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Group Title: Strawberry variety trials.
Title: Strawberry variety trials. 1989-90.
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 Material Information
Title: Strawberry variety trials. 1989-90.
Series Title: Strawberry variety trials.
Alternate Title: Research report - Dover, Florida Agricultural Research and Education Center ; DOV-1990-2
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Albregts, E. E.
Chandler, C. K.
Howard, C. M.
Publisher: Agricultural Research and Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida
Publication Date: 1989-1990
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076493
Volume ID: VID00009
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 143118825

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F7 3 6, AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND EDUCATION CENTER
IFAS, University of Florida
./ 13138 Lewis Gallagher Road
--V Dover, Florida 33527

) 91 Dover AREC Research Report DOV-1990-2 June, 1990

STRAWBERRY VARIETY TRIALS 1989-90

E. E. Albregts, C. K. Chandler, and C. M. Howard

INTRODUCTION

Florida strawberry growers have produced strawberries on about 5,000
acres annually since the 1981-82 season. Average production per acre
increased from 1650 flats/acre in 1981-82 to 2167 flats/acre in 1989-90.
About 11.5 million flats were produced during the 1988-89 season.
Because of the extensive planting of 'Selva' (a day-neutral cultivar),
over the last several years, production in December has increased.
Production in April, on the other hand, has decreased greatly. The
reason for the lower April production is that 'Chandler' fruit, which
are available from California in April, are generally larger in size and
thus has a greater consumer appeal than the 'Selva' fruit available from
Florida. This gives California growers and brokers a competitive
advantage. As long as the current situation continues, a high early
yield (November February) will be critically important to the
financial well-being of the Florida strawberry industry. Data in this
report are presented in a monthly form since time of harvest is more
important than total yield. The purpose of this report is to provide
results from evaluations of selected strawberry cultivars and AREC-Dover
breeding lines conducted at the Agricultural Research and Education
Center, Dover during the 1989-90 winter season.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Eight cultivars and 8 selections from the IFAS strawberry breeding
program were evaluated in the fruit production field using a Seffner
fine sand. One cultivar,'Dover', and 3 breeding lines, 83-37, 79-1126,
and 84-1932, were grown in the AREC-Dover nursery (FL) and in a Nova
Scotia (NS) nursery. Except as noted above, all Florida breeding lines
were grown in the AREC-Dover nursery. The cultivars 'Chandler', 'Oso
Grande', 'Pajaro', and 'Selva' were grown in an Ontario, Canada nursery,
and 'Parker' and 'Irvine' were grown in a California nursery. Beds were
fumigated with 300 Ibs/bedded acre of MC 98-2 (methyl bromide:
chloropicrin, 98%:2%) and fertilized with 2000 Ibs/acre of a 10-4-10
fertilizer. One-fourth of the fertilizer was broadcast before bed



Professor (Soils), Assist. Professor (Plant Breeder), and Professor
(Plant Pathologist), respectively, with the Univ. of Florida, IFAS,
Agricultural Research and Education Center, Dover, FL 33527.






