Title: Commercial peach insect and disease recommendations
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Title: Commercial peach insect and disease recommendations
Physical Description: Book
Creator: French, W. J.
Publisher: Agricultural Research Center, IFAS, University of Florida
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AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER MONTICELLO
Monticello, Florida

Monticello ARC Mimeo Report BB 1972-2 January 21, 1972

REVISED

COMMERCIAL PEACH INSECT AND DISEASE RECOMMENDATIONS

W. J. French and S. S. Fluker1

Without effective disease and insect control, commercial peach produc-
tion in north Florida would not be possible. Although the peach has a rela-
tively short development period in Florida, the fruit as well as the tree is
subjected to constant attack by a variety of pests. A good disease and insect
control program is important, not only in protecting the maturing fruits but
in maintaining the trees' vigor season after season. Today's peach grower is
fortunate to have effective insecticides, fungicides, and improved spray equip-
ment available to him. Nevertheless, spraying for pest control is no easy task.
Attention must be given to many details, some seemingly unimportant. Many times
the difference between a successful and unsuccessful spray program depends on
three factors; timing, coverage, and rates.

Timing The foliage and tree should have a protective covering of
fungicide and insecticide at all times, from the pre-blossom stage until
fruit harvest. After the fruit is harvested, then the problem of proper timing
becomes very important because of the intervals between sprays and the nature
of the pests attacking the tree at this time. The white peach scale is normal-
ly controlled until harvest by the insecticides applied to protect the fruit.
After harvest, when insecticides are applied at less frequent intervals, they
should be timed to coincide with the "crawler" stage of each generation of the
white peach scale.

Coverage Economic pest control is dependent on uniform coverage of
the tree with the correct pesticide dosage. Many growers who have been apply-
ing dilute sprays are using air-blast equipment capable of applying up to 12x
concentrate sprays (apply oil sprays at dilute rate only). When sprays are
concentrated 3x or more, there is little possibility of movement of spray
solution from the point where the droplet hits the tree; therefore, accurate
calibration and placement of the spray is essential to successful pest control.

The sprayer should travel at 1 1/2 2 1/2 miles per hour and should be
nozzled to deliver the gallons as determined from Table III.

Rates Fungicides and insecticides are recommended at specific rates
which have been found to be effective and non-phytotoxic under Florida condi-
tions. It is, therefore, important to: (1) Know required amount of formula-
tion to apply per tree. (2) Know the gallons of spray per tree the machine
will deliver at a given rate of travel. (3) Know the amount of chemical to
add per tank. Example: The recommended rate of Thiodan 50% HP is 1 1/2 lbs.


500 cc 1/21/72


iAssistant Plant Pathologist and Assistant Entomologist


mwmw









per 100 gallons of water when spraying dilute (3 gallons per tree). If the
sprayer when traveling 2 MPH is found to be delivering 1 gallon of water per
tree then 4 1/2 Ibs. of Thiodan 50% WP would be required per 100 gallons of
water or 22 1/2 Ibs. per 500 gallons of water.

Spray Notes The following spray schedule (Table I) will give commer-
cial control of important disease and insect pests. The rates given in Table III
are based on dilute formulations with 3 gallons being applied per tree. 1 1/2
gallons would normally be required to adequately cover a mature tree during the-
early season sprays, gradually increasing to 3 gallons per tree at full foliage.
If heavy populations of white peach scale are encountered during the dormant
season an Ethion-oil combination spray can be used instead of a 3% oil spray.
Prepare by mixing 1 pint of Ethion 46% emulsifiable concentrate in 100 gallons
of water. To this add 3 quarts of 80-90% oil emulsion concentrate.

DISEASES

This section will discuss only those problems not covered in the spray
schedule:

Phony peach Phony peach is a virus disease of peaches that is spread
from infected peach or wild plum trees to healthy peach trees by leafhoppers.
Without technical training it is difficult to identify infected trees in the
early stages of this disease. When in doubt, consult your county agent, exten-
sion plant pathologist, or extension fruit specialist.

The longer the diseased trees remain in the orchard, the greater the
chance of diseases being spread by insect vectors. Unless annual surveys are
conducted and diseased trees removed, an infected orchard would rapidly become
unprofitable.

Control recommendations are: (1) to remove all affected trees immedi-
ately after detection; (2) remove all wild plum trees within a minimum of 400
yards of all commercial orchards by spraying with Ammate or 2,4,5,-T in the
spring after leaf-out; and (3) use nursery stock certified to be free of
phony virus. (4) Nursery stock suspected of harboring phony virus can be made
virus-free by soaking plants in water held at 118 for 40 minutes.

Bacterial spot This spray program does not control bacterial spot, a
disease which has not been a serious problem in Florida. When bacterial spot
appears it is often associated with adverse cultural conditions which cause
tree stress, i.e. low fertility, spray burn, etc.

