Title: Small grain forage production at Ona and Immokalee, 1976-77
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076457/00001
 Material Information
Title: Small grain forage production at Ona and Immokalee, 1976-77
Series Title: Small grain forage production at Ona and Immokalee, 1976-77
Physical Description: Book
Publisher: Agricultural Research Center
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076457
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 143344741

Full Text



Agricultural Research Center --- .. *
Research Report- RC-1977-10 HUi-i j pctober 1977v

JUL 1 0 1978

SMALL GRAIN FORAGE PRODUCTION AT ONA AND I KALE: 1976-77
.... U i. of -orid 3
R. S. Kalmbacher, P. Mislevy, P. H. Everett, and R. D. Barnett-


The small grains, rye (Secale cereale L.),wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and
oats (Avena sativa L.) are cool-season annuals. In south-central Florida these
grasses may be seeded after a vegetable crop, used in a pasture renovation program,
or may be overseeded under certain conditions in perennial grasses, thus extending
the grazing season through the winter. With good management small grains can
provide high-quality forage (70 to 80% in vitro organic matter digestibility) and
substantial dry matter yields (2 to 4 tons/A).

Small grains are quick to establish and respond well to nitrogen fertilization.
However, their management differs -from that of ryegrass. Initial small grain growth
should be grazed about 45 days after seeding when plants are 12 to 15 inches tall.
Deferrring the first grazing much later than 45 days may be detrimental to small-
grain regrowth. Rotation grazing of regrowth, when plants reach 12 to 15 inches
tall and new developing tillers are 1 to 6 inches tall is recommended.

New small grain varieties are continually being released from public and private
sources. Additionally, plant breeders are interested in testing experimental.
It is important that these small grains be evaluated for yield, quality, disease
resistance, and persistence under south-Florida conditions.

Experimental Procedure

At the Ona Agricultural Research Center (ARC) 2 oat, 2 wheat, 6 rye, 1 oat/rye-
grass mixture, 1 wheat/red clover, and 1 oat/red clover mixture were seeded on
November 10, 1976. At Immokalee ARC, 3 oat, 2 wheat, 6 rye, 1 oat/ryegrass
mixture, 1 wheat/red clover and 1 oat/red clover mixture were seeded on November
19, 1976. A late seeding of 2 oat, 1 rye and 1 ryegrass variety were made on January
7, 1977. The experimental design at both locations was 4 replications of a randomi-
zed complete block.

Seeding rate for rye and wheat was 2 bu/A; oats 3 bu/A; ryegrass 20 Ibs/A;
and the oats/ryegrass mixture was seeded at a 1:4 ratio (40 Ibs/A at Ona and 96 Ibs/A
at Immokalee). All seed was broadcast and cultipacked into the seed bed.

Fertilization prior to seeding at Ona consisted of the application of 530
lbs/A of an 0-10-20 (N-P205-K20) fertilizer., At Immokalee 670 lbs/A of an 0-10-20
fertilizer + 26 lbs/A FTE 503./ was applied. Nitrogen at 50 lbs/A was applied
immediately after seedling emergence or 14 days after seeding at Ona and 14 days
after seeding at Immokalee. Nitrogen at 50 lbs/A was applied after each harvest

1T
Assistant Professor and Associate Professor, Agricultural Research Center, Ona;
Professor Agricultural Research Center, Immokalee; Assistant Professor, Agricul
tural Research and Education Center, Quincy, Florida.
-FTE 503= Iron 18.0%; Zinc 7.0%; Manganese 7.5%; Copper 3.0%; Boron 3.0%;
Molybdenum 0.2%.












on all pure stands of small grains and small grain-ryegrass mixtures at Ona and
Immokalee. Some of the 'Holley' wheat-'Pennscott' red clover mixtures and the
'Coker 227' oats-'Pennscott' red clover Llixtures at Ona were both fertilized with
50 Ibs/A N after each harvest and treated as a grass. Other plots containing
the above mixtures were managed as a pure legume, and no nitrogen was applied.
Thus the grass portion of the mixture obtained its nitrogen from the legume
(Pennscott red clover).

All entries were watered with an over-head system at Ona. A total of 17.8
inches was applied during the course of the 195 days experiment. However 9.1
inches of the 17.8 was applied after mid-April. At Immokalee a seepage irrigation
system was available early in the season, but no water was applied due to unus-
ually adequate rainfall.

