Title: Commercial peach insect and disease recommendations
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 Material Information
Title: Commercial peach insect and disease recommendations
Physical Description: Book
Creator: French, W. J.
Publisher: Agricultural Research Center, IFAS, University of Florida
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Bibliographic ID: UF00076546
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 153971989

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b- AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER MONTICELLO
Monticello, Florida

Monticello ARC Mimeo Report BB 1.75-2 January 31, 1975

REVISED

COMMERCIAL PEACH INSECT AND DISEASE RECOMMENDATIONS
W. J. French and J. C. Ball111,2


Commercial peach production in north Florida would not be possible
without effective disease and insect control. Although the peach has a
relatively short development period in Florida, the fruit as well as the
tree is subjected to constant attack by a variety of pests. A good dis-
ease and insect control program is important, not only in protecting the
maturing fruits but in maintaining the trees' vigor season after season.
Today's peach grower is fortunate to have effective insecticides, fungi-
cides and improved spray equipment available to him. Nethertheless, spray-
ing for pest control is no easy task. Attention must be given to many
details, some seemingly unimportant. Many times the difference between
a successful and unsuccessful spray program depends on three factors:
timing, coverage, and rates.

*TIMING: The foliage and tree should have a protective covering of
fungicide and insecticide at all times, from the pre-blossum stage until
fruit harvest. After the fruit is harvested, then the problem of proper
timing becomes very important because of the intervals between sprays and
the nature of the pests attacking the tree at this time. The white peach
scale is normally controlled until harvest by the insecticides applied to
protect the fruit. After harvest, when insecticides are applied at less
frequent intervals, they should be.timed to:dinride with the "crawler"
stage of each generation of the vhi"tie\ dh al.

COVERAGE: Economic pet'control is dependent on uniform coverage of
the tree with the correct ,pesticide~d ~sJ Many growers who have been
applying dilute sprays are\using'ir-blast equipment capable of applying
low volume sprays of lOx (apply oil sprays atdi.ute rate only). When
sprays are concentrated 2x or more, there -i4sVittTe' possibility of move-
ment of spray solution from theipbint where the droplet hits the tree;
therefore, accurate calibratiodnand placement of the spray is essential
to successful pest control.

The sprayer should travel at 1 2 miles per hour and should be noz-
zled to deliver the gallons as determined from Table III.


1Associate Plant Pathologist and Assistant Entomologist
2This mimeograph was prepared in collaboration with R. S. Mullin, Extension
I Plant Pathologist; and J. Brogdon, Extension Entomologist.






-2-


RATES: Fungicides and insecticides are recommended at specific rates
which have been found to be effective and non-phytotoxic under Florida con-
ditions. It is therefore, important to: (1) know required amount of for-
mulation to apply per tree, (2) know the gallons of spray per tree the ma-
chine will deliver at a given rate of travel, (3) know the amount of chem-
ical to add per tank. Example: The recommended rate of Thiodan 50% WP is,
1 Ibs. per 100 gallon of water when spraying dilute (2 gallons per tree).
If the sprayer when traveling 2 MPH is found to be delivering 1 gallon of
water per tree then 3 Ibs. of Thiodan 50% WP would be required per 100 gal-
lons of water or 15 Ibs. per 500 gallons of water.

SPRAY NOTES: The following spray schedule (Table 1) will give commer-
cial control of important disease and insect pests. The rates given in
Table III are based on dilute formulations with 2 gallons water being app-
lied per tree. One half to 1 gallon would normally be required to adequate-
ly cover a mature tree during the early season sprays, gradually increasing
to 2 gallons per tree at full foliage. If heavy populations of white peach
scale are encountered during the dormant season an Ethion-oil combination
spray can be used instead of a 3% oil spray. Prepare by mixing 1 pint of
Ethion 46% emulsifiable concentrate in 100 gallons of water. To this add 3
quarts of 80-90% oil emulsion concentrate. High volumn sprays should be
used when white peach scale populations are heavy. Scale population can
build rapidly from very low levels, therefore postharvest sprays must be
maintained.

DISEASES

This section will discuss only those problems not covered in the spray
schedule:

Phony Peach: Phony peach is a disease of peaches that is spread from
infected peach or wild plum trees to healthy peach trees by leafhoppers.
Without technical training it is difficult to identify infected trees in
the early stages of this disease. When in doubt, consult your county agent,
extension plant pathologist, or extension fruit specialist.
The longer the diseased trees remain in the orchard, the greater the
chance of diseases being spread by insect vectors. Unless annual surveys
are conducted and diseased trees removed, an infected orchard would rapid-
ly become unprofitable.
Control recommendations are: (1) to remove all affected trees immed-
iately after detection, (2) remove all wild plum trees within a minimum of
400 yards of all commercial orchards by spraying with Ammate or 2,4,5,-T in
the spring after leaf-out, (3) use nursery stock certified to be free of
phony, (4) nursery stock suspected of harbouring phony can be made phony-
free by soaking plants in water held at 1180 for 40 minutes.

Bacterial Spot: This spray program does not control bacterial spot,
a disease which has not been a serious problem in Florida. When bacterial
spot appears, it is often associated with adverse cultural conditions which
cause tree stress, i.e. low fertility, spray burn, etc.







-3-


Post Harvest Decays: The two principal decays of peaches are brown rot
and rhizopus rot. Both rots can be checked by cooling the fruit to tempera-
tures below 500 F throughout the marketing period. Botran 75W added to the
hydrocooling water at a rate of 1 lb/100 gallon water will control rhizopus.
Benlate is effective against brown rot. If rainy weather occurs at harvest
use lb. Benlate in hydrocooler along with Botran. Do not use Benlate in
place of Botran. Add 1 lb. Botran and lb. of Benlate to each additional
100 gallons of water to hydrocooler during operation. Flush and clean hydro-
cooler every 1 or 2 days.

Rust: Peach rust, like bacterial spot, causes greater damaging injury
on weak trees than on those of high vigor. In central Florida orchards, es-
pecially those low in nitrogen, rust may appear in early June and cause heavy
defoliation by mid-summer. The disease usually develops later in north
Florida and seldom warrants control measures. Sulfur may provide some con-
trol.


PRECAUTIONS

Parathion, Guthion, and Systox are especially toxic to humans and should be
applied only by properly trained and equipped operators. Read the precau-
tions and warnings. Store pesticides in original labeled containers out of
reach of children, pets, and livestock. Store all pesticides in a secure
area, under lock and key. Dispose of left-over spray materials and all empty
containers safely and promptly. Do not reuse empty pesticide containers.
Follow the recommended dosage and waiting period to avoid excess residues
and possible injury to plants and animals. Avoid drift of pesticides to ad-
jacent areas. Do not be responsible for further polluting our environment.


TOXICITY TO HONEYBEES

Parathion, Guthion, and Sevin are highly toxic to honeybees. Severe
losses of bees can be expected if these materials are used when bees are in
the orchard at time of application or for 24 hours thereafter.
Thiodan and Systox are moderately toxic to bees and can be used in the
vicinity of bees. However, these materials should not be sprayed directly
on the bees in the field.
Kelthane and Ethion are relatively non-toxic and can be used around
bees with a minimum of injury.


-









TABLE I. PEACH SPRAY SCHEDULE SUGGESTED FOR COMMERCIAL PLANTINGS


NAME AND TIME


PESTS CONTROLLED AND MATERIAL


NO. OF SPRAY RECOMMENDED1 REMARKS

1. Dormant... Leaf curl. Ferbam. If scale is a problem,
After all leaves Leaf curl and Liquid lime- 1 application lime-
are off and before scab. sulfur. sulfur for San Jose
buds begin to swell *White peach Liquid lime- scale; 2 application
in late winter, scale sulfur or 3% oil of 3% oil or Ethion-oil
*San Jose or Ethion-oil2. spray 14 days apart for
scale, white peach scale.

2. Pre-blossom... Tarnished Parathion3 or Thorough spraying of
Just before plant bug. Guthion or each tree is absolutely
blossoms open. Imidan. necessary for good
control.

3. Blossom... Blossom Wettable sulfur Mainly for brown rot
blight, or Benlate or problem areas. Apply
Liquid lime- several sulfur or Ben-
sulfur. late sprays during bloom
to reduce blossom blight
damage.


