• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Program
 Table of Contents
 Fertility trial
 Insect and mite research
 Insecticides studies
 Nematode research on strawberr...
 Strawberry density trial
 Strawberry breeding
 Fungicide trial
 Strawberry diseases
 Time of planting and chilling of...
 Strawberry variety trial
 Field diagram






Group Title: Strawberry field day.
Title: Strawberry field day. March 20, 1973.
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076494/00001
 Material Information
Title: Strawberry field day. March 20, 1973.
Series Title: Strawberry field day.
Alternate Title: Research report - Dover, Florida Agricultural Research Center ; SV73-1
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Publisher: Agricultural Research Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: 1973
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076494
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 143121533

Table of Contents
    Program
        Program
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Fertility trial
        Page 2
    Insect and mite research
        Page 3
    Insecticides studies
        Page 4
    Nematode research on strawberries
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Strawberry density trial
        Page 8
    Strawberry breeding
        Page 9
    Fungicide trial
        Page 10
    Strawberry diseases
        Page 11
    Time of planting and chilling of strawberry plants
        Page 12
    Strawberry variety trial
        Page 13
    Field diagram
        Page 14
Full Text





Dover ARC Research Report SV73-1 Ilarch, 1973






AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER
DOVER, FLORIDA

of the

INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES

STRAWBERRY FIELD DAY

Tuesday, March 20, 1973

PROGRAM

P.M.

Dr. James Montelaro, Vegetable Crops Specialist,
Florida Coop. Ext. Ser. Moderator

3:00 Dr. W. E. Waters, Center Director Welcome

3:05 Mrs. A. J. Overman Nematode Research

3:20 Dr. S. L. Poe Insect and Mite Research

3:35 Dr. C. H. Howard Plant Breeding and Strawberry
Disease Research

3:50 Dr. E. E. Albregts Soil Fertility and Horticultural
Research

4:05 Tour of research plots and greenhouse





j SP 7? 1976



------------------ - ---. 1 CA


THE INFORMATION AND PRODUCTS DESCRIBED HEREIN DO NOT CONSTITUTE A
RECOMMENDATION BY THE AUTHORS OR THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA.

















TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE

Fertility Trial E. E. Albregts ... . ...... 2

Insect & Hite Research S. L. Poe. ........... .... 3

Insecticide Studies S. L. Poe . . .. 4

Nematode Research on Strawberries A. J. Overman . . 5, 6

Fumigation of Strawberry Nurseries A. J. Overman ..... .. 7

Strawberry Density Trial E. E. Albregts . ........... 8

Strawberry Breeding C. M. Howard ... * .. * .. 9

Fungicide Trial C. I. Howard . .. ......... .. 10

Strawberry Diseases C. M. Howard * * * 11

Time of Planting & Chilling of Strawberry Plants E. E. Albregts 12

Strawberry Variety Trial E. E. Albregts & C. M. Howard * 13

Field Diagram ..... . * * * 14













FERTILITY TRIAL


E. E. Albregts


Objective: To determine the optimum fertilizer rate and soil and tissue levels of
nitrogen and potassium for strawberries.

Treatments: Factorial with 0, 100, 200, and 300 lbs/acre of nitrogen and potassium.

Previous year results:


1971-72 Ibs/acre
Treatment Jan. Feb. March April Total

Check 2910 3298 2910 1310 10428
100 N 2765 6839 4511 2131 16246
200 N 2860 6063 4074 1843 14840
300 N 2860 6208 4268 2037 15373
100 K20 2716 6742 4947 2037 16442
200 I20 2570 5141 4026 2037 13774
300 I20 2716 5481 3832 1989 14.018


Each N and K20 yield, except check, is summed across 0, 100, 200, and 300 lbs per
acre H and K20 fertilizer rate, respectively. Individual fertilizer treatments, i.e.
100 N and 100 K20 gave yields to 24000 lbs/acre.

The 1973 plants were set in mid-November; therefore, fruiting started late. The yields
through February indicate that 1000 lbs/acre of a 10-10-10 fertilizer is sufficient if
1/2 is broadcast and 1/2 banded near surface in bed center.





