Title: Small grain forage production at Ona and Immokalee, 1981-82
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Title: Small grain forage production at Ona and Immokalee, 1981-82
Series Title: Small grain forage production at Ona and Immokalee, 1981-82
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Publisher: Agricultural Research Center
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Agricultural Research Center
Research Report RC-1982-5 September 1982


SMALL GRAIN FORAGE PRODUCTION AT ONA
AND IMMOKALEE: 1981-82

R. S. Kalmbacher, P. Mislevy, P. H. Everett, R. D. Barnett
and F. G. Martin-

The small grains, rye (Secale cereale L.), wheat (Triticum aestivurr
L.), oats kAvena sativa L.) and triticale (T. Hexap oide Lar., a cross between
rye and wheat) are cool season annuals. In south central Florida these grasses
may be seeded after a vegetable crop, used in a pasture renovation program,
or may be overseeded under certain conditions in perennial grasses, thus
extending the grazing season through the winter. With good management small
grains can provide high quality forage (70 to 80% in vitro organic matter
digestibility) and substantial dry matter yield (2 to 4 T/A). Higher dry matter
yields are obtained when small grains are seeded in cultivated soil.


Small grains are quick to establish and respond well to nitrogen fertilization.
However, their management differs from that of ryegrass. When seeded in
prepared seedbeds, initial small grain growth should be grazed or clipped about
50 days after seeding or when plants are 12 to 15 inches tall. De t
first grazing much later than 50 days may be detrimental g_ wl plan
development. Rotational grazing of regrowth is rec ml when pants
reach 12 to 15 inches tall, and new developing tiller are 1 i,6.c 'es tall.\


New small grain varieties are continually being rel ase tFofn~l and
private sources. Additionally, plant breeders are intere n testing
experimental. It is important that these small grains be evaluated for yield,
quality, disease resistance, and persistence under south-Florida conditions.



1/ Associate Professor and Professor, Agricultural Research Center, Ona;
Professor, Agricultural Research Center, Immokalee; Associate Professor,
Agricultural Research and Education Center, Quincy; Associate Professor,
Department of Statistics, University of Florida, Gainesville.












Experimental Procedure


At the Ona Agricultural Research Center (ARC) three oat, seven wheat,
five rye, and two oat/ryegrass mixtures were seeded on November 13, 1981.
At Immokalee ARC four oat, seven wheat, one triticale, five rye, and one
oat/ryegrass mixture were seeded on November 17, 1981. The experimental
design at both locations was four replications of a randomized complete
block.


Seeding rates (all entries drilled in 6" rows) for rye, wheat and triticale
at both locations were 1.5 bu/A and oats was seeded at 2 bu/A. The oats/
ryegrass mixtures were seeded at 1 bu/A and 10 Ib/A.


Fertilization at Ona prior to seeding consisted of 500 Ib/A of an
0-10-20 (N-P 0 -K 0) fertilizer. At Immokalee 500 lb of 0-10-20 and 10
lb/A FTE 503(R micronutrients and 35 lb/A of N was applied prior to
seeding. Nitrogen was applied at 44 Ib/A 12 days after seedling emergence
at Ona on all entries.


Fertilization after each harvest at Ona averaged 40 Ib/A N on all
small grains, and small grain mixtures. At Immokalee 300 Ib/A of 16-8-8
was applied after harvest 1, and 3, but after harvest 2 and 4 an average
50 Ib/A of N was applied.


All entries were irrigated with an over-head system at Ona, where a total
of 11.5 inches was applied. At Immokalee a seepage system with laterals on
40 foot centers was used.


Most entries were harvested five times with a rotary plot harvester which
cut plants at a 3" stubble. At Ona, the first harvest occurred 55 days after
seeding, prior to evelation of the growing point above the soil surface, with the
remaining harvests cut every 28 days. The first harvest at Immokalee occurred
50 days after seeding. All other harvests were made about 28 days apart.












Results and Discussion


Ona ARC
Total dry matter production of the grain/ryegrass mixtures
averaged 3.2 T/A (Table 1). This value was 0.9, 1.0 and 1.1 T/A higher
than the average yield of pure stands of rye, oats and wheat, respectively.
Mixing the ryegrass with the wheat or oats tended to lengthen the production
period and produce more forage from late March thru the end of May. The
grain/ryegrass mixtures tended to increase dry matter yields by 0.6 to 0.8
T/A in late spring when forage is generally limited.


Highest total seasonal yield of small grains grown in pure stands was
produced by 'Coker 227' oats and 'Pennington Wintergrazer 70-B' averaging
2.7 and 2.8 T/A dry matter, respectively (Table 1). Both varieties also
produced uniform dry matter production from January thru March averaging
0.6 T/A every 28 days. The wheat variety 'Coker 797' and rye variety
FBLSRR were the lowest forage yielding small grains averaging 1.5 and 1.7
T/A dry matter, respectively. The major reason for low yields of both
entries may have been due to the severe freeze which occurred on January 11
and 12 of 1982. Both entries produced little or no dry matter after the
freeze, with FBLSRR being nearly destroyed by the low temperatures.


From the practical standpoint little difference existed in dry matter
production between the better wheat, rye or oats varieties.


The freeze of January 11 and 12 which resulted in a ground temperature
of 190F and 11 hours of freezing temperature below 270F. was quite harmful
to many small grains. The 15 small grain entries were evaluated for freeze
damage 15 days later. The following varieties were rated excellent: Wintergrazer
70-B, 'AFC 20-20', 'NK vitagraze', Coker 227, 'Coker 762', 'Stacy', 'Omega 78',
and 'Coker 747', with most other varieties being damaged by the freeze.
Commercial growers should keep these evaluations in mind, especially if small
grains are to be grown on isolated cold pockets.














Small grains must be tested in Central Florida for more than one year
to accurately determine their yielding ability. Coker 227 oats consistently
averaged about 0.5 T/A more dry matter than 'Fla 501' (Table 2). Among the
superior wheat varieties were Coker 762, and Omega 78. The rye varieties
which have performed well over the past 3 to 5 years are 'NAPB SR 80',
Wintergrazer 70, McNair Vitagraze, and AFC 20-20. These varieties have
consistently performed well at the ARC, Ona and most exhibited excellent cold
tolerance.


Inmonkalee ARC


There were significant differences in the dry matter yields of the
varieties tested (Table 3). Yields ranged from 3.3 T/A (Coker 747 wheat)
to 1.3 T/A (Fl 70 Q 1153 oats) Oat yield averaged 2.5 T/A, and better
entries were Coker 227 and Florida 501. Wheat yield averaged 2.6 T/A, and
better entries were Coker 747, Stacy, and Omega 78. Rye yields averaged
2.4 T/A, and Pennington Wintergrazer 70-B was one of the higher yielding
entries. Triticale yield was lower than most other small grains. The
mixture of 70 Q 1153 oat plus Gulf ryegrass produced 2.9 T/A and, as usual,
the oat-ryegrass mixture was among the highest yielding and longest surviving
entries.


Forage yield was reduced by the freeze (12 January) which occurred
after harvest 1 (6 January). Yield of almost every entry dropped
at the second harvest. The cold did not kill any entries.


All entries were essentially disease free during the growing season, and
there were no problems with excessive moisture or insects.


Several small grain varieties have been tested at Immokalee for three
years or longer (Table 4). Those varieties, which have consistently been
among the better yielding entries, should be selected. These include Coker
227 oats, McNair 1003 wheat, Coker 762 wheat, AFC 20-20 rye, and Pennington
Wintergrazer rye.













Conclusions


Ona ARC


The small grain varieties that have performed well and yielded more
than 2 T/A dry matter in the winter and spring of 1982 are oats; Coker 227,
rye; Pennington Wintergrazer 70-B, NK Vitagraze, AFC 20-20 and NK SS 1,
wheat; Coker 747 and 762, Stacy, Omega 78, Fla 72185 A-A 1. Many of these
varieties also exhibited considerable cold tolerance (<200F). Seeding grain/
ryegrass mixtures also proved desirable by extending the forage production
season and increasing yield.


Immokaiee ARC


There were significant differences in the dry matter yields of the small
grains tested. Recommended varieties for Immokalee include: Coker 227 oats,
McNair 1003 wheat, Coker 762 wheat, AFC 20-20 rye and Pennington
Wintergrazer 70-B rye.












Table 1. Small grain forage yield at Ona ARC, 1981-82.


Harvest
1 2 3 4 5 6
Entry 1-7 2-3 3-3 3-29 4-26 5-25 Total
----------dry matter yields, tons/A----
Oats
Coker 227 0.5 0.6 0.9 0.5 0.2 0 2.7 b-
Fla. AES Florida 501 0.7 0.2 0.5 0.4 0.2 0 2.0 fg
Fl. 7611-G8 $ 0.6 0.2 0.5 0.4 0.3 0 2.0 g
Average 0.6 0.3 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 2.2

Rye
Pennington Wintergrazer 70B 1.0 0.4 0.6 0.5 0.3 0 2.8 b
NK Vitagraze 1.0 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.3 0 2.6 cd
AFC 20-20 1.0 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.2 0 2.5 cd
NK SS 1 1.0 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.2 0 2.1 ef
FBLSRR 1.2 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.2 0 1.7 gh
Average 1.0 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.2 0 2.3

