Title: Commercial peach insect and disease recommendations
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Title: Commercial peach insect and disease recommendations
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Fluker, Sam S.
Publisher: Big Bend Horticultural Laboratory, University of Florida
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Bibliographic ID: UF00076521
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 145740853

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'B L 7/-3
S, HUME LIBRARY


BIG BEND HORTICULTURAL ABORATd~ 5 1971
Monticello, Flor da

Big Bend Hort. Lab. Mimeo Report BBL 71-3 'IA.S. Univ. of.jj 8., 1971


COMMERCIAL PEACH INSECT AND DISEASE RECOMMENDATIONS1

S. S. Fluker and W. J. French2


Without effective disease and insect control, commercial peach production
in North Florida would not be possible. Although the peach has a relatively
short development period in Florida, the fruit as well as the tree is subjected
to constant attack by a variety of pests. A good disease and insect control
program is important, not only in protecting the maturing fruits but in maintain-
ing the trees' vigor season after season. Today's peach grower is fortunate to
have effective insecticides, fungicides, and improved spray equipment available
to him. Nevertheless, spraying for pest control is no easy task. Attention
must be given to many details, some seemingly unimportant. Many times the dif-
ference between a successful and unsuccessful spray program depends on three
factors; timing, coverage, and rates.

Timing: The foliage and tree should have a protective covering of fungi-
cide and insecticide at all times, from the pre-blossom stage until fruit har-
vest. After the fruit is harvested, then the problem of proper timing becomes
very important because of the intervals between sprays and the nature of the
pests attacking the tree at this time. The white peach scale is normally con-
trolled until harvest by the insecticides applied to protect the fruit. After
harvest, when insecticides are applied at less frequent intervals, they should
be timed to coincide with the "crawler" stage of each generation of the white
peach scale.

Coverage: Economic pest control is dependent on uniform coverage of the
tree with the correct pesticide dosage. Many growers who have been applying
dilute sprays are using air-blast equipment capable of applying up to 12x
concentrate sprays (apply oil sprays at dilute rate only). When sprays are
concentrated 3x or more, there is little possibility of movement of spray solu-
tion from the point where the droplet hits the tree; therefore, accurate cal-
ibration and placement of the spray is essential to successful pest control.

The sprayer should travel at 1 1/2-2 1/2 miles per hour and should be
nozzled to deliver the gallons as determined from Table III.

Rates: Fungicides and insecticides are recommended at specific rates
which have been found to be effective and non-phytotoxic under Florida con-
ditions. It is therefore important to: (1) Know required amount of formulation
to apply per tree. (2) Know the gallons of spray per tree the machine will
deliver at a given rate of travel (3) Know the amount of chemical to add
per tank. Example: The recommended rate of Thiodan 50% WP is 1 1/2 lbs. per

1Prepared.in cooperation with J. E. Brogdon, Extension Entomologist and
R. S. Mullin, Extension Plant Pathologist, University of Florida, Gainesville.
2Assistant EntomologiBt and'Assistant Plant Pathologist : '. i i

500-cc. 1/8/71










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100 gallons of water when spraying dilute (3 gallons per tree). If the sprayer
when traveling 2 IPH is found to be delivering 1 gallon of water per tree then
4 1/2 lbs. of Thiodan 50% WP would be required per 100 gallons of water or 22
1/2 lbs. per 500 gallons of water.

Spray Notes: The following spray schedule (Table I) will give commercial
control of important disease and insect pests. Tests have shown that 1 1/2 gal-
lons of formulated material is necessary for complete and thorough coverage of a
mature peach tree. 1 1/2 gallons would normally be required to adequately cover
a mature tree during the early season sprays, gradually increasing to 3 gallons
per tree at full foliage. The rates given in Table III are based on'dilute form-
ulations with 3 gallons being applied per tree. If heavy populations of white
peach scale are encountered during the dormant season an Ethion-oil combination
spray can be used instead of a 3% oil spray. Prepare by mixing 1 pint of Ethion
46% emulsifiable concentrate in 100 gallons of water. To this add 3 quarts of
80-90% oil emulsion concentrate.

DISEASES

This section will discuss only those problems not covered in the spray
schedule:

Phony Peach: Phony peach is a virus disease of peaches that is spread
from infected peach or wild plum trees to healthy peach trees by leafhoppers.
Without technical training it is difficult to identify infected trees in the
early stages of this disease. When in doubt, consult your county agent, exten-
sion plant pathologist, or extension fruit specialist.

The longer the diseased trees remain in the orchard, the greater the
change of diseases being spread by insect vectors. Unless annual surveys are
conducted and diseased trees removed, an infected orchard would rapidly become
unprofitable.

Control recommendations are: (1) to remove all affected trees immedi-
ately after detection; (2) remove all wild plum trees within a minimum of 400
yards of all commercial orchards by spraying with Ammate or 2,4,5,-T in the
spring after leaf-out; and (3) use nursery stock certified to be free of
phony virus. (4) Nursery stock suspected of harboring phony virus can be made
virus-free by soaking plants in water held at 118F for 40 minutes.