KEY TO TREATMENTS IN STRAWBERRY FERTILITY TRIAL IN FIELD 1.


Plot No.


Fertilizer Rates of 10-10-10/acre


1000
2000
3000













INSECT AND MITE RESEARCH


S. L. Poe


. Objective:


Crop management to minimize spidermite population development on
Florida strawberries.


II. Approach: Listed in order of potential realization as a solution.

Immediate.
A. Proper use of available n: icides
1. Essentials of application.
a) adequate spray coverage
b) appropriate material for control
c) proper time to apply
2. Attributes of chemical niticides
a) classes of chemicals available(2)
b) use against resistant populations
c) combination uses of miticides(2)
d) additive biocide benefits(6)

Short term.
B. Crop relations that influence mite population development
1. Cultural considerations
a) planting date(8)
b) plant density(4)
2. Non-cultural influences
a) host plant physiology
b) time of initial mite infestation
c) plant source (nursery)(2)
d) variety(4)


Long term.
C. Utilize natural forces against mites
1. Develop mite resistant varieties(2)
2. Biological control by predator mites


Footnotes:
(2) Demonstrated in Field 2.
(4) ; 4.
(6) 6.
(8) 3.





KEY FIELD 2 SOUTH END


INSECTICIDES STUDIES

Part 1. Effect of chemical (see diagram Field 2)


Plot Ho. Treatment


Sarav dates


Feb. 2 8 15 22 liar. 1


Control
CH*
OP
CH
S
CH
OP
CH
GS15126
OT


*CH
OP
S
OT
GS


chlorinated hydrocarbon Kelthane
organic phosphate Dibrom
Sulfite Omite
Organotin
New chemistry from Gulf



KEY PART 2 FIELD 2 E'"I'. 2 _D

EFFECT OF PLAiNT SOURCE

A E beginning on East (see diagram Field 2)


Block
A
B
C
D
E


Source
Nursery
Nursery
Nursery
Nursery
Nursery


Grown in
Dover
Dover
Dover
Dover
N. C.


KEY PART 3 FIELD 2 NORTH E:D


Seedlings with mite resistant potential


KEY TO FIELD 3 NEMATODE RESEARCH (A. J. Overman)
Treatments: 4 Reps: A, B, C, D. Plot 20' x 6' = 120 ft2
1. Check
2. Nemacur 15G 10 lb ai/A
3. Mocap 10G 10 lb ai/A
4. i-ocap S 10G 10 lb ai/A
5. Dasanit 15G 10 lb ai/A
6. Furadan 10G 16 lb ai/A
October 11. 1200 lb/A 10-10-10 + 20 lb/A chlordane 10G disked in.
October 12. Root-knot infested okra roots disked in. Chemicals rototilled,
bedded, mulched, Tioga plants (N.C.) set.


8 15


--


--- --







NEMATODE RESEARCH ON STRAWBERRIES
A. J. Overman
Objective: A system for controlling nematodes is needed which is dependent at the
time of application neither upon precision control of environmental factors
such as soil moisture and temperature, nor on complete rotting of previous
crop residue. The system should provide an alternative to soil fumigation
when limited time or adverse weather conditions plague the grower. To this
end, a study was initiated to evaluate the efficacy of contact nematicides in-
corporated into the soil at the time of setting strawberry transplants in a
field.

Nematodes around plant roots
Treatments: Rate and Method 24 weeks after set
Sting Spiral Root-knot
Control 113 6 270
Allyl alcohol (AA) 25 gal/A, drenched 118 25 200
AA + Dasanit 10 lb ai/A 1 18 13
AA + Mocap rototilled 3
AA + Temik 8' deep 64
AA + Zinophos 12
AA + Nemagon 24 lb ai/A, drenched 11 22


% INCREASE IN STRAJUBERRY YIELD OVER UNTREATED CONTROL

0 20 30 __

ALLY L ALCOHOL AA) :-

T 9/ 7-- / AAV

DASANIT +AA .-- ..

'IO1CAP ~ A "A



A'N AT'H AA. "t '

SLANNk!ATl^' +At A

,- QHOS AA T --.---

i.E W O ..... ..





_._ __ __________________-



























F 1 1 F. 26 M.


