Title: Commercial peach insect and disease recommendations
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Title: Commercial peach insect and disease recommendations
Physical Description: Book
Creator: French, W. J.
Publisher: Agricultural Research Center, IFAS, University of Florida
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Bibliographic ID: UF00076545
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AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER MONTICELLO
Monticello, Florida

7 Monticello ARC Mimeo Report BB 1974 January 31, 1974


SLHME UBRARY REVISED
CO RACIAL PEACH INSECT AND DISEASE RECOMMENDATIONS
3EIS 13 974 C
.| I[ W. J. French1'

A.S .Univ. of Florida
Commercial peach production in north Florida would not be possible
without effective disease and insect control. Although the peach has a
relatively short development period in Florida, the fruit as well as the
tree is subjected to constant attack by a variety of pests. A good disease
and insect control program is important, not only in protecting the maturing
fruits but in maintaining the trees' vigor season after season. Today's
peach grower is fortunate to have effective insecticides, fungicides and
improved spray equipment available to him. Nevertheless, spraying for pest
control is no easy task. Attention must be given to many details, some
seemingly unimportnat. Many times the difference between a successful and
unsuccessful spray program depends on three factors: timing,,coverage, and
rates.

STIMING: The foliage and tree should have a protective covering of
fungicide and insecticide at all times, from the pre-blossom stage until
fruit harvest. After the fruit is harvested, then the problem of proper
timing becomes very important because of the intervals between sprays and
the nature of the pests attacking the tree at this time. The white peach
scale is normally controlled until harvest by the insecticides applied to
protect the fruit. After harvest, when insecticides are applied at less
frequent intervals, they should be timed to coincide with the "crawler"
stage of each generation of the white peach scale.

COVERAGE: Economic pest control is dependent on uniform coverage of
the tree with the correct pesticide dosage. Many growers who have been
applying dilute sprays are using air-blast equipment capable of applying up
to 12x concentrate sprays (apply oil sprays at dilute rate only). When
sprays are concentrated 3x or more, there is little possibility of movement
of spray solution from the point where the droplet hits the tree; therefore,
accurate calibration and placement of the spray is essential to successful
pest control.
The sprayer should travel at 1 2 miles per hour and should be noz-
zled to deliver the gallons as determined from Table III.

1
Assistant Plant Pathologist
2This mimeograph was prepared in collaboration with R. S. Mullen, Extension
Plant Pathologist; J. Brogdon, Extension Entomologist; and S. S. Fluker,
formerly Assistant Entomologist.










Rates: Fungicides and insecticides are recommended at specific rates
which have been found to be effective and non-phytotoxic under Florida con-
ditions. It is therefore, important to: (1) know required amount of formu-
lation to apply per tree, (2) know the gallons of spray per tree the machine
will deliver at a given rate of travel, (3) know the amount of chemical to
add per tank. Example: The recommended rate of Thiodan 50% WP is 1 lbs.
per 100 gallons of water when spraying dilute (3 gallons per tree). If the
sprayer when traveling 2 MPH is found to be delivering 1 gallon of water per
tree then 4 lbs. of Thiodan 50% WP would be required per 100 gallons of
water or 22 Ibs. per 500 gallons of water.

Spray Notes: The following spray schedule (Table I) will give commer-
cial control of important disease and insect pests. The rates given in Table
III are based on dilute formulations with 3 gallons being applied per tree.
1 gallons would normally be required to adequately cover a mature tree during
the early season sprays, gradually increasing to 3 gallons per tree at full
foliage. If heavy populations of white peach scale are encountered during the
dormant season an Ethion-oil combination spray can be used instead of a 3%
oil spray. Prepare by mixing 1 pint of Ethion 46% emulsifiable concentrate
in 100 gallons of water. To this add 3 quarts of 80-90% oil emulsion concen-
trate.

