Group Title: Animal Science mimeo report
Title: Preliminary report on nutrient recovery and feeding value of direct-cut pearlmillet ensiled with various additives
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 Material Information
Title: Preliminary report on nutrient recovery and feeding value of direct-cut pearlmillet ensiled with various additives
Alternate Title: Dairy science mimeo report 61-1 ; Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Animal science mimeo report 61-14 ; Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 7 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wilcox, Charles J., 1930-
WIng, J. M.
Becker, R. B.
McCall, J. T.
Davis, G. K.
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: June 27, 1961
 Subjects
Subject: Pearl millet -- Silage -- Research -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Pearl millet -- Silage -- Additives -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Animal feeding -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: C.J. Wilcox ... et al..
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (leaf 7).
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "June 27, 1961."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076463
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 132771252

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t) /FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL-EXPERIMENT STATION
Gainesville, Florida


Dairy Science Mimeo Report 61-1
Animal Science Mimeo Report 61-14
June 7, 61r------------


Preliminary Report on Nutrient Recovery and Feeding Value
of Direct-cut Pearlmillet Ensiled with Various Additives


C. J. Wilcox, J. M. Wing, and R. B. Becker
(Dairy Science)
J. T. McCall and G. K. Davis
(Animal Science)


SUMMARY


Ensiling characteristics, digestibility and consumption rates of direct-
cut pearlmillet were evaluated. Forage containing 85-90% moisture was
ensiled in 10 air-tight plastic silos with or without various additives.
Consumption rates and intakes of total digestible nutrients and digestible
protein by experimental animals varied but most silages appeared to be
acceptable. Dry matter recovery from silos with absorbent additives ranged
from 90 to 97% as opposed to 85 to 89% for control silos. Addition of urea
(even at low levels) to these forages when ensiling appeared undesirable
since it resulted in lower silage consumption and increased blood levels of
urea and ammonia. Addition of antibiotics to the silage apparently had little
beneficial effect since two of three antibiotic-treated silages did not
compare well with controls.

Wilting of high-moisture forages has become an accepted ensiling proce-
dure. Advantages demonstrated include greater nutrient recovery and dry
matter intake, with consequent advantages in body weight gains and milk
production of experimental animals.

Direct-cutting for ensiling on the other hand generally has resulted in
greater labor efficiency and carotene recovery. On sandy soils, fairly large
quantities of sand have been picked up when forages were allowed to lay on
the ground to wilt. In spite of the advantages of wilting, only a small
minority of Florida dairymen wilt forage before ensiling. The objectives of
this investigation were to estimate nutrient recovery and feeding value of
pearlmillet forage ensiled at a relatively high moisture content (85-90%)
with various additives.

Information on pearlmillet is limited. It has been shown to have a
feeding value comparable to oats silage, when fed as pasture (1). Estimates
of TDN and digestible crude protein on a dry basis for silage at the Florida
station ranged from 59.4 to 70.3, and 6.3 to 8.8%, respectively (12). Based
on digestion trials conducted in 1959, we estimated yields of TDN and
digestible crude protein per acre to be 1874 and 162 lb., respectively; this
resulted from three cuttings of cultivated, 36-in. row plantings on 6-acre
plots (7). Research and review by Marshall et al. (6) showed pearlmillet
to be a valuable pasture crop.






-2-

Numerous investigators have suggested that high quality silage can be
made when various preservatives are added to high moisture forage. The use
of antibiotics was suggested by Louisiana workers (9, 10). Absorbent feed
additives, such as citrus pulp, provide sugar for bacterial action, reduce
losses due to seepage, and increase palatability. Although addition of
urea to silage has not generally been recommended, its potential with direct-
cut forages ensiled with low-protein absorbent feed additives such as citrus
pulp seemed worthy of study.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
First, second and third cuttings of Gahi pearlmillet, harvested in the
early head stage during October 1959, were ensiled in three separate trials.
Additives and rates of application were as follows: Trial 1, first cutting,
(A) control, (B) 150 lb. citrus pulp per ton, (C) 150 lb. ground snapped
corn per ton, (D) 5 g. zinc bacitracin per ton, and (E) 5 g. albamycin per
ton; Trial 2, second cutting, (F) control, and (G) 5 g. albamycin per ton;
and Trial 3, third cutting, (H) 150 lb. citrus pulp per ton, (I) 150 lb.
citrus pulp plus 10 lb. urea per ton, and (J) 150 lb. citrus pulp plus 15 lb.
urea per ton*

Within each trial, polyvinyl treated canvas silos of 6-tons capacity
were filled with forage from the same field, the sward apparently was
uniform, and the operation was completed in one day. The sides and top of
the forage within each silo were covered and sealed with 8-mil polyethylene
providing an air-tight seal at the top and preventing seepage from the sides
but not from the bottom. Chemical determinations on forage, and from buried
sample bags of silage, were made by standard procedures. Estimates of gross
energy were made by use of a bomb calorimeter. Dry matter and juice of
silages containing antibiotics were tested for the presence of antibiotics
by the microscopic method developed at the Florida station by Liska (5).

After ensiling periods of 60 days or more, digestion trials involving
5 to 8 animals each were conducted. A modified chromogen ratio technique
was employed (8). Digestion trials consisted of a 7-day preliminary period
and a 3-day fecal collection period during which the silages were fed ad
libitum and constituted the only feed. Blood urea and ammonia levels of
animals in Trial 3 were determined. Silage consumption was adjusted to a
common basis of 1000 lb. body weight, on the basis of weight to the
power .734.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Chemical attributes and nutrient recovery. Results of proximate analyses
of forage and silage are presented (Table 1), along with apparent nutrient
recovery. Characteristics other than dry matter are expressed on a dry
matter basis, and include additives previously listed.

? Slight increases in dry matter contents occurred in all silos in Trials
1 and 2, with slight decreases in Trial 3. Rather typical changes occurred
with other constituents. Ether extract and crude fiber increased in all
silos. Nitrogen-free extract decreased in 7 of 10 silos, and crude protein
in all silos. Decreases in crude protein content in silos F and G were
marked. The forage had been fertilized with 125 lb. ammonium nitrate per
acre 7 days previous to ensiling, with a moderate rain one day previous to
ensiling.







TABLE 1


Characteristics of pearlmillet forage and silage with apparent nutrient recovery

Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3

Constituents A B C D E F G H I J
Control Citrus Snapped Zinc Neomycin Control Albamycin Citrus Citrus pulp + Over-
pulp corn bacitracin pulp 10 Ib. urea 15 lb. urea all
Dry mattera Fb 11.1 15.2 15.9 10.0 10.7 9.9 9.8 19.3 23.6 19.3 14.5 %
S 11.7 15.4 18.2 10.1 13.2 10.5 10.2 18.7 22.2 19.0 14.9 %
R 89 91 97 89 99 85 82 92 90 91 91 %
Crude protein F 11.8 11.1 10.0 13.6 12.8 19.7 19.1 11.0 15.1 22.2 14.6
S 9.9 10.8 10.4 10.6 12.0 11.6 10.9 10.5 12.3 17.4 11.6 %
R 75 88 100 70 93 50 47 88 73 71 76 %
Ether extract F 1.2 3.4 2.2 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.8 2.0 1.6 2.0 1.8 %
S 2.2 3.8 2.7 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.8 2.5 2.3 2.9 2.8 %
R 162 102 118 129 212 367 125 111 163 87 158 %
Crude fiber F 33.0 25.8 24.5 32.0 30.9 26.6 28.8 27.7 30.4 25.3 28.5 %
S 38.9 30.8 28.2 39.2 34.8 36.8 36.1 30.9 35.1 28.4 33.9 %
R 105 108 112 108 111 118 103 103 103 102 107 %
Ash F 11.3 8 7 1 1 'f f I N .


S 9.2 9.3 6.8 9.1 9.
R 73 96 93 70 77
N.F.E. F 42.7 50.8 56.2 41.1 42.
S 39.8 45.3 51.9 41.8 40.
CaliR 83 81 90 91 94
Calcium F 0.50 0.77 0.33 0.54 0.
S 0.58 0.86 0.32 0.60 0.
R 103 102 94 98 103
Phosphorus F 0.42 0.30 0.38 0.40 0.-
S 0.33 0.28 0.32 0.25 O.
R 70 86 80 59 83
Energy F 7732 8274 7951 7875 7861
(BTU/1b) S 8335 8503 7685 7068 7883
----R 96 92 95 82 93
-- 93
a All values expressed on a dry matter basis and include addit
F = forage, S = silage, R = recovery.


7v
4 38.1
4 33.6
75
51 0.68
54 0.85
105
45 0.45
38 0.41
78


14.5
80
35.2
35.7
83
0.77
1.10
109
0.45
0.36
65
7435
7543
83


91 .7


ts.4
9.3
102
50.9
46.8
84
0.71
0.75
96
0.32
0.32
92
7967
7792
90


o..y
7.5
99
46.0
42.8
83
0.66
0.71
97
0.21
0.24
100
8089
8305
91


8.8
9.6
100
41.7
41.7
91
0.63
0.92
109
0.34
0.31
84
7494
8005
97


10.5 %
10.0 %
88 %
44.5 %
42.0 %
86 %
0.6Z
0.72%
102 %
0.37%
0.32%
80 %
7832
7863
90 %


I


I






-4-


Nutrients were lost via gas and seepage. The air-tight seal prevented
losses due to spoilage and all silage was fed. Dry matter recovery in silos
containing no additives (A and F) was moderately high at 89 and 85%,irespec-
tively; recovery in silos with absorbent additives (B, C, H, I and J) ranged
from 90 to 97%; recovery in two of three silos containing antibiotics (D, E
and G) was less than controls. In Trials 1 and 2, crude protein recovery
was markedly higher than control with absorbent additives (B and C), but
recovery was lower with two of three antibiotics (D, E and G). Apparent crude
protein losses in silos I and J, containing highly soluble urea, were higher
than the control with 88% recovery. Recovery of ether extract was variable,
with no apparent systematic trends. Crude fiber recovery was greater than
100% in all cases (as is usual) with no obvious trends. Energy recovery
averaged 90% over-all, with only silos D and J deviating markedly from their
controls.

Silage quality and consumption. Gross consumption varied markedly
(Table 2) among silages. Since consumption and intake data were adjusted to
a common body weight, these differences should be due primarily to the
confounded effects of dry matter content and palatability. Dry matter intake
averaged 15.0 lb. per animal daily over-all. Intake was relatively constant
in Trial 1 except for silage containing ground snapped corn (C) of which
21.3 lb. was consumed daily; remaining silages in this trial were consumed
at the rate of 14+.3 to 16.0 lb. In Trial 2, a slight advantage in dry matter
intake of 1.5 lb. daily was noted in the control silage (F) over the albamycin-
treated silage (G).

Although 10 lb. of urea per ton of sorghum silage did not appear to affect
consumption rates in a previous report (2) rather marked decreases in con-
sumption of urea-treated silages were noted in the present study. There were
no obvious differences in appearance of the silages and there was no detectable
odor of ammonia in the treated silages. The experimental animals began to
consume the treated silages immediately, but did not consume as much.

Tests for presence of antibiotics in silages D, E and G were negative.

Analysis of estimates of digestibility of organic matter in Trial 1
showed significant (P < 0.05) differences. Silages A (control) and E
(neomycin) were more highly digestible than the two with absorbent additives,
B and C, and they in turn over the silage containing zinc bacitracin, D.
There were no other significant differences in organic matter digestibility.
Apparent digestibility of crude protein was significantly greater in silages
A and E than in B, C and D in Trial 1; recovery of fecal nitrogen was less
with urea-treated silages than their control. Silage pH remained within
acceptable limits in Trial 1, the control silage being the highest at 5.0.
High pH in all other silages, regardless of treatment, was noted with silages
ranging from 6.1 to 6.3.

USDA workers (11) have indicated that about 13 lb. alfalfa dry matter per
1000 lb. body weight, with TDN of 7.35, was necessary for body maintenance.
Silages from D, F and G did not meet these requirements. Dry matter intakes
of the remaining silages ranged from 13.7 (J) to 21.3 (C); TDN from 7.3 (J)
to 12.0 (C). All silages met or surpassed suggested maintenance requirements
for digestible protein.
Changes in blood composition. Venous blood samples, taken 4 hr. after
morning feeding, were taken at the end of a preliminary period during which
the seven animals of Trial 3 were being fed a maintenance ration of corn







TABLE 2

Consumption rates, digestibility and pH of silages

Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3

Characteristic A B C D E F G H I J
Control Citrus Snapped Zinc Neomycin Control Albamycin Citrus Citrus pulp + Over-
pulp corn bacitracin pulp 10 lb urea 15 lb urea all
a
Gross consumption (Ib) 131 104 117 142 115 110 99 97 66 72 105

Dry matter intake (Ib) 15.3 16.0 21.3 14.3 15.2 11.6 10.1 18.1 14.7 13.7 15.0
Digestibility (%)

Organic matter 64.2 60.6 61.0 56.0 65.0 64.4 65.7 63.3 62.5 63.8 62.7
Crude proteinc 85.3 59.3 60.2 62.5 81.1 75.1 75.7 63.3 88.2 88.5 73.9

pH 5.0 3.9 4.3 4.0 4.3 6.1 6.2 6.1 6.1 6.3 --
TDN () 52.4 55.4 56.4 47.5 52.6 46.6 48.4 54.7 53.4 53.1 52.1

Digestible protein (%) 8.5 6.3 6.3 5.7 9.7 7.4 6.9 6.5 10.7 15.4 8.3
TDN intake (Ib) 8.0 8.9 12.0 6.8 8.0 5.4 4.9 10.8 7.8 7.3 8.0

DCP intake (lb) 1.3 1.0 1.3 0.8 1.5 0.9 0.7 1.2 1.6 2.1 1.2


Daily consumption/1000 lb. body weight

Significant differences at the 5% level of probability:
Trial 1: 65.0, 64.2 < 61.0, 60.2 < 56.0

STrial 1: 85.3, 81.1 < 62.5, 60.2, 59.3; Trial 3: 88.5, 88.2 < 63.3








silage (ad. lib.) arnd cottonseed meal pellets (2 lb. daily). Subsequent
samples were taken on the 5th and 10th day of feeding for the control
silage (H), the 10 lb. per ton urea silage (I), and the 15 lb. per ton urea
silage (J), respectively. Within-animal comparisons of levels of blood-urea
and blood-ammonia were thus possible, and are summarized (Table 3).

TABLE 3

Effect of urea-treated pearlmillet silage on blood levels of urea and ammonia
Blood-urea Blood-ammonia
5th day 10th day 5th day 10th day
Ration

mg/100 ml. blood
Preliminary -- 24.0 -- 0

Control (H) 13.6 16.7 0 0

Urea (10 lb/ton) (I) 27.6 32.1 1.21 0.23

Urea (15 lb/ton) (J) 32.5 26.9 1,61 1.29

Normal levels (3) were shown to be 7 to 15 mg. for urea, and essentially
0 for ammonia, in dairy and crossbred animals 16 to 30 mo. old. The pre-
liminary-period level of 24.0 was thus slightly above normal for urea, and
normal for ammonia. On the control ration, drops to the normal levels were
noted, 13.6 and 16.7 mg. for days 5 and 10, respectively. For urea,
significant (P < 0.01) differences were noted for control vs. treated levels
and for day by treatment interactions. Differences between treated silages
(I vs. J) were not significant. For ammonia, differences (P < 0.01) were
noted for level in silage (I vs. J) and for days on ration (5th vs. 10th).

Blood-ammonia levels of 4.0 mg. were fatal in all animals of Davis and
Roberts (3) in which this level was reached. Other workers have observed
prominent ataxia in the front legs of 500 lb. yearling steers when levels
of 2 mg. were reached, followed by severe tetany and death at levels ranging
from 4.5 to 7.1 mg. (4). No outward symptoms of distress were noted in the
seven animals of the present study. Because of the decreased consumption of
the urea silages and the increased levels of blood-ammonia, addition of urea
to pearlmillet and citrus pulp silages would seem to have questionable value
when the silage provides the only feed.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors wish to acknowledge the field assistance of A. T. Newton,
A. Beutke and M. Kersey; the laboratory assistance of C. P. Brown, R. Conrad,
J. Mason and C. W. ErgSrny materials and partial financial support of the
Commercial Solvents Corp. (New York, N.Y.); materials of the Upjohn Co.
(Kalamazoo, Mo.) and E. I. duPont de Nemours and Co., Inc. (Wilmington, Del.);
and assistance in programming and electronic calculation of digestion data by
A. E. Brandt, Florida Agr. Exp. Sta. Statistician.









LITERATURE CITED

(1) BOYD, L. J. Comparison of Silage and Pearl Millet for Maintaining
Summer Milk Production. J. Dairy Sci,, 43:867. 1960.


(2) DAVIS, G.
MARSHALL,


K., BECKER, R. B., ARNOLD, P. T. D., COMAR, C. L., and
S. P. Urea in Sorghum Silage. J. Dairy Sci., 27:649.


(3) DAVIS, G. K., and ROBERTS,
Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 611.


H. F. Urea Toxicity in Cattle. Florida
1959.


(4) DINNING, J. S., BRIGGS, H. M., GALLUP, W. D., ORR, H. W., and BUTLER, R.
Effect of Orally Administered Urea on the Ammonia and Urea Concentration
in Blood of Cattle and Sheep with Observations on Blood Ammonia Levels
Associated with Symptoms of Alkalosis. Am. J. Physiol., 153:41. 1948.

(5) LISKA, B. J. Effects of Penicillin on the Morphology of Streptococcus
Bacteria, Streptococcus Thermophilus and Leuconostoc Dextranicum.
Dairy Sci., 42:1391. 1959.


(6) MARSHALL, S. P., SANCHEZ, A. B., SOMERS, H. L.,
Value of Pearl Millet Pasture for Dairy Cattle.
Bull. 527. 1953.


and ARNOLD, P. T. D.
Florida Agr. Exp. Sta.


(7) NEWTON, A. T., WING, J. M., and BOGGS,
Broadcast Pearlmillet. Sunshine State
Agric. Exp. Sta.) 5(2):3. 1960.


J. P. Row Plantings
Agric. Research Rpt.


Outyielded
(Florida


(8) REID, J. T., WOLFOLK, P. G., HARDISON, W. A., MARTIN, C. M., BRUNDANGE,
A. L., and KAUFMAN, R. W. A Procedure for Measuring the Digestibility
of Pasture Forage Under Grazing Conditions. J. Nutrition, 46:255. 1952.

(9) RUSOFF, L. L., BREIDENSTEIN, C. P., and FRYE, J. B., JR. Value of
Bacitracin As a Preservative for Grass Silage on Milk Production.
Dairy Sci., 42:929. 1959.


(10) RUSOFF, L. L., BREIDENSTEIN, C. P., MILSTEAD, W. J., and BERTRAND,
Zinc Bacitracin as a Silage Preservative. J. Dairy Sci., 42:392.


J. E.
1959.


(11) THOMAS, J. W., and MOORE, L. A. Maintenance Requirements of Dairy Cows.
J. Dair Sci., 43:889. 1960.

(12) WING, J. M., and WILCOX, C. J. Nutritive Value of Pearlmillet Silage
Preserved with Various Antibiotics. J. Dairy Sci., 43:445. 1960.


1944.




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