M.12 M.19


DATES OF HARVEST
--~-;~1T~- _~---- ;------ -- ..... := '--'-r.- ;-rr __=_?~- .--'T =- = _-~-_~~ ''" ... .. .. ....--':"'-~-r -.;' 3'; -' '


PATTERN OF CONTROL W(TH VC
UNDER MULCH FOR


)RLEX


SOIL FUM GANT


STRAWBERRIES S


PCIT SEL SPACNG "
A APPT 1" bEE P


M.26 A.3 A.9













i i
.~1 -
i t

I

'
r


F- 1w W, VW* -


PATTERN OF CONTROL WITH NEMATICIDE_


..APPLIED 8* DEEP ON 12" CENTERS


INJECTION POINT


TREATED SOIL


CC *, *. C.
~ ~ CCC CCC C tC
,C:r r e*~:;CCr* C r~.* tt:,. ..~ ** ..
,,r *. C, t .
C#.C C * C *~~ *
*' ., .** .r. : ~ ~. C
: : :: :C:: UNRAE OL '"~~*
*~~~ *C *~ C ~
r~r '' CC C C. 3~ L "' C" '.~C
I~~ ~ Ir


BROADCAST FUMIGATION UNDER MULCH:


PATTERN OF CONTROL


I


w w~


~P~I~lr


------ ---------- ------------`---- --~

-
-
,!
'















STRAWBERRY DENSITY TRIAL
E. E. Albregts

Objective: To evaluate the effect of different in the row spacing and numbers of
rows per bed on plant response in growth, earliness, and total yield. Treatments -
2, 3, and 4 row beds plant spacing in the bed of 8, 10, 12 inches with 2 row beds,
and 10, 11, 12 inches with 3 and 4 row beds. Two varieties: Tioga and Sequoia.

Previous year results: This is the last year of a 3 year trial. In the first year
yields of both varieties were significantly less in the 2 row plots with 12' in the
row spacing. In the second year there were no significant differences; however, the
2 row treatments tended to produce less fruit. During both years treatments did not
affect the percent marketable fruit and the average fruit weight. Fruit yields were
directly related to fruit number per plot. Fruit number per plant decreased with
increasing plant density.

Results of 1973 trials through February:

Yields increased on all beds with increasing plant density regardless of number
of rows per bed with the Tioga variety. The Sequoia yield increased with increasing
number of rows per bed. Increasing the plant density within the 2, 3, or 4 rows per
bed treatments did not affect Sequoia yields.





KEY TO TREATMENTS IN STRAWBERRY DENSITY TRIAL, FIELD 4

Plot No. No. rows/bed Spacing in plant row

1 2 10.
2 2 8
3 2 12
4 3 11
5 3 10
6 3 12
7 4 10
3 4 11











STRAWBERRY BREEDING
C. M. Howard

Objectives: To develop new strawberry varieties that are specifically adapted to
Florida growing conditions.

Table 1. Numbers of seedling clones tested in 1971-72 and 1972-73 seasons.

No. clones No. selected No. of clones
Season fruited for observation in rep. trial

1971-72 1,025 50 12
1972-73 2,339 18


First year: Crosses are made in the greenhouse during the winter and the seeds are
sown in flats in late March or early April. Seedlings are transplanted into indivi-
dual peat pots in May or early June and set in the nursery in late June where they
form runners. In October, clones are selected from the nursery on the basis of runner
production and resistance to anthracnose, leaf spot and leaf blight. Four plants of
each selection are transplanted into the fruiting field where records are kept on
date of first ripe fruit and fruit yield. Specific clones are selected primarily on
the basis of early (through Jan.) and total (through March) yield.

Second year: Clones selected on the basis of fruit yield are transplanted into the
nursery where they are again observed for runner production and disease resistance
during the summer. In October, selections are made from this group and transplanted
into 10-plant observation plots. In this trial the seedling clones are compared with
currently grown varieties and the fruit and plants are observed for any defects such
as poor color or poor ripening characteristics of the fruit. Specific clones are
selected on the basis of plant type, early and total fruit yield, and fruit firmness,
color, size, ripening characteristics and general appearance. These clones are trans-
planted into the nursery where they are again observed for runner production and re-
sistance to diseases.