Bacterial Spot:- This spray program does not control bacterial spot, a
disease which has not been a serious problem in Florida. When bacterial spot
appears it is often associated with adverse cultural conditions which cause
tree stress, ie. low fertility, spray burn, etc.

Post Harvest Decays: The two principal decays of peaches are brown rot
and rhizopus rot. Both rots can be checked by cooling the fruit to tempera-
tures below 500F throughout the marketing period. Botran 75W added to the
hydrocooling water at a rate of 1 lb/100 gallon water will control rhizopus
rot and may reduce the amount of brown rot in stored fruit. Add 1 lb. Botran
to each additional 100 gallons of water to hydrocooler during operation.
Flush and clean hydrocooler every 1 or 2 days.










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Rust: Peach rust, like bacterial spot, causes greater damaging injury on
weak trees than on thoseof high vigor. In Central Florida orchards, especially
those low in nitrogen, rust may appear in early June and cause heavy defoliation
by mid-summer. The disease usually develops later in North Florida and seldom
warrants control measures. Sulfur may provide some control but Zineb and Cyprex
are more effective if applied before the disease appears.


PRECAUTIONS

Parathion, Guthion, EPN, and Systox are especially toxic to humans and
should be applied only by properly trained and equipped operators. Read the
entire label before opening any pesticide container and observe all necessary
precautions and warnings. Store pesticides in original labeled containers out
of reach of children, pets, and livestock. Store all pesticides in a secure
area, under lock and key. Dispose of left-over spray materials and all empty
containers safely and promptly. Do not reuse empty pesticide containers. Follow
the recommended dosage and waiting period to avoid excess residues and possible
injury to plants and animals. Avoid drift of pesticides to adjacent areas. Do
not be responsible for further polluting our environment.

Toxicity to Honeybees

Parathion, Guthion, EPN, and Sevin are highly toxic to honeybees. Severe
losses of bees can be expected if these materials are used when bees are in the
orchard at time of application or for 24 hours thereafter.

Thiodan and Systox are moderately toxic to bees and can be used in the
vicinity of bees. However, these materials should not be sprayed directly on
the bees in the field.

Kelthane and Ethion are relatively non-toxic and can be used around bees
with a minimum of injury.












TABLE I. PEACH SPRAY SCHEDULE SUGGESTED FOR COMMERCIAL PLANTINGS


No. Name and Time
of SDrav


Pests Controlled and Material
Re commended


1. Dormant Leaf curl, Ferbam, If scale is a problem;
After all leaves Scab Liquid Lime-sulfur 1 application lime-
are off and before *White Peach Liquid lime-sulfur sulfur for San Jose
buds begin to swell scale, or 3% oil or scale; 2 applications
in late winter. *San Jose Ethion-oil of 3% oil or Ethion-
scale. oil spray 14 days
apart for white peach
scale.

2. Pre-blossom Tarnished plant bug Parathion Thorough spraying of
Just before or Guthion each tree is abso-
blossoms open. or EPN lutely necessary for
good control.

3. Blossom Blossom blight Wettable sulfur Mainly for brown rot
or Captan or Liquid problem areas. Sev-
lime-sulfur or eral sulfur sprays
Dichlone (Phygon XL) applied during bloom
may reduce blossom
blight damage.

4. Petal-fall Brown rot, Wettable sulfur See Table II.
After all petals Scab or Captan Spray tree thoroughly
are off and before Tarnished plant bug,- Parathion including trunk and
peach is showing Plum Curculio. or Guthion or larger limbs.
EPN
Lesser Peach Thiodan
Tree Borer

5. Shuck-fall or Brown rot, Wettable sulfur See Table II.
First cover Scab. or Captan Do not apply Thiodan
(3/4 shucks off) Tarnished plant bug, Parathion more than 2 times
Southern green stinkbug, or during fruiting
___ _Plum curculio Guthion or EPN season.

6. Second Cover Brown rot, Wettable sulfur If mites are Parathion
7-10 days later Scab. or Captan resistant use Kelthane.
Lesser Peach Tree Thiodan Do not apply Thiodan
borer. or Systox within 30
Tarnished Plantbug, Parathion days of harvest, or
So.Green Stinkbug, or Guthion Guthion or EPN within
Plum curculio or EPN 21 days of harvest.
White Peach Scale.
Mites. Systox or Kelthane


by the summer cover


Remarks


*White peach scale and San Jose Scale are usually controlled
sprays of Parathion and Guthion.













No. Name and Time
of Sarav


Pests Controlled and Material
Recommended


7. Third Cover Brown rot Wettable sulfur
7-10 days later or Captan
or four weeks before Plum curculio, Same as 2nd
harvest for each So. Green Stinkbug, cover
variety. White Peach Scale, spray
Mites.