Post Harvest decays The two principal decays of peaches are brown rot
and rhizopus rot. Both rots can be checked by cooling the fruit to temperatures
below 50F throughout the marketing period. Botran 75W added to the hydrocool-
ing water at a rate of 1 lb/100 gallon water will control rhizopus. If rainy
weather exists at harvest use 1/2 lb. Benlate in hydrocooler along with Botran.
Do not use Benlate in place of Botran. Add 1 lb. Botran and 1/2 lb. of Benlate
to each additional 100 gallons of water to hydrocooler during operation. Flush
and clean hydrocooler every 1 or 2 days.









Rust Peach rust, like bacterial spot, causes greater damaging injury
on weak trees than on those of high vigor. In central Florida orchards, es-
pecially those low in nitrogen, rust may appear in early June and cause heavy
defoliation by mid-summer. The disease usually develops later in north Florida
and seldom warrants control measures. Sulfur may provide some control but
Zineb and Cyprex are more effective if applied before the disease appears.

PRECAUTIONS

Parathion, Guthion, EPN, and Systox are especially toxic to humans and
should be applied only by properly trained and equipped operators. Read the
entire label before opening any pesticide container and observe all necessary
precautions and warnings. Store pesticides in original labeled containers out
of reach of children, pets, and livestock. Store all pesticides in a secure
area, under lock and key. Dispose of left-over spray materials and all empty
containers safely and promptly. Do not reuse empty pesticide containers.
Follow the recommended dosage and waiting period to avoid excess residues and
possible injury to plants and animals. Avoid drift of pesticides to adjacent
areas. Do not be responsible for further polluting our environment.

Toxicity to Honeybees

Parathion, Guthion, EPN, and Sevin are highly toxic to honeybees. Severe
losses of bees can be expected if these materials are used when bees are in the
orchard at time of application or for 24 hours thereafter.

Thiodan and Systox are moderately toxic to bees and can be used in the
vicinity of bees. However, these materials should not be sprayed directly on
the bees in the field.

Kelthane and Ethion are relatively non-toxic and can be used around bees
with a minimum of injury.


_.






-4-


TABLE I. PEACH SPRAY SCHEDULE SUGGESTED FOR COMMERCIAL PLANTINGS


No. Name and Time
nf Snrav


Pests Controlled and Material
Re commended


1. Dormant Leaf curl, Ferbam, If scale is a problem;
After all leaves Scab Liquid lime-sulfur 1 application lime-
are off and before *White peach Liquid lime-sulfur sulfur for San Jose
buds begin to swell scale, or 3% oil or scale; 2 applications
in late winter. San Jose Ethion-oil of 3% oil or Ethion-
scale oil spray 14 days
apart for white peach
scale.

2. Pre-blossom Tarnished plant bug Parathion Thorough spraying of
Just before or Guthion each tree is abso-
blossoms open. or EPN lutely necessary for
good control.

3. Blossom Blossom blight Wettable sulfur Mainly for brown rot
or Benlate or problem areas. Apply
Liquid lime- several sulfur or
sulfur. Benlate sprays during
bloom to reduce blos-
som blight damage.,

4. Petal-fall Brown rot, Wettable sulfur See Table II.
After all petals scab or Captan Spray tree thoroughly
are off and before Tarnished plant bug, Parathion including trunk and
peach is showing. Plum curculio or Guthion or larger limbs.
EPN
Lesser peach Thiodan
tree borer

5. Shuck-fall or Brown rot, Wettable sulfur See Table II.
first cover Scab. or Captan Do not apply Thiodan
(3/4 shucks off) Tarnished plant bug, Parathion more than 2 times
Southern green stinkbug, or during the fruiting
Plum curculio Guthion or EPN season.

6. Second cover Brown rot, Wettable sulfur If mites are Parathion
7-10 days later. Scab. or Captan resistant use Kelthane.
Lesser peach tree Thiodan Do not apply Thiodan
borer. or Systox within 30
Tarnished plantbug, Parathion days of harvest, or
So.Green stinkbug, or Guthion Guthion or EPN within
Plum curculio or EPN 21 days of harvest.
White peach scale.
Mites. Systox or Kelthane

*White peach scale and San Jose scale are usually controlled by the summer cover
sprays of Parathion and Guthion. Liquid lime-sulfur for scale control rate:
12 gal/100 gallons water.


Remarks













r =

7. Third cover Brown rot Wettable sulfur
7-10 days later or Captan.
or four weeks before Plum curculio, Same as 2nd
harvest for each So. Green stinkbug, cover
variety. White peach scale, spray
Mites.

8. 4th cover Brown rot Wettable sulfur Do not apply Parathion
Two weeks before or Captan or or Kelthane within 14
harvest of each Benlate. days of Harvest.
variety. Plum curculio, Parathion
So. green stinkbug.
Mites Kelthane

9. 5th cover Brown rot Wettable sulfur Sevin can be applied
Pre-harvest or Captan or to within one day of
One week before Benlate. harvest on peaches
harvest of each Plum curculio, Sevin and 3 days of harvest
variety. So. green stinkbug. on nectarines.

10. 6th cover Brown rot Benlate If weather is hot and
Pre-harvest dry, it may not be
One day before necessary to use Ben-
harvest. late in this spray.