Third year: The most promising clones from the second year observational trials are
placed in replicated trials where they can be thoroughly compared with varieties cur-
rently being grown in Florida. After a clone has shown promise at least two years in
replicated plots, a variety release committee is formed. If the committee, after re-
viewing all the accumulated data, agrees that the specific clone would be an improve-
ment over any variety currently being grown in Florida, then it can be named and re-
leased as a new variety.


BREEDING LINES LOCATED IN FIELDS 5 & 7








-10-


FUNGICIDE TRIAL
C. Ii. Howard

Objective: To determine the potential of new fungicides for control of strawberry
fruit rots and foliar diseases.

Treatments: Four replications, intervals as shown in table.

Table 1. 1971-72 fungicide trial for control of strawberry fruit rots.

Interval Ilktble wt. Cull wt.
Treatment & rate/A (days) (g/20 plants) (g/20 plants)

Captan 50 W 4 Ibs. 7 3743 a*1 2618
Hartect 42.28 F 32 oz 7 3591 ab 3121
Sclex 80 1U 1.25 Ibs 7 3445 abc 2926
Iesrtect 42.28 F 32 oz 14 3073 abcd 2803
Benlate 50 W 1 lb 7 3028 abed 2886
IMrtect 42.28 F 16 oz 14 2975 abed 2390
Kilcop 53% cu W 3 lbs 7 2921 abed 3219
TD 1771 70 U 0.75 lbs 7 2704 abed 2870
NIA 19165 2 Ibs 7 2664 bed 2806
Kocide 101 54% cu W 1.5 lbs 7 2600 bed 2279
Control 2553 bcd 2733
Mertect 42.28 F 16 oz 7 2516 ed 2464
Kilcop 53% cu W 1.5 lbs 7 2410 cd 2425
Kocide 101 54% cu W 3 lbs 7 2205 d 2959


1Because of problems with spray equipment that was used in this trial, the ranking
of the fungicides in this table may not be truly representative of their relative
efficacy.



KEY TO TREATMENTS IN 1973 FUITGICIDE TRIAL IN FIELD 6


Treatment

Check
Pennwalt TD 1771
Mertect 340
Captan
Mertect 340
Hertect 340
Mertect 340
Kilcop '53'
Kocide 101
Benlate


Rate/A


Spray Interval (days)


Plot No.













-11-


STRAWBERRY DISEASES

C. MI. Howard


Objectives: To determine the cause and importance of new strawberry diseases.

Colletotrichum fruit rot: round, dark spots which are firm and sunken. Very severe
in some fields during warm periods. This fungus also causes anthracnose and wilt.

Dendrophoma fruit rot: round, light pink or gray spots which are soft and not sunken.
Small black fruiting bodies often form in these lesions. Very severe in some fields
during some periods. This fungus also causes leaf blight.

Pestalotia fruit rot: lesions variable. The most typical lesion has a round, light
tan central area which is slightly sunken below the original fruit surface and a
surrounding band of soft tissue which is definitely sunken. Severe in some plots
at the Research Station in 1972.

Alternaria fruit rot: lesions round or irregular in shape and light green to nearly
back depending on the stage of development. To the present time this fruit rot has
been of very minor importance.

Fruit rot control: the only fungicides presently registered for use on strawberries
which have a short enough required interval between application and harvest for use
under Florida's conditions are Captan, Benlate and Copper sulfate. If regular spray
intervals are maintained and good coverage is achieved Captan will usually give good
control of all these fruit rots, but during periods of severe disease incidence Ben-
late usually gives better control of the Colletotrichum and Dendrophoma fruit rots.
Copper sprays become toxic to the plants after repeated applications and can not be
used for long periods.






-12-
TINE OF PLANTING AND CILLTING OF STRAWBERRY PLAN-TS


E. E. Albregts


Objective: To determine effect of chilling and time of planting of fall set plants
from 3 sources on time of yield, total yield and plant growth.

