Title: use of systemic insecticides for controlling white peach scales, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni), (Homoptera: Coccoidea
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Title: use of systemic insecticides for controlling white peach scales, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni), (Homoptera: Coccoidea
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Whitcomb, W. H.
Publisher: Big Bend Horticultural Laboratory
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Bibliographic ID: UF00076519
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 145734383

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/ L- / BIG BEND HORTICULTURAL LABO TO1"UME LIBRARY
I Monticello, Florida

Big Bend Hort. Lab. Mimeo Report 71-1 80, A Otob r 21, 19 0


THE USE OF SYSTEMIC INSECTICIDES FOR CONTROLLIn tfi*R .P E".fr lida
PSEUDAULACASPIS PENTAGON (TARGIONI), (HOMOP
1
W. H. Uhitcomb, S. S. Flukerl and S. A. Samuels2

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Because the insecticides used in this test had not been cleared for use on
peaches, and because the residual effects were not known, this test could not be
performed on commercial trees. Therefore, an abandoned orchard located approxi-
mately eight miles north of Madison, Florida, in the Cherry Lake Orchards was
chosen. This orchard, approximately four acres in size, consisted of Maygold var-
iety peach trees in their fourth leaf, and had a history of white peach scale
infestations.

The randomized block design with four replications was used, and each treat-
ment contained four trees. The treatments were separated by tying strips of col-
ored plastic tape onto the branches of the trees so they could be easily located.
Each treatment was assigned a separate color or combination of colors.

The compounds tested wTre Azodrin(R) (3-hydroxy-N-methyl-cis-crotonamide
dimethyl phosphate), Bidrin (3-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyl-cis-crotonamide, dimethyl
phosphate), Aldicarb (2-Methyl-2-(methylthio) propionaldehyde O-(Methylcarbamoyl)
oxime), Carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2 dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl methylcarbamate),
Disulfoton (0,0-diethyl S-2-[(ethylthio)ethyl] phosphorodithioate), Oxydemetonmethyl
(S-[2-(ethylsulfinyl)ethyl] 0,0-dimethyl phosphorothioate), and Thompson-Hayward
TH 427 I (N-s-cyanoisopropyl O,O-diethylthiophosphorylacetamide). A list of the
compounds, formulations, methods of application, and rates of application are given
in Table 1.

The materials were applied by one or more of the following methods:
(1) granules, (2) foliar spray, (3) injection, or (4) bark application.

Granules were applied to the soil around the drip-line of the tree using a
Cyclone(R) seeder/spreader Model 10 which was adjusted to give a very narrow pat-
tern. To assure that the correct amount of insecticides was applied to each tree,
the insecticide was carefully measured into paper sacks before leaving the labor-
atory.

Foliar sprays were applied using a Meyers hydraulic boom sprayer equipped
with a power-take-off pump using a hand gun attachment at 300 p.s.i.. The gun
was adjusted to deliver a mist to avoid knocking the scales from the branches with
the spray. Each tree was sprayed on all four sides to the point of run-off using
1 to 1 1/2 gallons of spray. Insecticides were mixed in 30 gallon quantities, and
after each treatment the tank and line was drained and thoroughly rinsed to avoid
contamination of insecticides.


IEntomologist and Assistant Entomologist
2Formerly Graduate Assistant


3wo CC









-2-


Injections were made on the trunk of the tree approximately six inches
below the crotch by first puncturing a hole, using a small finishing nail, through
the bark into the vascular system. Each puncture was approximately 1/8 to 1/4
inch deep. The insecticide was placed into the puncture using a 1 ml. hypodermic
syringe. The puncture was then sealed with grafting wax to prevent the escape of
the insecticide and to prevent the entrance of disease organisms. One injection
was placed into the trunk of the tree for each two inches of trunk circumference.

Bark applications were made by using either a paintbrush or a 4 ml. hypo-
dermic syringe.

The paint-on formulation was applied to the bark of the trunk of the tree
approximately 6 inches below the crotch using a 3 inch wide paintbrush in a uni-
form horizontal band, either 3 or 6 inches wide, around the trunk.

The syringe-on formulation was applied in a uniform horizontal ring to the
surface of the bark of the tree, approximately 6 inches below the crotch, using
a 4 ml. tuberculin syringe.

Treatments were applied 9 August 1968, and counts were made on 27 August
1968 and 23 November 1968.

Counts were made by counting 50 adult female scales per tree, and the
number dead and alive in each case was noted. Care was taken to avoid counting
those scales which obviously had been attacked by preditors and parasites.

The total number of adult, non-parasitized female scales occurring on new
growth on each tree was also counted in order to provide a second perimeter with
which to evaluate the treatments.