POST HARVEST SPRAYS


11. 1st borer spray. Lesser peach tree borer Thiodan Thoroughly wet scaf-
After all fruit Peach tree borer fold limbs, trunk, and
is harvested. Mites Galecron soil at base of tree.
Use Galecron in post-
harvest sprays only.

12. 2nd borer spray. Lesser peach tree borer, same
30 to 45 days Peach tree borer as first
after 1st borer borer spray
spray.


13. 3rd borer
30 to 45
after 2nd
spray.


spray.
days
borer


White peach scale
sprays.


Peach tree borer Thiodan



White peach scale. Parathion
or Guthion
or Diazinon


Thoroughly wet trunk
to crotch and soil
at base of tree.

Apply throughout the
summer and early fall
(Sept. Oct.) when
crawlers are active.


Remarks


No. Name and Time
nf CS ra


Pests Controlled and Material
RPrnmmended









TABLE II RESIDUE TOLERANCES AND LIMITATIONS FOR PESTICIDES RECOMMENDED FOR
PEACHES AND NECTARINES IN THIS PUBLICATION.


Residue
Tolerances(PPM)


Interval between last application and
harvest, and other restrictions.


Nectarine Peach Nectarine Peach


Benlate

Parathion



Methyl-
parathion

Guthion

Diazinon


EPN


Sevin


Thiodan


Systox


Kelthane

Ethion


Sulfur

Captan


Ferbam


Botran


15.0 15.0

1.0 1.0


Not
registered


2.0 2.0


No time limit


No time limit


Do not apply within 14 days of harvest.
Do not apply more than 5 lbs. actual Parathion per
acre per year.


Not registered


21 days


0.75 0.75 10 days full coverage spray


3.0 3.0

10 10

2.0 2.0


0.75 0.75


10 10

1.0 1.0


none none

50 100


21 days

3 days


14 days


21 days

20 days

21 days


1 day


Do not apply within 30 days of harvest.
Do not apply more than twice during fruiting season.

Do not apply within 30 days of harvest.
Do not apply more than three applications per season.


14 days


14 days


Do not apply within 30 days of harvest.
Do not apply more than twice during fruiting season.


No time limit

No time limit


7 7 Do not apply later than
immediately after bloom.


20 20


1 day


No time limit

.24% suspension in post-
harvest dip or spray.


Do not apply within
21 days of harvest.

1 day


Liquid
lime-sulfur


Safe chemical


Apply during dormancy or delayed dormancy.


NF NF Apply as a post-harvest spray. Do not apply to trees
when fruit is present in any form. Do not graze
livestock in treated orchards.


Chemical


Galecron









AMOUNT OF PESTICIDE REQUIRED PER 100 GALLONS


Gallons of spray applied per mature tree

3 1.5 1 .75 .5 .25
(3 qts) (2 qts) (1 qt.)
Dilute 2x 3x 4x 6x 12x

Pounds of wettable powder per 100 gallons


Parathion 15% WP
Guthion 25% WP
EPN 25% WP
Thiodan 50% WP
Sevin 50% WP
Kelthane 85% WP
Sulfur, Wettable 80%
Captan 50% WP
Ferbam 75% WP
Botran 75% WP
Benlate 50% WP


2
1.25
1.50
1.50
2
2
6
2
2
1
0.5


4
2.5
3
3
4
4
12
4
4
2
1


6
3.75
4.5
4.5
6
6
18
6
6
3
1.5


Ounces of emulsifiable concentrate/100 gal.


Galecron 4EC 41bs/gal. E.C.
Diazinon AG500 4 Ibs/gal. E.C.
Methyl Parathion 2 Ibs/gal. E.C.
Ethion 4 Ibs/gal. E.C.
Thiodan Miscible 2 lbs/gal.
Systox 2 lbs/gal. E.C.
EPN 5 lbs/gal. E.C.
Guthion 2 Ibs/gal. E.C.
EPN 2 lbs/gal. E.C.
Parathion 4 lbs/gal. E.C.
Kelthane 4 Ibs/gal. E.C.
*Liquid Lime-sulfur scale insects
leaf curl
blossom blight


16
16
16
16
48
16
12.8
20
32
10
16
12 g
6 g
1 g


32
32
32
32
96
32
25.6
40
64
20
32


48 64 96 192
48 64 96 192
48 64 96 192
48 64 96 192
144 192 288 576
48 64 96 192
38.4 51.2 76.8 153.6
60 80 120 240
96 128 192 384
30 40 60 120
48 64 96 192
-


al. -
al. -


*Use as dilute only


16 oz. = 473 milliliters
32 oz. = 2 pts.
128 oz.= 4 qts. = 8 pts.
approx. 30 milliliters
16 oz.


Chemical


8
5
6
6
8
8
24
8
8
4
2.0


12
7.5
9
9
12
12
36
12
12
6
3.0


24
15
18
18
24
24
72
24
24
12
6.0


pint
qt.
gal.
oz.
lb.


lb. =
lb. =
lb. -


1.6 oz.
6.4 oz.
12.8 oz.


TABLE III


l1




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