Previous year Results: 1971-72 Trial

% of total marketable yield
Planting Plant harvested/month Total
dates source Chilling* Jan. Feb. March April yield
lbs/acre

Oct. 1 Fla. 0 10 43 31 16 16540
Oct. 1 Fla. 15 16 38 31 15 20950
Oct. 1 Fla. 30 1 10 39 50 13240
Oct. 15 Fla. 0 17 32 30 21 17750
Oct. 15 Fla. 15 13 20 36 21 16395
Oct. 15 Fla. 30 6 12 40 42 13390
Nov. 1 Fla. 0 7 37 22 34 15180
Nov. 1 Fla. 15 10 28 25 37 21290
Nov. 1 Fla. 30 8 22 10 60 16540
Nov. 15 Fla. 0 3 35 25 37 15800
Oct. 15 Calif. 0 28 14 33 25 22020
Nov. 1 Calif. 15 13 23 10 54 21100
Nov. 15 Calif. 30 5 25 7 63 12660


*Days of chilling at 36 F.


The 1973 results through March 1 are:


Chilling of local plants for 15 days has


not increased the October 1 and 15 plantings but has those set on Nov. 1. Thirty days
of chilling has delayed yields of those plants set on Oct. 15, and Nov. 1. Earlier
set plants started yielding earlier and plants from N. Carolina were somewhat delayed
in fruiting. Local plants have yielded more than California plants.



KEY TO TREATMENT IN TIME OF PLANTING AND CHILLING TRIAL, FIELD 8


Date of Planting


Days of chilling


Oct.
Oct.
Oct.
Oct.
Oct.
Nov.
Nov.
Nov.
Nov.
Nov.
Nov.
Nov.
Nov.
Oct.
Oct.


Plot No.


Source

Local
Calif.
Local
Local
N. C.
Local
Local
Local.
N. C.
Calif.
N. C.
Local
Cnlif.
Local
Local





-13-


STRAiBERRY VARIETY TRIAL
E. E. Albregts & C. N. Howard
Objective: To evaluate all promising breeding lines and out of state varieties for
earliness, yield, fruit size and plant growth characteristics.

Table 1. Fruit yield and size. 1971-72 Trial

% of total mht yield Total !T'; Avg.
Variety or harvested/month yield % fruit wt.
line Jan. Feb. lar. Apr. lbs/acre mkt .g/ plant.

Tioga 26 20 23 31. 1449 79 11.6
253 17 27 33 23 J9662 75 10.3
263 9 18 33 37 19403 83 11.9
266 14 17 25 44 18672 80 16.3
712 15 16 43 25 19720 80 10.7
736 24 19 26 21 23365 85 12.6


Table 2. Fruit quality

iA- 2 *i~' After 2 days
Fresh refrierator in Lab.
Variety firm appb firm aop. firm app. Parents

Tioga 4.6 4.3 4.5 3.7 3.7 5
253 5 4.3 4.6 4.2 5 5 Dab. x Sequoia
263 5 3.7 4.6 4.0 4.7 5 Dab. x Sequoia
266 4.8 2.6 4.6 3.0 3.0 5 Dab. x Sequoia
712 4.3 4.6 3.9 4.3 4.7 5 Seq. x Earlibelle
736 4.7 4.0 3.9 3.0 3.0 4 Seq. x Earlibelle


al = very soft, 2 = soft, 3 = mod. firm, 4


= firm, 5 = very firm


S= poor, 2 = fair, 3 = good, 4 = very good, 5 = excellent

The 1973 trial through Feb. has given the following yields in Ibs/acre for these
numbered lines: 729 (12610 Ibs), 736 (9660 lbo Tioga (7860 lbs), 263 (7730 Ibs),
253 (7330 Ibs), and 712 (7030 lbs). The cPrliness of yields is also reflected in
these data (see 1972 yield data). All numbered lines are resistant to anthracnose.



KEY TO BREEDING LINES AND VARIETIES IIT STIL''!ERY VARIETY TRIAL IN FIELD 9


Breeding line or variety


Plot No.





-14--


FIELD 3

Granular
'ematicides

8 rows


FIELD 7

Observation
Lines
10 rows

FIELD 6

Fungicides

10 rows


Bldg 7



Greenhouse


Office


A1


A


FIELD 5

SEEDLING

LINES

46 rows


Barn




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