The grains at both locations were harvested 5 times. The first harvest was
about 45 days after seeding, prior to elevation of the graoing point above the
soil surface. Height of plants averaged 9 to 12 inches. Subsequent harvests
were spaced 21-30 days apart. Regrowth was generally 10 to 15 inches tall.

Results and Discussion

Ona ARC

Significant differences were observed among small grain entries and mixtures
at harvest 1 (Table 1). 'Wrens Abruzzi' and McNair 'Vita Graze' rye were the
highest yielders producing 0.51 and 0.49 T/A, respectively, 42 days after seeding.
However, very little difference existed between all small grains on the 12-22-76
harvest date. The small grain Pennscott red clover mixtures receiving no nitrogen
produced very little forage. This would indicate if early forage production is
desired soon after seeding, nitrogen must be applied immediately after seedling
emergence. Plants ranged from 9.2 to 12.5 inches tall at the initial harvest
(Table 2). All entries were at the vegetative stage except 'Fla 70 Q' oats and
Acco 'JR 811' rye which are early maturing varieties.

Harvest 2 was removed on 1-17-77 again with significant differences among the
entries (Table 1). The grass mixture 'Fla 70 Q' oats and Northrup Ring 'Tetrablend
444' ryegrass (4:1 mixture) produced the highest yield due to the early maturing
oat variety. Again as at harvest 1 all small grains and mixtures that received
nitrogen produced yields of comparable quantity. Plant heights at harvest 2
ranged from 8.6 inches for 'Coker 227' to 16.8 inches for 'Fla. 70 Q' (Table 2).
This latter entry would be extremely valuable in a forage system where rapid growth
is desired for a one harvest operation. 'Fla 70 Q' oats was the variety most suc-
ceptable to injury from cold temperatures (19 F on January 19, 1977). Tiller
density at the time of the second harvest was high for most entries except the two
wheat varieties.












Little differences were observed for average dry matter production of oats,
wheat and rye varieties at the third harvest. The ryegrass/oats mixture produced
the lowest yield at this harvest. This would indicate that the 'Fla 70 Q' had
died (Table 2), and the ryegrass had not developed into full production. The
'Coker 227' and 'Holley' wheat mixtures with 'Pennscott' red clover and nitrogen
7ere the highest yielders at harvest 3 averaging 0.61 and 0.65 T/A dry matter.
The red clover-small grain mixtures not receiving nitrogen were starting to
increase in yield due to the development of the red clover.

All small grains and small grain mixtures increased in dry matter production
at harvest 4. 'Coker 227' oats produced the highest yield averaging 1.10 T/A
dry matter (Table 1). This is mainly due to stem elongation of small grains
(Table 2). Most small grains were either jointing or at the boot stage. The 'Coker
227' oats -:- 'Pennscott' red clover mixture not receiving fertilizer nitrogen
produced yields comparable to the 227 + red clover mixture receiving nitrogen after
each harvest (.97 vs .99).

Yields at harvest 5 (4-22-77) demonstrated that small grain forage production
was declining due to warmer temperatures. The value of seeding forage mixtures
was now being realized, with the ryegrass mixture, wheat and oats-red clover
rAixture without nitrogen producing the highest yields (Table 1). Many of the small
grain entries ('Coker 227', 'Fla 70 Q', 'Wrens Abruzzi', 'Vita Graze' and 'Gurley
Grazer 2000') were dead by 4-22-77 (Table 2). However, 3 rye varieties ('Winter-
grazer 70', 'Wintergrazer A' and 'WR 811') were still growing quite actively and
producing many tillers.

All small grain and ryegrass plants died after the 4-22-77 harvest. However,
the treatments containing the red clover continued to grow producing forage through
late July (Table 1).

Total dry matter yields of small grains seeded alone ranged from a high of
3.10 to 2.23 T/A dry matter for 'Coker 227' oats and 'Gurley Grazer 2000', respec-
tively. The oat varieties averaged about 0.40 T/A more than the wheat or rye
varieties. Highest dry matter production was obtained from the forage mixtures,
with 'Coker 227' oats 'Pennscott' red clover with nitrogen produced the highest
yield. However, the red clover + oats mixture with no nitrogen averaged only
0.30 T/A less. This would indicate when seeding small grain-red clover mixtures
one or two applications of nitrogen may be advisable at early plant dev lopment,
but no nitrogen applied after late January.