preparation, and the remainder was banded 1 to 2 inches deep in the bed
center. One-half of the N was from sulfur-coated urea and the remainder
was from ammonium nitrate. Plants were set on October 24, 1989. Five
replications/clone with 14 plants/replication were used. Approved
pesticides were applied as needed, and irrigation was applied by
overhead sprinkler. Fruit were harvested, graded and weighed twice
weekly from December through early April.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The weather during the 1989-90 growing season (Table 1) indicates that
total rainfall was normal, but the temperature was about 20F above
normal (Table 1). Only December was cooler than normal and this was
mostly the result of very low temperatures during the period Dec. 23-25.
This experiment was protected completely from freeze damage by overhead
irrigation and row covers. Plants from 6 of the 10 clones that had been
propagated in northern latitude nurseries (NS,O,C) produced fruit in
December (Table 2). 'Dover'-NS and breeding line 83-37-NS plants
produced the highest combined December and January yields. The
cultivars, except for 'Dover', and 'Osa Grande', produced disappointing
yields in February, but most of these clones .did well in March. The
month of the year in which the fruit are harvested is important.
Financial returns, not necessarily profit, for strawberry is determined
by the flats of strawberries produced times the price per flat. The
average price for a flat of strawberries during the months of December,
January, February, March, and April 1989-90 was $13.80, $9.96, $9.84,
$6.50, and $4.69, respectively. Total marketable fruit yields were low
for the clones 87-348, 84-1932 FL, and all the cultivars except 'Dover'
and 'Oso Grande', and 'Selva'. The effect of propagation site (NS vs
FL) on the fruiting of 4 clones is interesting. All Nova Scotia
propagated plants produced December yields while Florida propagated
plants did not. Plant origin did not appear to have much effect on
fruit yields during the remainder of the season except for 'Dover'
(January) and 84-1932 (entire season). 'Dover' had the highest yield of
cull fruit which was mainly the result of small size (Table 3). Several
other clones had cull yields not significantly different from 'Dover'.
'Chandler' had the lowest percent marketable fruit but clones 87-348,
'Dover'-NS, and 'Pajaro' were not significantly different from
'Chandler' (Table 4). The reason fruit were rated cull was mostly
because of small size (Table 5), but several entries did have high
levels of rotten fruit. These were 'Oso Grande', 'Pajaro', Chandler',
82-1452, and 83-37-FL. 'Oso Grande' and 82-1452 had the largest fruit
while 83-37-NS, 79-1126-NS, and 'Dover'-NS had the smallest fruit (Table
6). The low seasonal average fruit weight of these entries was the
result of relatively small fruit in January. Entry 83-37-NS had smaller
average fruit weight than 83-37-FL probably because 83-37-NS plants
tended to be smaller, especially early in the season. The Florida
breeding lines 87-18, 83-37, and 81-1350 had fruit that were the least
firm (Table 7). Fruit of 79-1126-NS, 84-1932-FL, and 'Parker' were the
most firm. Fruit of 79-1126-NS, 84-1932-FL, 'Irvine', and 'Parker' were
most resistant to abrasion. Table 8 lists the percent of marketable
size fruit with the defects of green tips and shoulders, fans, and water
damage. Clone 81-1350 had excessive green tips while 'Oso Grande' and







'Chandler' had the highest levels of fruit with green shoulders. Table
9 gives a brief summary of some of the observations noted during past
seasons. Some of the information is for one season, such as 'Osa
Grande' and 'Irvine', while other information is from 2 to 10 or more
seasons.

SUMMARY

Plants propagated in a northern latitude nursery initiated fruit
production earlier than did plants of the same clones propagated
locally. This is the result of cooler temperatures and/or shorter days
in Canada than in Florida. The source of transplants (northern vs
southern latitude nursery) can also have an effect on average fruit
weight, yield, and fruit firmness. Except for 'Dover', and 'Oso
Grande', the cultivars gave low fruit yields. Breeding lines 87-348 and
84-1932-FL also gave low yields. With 84-1932-FL and 'Pajaro' the low
yield problem was primarily due to anthracnose crown and fruit rot,
respectively. The two most promising new clones in the trial were
85-4925 and 'Oso Grande' (Table 9).

REFERENCE

Florida Agricultural Statistics, Vegetable Summary. 1988-89. Florida
Dept. of Agricultural and Consumer Services. Florida Agriculture
Statistics Service, Orlando, Florida. 76 pages











Table 1. Weather conditions at AREC-Dover during the 1989-90 season and
the 57-year averages for temperature and rainfall.



1989-90 57-yr average

Mean Temp. (oF) Rainfall Mean Temp. (OF) Rainfall

Months Min. Max. (inches) Min. Max. (inches)

Sept. 73 89 5.56 71 88 7.09
Oct. 65 83 2.32 63 82 2.54
Nov. 58 79 2.51 55 76 1.79
Dec. 46 65 5.67 51 72 2.26
Jan. 55 76 0.89 49 70 2.31
Feb. 58 79 5.03 50 72 3.08
Mar. 57 80 1.13 54 77 3.63
April 60 83 1.79 59 82 2.43
Average 59.0 79.3 3.11 56.5 77.4 3.14










Table 2. Marketable fruit yield (flats/acre) for 1989-90 season.

