Title: Pecan disease and insect control suggestions
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Title: Pecan disease and insect control suggestions
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Large, John R.
Publisher: Big Bend Horticultural Laboratory, University of Florida
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Bibliographic ID: UF00076514
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/'O4


BIG BEND HORTICULTURAL LABORATORY
Monticello, Florida

Big Bend Hort. Lab. Mimeo Report-BBD-67-4 March 1, 1967
tt- .' '*j p ",

PECAN D SEASE AND I SECT CONTROL SUGGESTIONS2

John R. Large, Job Van Duyn and H. W. Young1
A.S. -Univ. of Florida
A large number of diseasesE aiinsects attack the leaves, shoots and nuts of
the pecan tree during the long growing season.

Spraying for control of diseases and insects is a very important factor in
the production of pecans. A good crop of nuts may be totally lost if not protected
from pests. In addition to protecting maturing nuts, spraying contributes to the
production of a crop the next year by preventing defoliation.

Diseases spread most rapidly early in the growing season and during periods
of high humidity. Some insects such as nut casebearer, weevil and shuckworm occur
in orchards at particular times, whereas, others may become a problem at any time.
The timing of spray applications is very important and each grower should learn
to recognize insect and disease problems to determine the best time to spray.

In applying spray materials all leaves, twigs and nuts should be covered.
It is important that adequate machinery be used and the operator be well trained
in its use. Poor coverage during any part of the growing season may lead to severe
disease or insect damage.

Spray may be applied by hydraulic ground sprayer, concentrate air blast
sprayer, airplane or helicopter. Some modern sprayers, known as concentrate spray- ,
ers, use less water to carry chemicals than conventional hydraulic equipment.
Both concentrate and dilute sprays are expressed as the amount of pesticide form-
ulation per 100 gallons of water. The same amount of chemical is sprayed on each
tree with either the dilute or concentrate sprayers. Table III gives the gallons
of spray per tree for each type of equipment.

The following spray schedule (Table I) carefully followed will give commercial
control of important disease and insect pests. However, a general spray schedule
is not always the most satisfactory for a particular orchard.

Zineb and Bordeaux mixture are effective against scab, powdery mildew and
other fungus diseases, but Cyprex or Du-Ter are more effective against scab.
Cyprex and Du-Ter will not control powdery mildew and sulfur or Karathane must be
added to control this disease. Cyprex should not be used on Moore and Van Deman
varieties. April applications of Cyprex on these varieties caused marginal burning
and defoliation of the young leaves. Zineb plus Oil, 2 lbs. + 1 qt./100, in April
followed by Cyprex can be used on Moore and Van Deman with only slight injury.


1Associate Plant Pathologist, Research Associate in Entomology and Associate
Horticulturist and Head.

2Prepared in cooperation with J. E. Brogdon, Extension Entomologist and
R. S. Mullin, Extension Plant Pathologist, University of Florida, Gainesville.












Where rosette is present use a spray bf neutral zinc (2 lbs.) or zinc sulfate
(2 lbs. of 65%). Zinc sulfate is very corrosive and will rust out machinery. It
must be washed out with soap and water after use.

On scab resistant varieties such as Desirable, Curtis, Elliott, Farley and
usually Stuart the total number of sprays may be fewer than on scab susceptible
varieties. Prepollination sprays and those to control nut casebearer and shuck-
worm should not be omitted. In dry weather, if scab is not serious, one or more
of the summer applications of Du-Ter may be omitted.

For dooryard trees or in orchards where cattle are grazed, Malathion should
be used instead of Parathion. Malathion may not adequately control shuckworm and
either EPN or Guthion should be used in commercial orchards (See precautions).
For dooryard trees, Malathion is recommended for all insect sprays.

PRECAUTIONS

Parathion, EPN and Guthion are especially toxic and should be applied only by
properly trained and equipped operators. Read the entire label before opening
any pesticide container and heed all cautions and warnings. Store pesticides in
original labeled containers out of reach of children, pets and livestock, and
preferably under lock and key. Dispose of left over spray materials and all empty
containers promptly and safely. Follow the recommended dosage and waiting periods
to avoid excess residues and injury to plants and animals. Avoid drift of pesti-
cides to adjacent areas. See, Table II on Residue Tolerances.









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TABLE II. RESIDUE TOLERANCES AND LIMITATIONS FOR CHEMICALS RECOMMENDED FOR
PECANS IN THIS PUBLICATION.

CHEMICAL RESIDUE TOLERANCE INTERVAL BETWEEN LAST APPLICATION AND
(PPM) HARVEST AND OTHER RESTRICTIONS.


EPN 0.5


Guthion


Do not apply within 21 days of harvest.


Do not apply after shuck split. Do not
graze livestock in treated orchards within
21 days after treatment.


Malathion 8.0 No time limitations.


Parathion --- Do not apply within 15 days of harvest
or after shuck open.


Bordeaux Mixture Exempt No time limitations.


Du-Ter


not
not


apply after shucks start to open.
graze livestock in treated orchards.


Cyprex --- Do not apply after shucks start to open.
Do not graze meat or dairy animals in
treated orchards.


Zineb --- Do not apply within 45 days of harvest.


Sulfur Safe No time limitations.


Thiodan --- Do not apply after shuck-split. Do not
graze meat or dairy animals in treated
orchards.


-[I










-7-


TABLE III.


GALLONS OF SPRAY BY TREE SIZE.


TYPE OF EQUIPMENT


GALLONS OF SPRAY BY TREE SIZE


Small
(Under 25 feet)


Medium
(25 35 feet)


Large
(Over 35 feet)


4 10


AIR BLAST


HYDRAULIC


MIST BLOWER


AIRPLANE


1 1/2


5 15


7 1/2 30


30


2 1/2


FROM: Harris, E. D. and N. E. McGlohon. 1967
Pecan Insects and Diseases and Their ContrOl.
Ga. Ag. Ext. Service, Bulletin 644.


300 cc




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