Immokalee ARC

There were significant differences in dry matter yield among the small grain
entries at each of the 5 Immokalee harvests (Table 3). The higher yields at
harvest 1 (1-4-77) were produced by 'Fla 70 Q' oats (0.43 T/A), the oat/ryegrass
mixture (0.42 T/A), 'tR 811' rye (0.37 T/A) and 'Vita Graze' rye (0.37 T/A).












At harvest 1 the yield from the oat/ryegrass mixture was due almost exclusively
to 'Fla 70 Q' oats, which is an extremely early variety. At this harvest (46
days after seeding) '70 Q' was in transition stage with apical meristems
elevated 3/4" to 1" above the soil (Table 4).

At the second harvest high yielding entries were the oat/ryegrass mixture (0.33)
'McNair 1813' (0.33); 'TR 811' rye (0.29); 'Vita-Qraze' rye (0.27); 'Fla 70 Q'
(0.26) and 'Gurley Graze 2000 (0.26) (able 3). When examining the stage of maturity
of these higher yielding entries in table 4, it can be observed that they were
generally earlier maturing and in the transition stage.

'Acco 811' rye (0.41), '501' oats (0.39), the oat/ryegrass mixture (0.39), and
'Fla 70 Q' oats (0.35) were higher yielding,harvest 3. At harvest 4 'Fla 501'
(0.75) and 'Coker 227' oats (0.62) were higher yielding. At the fifth and
last harvest (4-7-77) the very late maturing Pennington 'Wintergrazer A' (1.01)
and the oat/ryegrass mixture (1.11), which was 100% 'Tetrablend 444' ryegrass at
the time, were higher yielding. Forage yield of all entries generally reached
a peak at harvest 4 and 5. It should be noted, however, that this is primarily
reproductive growth (Table 4), and the plant was not as digestible as when in the
vegetative stage.

When evaluating these entries for total dry matter yield the 'Fla 70 Q' +
'Tetrablend 444' ryegrass mixture was the highest yielding with 2.68 T/A (Table 3).
This is an excellent combination of an early producing :species ('70 Q') and a
late producing ryegrass.

As a group the oats tended to be lower in production (1.70 T/A), and the
wheat and rye entries were about the same (2.00 vs 2.04 T/A). The unusually cold
January seriously impeded the growth of the oats. Rye and wheat were more cold
tolerant.

All entries were essentially disease free. The oat entries had a 5-15% rust
(Puccinia spp.) infestation at harvest 1 (1-4-77) but were rust free after this
period (Table 4). 'Coker 227' at 2-18-77 had a serious infestation of Helmin-
thosporium spp. which cleared up in subsequent harvests.

When seeding small grains it is important to select species -nd varieties, not
only on their yielding ability, but also on their maturity. Selection on the
latter assures a continuous supply of nutritious forage. As a species oats
are generally earlier than rye, with wheat intermediate. Examples of commer-
cially available forages that were among the higher producers of early, interme-
diate or late forage are: 'Fla 501' oats, McNair '1813' wheat, and Pennington
'Wintergrazer A;, respectively.













Yields from the January 7, 1977 seeded forages were about 45% lower than
production of the same November seeded entries.(Table 3). Ranchers or dairymen
experiencing cool-wet winter may wish to take advantage of these unusual
conditions by making late seedings. However, this is normally not a recommended
practice.

Conclusion

Small grains alone or in mixtures with ryegrass or red clover can produce
dry matter yields from 2.2 to 4.4 T/A. When managing small grains for grazing,
the initial forage removal must take place 45 days after seeding provided
water and fertilization has been applied. Each successive grazing must take
place every 30 days to keep plants from going into the reproductive stage.
Small grains in combination with ryegrass or red clover appear to be quite
promising in south-central Florida, extending forage production by 30 to 60 days.

Differences in dry matter production were found among small grain entries
grown at the Immokalee ARC. In the cooler 1976-77 season wheat and rye
varieties tended to yield higher than oats.







1976-77.


Table 1. Average dry matter yield of small grain varieties grown at Ona ARC.