8. 4th cover Brown rot Wettable sulfur Do not apply Parathion
Two weeks before or Captan or Cap- within 14 days of
harvest of each tan plus Botran. harvest.
variety. Plum curculio, Parathion
So. Green Stinkbug.
Mites Kelthane

9. 5th Cover Brown rot Wettable sulfur Sevin can be applied
Pre-harvest or Captan or Cap- to within one day of
One week to one tan plus Botran. harvest on peaches
day before harvest Plum Curculio, Sevin and 3 days of harvest
of each variety. So. Green Stinkbug on Nectarines

POST HARVEST SPRAYS

10. 1st Lesser Peach Tree Borer,-Thiodan Thoroughly wet scaf-
Borer spray Peach Tree Borer. fold limbs, trunk,
After all fruit is and soil at base of
harvested tree.

11. 2nd Borer Spray Lesser Peach Tree Borer, same
30 to 45 days Peach Tree Borer as 1st
after 1st Borer Borer spray
spray.


12. 3rd Borer
30 to 45
after 2nd
spray.


Spray
days
Borer


White Peach Scale
sprays.


Peach Tree Borer Thiodan




White Peach Scale. Parathion
or Guthion
or Diazinon


Thoroughly wet trunk
to crotch and soil
at base of tree.


Apply throughout the
summer and early fall
(Sept. Oct.) when
crawlers are active.


Remarks


--













TABLE II RESIDUE TOLERANCES AND LIMITATIONS FOR PESTICIDES RECOMMENDED FOR
PEACHES AND NECTARINES IN THIS PUBLICATION.


Residue
Tolerances(PP,)


Interval between last application and
harvest, and other restrictions.


Nectarine Peach Nectarine Peach


Parathion



Methyl-
Parathion

Guthion

Diazinon


Sevin

Thiodan


Systox


Kelthane

Ethion


Dichlone
(Phygon)


1.0 1.0



Not 1.0
Registered

2.0 2.0

0.75 0.75

3.0 3.0

10 10

2.0 2.0


0.75 0.75


10 10


Do not apply within 14 days of harvest.
Do not apply more than 5 lbs. actual Parathion per
acre per year.


Not registered


21 days


10 days full coverage spray


21 days

3 days


14 days


21 days

20 days

21 days


1 day


Do not apply within 30 days of harvest.
Do not apply more than twice during fruiting season.

Do not apply within 30 days E harvest.
Do not apply more than three applications per season.


14 days


14 days


1.0 1.0 Dbo hot apply within 30 days of harvest. : '
Do not apply more than twice during fruiting season.


3 3 Do not apply after blossom
period.


7 days


none none No time limit.


50 100


No time limit.


No time limit; .24% suspension in post-harvest dip
or spray.


7 7 Do not apply later than
immediately after bloom.


Do not apply within
21 days of harvest.


Botran 20 20


Chemical


Sulfur

Captan


Ferbam


1 day


1 day












TABLE III AMOUNT OF PESTICIDE REQUIRED PER 100 GALLONS


Chemical Formulation









Parathion 15% WP
Guthion 25% WP
EPN 25% WP
Thiodan 50% WP
Sevin 50% WP
Kelthane 85% WP
Sulfur, Wettable 80%
Captan 50% WP
Ferbam 75% WP
Dichlone(Phygon XL) 50% WP
Botran 75% WP








Diazinon AG500 4 lbs/gal. E. C.
Methyl Parathion 2 Ibs/ gal. E.C.
Ethion 4 lbs/gal. E.C.
Thiodan Miscible 2 lbs/gal.
Systox 2 Ibs/gal. E.C.
EPN 5 lbs/gal. E. C.
Guthion 2 Ibs/gal. E. C.
EPN 2 lbs./gal. E. C.
Parathion 4 lbs/gal. E. C.
Kelthane 4 lbs/gal. E. C.


Gallons of spray applied per mature tree

3 1.5 1 .75 .5 .25
(3 qts.)(2 qts)(l qt.)
Dilute 2x 3x 4x 6x 12x



Pounds of Wettable Powder per 100 gallons


2 4 6 8 12 24
1.25 2.5 3.75 5 7.5 15
1.50 3 4.5 6 9 18
1.50 3 4.5 6 9 18
2 4 6 8 12 24
2 4 6 8 12 24
6 12 18 24 36 72
2 4 6 8 12 24
2 4 6 8 12 24
0.5 1 1.5 2 3 6
1 2 3 4 6 12




Ounces of Emulsibiable Concentrate/100 gal.



16 32 48 64 96 192
16 32 48 64 96 192
16 32 48 64 96 192
48 96 144 192 288 576
16 32 48 64 96 192
12.8 25.6 38.4 51.2 76.8 153.6
20 40 60 80 120 240
32 64 96 128 192 384
10 20 30 40 60 120
16 32 48 64 96 192


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