Clonel December January February March April Seasonal
Marketable yield (flats/acre)

87-18 --- 409g-j 812bc 632d-g --- 1853c-e
83-37 ----- 453f-i 651cd 1179a ---- 2283a-c
83-37-NS 256a2 730b 440e 1032ab ---- 2458ab
87-348 --- 274jk 442e 160j --- 875i
79-1126 --- 536d-g 655cd 731c-e ----- 1923cd
79-1126-NS 188b 483e-i 808bc 621e-g --- 2100b-d
81-1350 ---- 618b-e 799bc 439e-j ----- 1856c-e
82-1452 --- 642b-d 929ab 287h-j 45a 1902c-e
84-1932 --173k1 656cd 214ij ----- 1044hi
84-1932-NS 16d 595b-f 926ab 557e-h ----- 2093b-d
85-4925 --- 347ij 864ab 478e-i 65a 1755d-f

Cultivars

Dover-FL ---- 649b-d 1010a 563e-h ---- 2222bc
Dover-NS 133c 1003a 922ab 657d-g --- 2715a
Chandler-O ----- 515d-h 199f 772b-d ----- 1486e-g
Irvine-C 23d 1321 373e 412f-h ---- 940hi
Oso Grande-0 ----- 696bc 607d 980a-c 18a 2301a-c
Pajaro- ----- 371hi 396e 362g-j ----- 1129g-i
Parker-C ----- 285jk 342ef 695c-f ----- 1322f-h
Selva-0 57d 562c-f 382e 562e-h 52a 1615ef


NS = grown in Nova Scotia, 0 = Ontario, Canada, C= California. All
others grown at AREC-Dover.

Numbers in a column followed by different letters are significantly
different at 5% level by Duncan's Multiple Range Test.









Table 3. Cull fruit yields (flats/acre) for 1989-90 season.

Cull yields (flats/acre)
Clone December January February March April Seasonal

87-18 --- 158 117 357 --- 632bc1
83-37-FL ---- 93 127 548 --- 768a-c
83-37-NS ---- 51 88 379 --- 517bc
87-348 ---- 52 223 198 --- 473c
79-1126-FL ---- 19 192 453 --- 665a-c
79-1126-NS 0.6 74 208 330 --- 612bc
81-1350 ---- 66 147 233 --- 445c
82-1452 ---- 33 233 205 93 563bc
84-1932-FL ---- 32 221 132 --- 385c
84-1932-NS ---- 37 219 292 --- 547bc
85-4925 ---- 150 129 232 50 561bc

Cultivars

Dover-FL ---- 29 297 598 --- 924a
Dover-NS ---- 152 316 721 --- 1189a
Chandler ---- 30 53 762 --- 846a-c
Irvine 4 66 57 240 --- 367c
Oso Grande ---- 15 154 517 139 826a-c
Pajaro --- 26 141 416 --- 583bc
Parker ---- 36 74 257 --- 368c
Selva 2 65 90 203 92 452c


1Numbers in a column followed by different letters are significantly
different at 5% level by Duncan's Multiple Range Test.











Table 4. Monthly and
trial of 1989-90.


seasonal percent marketable


fruit for variety


Clone December January February March April Seasonal

87-18 ---- 71.7g 87.4a 63.9ab ---- 74.6a-d
83-37-FL ---- 82.7f 84.3ab 68.0a ---- 74.8a-d
83-37-NS 100.0a 93.4a-d 83.2ab 72.7a ---- 82.5a
87-348 --- 83.3ef 66.5d 43.6cd ---- 64.0ef
79-1126-FL --- 96.2ab 77.1a-c 61.6ab ---- 74.3a-d
79-1126-NS 99.6a 86.5c-f 79.8a-c 65.1a ---- 76.7a-d
81-1350 --- 90.9a-e 83.8ab 65.8a ---- 80.8ab
82-1452 ---- 95.2ab 79.5a-c 57.0a-c 30.4b 77.3a-d
84-1932-FL ----- 85.8d-f 74.6b-d 62.3ab ---- 73.0b-d
84-1932-NS 80.Oa 94.1a-c 80.5a-c 61.0ab ---- 78.5a-c
85-4925 ----- 69.4g 87.0a 67.5a 53.6a 75.8a-d

Cultivars

Dover-FL --- 93.7a-c 77.0a-c 47.0b-d ---- 70.4de
Dover-NS 100.Oa 86.7c-f 74.5b-d 47.2b-d ---- 69.5d-f
Chandler ----- 94.2a-c 79.3a-c 47.0b-d ---- 62.6f
Irvine 88.9a 66.4g 87.Oa 62.9ab ---- 72.lcd
Oso Grande ----- 97.9s 80.1a-c 63.5ab 10.Ob 73.2b-d
Pajaro ----- 93.9a-c 71.6cd 37.7d ---- 64.0ef
Parker --- 87.0c-f 82.8ab 72.5a ---- 78.1a-c
Selva 97.3a 88.8b-f 78.2a-c 68.5a 30.7b 76.5a-d


1Numbers in a column followed by different letters are significantly
different at 5% level by Duncan's Multiple Range Test.











Table 5. Percent of the cull fruit rated cull because of small, rotten,
or misshapen fruit.

Clones Small Rotten Misshapen

87.18 74.4 25.6 0.0
83-37-FL 58.1 41.9 0.0
83-37-NS 83.7 16.3 0.0
87-348 84.2 12.3 3.0
79-1126-FL 84.3 15.2 0.5
79-1126-NS 92.4 7.6 0.0
81-1350 75.9 24.1 0.0
82-1452 51.3 43.7 5.0
84-1932-FL 64.3 27.0 8.7
84-1932-NS 78.1 18.8 3.1
85-4925 80.6 18.5 0.9

Cultivars

Dover-FL 80.6 18.9 0.5
Dover-NS 90.3 9.7 0.0
Chandler 45.3 54.7 0.0
Irvine 85.7 14.3 0.0
Oso Grande 29.9 67.5 2.6
Pajaro 36.0 62.3 1.7
Parker 57.3 29.2 13.5
Selva 72.3 26.1 1.6










Table 6. Average marketable fruit wt (g/fruit) by month and for the
season for variety trial 1989-90 season.

Clone December January February March April Seasonal

87-18 --- 28.4a 16.4e-g 12.6c-g ---- 16.2c
83-37-FL ---- 24.8c 17.1d-f 13.0c-f ----- 15.6cd
83-37-NS 17.0ab 14.4i 16.4e-g 13.0c-f ----- 14.3e
87-348 ---- 19.2ef 15.3g 11.9g ----- 15.4cd
79-1126-FL ---- 21.1de 16.6e-g 12.0fg ----- 15.2cd
79-1126-NS 16.6ab 16.4gh 16.2fg 12.2e-g --- 14.8de
81-1350 ---- 28.6a 16.2fg 13.1c-e --- 17.9b
82-1452 ---- 28.5a 18.2cd 13.5bc 15.1a 19.5a
84-1932-FL ---- 27.0ab 15.1g 12.9c-g --- 15.7cd
84-1932-NS 23.5a 18.2fg 16.5e-g 12.6c-g --- 15.7cd
85-4925 ---- 21.6d 16.4e-g 12.6c-g 11.9a 15.7cd

Cultivars

Dover-FL ---- 21.4d 15.3g 12.2ef ---- 15.6cd
Dover-NS 22.3a 15.7hi 15.6fg 12.3d-g ---- 14.8de
Chandler ---- 20.5de 18.5cd 13.5bc ---- 18.2c
Irvine 11.7b 12.4j 20.3ab 13.3b-d ---- 15.3cd
Oso Grande ---- 26.2bc 20.8a 16.2a 10.8a 19.9a
Pajaro ---- 20.4de 17.9c-e 14.2b ---- 17.7b
Parker ---- 17.8fg 19.2bc 16.2a ---- 17.3b
Selva 15.9ab 16.7gh 15.6fg 14.2b 9.8a 15.3cd


Numbers in
different a


5% level by Duncan's Multiple Range Test.


a column followed by different letters are significantly


t






-10-


Table 7.
firm,
high,


Percentage of harvests of each clone with fruit rated as hard,
soft, or very soft, and fruit resistance to abrasion rated as
medium and low for variety trial 1989-90 season.