Brand Variety
(3 bu/A)


Oats
C 227
Fla 501
Average
$heat (2 bu/A)
Holley


McN 1813
Average
Rye (2 bu/A)
Pen Uintergrazer 70
Pen Wintergrazer A
Acco WR 811
Wrens abruzzi
McN Vita-Graze
Gurly Gurley Grazer 2000


1
12-22-76
- - -


0.41
0.48
0.45


0.45 abc
0.38 c
0 429


0.40
0.42
0.48
0.51
0.49
0.48
A 46


2
1-17-77
- - -

0.47 cd
n 50 abc


0.49


0.53 abc
0.53 abc
0.53


0.43
0.49
0.51
0.48
0.52
0.47
0.48


d
bcd
abc
cd
abc
cd


Harvest
3 4
2-18-77 3-14-77
- Dry matter yield


0.62
0.41


0.52


0.49 de
0.55 bcd
0.52


0.51
0.52
0.56
0.56
0.60
0.57
0.55


cd
cd
bcd
bcd
ab
abc


1.10
0.85


0 .5 .b 0


0.51 f
0.94 bc
0.73


0.83
0.82
0.66
0.84
0.64
0.71
0.75


5 6 7


5
4-22-77
T/A- -


6
6-15-77
- - -


0.50
0.48


0.67 bcd

0.67


0.79 bcd
0.64 bcd
0.50 cd



0.64


7
7-22-77 Total
- - -


-- 3.10
-- 2.72
2.91


-2.65
-- 2.40
2.53


2.96
2.89
2.71
2.39
2.25
2.23
2.57


Mixtures
Tetrablend 444+Fla 70 Q 0.42 bc
ryegrasse + oats)
Coker 227+lenn. r. clr. 0.31 d
Holley wheat-:Penn. r. clr.0.31 d
Coker 227+Penn. r. c1r. 0.05 e
(no nitrogen)
Holley wheat+Penn.r. dr. 0.10 e


0.56 a


0.29 g 0.72 e 1.41 a


0.55 ab 0.61 ab 0.99 b 0.46 d
0.48 cd 0.65 a 0.53 f 0.93 b


0.12 e 0.34 fg 0.97 b


1.36 a


0.18 c 0.42 ef 0.53 f 1.25 a


1.20
1.04

0.98
0.80


-- 3.40 a


0.30
0.34

0.31
0.15


4.42 a
4.28 a

4.13 a
3.43 a


(no nitrogen)

SMeans within columns followed by the same letter are
Brand abbreviations
Fla Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
C Coker's Pedigreed Seed Co.
1cN McNair Seed
Pen Pennington Grain and Seed, Inc.


not significantly different. Duncan's


LSD, K=100.


Brand abbreviations
Acco Acco Seed Co.
Gurly Gurley Milling Co.


--


--


0.45 0.49


-f i


0. 0.52


--


Average


0.98


0.49











Table 2. Agronomic characteristics of small grains and small grain mixtures grown at the
ARC, Ona. 1976-77._- _
Harvest


1
12-22-76
Plant Tiller
Brand Variety _ht.(in.) Stage' density+


1-17-77
Plant Tiller
ht.(in.) Stage density


2-18-77
Plant Tiller
ht.(in.) Stage density


Oats
C
Fla
Fla


227
501
70 Q


10.2
12.0
12.5


Wheat
Holley
McN 1813


Rye
Pen Wintergrazer 70 9.0
Pen Hintergrazer A 9.5
Acco TJR 811 8.2
Wrens abruzzi 9.5
McN Vita-Graze 10.5
Gurly Gurley Grazer 200010.2


8.6
10.6
16.8


10.9
11.3


9.5
9.8
11.3
9.8
10.6
10.4


5.8
C.8


13.0
8.0


7.8
7.5
11.2
9.0
10.5
9.2


V
V --
J --
J --
J --
J --


y Physiological stage: V= vegetative; T= transition (apical meristem beginning to elevate above
the soil surface); J= jointing (stem elongation); B= boot (head starting to emerge); D= dead.

STiller density: N= normal number of tillers; M= many tillers; F= few tillers.
Tiller density not recorded.


1 1 T Im .... . .


--














Table 2. Continued.

Harvest


4
3-14-77
Plant Tiller
Brand Variety ht.(in.) Stage density


5
4-22-77


Plant
ht.(in.)