Petal-fall...
After all petals
are off and be-
fore peach is
showing.


Scab.


Tarnished
plant bug.

Lesser peach
tree borer.


Wettable sulfur
or Captan
or Benlate.
Parathion
or Guthion
or Imidan.
Thiodan.


Spray tree thoroughly
including trunk and
larger limbs.



Do not apply Thiodan
more than 2 times dur-
ing the fruiting season.


5. Shuck-fall or Brown rot, Wettable sulfur or
first cover... Scab. Benlate or Captan.
(3/4.shucks off) Tarnished Parathion or
plant bug, Guthion or
Southern Imidan.
green stinkbug,
Plum Curculio.

*White peach scale and San Jose scale are usually controlled by the summer cover sprays
of Parathion and Guthion. Liquid lime-sulfur for scale control rate: 12 gal/lO0
gallons water.
1. See Table II for residue tolerances and limitations for pesticides recommended.
2. See "Spray Notes" page 2.
3. During cool weather Parathion will not give effective control and Guthion or
Imidan should be used.








NAME AND TIME
OF SPRAY


PESTS CONTROLLED AND MATERIAL
RECOMMENDED


Brown rot, Wettable sulfur or
Scab. Benlate or Captan.
Lesser peach Thiodan.
borer.
Tarnished Parathion or
plant bug, Guthion or
So. Green Imidan.
stinkbug,
Plum Curculio,
White peach scale.
Mites. Systox or Kelthane.


If mites are Parathion
resistant, use Kelthane.
Do not apply Thiodan
or Systox within 30
days of harvest, or
Guthion within 21 days
of harvest, or Imidan
within 14 days of
harvest.


7. Third cover... Brown rot. Wettable sulfur or For preharvest control
7-10 days later Captan or Benlate. of brown rot apply 1 or
or 4 weeks before Plum Curculio, Same as 2nd. 2 sprays of Benlate be-
harvest of each So. Green cover spray. ginning 3 weeks before
variety, stinkbug, harvest.
White peach scale,
Mites.


8. Fourth cover...
Two weeks before
harvest of each
variety.


9. Fifth cover...
Pre-harvest
one week before
harvest of each
variety.


Brown rot. Wettable sulfur or
Captain or Benlate.
Plum Curculio, Parathion.
So. green stinkbug.
Mites. Kelthane.


Brown rot.

Plum Curculio,
So. green
stinkbug.


Wettable sulfur or
Captan or Benlate.
Sevin.


Do not apply Parathion,
Imidan, or Kelthane
within 14 days of
harvest.


Sevin can be applied up
to one day of harvest
on peaches and 3 days
of harvest on nectarines.


10. Sixth cover... Brown rot. Benlate. If weather is hot and
Pre-harvest dry, it may not be nec-
one day before essary to use Benlate
harvest. in this spray.

POST HARVEST SPRAYS

11. 1st borer spray... Lesser peach Thiodan. Thoroughly wet scaffold
After all fruit tree borer, limbs, trunk, and soil
is harvested. Peach tree borer. at base of tree. Use
Mites. Galecron or Galecron or Fundal in
Fundal. post-har. sprays only.

12. 2nd borer spray... Lesser peach Thiodan.
30-45 days after tree borer,
1st borer spray. Peach tree borer.


3rd borer spray...
30-45 days after
2nd borer spray.
White peach scale
sprays..


Peach tree
borer.

White peach
scale.


Thiodan.


Parathion or Guth-
ion or Diazinon


Thoroughly wet trunk to
crotch and soil at base
of tree.
Apply 2 sprays 2 weeks
apart when crawlers are
active.


Second cover...
7-10 days later


REMARKS









RESIDUE TOLERANCES AND LIMITATIONS FOR PESTICIDES RECOMMENDED FOR
PEACHES AND NECTARINES IN THIS PUBLICATION.


RESIDUE
TOLERANCES (PPM)

Nectarine Peach


15.0


15.0


INTERVAL BETWEEN LAST APPLICATION AND
HARVEST, AND OTHER RESTRICTIONS.


Nectarine


Peach


No time limit.
Do not graze treated orchards.
Max. 1 lb ai/A application.


No time limit.
Max. 1 lb ai/A
application.


Botran 20.0 20.0 One day One day
Max. 5 lb/actual/lO0 gal/A/ Max 1 lb/actual/100
application as spray 3.6 lb. gal/A/application as
dust on nectarines. spray 3.6 Ib dust on
peaches.


No time limit nec.


Peach 5 Ib/NTL & 6
lb /A 1 day
1 to 2 lb/100 gal spray
or dip. Recharge when
vol. down 25% by 5 lb/25


gal.

Diazinon 0.75 0.75 Ten days 20 days
Ethion 1.0 1.0 Do not apply within 30 days of harvest. Do not apply
more than twice during fruiting season.


Do not apply later than
immediately after bloom.
max. 5.7 Ib/A/application.


Do not apply within 21
days of harvest. Max.
11.5 Ib/A/application.


Fundal or 5.0 5.0 Apply as a post-harvest spray only. Do not apply to
Galecron trees when fruit is present in any form. Do not
graze livestock in treated orchards.

Guthion 2.0 2.0 21 days 21 days
Imidan 5.0 10.0 14 days 6 lb max/A/application 14 days
Kelthane 10.0 10.0 14 days 14 days

Liquid none none Apply during dormancy or delayed dormancy.
lime-sulfur


Parathion


Do not apply more than 5 Ibs. actual Parathion per
acre per year. Do not apply within 14 days of harvest.


Sevin 10.0 10.0 3 days 1 day
Sulfur none none No time limit. No time limit.
* Systox 0.75 0.75 Do not apply within 30 days of harvest. Do not
apply more than three applications per season.

Thiodan 2.0 2.0 Do not apply within 30 days of harvest. Do not
apply more than twice during fruiting season.


TABLE II.


CHEMICAL


Benlate


Captan


50.0


50.0


Ferbam


7.0


7.0






-7-


TABLE III. AMOUNT OF PESTICIDE REQUIRED PER 100 GALLONS


Dilute (IX)


Gallons of water per tree:

Gallons of water per acre:


2X

1

100


5X

.4

40


10X

.2

20


CHEMICAL Pounds of wettable powder per 100 gallons.
Benlate 50% WP 0.50 1.0 2.5 5.0
Botran 75% WP 1.00 2.0 5.0 10.0
Captan 50% WP 2.00 4.0 10.0 20.0
EPN 25% WP 1.50 3.0 7.5 15.0
Ferbam 75% WP 2.0 4.0 10.0 20.0
Fundal 97% WP 0.5 1.0 2.5 5.0
Guthion 25% WP 1.25 -2.5 6.3 12.5
Imidan 50% WP 1.5 3.0 7.5 15.0
Kelthane 85% WP 2.0 4.0 10.0 20.0
Parathion 15% WP 2.0 4.0 10.0 20.0
Sevin 50% WP 2.0 4.0 10.0 20.0
Sulfur, wettable 80% 6.0 12.0 30.0 60.0
Thiodan 50% WP 1.5 3.0 7.5 15.0

Ounces of emulsifiable concentrate/100 gal.
Diazinon AG500 4 lbs/gal E.C. 16 32 80 160
EPN 2 lbs/gal E.C. 32 64 160 310
Ethion 4 lbs/gal E.C. 16 32 80 160
Fundal 4 lbs/gal E.C. 16 32 80 160
Galecron 4 Ibs/gal E.C. 16 32 80 160
Guthion 2 Ibs/gal E.C. 20 40 100 200
Kelthane 4 Ibs/gal E.C. 16 32 80 160
Liquid lime-sulfur* scale insects 12 gal. -
leaf curl 6 gal. -
blossom blight 1 gal. -
Parathion 4 Ibs/gal 10 20 50 100
Systox 2 lbs/gal E.C. 16 48 80 160
Thiodan Miscible 2 Ibs/gal 48 96 240 280


*Use as dilute only


1 pint
1 qt.
1 gal.
1 oz.
1 lb.
.1 Ib.
.4 Ib.
.8 lb.


16 oz. = 473 milliliters
32 oz. = 2 pints
128 oz. = 4 qts. = 8 pints
approximately 30 milliliters
16 ounces
1.6 ounces
6.4 ounces
12.8 ounces


-. w




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