Firmness Resistance to abrasion
Clone Hard Firm Soft Very Soft High Medium Low

87-18 2j1 53c-g 43ab 2 62b 5b 33a
83-37-FL 1j 48d-g 48a 3 57b 7b 36a
83-37-NS 9h-j 46e-g 39b 6 57b 23a 20b
87-348 42de 56c-f 2f --- 97a lb 2cd
79-1126FL 36ef 62a-d If 1 99a --- Id
79-1126NS 61bc 39gh --- --- lOa ---
81-1350 8ij 58b-e 31c 3 56b 22a 22a
82-1452 18g-i 77a 5-ej --- 96a lb 3cd
84-1932FL 70b 29h ---- --- l00a
84-1932NS 58c 41f-h If 98a lb 1
85-4925 36ef 61b-e 3ef --- 97a lb 2d

Cultivars

Dover-FL 17g-i 76a 7ef --- 95a 3b 2cd
Dover-NS 17g-i 67a-c 16d ---- 88 4b 8c
Chandler 21gh 68a-c llde --- 93a 2b 4cd
Irvine 49cd 50d-g If --- 199a
Oso Grande 44de 52c-g 3ef --- 98a lb Id
Pajaro 26fg 71ab 3ef --- 98a lb Id
Parker 94a 6i --- --- lOa --- ---
Selva 44de 52d-g 4ef --- 99a --- 2d

Numbers in a column followed by different letters are significantly
different at 5% level by Duncan's Multiple Range Test.






-11-


Table 8. Percent of marketable
during the 1989-90 season.


size fruit with the listed defects


Clone Green Tips Green Shoulders Fan

87-18 1.56 0.12 0.19
83-37-FL 0.68 0.34
83-37-NS 0.12 0.29 0.04
87-348 2.66 ---
79-1126-FL 0.84 ----
79-1126-NS 0.89 0.19 ----
81-1350 13.02 --
82-1452 0.29 0.58 0.15
84-1932-FL 1.39 --
84-1932-NS 1.64 ----
85-4925 1.20 0.19

Cultivars

Dover-FL 0.80 0.29 0.29
Dover-NS 0.47 1.05 0.12
Chandler 0.15 2.01
Irvine 0.34 0.69 ----
Oso Grande 0.12 2.36 ----
Pajaro 0.66 1.42 ----
Parker 0.56 0.19 ---
Selva 0.48 1.22






-12-


Table 9. Summary based on variety trial data and observations,
AREC-Dover, 1989-90.

Clone Comments

87-18 Fruit lacks sufficient firmness.

83-37 Fruit lacks sufficient firmness.

87-348 Low yielding.

79-1126 Prone to fruit quality problems (albinism, necrotic calyx,
green tip, hollow tip) in certain years.

81-1350 Fruit lacks sufficient firmness.

82-1452 Fruit tends to crack along shoulder.

84-1932 Primary fruit is generally unattractive.

85-4925 Looks promising. The influence of propagation site
(northern vs southern latitude) and planting date on the
performance of this clone needs to be evaluated.

Dover High percentage of cull fruit (small size) in March and
April.

Chandler Plants generally produce a dense canopy of leaves.

Irvine New day-neutral cultivar from the Univ. of California
breeding program. Low yields from California "cut off"
plants. The performance of non-defoliated transplants and
the effect of planting date on this clone should be
evaluated.

Oso Grande New short-day cultivar from the Univ. of California
breeding program. Looks promising. The influence of
planting date on the performance of this clone-needs to be
evaluated.

Pajaro Highly susceptable to anthracnose fruit rot.

Parker Fruit is extremely firm.

Selva Low seasonal yield.









HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






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