Tiller
Stage density


Oats
C
Fla
Fla
Wheat


227
501
70 Q


Holley
McN 1813


Rye
Pen Uintergrazer 70
Pen Hintergrazer A
Acco TR 811
'rens abruzzi
ilcN Vita-Graze
Gurly Gurley Grazer 2000


16.2
15.5



13.5
17.5


19.5
18.0
20.5
22.0
22.0
22.0


17.0



16.0



11.0
9.0
9.0







Table 3. Average dry matter yield of 14 small grain varieties in tons/acre at 5
harvest dates. Yields from 3 late seeded small grains and a ryegrass
are also presented. Immokalee ARC. 1976-77.
Harvest
1 2 3 4 5
Brand Variety 1-4-77 1-28-77 2-18-77 3-11-77 4-7-77 Total
- - - -Dry matter yield T/A- - - -


Oats (3 bu/A)
Fla 501
Fla 501 (sown 1-7-77)
C 227
C 227 (sown 1-7-77)
Fla 70 Q
Averaee'


0.37 bc*

0.31 cd

0.43 a
0.37


0.16 def

0.20 c-f

0.26 abc
0.21


0.39
0.22
0.19
0.11
0.35
0.31


0.75
0.47
0.62
0.53
0.26
0.54


a
cd
abc
bcd
ef


0.35
0.43
0.45
0.39

0.40


h-i
f-i
f-h
f-i


2.02
1.12
1.77
1.03
1.30
1.70


b-f
h
ef
hi
gh


7Theat (2 bu/A)
McN 1813 0.33 c 0.33 a 0.29 c-g 0.52 cd 0.71 c 2.18 bc
Holley 0.26 de 0.20 c-f 0.31 b-f 0.37 def 0.59 c-e 1.73 f
Average 0.30 0.26 0.30 0.45 0.65 2.00


(2 bu/A)
Wintergrazer A
Hintergrazer 70
Prens abruzzi
U. abruzzi
(sown 1-7-77)


Acco TR 811
Gurly Gurley Grazer 2030
Vita-Graze
.verageq


0.24
0.26
0.34


0.37 abc
0.32 cd
0.37 abc
0.31


0.24 a-d 0.25 d-g 0.51 cd 1.01 ab 2.25
0.21 b-e 0.20 f-i 0.52 cd 0.93 b 2.12
0.30 ab 0.31 b-f 0.54 bcd 0.62 cd 2.11
-- 0.45 a 0.57 abc 0.40 f-i 1.42


0.29 abc
0.26 abc
0.27 abc
0.26


0.41 ab
0.31 b-f
0.33 b-e
0.30


0.48
0.51
0.47
0.51


0.48 e-g 2.03 b-e
0.51 d-f 1.91 c-f
0.37 g-i 1.81 d-f
0.57 2.04


iixtures
Tetrablend 444 +
Fla. 70 Q (ryegrass &
oats)


0.42 ab 0.33 a


Coker 227 oats+ R. clvr.0.11 f
4cNair 1813 (wheat & 0.15 f
red clover)
Gulf Ryegrass
(sown 1-7-77)


0.39 abc 0.43 cde 1.11 a


0.11 f 0.12 hi 0.47 cd
0.13 ef 0.12 hi 0.23 f


2.68 a


-0.81 ij
-0.63 j


-0.22 e-h 0.73 ab 0.31 i


1.26 gh


T Average not including 1-7-77 seeded forages

* Ieans within columns followed by the same letter are not significantly different.
Duncan's LSD. K=100.
Brand abbreviations
Fla Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
C Cokers Pedigreed Seed Co.
McN McNair Seed Co.
Pen Pennington Grain and Seed, Inc.
Acco Acco Seed Co.
Gurly Gurley Milling Co.


Rye
Pen
Pen


_


r-


]









Table 4. Agronomic characteristics of small grain varieties and 1 ryegrass variety for each
harvest at Immokalee ARC 1976-77.


Harvest


Brand Variety
Oats
C 227
Fla 501
Fla 70 Q
Wheat
McN 1813
Holley

Rye
Pen Wrens abruzzi
Gurly Gurley Grazer
Pen Wintergrazer A
Pen Uintergrazer 70
McN Vita-Graze
Acco W-R 811


1-4-77
1
eT.id St- Kus
(in.) Stage* (%)


1-28-7
2
Hin. )Stag
(in.)Stag


7


2-18=7-7
3


3-11-77


--ust Height Rust Height Rust
e (%) (in.)Stage (%) (in.) Stage (%)


4-7-77
5
HeIignt- Kust
(in.) Stage (%)


V 0
T 0
T-B 0


11
10


10
2000 10
9
10
9
9


Ryegrass
Tetrablend 444


11 V 0 10 V 0 10 V 0 12


V 0 12


* Maturity stage: V= vegetative; T=
B= boot stage; H= head formed; M=


transition (apical meristem beginning to elevate above soil surface);
mixed (some boot and heading).


Serious Helminthosporium spp. problem.


V 0


- --~-------"I-I '-----~-


- ;,,.,,


--




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs