in collaboration with R. S. Mullin, Extension
Plant Pathologist; and J. Brogdon, Extension Entomologist.










RATES: Fungicides and insecticides are recommended at specific rates
which have been found to be effective and non-phytotoxic under Florida con-
ditions.Changing formulations or spray volumn without changing the amount
of material used can give too much or too little toxicant. It is therefore
important to : (1) know required amount of formulation to apply per tree;
(2) know the gallons of spray per tree the machine will deliver at a given
rate of travel; (3) know the amount of chemical to add per tank. Examples:
The recommended rate of Thiodan 50% WP is 1 Ibs. per 100 gallon of water
when spraying dilute (2 gallons per tree). If the sprayer when traveling
2 MPH is found to be delivering 1 gallon of water per tree then 3 Ibs. of
Thiodan 50% WP would be required per 100 gallons of water or 15 Ibs. per
500 gallons of water. The product label tells you how much active ingredient
is in the formulation. For instance, Parathion 15% WP listed in the guide
contains 15% actual parathion. If a formulation is used with a different
percent actual parathion the amount put in the spray tank must be adjusted
accordingly.

SPRAY NOTES: The following spray schedule (Table 1) will give commer-
cial control of important disease and insect pests. The rates given in
Table III are based on dilute formulations with 2 gallons water being ap-
pliedper tree. One half to 1 gallon would normally be required to adequate-
ly cover a mature tree during the early season sprays, gradually increasing
to 2 gallons per tree at full foliage. If heavy populations of white peach
scale are encountered during the dormant season an Ethion-oil combination
spray can be used instead of a 3% oil spray. Prepare by mixing 1 pint of
Ethion 46% emulsifiable concentrate in 100 gallons of water. To this add
3 quarts of 80-90% oil emulsion concentrate. High volumn sprays should be
used when white peach scale populations are heavy. Scale population can
build rapidly from very low levels, therefore postharvest sprays must be
maintained.

DISEASES

This section will discuss only those problems not covered in the spray
schedule:
Phony Peach: Phony peach is a disease of peaches that is spread from
infected peach or wild plum trees to healthy peach trees by leafhoppers.
Without technical training it is difficult to identify infected trees in
the early stages of this disease. When in doubt, consult your county agent,
extension plant pathologist, or extension fruit specialist.
The longer the diseased trees remain in the orchard, the greater the
chance of diseases being spread by insect vectors. Unless annual surveys
are conducted and diseased trees removed, an infected orchard would rapidly
become unprofitable.
Control recommendations are: (1) to remove all affected trees immed-
iately after detection; (2) remove all wild plum trees within a minimum of
400 yards of all commercial orchards by spraying with Ammate or 2,4,5,-T in
the spring after leaf-out; (3) use nursery stock certified to be free of
phony', (4) nursery stock suspected of harbouring phony can be made phony-
free by soaking plants in water held at 1180 for 40 minutes.









SBacterial Spot: This spray program does not control bacterial spot,
a disease which has not been a serious problem in Florida. When bacterial
spot appears, it is often associated with adverse cultural conditions which
cause tree stress, i.e. low fertility, spray burn, etc.

Post Harvest Decays: The two principal decays of peaches are brown rot
and rhizopus rot. Both rots can be checked by cooling the fruit to tempera-
tures below 500 F throughout the marketing period. Botran 75W added to the
hydrocooling water at a rate of 1 lb/100 gallon water will control rhizopus.
Benlate is effective against brown rot. If rainy weather occurs at harvest
use lb. Benlate in hydrocooler along with Botran. Do not use Benlate in
place of Botran. Add 1 lb. Botran and lb. of Benlate to each additional
100 gallons of water to hydrocooler during operation. Flush and clean hydro-
cooler every 1 or 2 days.

Wax treatment: Botran (2-3 ppm on fruit) plus Benlate (Ippm on fruit)
incorporated into a wax treatment following chlorinated (25-50 ppm) hydro-
cooler water.

Rust: Peach rust, like bacterial spot, causes greater damaging injury
on weak trees than on those of high vigor. In central Florida orchards, es-
pecially those low in nitrogen, rust may appear in early June and cause heavy
defoliation by mid-summer. The disease usually develops later in north
Florida and seldom warrants control measures. Sulfur may provide some control.


PRECAUTIONS

Parathion, Guthion, and Systox are especially toxic to humans and should be
applied only by properly trained and equipped operators. Read the precau-
tions and warnings. Store pesticides in original labeled containers out of
reach of children, pets, and livestock. Store all pesticides in a secure
area, under lock and key. Dispose of left-over spray materials and all
empty containers safely and promptly. Do not reuse empty pesticide containers.
Follow the recommended dosage and waiting period to avoid excess residues
and possible injury to plants and animals. Avoid drift of pesticides to
adjacent areas. Do not be responsible for further polluting our environment.


TOXICITY TO HONEYBEES

Parathion, Guthion, and Sevin are highly toxic to honeybees. Severe
losses of bees can be expected if these materials are used when bees are in
the orchard at time of application or for 24 hours thereafter.
Thiodan and Systox are moderately toxic to bees and can be used in the
vicinity of bees. However, these materials should not be sprayed directly
on the bees in the field.
Kelthane and Ethion are relatively non-toxic and can be used around
bees with a minimum of injury.