DISEASES

This section will discuss only those problems not covered in the spray
schedule:

Phony Peach: Phony peach is a disease of peaches that is spread from
infected peach or wild plum trees to healthy peach trees by leafhoppers.
Without technical training it is difficult to identify infected trees in
the early stages of this disease. When in doubt, consult your county agent,
extension plant pathologist, or extension fruit specialist.
The longer the diseased trees remain in the orchard, the greater the
chance of diseases being spread by insect vectors. Unless annual surveys
are conducted and diseased trees removed, an infected orchard would rapidly
become unprofitable.
Control recommendations are: (1) to remove all affected trees immed-
iately after detection, (2) remove all wild plum trees within a minimum of
400 yards of all commercial orchards by spraying with Ammate or 2,4,5,-T
in the spring after leaf-out, (3) use nursery stock certified to be free of
phony, (4) nursery stock suspected of harbouring phony can be made phony-
free by soaking plants in water held at 118 for 40 minutes.

Bacterial Spot: This spray program does not control bacterial spot,
a disease which has not been a serious problem in Florida. When bacterial
spot appears, it is often associated with adverse cultural conditions which
cause tree stress, i.e. low fertility, spray burn, etc.

Post Harvest Decays: The two principal decays of peaches are brown rot
and rhizopus rot. Both rots can be checked by cooling the fruit to temper-
atures below 50 F throughout the marketing period. Botran 75W added to the
hydrocooling water at a rate of 1 lb/100 gallon water will control rhizopus.
If rainy weather occurs at harvest use lb Benlate in hydrocooler along
with Botran. Do not use Benlate in place of Botran. Add 1 lb Botran and







-3-


lb of Benlate to each additional 100 gallons of water to hydrocooler during
operation. Flush and clean hydrocooler every 1 or 2 days.

Rust: Peach rust, like bacterial spot, causes greater damaging injury
on weak trees than on those of high vigor. In central Florida orchards, es-
pecially those low in nitrogen, rust may appear in early June and cause heavy
defoliation by mid-summer. The disease usually develops later in north
Florida and seldom warrants control measures. Sulfur may provide some control
but Zineb and Cyprex are more effective if applied before the disease appears.
However, Zineb is not approved by EPA for use on peach.

PRECAUTIONS

Parathion, Guthion, EPN, and Systox are especially toxic to humans and
should be applied only by properly trained and equipped operators. Read the
entire label before opening any pesticide container and observe all necessary
precautions and warnings. Store pesticides in original labeled containers out
of reach of children, pets, and livestock. Store all pesticides in a secure
area, under lock and key. Dispose of left-over spray materials and all empty
containers safely and promptly. Do not reuse empty pesticide containers.
Follow the recommended dosage and waiting period to avoid excess residues and
possible injury to plants and animals. Avoid drift of pesticides to adjacent
areas. Do not be responsible for further polluting our environment.

TOXICITY TO HONEYBEES

Parathion, Guthion, EPN, and Sevin are highly toxic to honeybees. Se-
vere losses of bees can be expected if these materials are used when bees
are in the orchard at time of application or for 24 hours thereafter.
Thiodan and Systox are moderately toxic to bees and can be used in the
vicinity of bees. However, these materials should not be sprayed directly
on the bees in the field.
Kelthane and Ethion are relatively non-toxic and can be used around
bees with a minimum of injury.










TABLE I. PEACH SPRAY SCHEDULE SUGGESTED FOR COMMERCIAL PLANTINGS


NAME AND TIME


PESTS CONTROLLED AND MATERIAL


NO. OF SPRAY RECOMMENDED REMARKS

1. Dormant... leaf curl, -Ferbam, If scale is a problem,
After all leaves Scab Liquid lime-sulfur 1 application lime-
are off and before *White peach -Liquid lime sulfur sulfur for San Jose
beds begin to swell scale; 2 applications
in late winter. an s Ethion-oil of 3% oil or Ethion-
*San Jose Ethion-oil
scale oil spray 14 days
apart for white peach
scale.

2. Pre-blossom... Tarnished plant bug-Parathion Thorough spraying of
Just before or Guthion or each tree is abso-
blossoms open. Imidan. lutely necessary for
good control.

3. Blossom... Blossom blight-Wettable sulfur Mainly for brown rot
or Benlate or problem areas. Apply
Liquid lime- several sulfur or
sulfur. Benlate sprays during
bloom to reduce blos-
som blight damage.

4. Petal-fall... Brown Rot-Wettable sulfur or See Table II
After all petals Scab Captan or Benlate
are off and be- Tarnished plant bug-Parathion Spray tree thoroughly
fore peach is Plum curculio or Guthion including trunk and
showing, or Imidan larger limbs.
Lesser Peach-Thiodan
tree borer

5. Shuck-fall or Brown Rot-Wettable sulfur or See Table II
first cover Scab Benlate or Captan
(3/4 shucks off)... Tarnished plant -Parathion or Do not apply Thiodan
bug, Southern Guthion or more than 2 times dur-
green stinkbug, Imidan ing the fruiting season.
Plum Curculio

6. Second cover Brown Rot-Wettable sulfur or If mites are Parathion
7-10 days later... Scab Captan or Benlate resistant, use Kelthane.
Lesser peach tree-Thiodan Do not apply Thiodan
borer or Systox within 30
Tarnished plant bug-Parathion days of harvest, or
So. Green stinkbug or Guthion Guthion within 21 days
Plum Curculio or Imidan of harvest, or Imidan
White peach scale within 14 days of
Mites -Systox or Kelthane harvest.


White peach scale and San Jose scale are usually controlled by the summer
cover sprays of Parathion and Guthion. Liquid lime-sulfur for scale control
rate: 12 gal/100 gallons water.










PESTS CONTROLLED AND MATERIAL


NO. OF SPRAY RECOMMENDED

7. Third cover... BROWN ROT-Wettable sulfur or
7-10 days later Captan or Benlate
or four weeks PLUM CURCULIO -Same as 2nd
before harvest SO. GREEN STINKBUG cover spray
of each variety. WHITE PEACH SCALE
MITES

8. Fourth cover... BROWN ROT -Wettable sulfur or Do not apply Parathion
Two weeks before Captan or Benlate Imidan or Kelthane
harvest of each PLUM CURCULIO -Parathion within 14 days of
variety. SO. GREEN STINKBUG harvest.
MITES -Kelthane


9. Fifth cover...
Pre-harvest
one week before
harvest of each
variety


BROWN ROT-Wettable sulfur or
Captan or Benlate
PLUM CURCULIO -Sevin"
SO. GREEN STINKBUG


Sevin can be applied
to within one day of
harvest on peaches
and 3 days of harvest
on nectarines.


10. Sixth cover... BROWN ROT -Benlate If weather is hot and
Pre-harvest dry, it may not be
one day before necessary to use
harvest. Benlate in this spray.


POST HARVEST SPRAYS


11. 1st borer spray... LESSER PEACH TREE -Thiodan Thoroughly wet scaf-
After all fruit BORER fold limbs, trunk,
is harvested. PEACH TREE BORER and soil at base of
tree. Use Galecron
MITES -Galecron or Fundal t
or Fundol in post-
harvest sprays only.

12. 2nd borer spray... LESSER PEACH TREE -Thiodan
30-45 days after BORER
1st borer spray. PEACH TREE BORER


13. 3rd borer spray...
30-45 days after
2nd borer spray.


White peach scale
sprays...


PEACH TREE BORER -Thiodan


WHITE PEACH SCALE


-Parathion
or Guthion
or Diazinon


Thoroughly wet trunk
to crotch and soil at
base of tree.

Apply 2 sprays 2 weeks
apart when crawlers
are active.


NAME AND TIME










RESIDUE TOLERANCES AND LIMITATIONS FOR PESTICIDES RECOMMENDED FOR


PEACHES AND NECTARINES IN THIS PUBLICATION.


RESIDUE
CHEMICAL TOLERANCES (PPM)
Nectarine Peach
Benlate 15.0 15.0


INTERVAL BETWEEN LAST APPLICATION AND
HARVEST, AND OTHER RESTRICTIONS.


Nectarine


Peach


No time limit. No time limit.
Do not graze treated orchards.


Botran 20.0 20.0 One day One day
Captan 50.0 100.0 No time limit. .24% suspension in post-
harvest dip or spray.
Diazinon 0.75 0.75 Ten days full coverage 20 days
spray.
*Ethion 1.0 1.0 Do not apply within 30 days of harvest. Do not
apply more than twice'during fruiting season.
EPN 3.0 3.0 21 days 21 days
Ferbam 7.0 7.0 Do not apply later than Do not apply within
immediately after bloom. .21.days of harvest.
Fundal or 5.0 5.0 Apply as a post-harvest spray. Do not apply to
Galecron trees when fruit is present in any form. Do not
graze livestock in treated orchards.
Guthion 2.0 2.0 21 days 21 days
Imidan 5.0 10.0 14 days 14 days
6 lb maximum per acre per application
Kelthane 10.0 10.0 14 days 14 days
Liquid Safe
lime-sulfur chemical Apply during dormancy or delayed dormancy.
Methyl- Not 1.0
parathion registered Not registered 14 days
Parathion 1.0 1.0 Do not apply more than 5 lbs. actual Parathion
per acre per year. Do not apply within 14 days
of harvest.
Sevin 10.0 10.0 3 days 1 day
Sulfur none none No time limit. No time limit.
Systox 0.75 0.75 Do not apply within 30 days of harvest. So not
apply more than three applications per season.
Thiodan 2.0 2.0 Do not apply within 30 days of harvest. Do not
apply more than twice during fruiting season.


Table II.










. Table III. AMOUNT OF PESTICIDE REQUIRED PER 100 GALLONS


Gallons of spray applied per mature tree

3 1.5 1 .75 .5 .25
3qts. 2qts. lqt.
Dilute 2x 3x 4x 6x 12x

CHEMICAL Pounds of wettable powder per 100 gallons.
Benlate 50% WP 0.50 1.0 1.5 2.0 3.0 6.0
Botran 75% WP 1.00 2.0 3.0 4.0 6.0 12.0
Capta--5UP""' 7 ------------20 40:0 ---12:0---2-40------
EPN 25% WP 1.50 3.0 4.5 6.0 9.0 18.0
Fer6e-a-75T--- ----- -------------- -- 7-70----- ---- 2 --- 240 ----
Fundal 97% WP 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 3.0 6.0
Gufn-25W- "------------------ 25~--- ~-- -50.7 --~75---
Imidan 50% WP 1.5 3.0 4.5 6.0 9.0 18.0
Re-Ifane85a P-------------------- 2:0----70--670 ---- I2:-24
Parathion 15% WP 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 12.0 24.0
e ------------------0 --------- 0 ---- -- -- 70 -- 0-- 0 ----
Sulfur, wettable 80% 6.0 12.0 18.0 24.0 36.0 72.0
TIo-an' ---P'""---------" -------- .-- ------------ ---------

Ounces of emulsifiable concentrate/100 gal.
S Diazinon AG500 4 lbs/gal E.C. 16 32 48 64 96 196
EPN 2 lbs/gal E.C. 32 64 96 128 192 384
EPN 5 Ibsgal---- ---- ---- ---- ------~5~
EPN 5 lbs/gal E.C. 12.8 25.6 38.4 51.2 76.8 153.6
Ethion 4 lbs/gal E.C. 16 32 48 64 96 192
Fundal 4 lbs/gal E.C. 16 32 48 64 96 192
Galecron 4_lbs/sal_ E.C.___ 16 32 48 64 96 192
Guthion 2 lbs/gal E.C. 20 40 60 80 120 240
Kelthane 4 lbs/gal E.C. 16 32 48 64 96 192
Liquid lime-sulfur* scale insects 12 gal. -
leaf curl 6 gal. -
blossom blight 1 gal. -
Methyl Parathion 2 lbs/gal E.C. 16 32 48 64 96 192
Parathion 4 lbs/gal 10 20 30 40 60 120
Systox 2 lbs/gal E.C. 16 32 48 64 96 192
Thiodan Miscible 2 lbs/gal 48 96 144 192 288 576


*Use as dilute only

1 pint = 16 oz. = 473 milliliters
1 qt. = 32 oz. = 2 pints
1 gal. = 128 oz. = 4 qts. = 8 pts.
1 oz. = approximately 30 milliliters
1 lb. = 16 ounces
.1 lb. = 1.6 ounces
.4 lb. = 6.4 ounces
.8 lb. = 12.8 ounces







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