The data were then statistically analyzed using the Analysis of Variance
and the Duncan's llultiple Range Test. Abbott's Formula was used to convert per-
cent mortality into "corrected" percent mortality which is a more accurate mea-
sure of the control achieved by each treatment.












MATERIALS, FORMULATIONS, METHODS OF APPLICATION
AND RATES OF APPLICATION USED IN SYSTEMIC
INSECTICIDE TEST AGAINST WHITEE PEACH SCALE
Cherry Lake Orchards, Madison County, Florida, 9 August 1968


Treatment Formulation Method of .Rate
Application


1. Azodrin


2. Bidrin


3. Bidrin


4. Temik



5. Bidrin


6. Carbofuran



7. Disulfoton



8. Oxydemeton-
methyl

9. Oxydemeton-
methyl


10. TH 427 I


11. TH 427 I


3.2 lbs. ai
per gal. s.c.

16% paint-on


16% paint-on


5% granules



81% technical


10% granules



10% granules



2 lbs. ai per
gal. e.c.

2 Ibs. ai per
gal. e.c.


2 Ibs. ai per
gal. s.c.

5% granules


foliar spray


paint on,.bark


paint on bark


applied to soil
around drip-line
of tree

injection


applied to soil
around drip-line
of tree

applied to soil
around drip-line
of tree

foliar spray


bark
application


foliar spray


applied to soil
around drip-line
of tree


0.8 lbs. ai
per 100 gal.

3 in. band on
trunk

6 in. bank on
trunk

1 lb. ai per
acre


1 ml. per 2 in.
trunk diameter

1 Ib. ai per
acre


1 lb. ai per
acre


0.5 Ibs. ai
per 100 gal.

10 g ai per
1 in. trunk
diameter

0.75 Ibs. ai
per 100 gal.

1.5 lbs. ai
per acre


12. Check


TABLE I.












TABLE II.


PERCENT MORTALITY OF WHITE PEACH SCALE WITH
SYSTEMIC INSECTICIDES
Cherry Lake Orchards, Madison County, Florida, 9 August 1968


Treatment Rate Percent Corrected
Mortality Percent
27 August Mortality
1968 (Abbott's Formula)


1. Azodrin


2. Bidrin


3. Bidrin


Temik

Bidrin


6. Carbofuran

7. Disulfoton

8. Oxydemeton-
methyl

9. Oxydemeton-
methyl

10. TH 427 I


11. TH 427 I

12. Check


0.8 Ibs. ai per
100 gal.

3 in. band on
trunk

6 in. band on
trunk

1 lb. ai per acre

1 ml. tech. per 2 in.
trunk diameter

1 lb. ai per acre

1 lb. ai per acre

0.5 Ib. ai per
100 gal.

10 g ai per 1 in.
trunk diameter

0.75 lbs. ai per
100 gal.

1.5 lbs. ai per acre


*All numbers followed by the same letters are not significantly different from
each other, according to the Duncan Multiple Range Test.


85.84 a*


78.54 ab


81.36 a


66.84

87.56


79.36

85.60

91.68


81.49 a


91.42 a


78.55

15.21


82.78 a*


74.69 ab


78.01 a


60.89 a

85.32 a


75.65 ab

83.01 a

90.18 a


78.16 a


89.88 a


74.70

0.00












TABLE III.


-5-

PERCENT MORTALITY OF WHITE PEACH SCALE WITH
SYSTEMIC INSECTICIDES
Cherry Lake Orchards, Madison County, Florida, 9 August 1968


Percent
Mortality
23 November
1968


Corrected
Percent
Mortality
(Abbott's Formula)


1. Azodrin


2. Bidrin


3. Bidrin


Temik

Bidrin


6. Carbofuran

7. Disulfoton

8. Oxydemeton-
methyl

9. Oxydemeton-
methyl

10. TH 427 I


11. TH 427 I

12. Check


0.8 lbs. ai per
100 gal.

3 in. band on
trunk

6 in. band on
trunk

1 lb. ai per acre

1 ml. tech. per 2 in.
trunk circumference

1 lb. ai per acre

1 lb. ai per acre

0.5 Ibs. ai per
100 gal.

10 g ai per 1 in.
trunk diameter

0.75 lbs. ai per
100 gal.

1.5 lbs. ai per acre


*All numbers followed by the same letters are not significantly different from each

other, according to the Duncan Multiple Range Test.


Treatment


Rate


80.87 ab*


96.24 a


83.85 ab


75.20 ab*


95.11 a


79.06 ab


88.55

75.25


86.02

92.98

88.48


85.16

67.92


81.88

90.90

85.06


93.36 a


95.58 a


91.39 a


94.27 a


95.83

22.86


94.59

0.00


1




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