.. _~~~ ___I___~__









TABLE I. PEACH SPRAY SCHEDULE SUGGESTED FOR COMMERCIAL PLANTINGS
.r *%~nr rCr llrnlIgrAnlLf irl7A


NAMt ANU IIME
NO. OF SPRAY


S TSEP CONTROLLED AND MATERIAL
RECOMMENDED'


1. Dormant...
After all leaves
are off and before
buds begin to swell
in late winter.


Leaf curl.



*White peach
scale e
*San Jose scale


Ferbam.



Liquid lime-
sulfur or 3% 1il
or Ethion-oil .


If scale is a problem, 1
application lime-sulfur
for San Jose scale; 2
application of 3% oil or
Ethion-oil spray 14 days
apart for white peach scale.


2. Pre-blossom... Tarnished Parathion3 or Thorough spraying of
Just before plant bug. Guthion or each tree is absolutely
blossoms open. Imidan. necessary for good control.


3. Blossom...


Blossom blight.


Wettable sulfur
or Benlate (see
remarks) or Liquid
lime-sulfur.


Mainly for brown rot pro-
blem areas. Apply several
sulfur or Benlate sprays
during bloom to reduce
blossom blight damage.
Benlate resistant strains
of fungi may develop and
become a serious problem.
Benlate resistance may
develop where Benlate is
used throughout the season.
Alternate fungicides to
reduce the buildup of
resistant strain.


4. Petal-fall... Scab. Wettable sulfur Spray tree thoroughly
After all petals or Captan or including trunk and
are off and before Benlate. larger limbs.
peach is showing Tarnished Parathion or
plant bug. Guthion or
Imidan.
Lesser peach Thiodan. Do not apply Thiodan.
tree borer. more than 2 times during
the fruiting season.


5. Shuck-fall or
first cover...
(3/4 shucks off)


Brown rot,
Scab.

Tarnished plant
bug, Southern
green stinkbug,
Plum Curculio.


Wettable sulfur or
Benlate or Captan.

Parathion or Guthion
or Imidan.


REMARKS


*White peach scale and San Jose scale are usually controlled by the summer cover sprays
of Parathion and Guthion. Liquid lime-sulfur for scale control rate: 12 gal/100 gal.


~~_ __






-4-



water.
1. See Table II for residue tolerances and limitations for pesticides recommended.
2. See "Spray Notes" page 2.
3. During cool weather Parathion will not give effective control and Guthion or
Imidan should be used.






-5-


* NAME AND TIME
0. OF SPRAY


PESTS CONTROLLED AND MATERIAL
RECOMMENDED


Second cover
7-10 days later


Brown rot,
Scab.
Lesser peach
borer.
Tarnished
plant bug,
So. Green
stinkbug,


Plum Curculio,
White peach scale.
Mites. Sy


Wettable sulfur or
Benlate or Captan
Thiodan.

Parathion or
Guthion or
Imidan.


If mites are Parathion
resistant, use Kelthane.
Do not apply Thiodan
or Systox within 30
days of harvest, or
Guthion within 21 days
of harvest, or Imidan
within 14 days of
harvest.


stox or Kelthane.


7. Third cover...
7-10 days later
or 4 weeks before
harvest of each
variety.


Brown rot.

Plum Curculio,
So. Green
stinkbug, White
peach scale, Mit


Wettable sulfur or
Captan or Benlate.
Same as 2nd
cover spray.


For preharvest control
of brown rot apply 1 or
2 sprays of Benlate be-
ginning 3 weeks before
harvest.


Fourth cover...
Two weeks before
harvest of each
variety.


Brown rot. Dusting sulfur 80%
Captan or Benlate.
Plum Curculio, Parathion.
So. green stinkbug.
Mites. Kelthane.


Do not apply Parathion
Imidan, or Kelthane
within 14 days of
harvest.


9. Fifth cover... Brown rot. Dusting sulfur 80% Sevin can be applied up
Pre-harvest or Captan or Benlate to one day of harvest
one week before Plum Curculio, Sevin. on peaches and 3 days
harvest of each So. Green of harvest on nectarines.
variety. stinkbug.

10. Sixth cover... Brown rot. Benlate If weather is hot and
Pre-harvest dry, it may not be nec-
one day before essary to use Benlate
harvest, in this spray.

POST HARVEST SPRAYS


11. 1st borer spray...
After all fruit
is harvested.


Lesser peach Thiodan.
tree borer,
Peach tree borer.
Mites Galecron


or Fundal


Thoroughly wet scaffold
limbs, trunk, and soil
at base of tree to control
borers. Use Galecron or
Fundal in post-har. sprays
only.


12. 2nd borer spray... Lesser peach Thiodan
30-45 days after tree borer,
1st borer spray. Peach tree borer.
' ~ -3 hn scnrav.. Peach tree Thiodan. Throughly wet trunk to


W 30-45 days after
2nd borer spray.
White peach scale
sprays...


borer.

