Title: Small grain forage production at Ona and Immokalee, 1975-76
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Title: Small grain forage production at Ona and Immokalee, 1975-76
Series Title: Small grain forage production at Ona and Immokalee, 1975-76
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Publisher: Agricultural Research Center
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Bibliographic ID: UF00076458
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Agricultural Research Center, Ona -
Research Report RC-1976-9 --October 1976



SMALL GRAIN FORAGE PRODUCTION AT ONA AND I KALEEU197576.

R. S. Kalbacher, P. Mislevy, P. H. Everett, a D. Barnett =


The small grains, rye (Secale cereal L.) wheat (Triticum aes)
and oats (Avena sativa L.) are cool-season annuals. In south-central
Florida these grasses may be seeded after a vegetable crop, used in ar
pasture renovation program, or may be overseeded under certain conditions
in perennial grasses, thus extending the grazing season through the winter.
With good management small grains can provide high-quality forage (70 to 80%
in vitro organic matter digestibility) and substantial dry matter yields
(2 to 4 tons/A).

Small grains are quick to establish and respond well to nitrogen
fertilization. However, their management differs from that of ryegrass.
Initial small grain growth should be grazed about 45 days after seeding
when plants are 12 to 15 inches tall. Deferring the first grazing much
later than 45 days may be detrimental to small-grain regrowth. Rotation
grazing of regrowth, when plants reach 12 to 15 inches tall and new devel-
oping tillers are 1 to 6 inches tall is recommended.

The purpose of this study woo to evaluate yield, quality, disease
resistance, and persistence of 16 small grain varieties grown under Florida
conditions.

Eight rye, 3 wheat and 4 oat varieties, plus 1 oat-ryegrass mixture
were seeded at the Ona and Tmmokalee Agricultural Research Centers on
November 7 and November 25, 1975, respectively. Seeding rates of rye
and wheat varieties were 2 bu/A; oats, 3 bu/A; and the oats-ryegrass was
seeded at 1.5 buand 10 lb/A,respectively. The field plot layout at both
locations was 4 replications of a randomized complete block design.
Fertilization prior to seeding at Ona consisted of the application f
700 lb/A of an 0-10-20 analysis fertilizer plus 28 Ib/A of FTE 503 At
Immokalee 430 Ib/A of 0-10-20 and 17 Ib/A FTE 503 were applied. At both
locations 50 Ib/A of nitrogen (N) was applied after seedling emergence.
An additional 50 Ib/A N was applied after each harvest.

1/
SAssistant Professors, Agricultural Research Center, Ona; Professor,
Agricultural Research Center, Inmokalee; Assistant Professor,
Agricultural Research and Education Center Quincy.
2/
FTE 503 = Iron 18.0%; Zinc 7.0%; Manganese 7.5%; Copper 3.0%; Boron 3.0%;
Molybdenum 0.2%.











The Ona experiment was watered with an over-head irrigation system. A
total of 8.3 inches of water was applied. At Immokalee the grains were -
watered weekly or as needed with a seepage system with ditches on 40 foot
centers .

The grains at both locations were harvested 5 times. The first harvest
was about 45 days after seeding, prior to elevation of the growing point.
above the soil surface. Height of plants averaged 9 to 12 inches. Subse-
quent harvests were spaced 21-30 days apart; except for the 5th harvest at
Ona, which was 41 days after harvest 4. Regrowth was generally 10 to 15
inches tall.

Results and Discussion

There were significant (P-0.05) differences among the small grain
varieties at One (Table 1). 'Coker 227' was the highest yielding oat
variety with 3.5 T/A. 'Coker 227' appears to be an excellent entry be-
cause, in addition to its high yield, it is decumbent, very leafy, produces
tillers profusely, and may tolerate limited, close grazing. 'Vita Graze'
and 'Gurley Graze 2000' were high yielding rye varieties each producing
3.5 T/A. 'Holley' was the highest yielding wheat with 3.4 T/A. Among
these high yielding grains, none was significantly highest. That is, high
yielding rye varieties didn't out-yield wheat or oat varieties.

In addition to high yield, other variables should be considered. It
is important for a variety to produce a large number of tillers throughout
the growing season and yet remain in the vegetative condition as long as
possible in the spring. This type of performance by a small grain variety
would be especially valuable in a grazing system. The varieties which
produced tillers quite profusely at Ona in mid-April were as follows:
'Coker 227' and 'ElAn-" ats, 'Holley' wheat and 'Wintergrazer 70', 'Winter-
more', 'Vita Graze', 'Helena Hy-aye' and 'Hiawasa~c' rye. At Immokalee,
'Coker 227' oats, 'Wintergrazer 70', 'Wintermore', 'Gurley Graze 2000' and
'Balbo' rye were tillering well in late April.

However, if the forage program requires removal of only 1 harvest
(ie. ensiling a small grain crop followed by establishment of corn) then
the variety producing the most abundant upright-forage in 70-80 days after
seeding would be selected. Varieties of this type at One would include
Holley wheat, Coker 227, Elan and Fla. 501 oats. Rye varieties seem to
produce more forage in mid-winter.at Ona, whereas at Immokalee rye varieties
produced forage earlier in the season.

At Immokalee there were also significant (P50.05) differences among
small grain varieties (Table 2). 'Coker 227' oats was the highest yielding
oat variety, producing 2.4 T/A. 'Helena Hy-Rye' and McNair 1813' were
the high yielding rye and wheat varieties, producing 2.0 and 2.1 T/A,
respectively. As at Ona, high yielding rye varieties didn't differ from
high yielding oat or wheat varieties.










In general, rye varieties tended to hold-up better toward the end of
the trial. Oat varieties, particularly 'Elan', were infested with rust
(Puccinia spp.). Wheat varieties, with the exception of 'Holley' at
Ona (table 1), dropped in production as stands started to die-out. Rye
varieties flowered later, thus remained in a vegetative condition longer.

The 'Fla. 70 Q1153', 'Gulf' ryegrass mixture produced 3.7 T/A at
Ona (table 1) and 2.6 T/A at Immokalee (table 2). At Immokalee the oat
component died after the 3rd harvest (March 1). After the 4th harvest
(March 22) Gulf ryegrass became heavily infested with rust. This
emphasizes the point that varieties differ in performance at different
locations.

Percent in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) for the 16
varieties grown at Immokalee are presented in table 3. Average IVOMD
values, which predict percent total digestible nutrients (TDN), were
higher for 'Balbo' rye and 'Coler 227' oats (79.7 and 79.6%, respectively),
'Coker 227' was highest in IVOMD (87.3%) at the February 3rd harvest. All
forages tended to be a little higher, averaging 83.77 at harvest 2.
Quality dropped as forages matured.

Conclusions

Differences in dry matter yield do exist among small grain varieties.
Experimental locations do affect the performance of small grains, empha-
sizing the point that only those small grain varieties, which perform
well in a grower's area, should be purchased.

Good quality, high-yielding small-grain forages can be produced
in the Ona and Immokalee areas providing adequate water, good fertility
and management are used.











Table 1. Forage production of small grain varieties grown at the ARC Ona, 1975-76.

Harvest .


1
12/22/75


1/20/76


3 4 5
2/17/76 3/10/76 4/20/76


Total


Mixtures
Fla. 70 Q1153 oats
and Gulf ryegrass
Oats
Coker 227
Elan
Fla. 501
TAM 0 312
Rye
Vita Graze
Gurley Graze 2000
Wintermore
Wrens Abruzzi
Helena Hy-Rye
Wintergrazer 70
Balbo
Hiawassee **
Wheat
Holley
McNair 1813
Coker 68-19


0.3 b*


0.2
0.3
0.4
0.1

0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.2
0.2


0.3 b
0.3 b
0.2 c


0.8 a


0.8
0.7
0.7
0.7

0.7
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6


0.7 ab
0.7 ab
0.7 ab


0.9 ab 0.7 ab 1.0 a 3.7 a


0.9 ab
0.7 c
0.9 ab
0.7 bc

1.0 a
1.0 a
0.9 ab
0.9 ab
0.9 ab
0.8 bc
0.9 ab
0.8 bc

0.9 ab
0.9 ab
0.8 bc


0.7 ab
0.6 bc
0.6 bc
0.7 ab

0.6 bc
0.6 bc
0.6 bc
0.5 c
0.6 bc
0.5 c
0.7 ab
0.7 ab

0.6 bc
0.8 a
0.6 bc


0.9 ab
0.8 abc
0.6 c
0.7 bc

0.9 ab
1.0 a
0.8 abc
0.9 ab
0.7 be
0.9 ab
0.7 bc
0.7 bc

0.9 ab
0.5c
0.2 d


3.5 ab
3.1 cd
3.2 bcd
2.9 d

3.5 ab
3.5 ab
3.2 bcd
3.2 bcd
3.1 cd
3.1 cd
3.1 cd
3.0 d

3.4 abc
3.2 bcd
2.5 e


Means within columns followed by same letters are not significantly different
at the 0.05 level according to Duncans Multiple Range Test.
experimental: seed not available.


Variety









Table 2. Average dry matter yield of 16 small grain varieties in tons/acre. at
5 harvest dates. Total yield is also shown. Immokalee, 1975-76.

Harvest


Variety


1
1/9/76


Mixtures
Fla. 70 Q1153
and Gulf ryegrass
Oats
Coker 227
Elan
Fla. 501
TAM 0-312
Rye
Vita Graze
Gurley Graze 2000
Wintermore
Wrens Abruzzi
Helena Hy-Rye
Wintergrazer 70
Balbo
Hiawassee
Wheat
Holley
McNair
Coker 68-19


0.3 ab

0.3 ab
0.3 ab
0.2 bc
0.2 bc

0.4 a
0.4 a
0.3 ab
0.4 a
0.3 ab
0.3 ab
0.3 ab
0.2 bc


0.3 ab
0.3 ab
0.1 c


2
2/3/76


0.7 a


0.6
0.6
0.4
0.6

0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.5
0.5

0.6
0.6
0.5


3
3/1/76


4
3/22/76


5
4/21/76


0.8 ab 0.5 a 0.3 a


0.9
0.6
0.7
0.7

0.6
0.5
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.6
0.6
0.4


0.5 de
0.6 cd
0.6 cd


0.2
0.2
0.1
0.2

0.2
0.2
0.3
0.2
0.4
0.1
0.2
0.4


0.2
0.4
**


0.4 a
0**
**
0.3 a


0.3
0.4
0.4
0.3
0.1
0.4
0.3
0.2


**
0.2 a
**


* Means within columns followed by the same letter


are not significantly different


Varieties not harvested due to stand senesence.


Total




2.6 a*


2.4
1.7
1.4
2.0

2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
1.9
1.9
1.7


ab
cde
ef
bc

bc
bc
bc
bc
bc
cd
cd
cde


(K = 100 (P=0.05): Duncars least significant difference test).


1.6 def
2.1 bc
1.2 f


---








Table 3. Percent in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) of 16 small grain
varieties at 5 harvest dates and their IVOMD averages. Immokalee, 1975-76.


Variety

Mixtures
Fla. 70 Q1153l't


Harvest
1 2 3 3 5
1/9/76 2/3/76 3/1/76 3/22/76 4/21/76


Average


and Gulf ryegrass 82.8 83.4 76.6 77.3 72.8 78.6 abcde
Oats
Coker 227 82.7 87.3 80.5 76.4 71.1 79.6 a
Elan 83.1 85.3 78.9 78.0 ** 81.3 +
Fla. 501 84.7 84.9 78.4 76.8 ** 81.2
TAM 0-312 82.8 86.3 78.9 79.6 68.9 79.3 ab
Rye
Vita Graze 81.6 82.3 77.8 76.9 67.2 77.2 def
Gurley Graze 2000 81.4 83.1 79.2 75.1 66.4 77.0 ef
Wintermore 81.5 84.3 78.2 74.6 70.7 77.9 abcdef
Wrens Abruzzi 80.7- 82.4 78.8 76.6 67.3 77.1 ef
Helena Hy-Rye 81.0 84.0 77.8 74.5 67.7 77.0 ef
Wintergrazer 70 83.7 81.5 78.5 74.8 68.8 77,5 bcdef
Balbo 83.7 86.0 81.0 75.7 72.0 79,7 a
Hiawassee t+ 81.8 84.8 78.8 78.1 73.0 79.2 abc
Wheat
Holley 81.8 82.3 80.0 74.0 ** 79.5 t
McNair 1813 80.1 81.0 79.0 74.7 67.8 76.5 f
Coker 68-19 80.0 80.6 75.5 ** ** 78.7 t
Average 82.1 83.7 78.6 75.9 69.4

Means within columns followed by the same letter are not significantly different
(K=100 (P=0.05) Duncan's least significant difference test).
** Varieties not harvested due to stand senesence.
- IVOMD averages not included in mean separation procedures due to stand senesence.
T- Experimental: seed not available.




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