White peach
scale.


Parathion or Guth-
ion or Diazinon


crotch and soil at base
of tree.
Apply 2 sprays 2 weeks
apart where crawlers are
active.


REMARKS


8.


U









STABLE II.


RESIDUE TOLERANCES AND LIMITATIONS FOR PESTICIDES RECOMMENDED FOR
PEACHES AND NECTARINES IN THIS PUBLICATION.


RESIDUE


INTERVAL BETWEEN LAST APPLICATION AND


CHEMICAL TOLERANCES (PPM) HARVEST, AND OTHER RESTRICTIONS.*
Nectarine Peach Necatrine Peach

Benlate 15.0 15.0 No time limit. No time limit.
Do not graze treated orchards Max. 1 lb per acre per
Max. 1 lb per acre per appli- application
cation.
Botran 20.0 20.0 One day One day
Max. 5 lb per acre per Max. 1 Ib per 100 gal.
application as spray; 3.6 lb per application as
as dust. spray; 3.6 lb as dust.
Captan 50.0 50.0 No time limit. No time limit at 5 Ib


per acre.
1 day at 6 lb per acre
1 to 2 lb/100 gal spra
or dip. Recharge when
vol.down 25% with .5
lh/? ngal.


y


Diazinon 0.75 0.75 Ten days 20 days

Ethion 1.0 1.0 Do not apply within 30 days of harvest. Do not apply
more than twice during fruiting season.
Ferbam 7.0 7.0 Do not apply later than Do not apply within 21
immediately after bloom. days of harvest. Max.
max. 5.7 lb per acre per 11.5 lb per acre per
application. application.
Fundal or 5.0 5.0 Apply as a post-harvest spray only. Do not apply to
Galecron trees when fruit is present in any form. Do not
graze livestock in treated orchards.
Guthion 2.0 2.0 21 days 21 days

Imidan 5.0 .10.0 14 days 6 lb max per acre 14 days
per application.
Keithane 10.0 10.0 14 days 14 days

Liquid none none Apply during dormancy or delayed dormancy.
Sime-sulfur
Parathion 1.0 1.0 Do not apply more than 5 lbs Parathion per acre per
year. Do not apply within 14 days of harvest.
Sevin 10.0 10.0 3 days 1 day

Sulfur none none No time limit. No time limit

Systox 0.75 0.75 Do not apply within 30 days of harvest. Do not apply
more than three applications per season.


0









CHEMICAL


Thiodan


RESIDUE INTERVAL BETWEEN LAST APPLICATION AND
TOLERANCES (PPM) HARVEST, AND OTHER RESTRICTIONS.*


2.0


2.0 Do not apply within 30 days of harvest. Do not
apply more than twice during fruiting season.


*Rates are expressed as active ingredient.






-7-


TABLE III.


AMOUNT OF PESTICIDE REQUIRED PER 100 GALLONS


Dilute (IX)


-2X 5X


Gallons of water per tree:

Gallons of water per acre:


CHEMICAL


Benlate 50% WP
Botran 75% WP
CaDtan 50% WP
Ferbam 75% WP
Fundal 97% WP
Guthion 25% WP
Imidan 50% WP
Kelthane 85% WP
Parathion 15% WP
Sevin 50% WP
Sulfur, wettable 80%
Thiodan 50% WP


Diazinon AG500 4 Ibs/gal E.C.
Ethion 4 lbs/gal E.C.
Fundal 4 lbs/gal E.C.
Galecron 4 lbs/gal E.C.
Guthion 2 Ibs/gal E.C.
Vn+h~lno hce/nrl F C


Pounds of


0.50
1.00
2.00
2.0
0.5
1.25
1.5
2.0
2.0
2.0
6.0
1.5


Ounces
16
16
16
16
20
16


wettable powder per
1.0 2.5
2.0 5.0
4.0 10.0
4,0 10.0
1.0 2.5
2.5 6.3
3.0 7.5
4.0 10.0
4.0 10.0
4.0 10.0
12.0 30.0
3.0 7.5


of emulsifiable
32
32
32
32
40
32


100 gallons.
5.0
10.0
20.0
20.0
5.0
12.5
15.0
20.0
20.0
20.0
60.0
15.0


concentrate/100 gal.
80 160
80 160
80 160
80 160
100 200
80 160


I\; 4 1L IIL; T.. ItJ.l/ ,I i -- --.
Liquid lime-sulfur* scale insects 12 gal. -
leaf curl 6 gal. -
blossom blight 1 gal. -- ---
Parathion 4 lbs/gal 10 20 50 100
Systox 2 Ibs/gal E.C. 16 48 80 160
Thiodan Miscible 2 Ibs/gal 48 96 240 280


*Use as dilute only


pint
qt.
gal.
oz.
lb.
lb.
lb.
lb.


16 oz. = 473 milliliters
32 oz. = 2 pints
128 oz. = 4 qts. = 8 pints
approximately 30 milliliters
16 ounces
1.6 ounces
6.4 ounces
12.8 ounces


o0X


1

100


_111-


i


~ b




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