Wheat
Coker 747 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.4 0.5 0 2.5 cd
Coker 762 0.7 0.6 0.8 0.1 0.2 0 2.4 de
Ga AES Stacy 0.6 0.4 0.6 0.4 0.3 0 2.3 de
Omega 78 0.6 0.5 0.7 0.3 0.1 0 2.2 de
Fl 72185A-A1 0.7 0.5 0.6 0.3 0.1 0 2.2 de
Fla AES Florida 301 0.9 0.3 0.4 0.1 0.1 0 1.8 g
Coker 797 0.7 0.2 0.4 0.1 0.1 0 1.5 h
Average 0.7 0.4 0.6 0.2 0.2 0 2.1

Grain/ryegrass mixtures
Stacy wheat + Fla 80 ryegrass 0.7 0.6 0.8 0.7 0.5 0.1 3.4 a
Fl 70Q oat + Fla 80 ryegrass 0.9 0.1 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.2 3.1 b
Average 0.8 0.4 0.7 0.7 0.5 0.1 3.2

t Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different (DLSD, K=100).


SExperimental entry, seed not available.
Florida Agric. Exp. Sta., Northrup King,
Exp. Sta.


Alabama Farmers Coop, Georgia Agric.


Date seeded: November 13, 1981.

Seeding rate: rye, wheat @ 1.5 bu/A; oats @ 2 bu/A; oats/ryegrass @ 1 bu/A/10 lb/A,
resp. All entries drilled in rows 6" apart.

Fertilization: 1) at seeding 500 Ib/A 0-10-20, N-P 05-K20.
2) after seedling emergence 44 1-b/A N
3) after each harvest 40 lb/A N.


Irrigation:


overhead system 11.5 inches applied in 11 applications from December
to May.













Table 2. Average small grain forage production 1978 to 1982. Ona ARC.


Year


Entry


1978 1979 1980 1981


1982


Average


----------dry matter yield, tons/A---------


Oats
Coker 227
Fla AES+- Fla 501
Average

Wheat
Coker 762
Omega 78
Fla AES Fla 301
Average

Rye
NAPBtSR 80
AFC 20-20
Pennington Wintergrazer 70
McNair Vitagraze
Gurley Grazer 2000
Average


2.3 3.6 2.6 2.7 2.7
1.8 2.8 2.3 2.3 2.0
2.1 3.2 2.5 2.5 2.4


t 3.1
t 2.9
2.6
2.9


2.9
2.4
2.7


2.8
2.6
2.4
2.6


2.7
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.3
2.6


1.3
1.4
1.3
1.3


Variety not tested in this year


tFlorida Agric. Exp. Sta., North American


Plant Breeders.












Table 3. Small grain forage production at Immokalee ARC, 1981-82.


Harvest
1 2 3 4 5

Entry 1-6 2-3 2-24 3-17 4-14 Total

----------Dry matter, tons/A------------
Oats
Coker 227 0.7 0.4 0.8 0.5 0.6 3.0t ab
Fla AES Florida 501 0.7 0.3 0.8 0.5 0.6 2.9 abe
Fla 7611 G8 t 0.7 0.4 0.7 0.5 0.6 2.9 abe
Fl 70Q 1153 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.1 0.0 1.3 f
Average 0.8 0.3 0.6 0.4 0.5 2.5

Wheat
Coker 747 0.7 0.6 0.9 0.5 0.6 3.3 a
Ga AESS Stacy, 0.5 0.6 0.8 0.5 0.6 3.0 ab
Fl 7218 5 A-Al 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.4 0.5 2.3 abc
Omega 78 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.5 0.4 2.7 abcd
Coker 762 0.5 0.6 0.8 0.4 0.3 2.6 bed
Coker 797 0.6 0.4 0.7 0.2 0.1 2.0 cde
Fla AES Florida 301 0.7 0.4 0.5 0.1 0.0 1.7 ef
Average 0.6 0.5 0.7 0.3 0.4 2.6

Rye
Pennington Wintergrazer 70-B 0.6 0.4 0.8 0.5 0.4 2.7 abcd
AFC 20-20 0.6 0.4 0.6 0.4 0.5 2,5 ed
FBISRR 0.7 0.5 0.6 0.3 0.2 2.3 cde
NK" Vitagraze 0.7 0.4 0.7 0.4 0.1 2.3 cde
NK1 SS1 0.6 0.3 0.6 0.4 0.2 2.1 de
Average 0.6 0.4 0.7 0.4 0.3 2.4

Triticale
Kershen forage blend 0.6 0.4 0.5 0.2 0.2 1.9 ef

Mixtures
Fla 70 Q 1153 + Gulf ryegrass 0.8 0.3 0.8 0.5 0.5 2.9 abc


tMeans followed by the same letter are not different (DLSD, K=100).

tExperimental entry, seed not available.

5Florida Agri. Exp. Sta., Georgia Agric. Exp. Sta., Alabama Farmers Coop.,
Northrup King.

Date seeded: November 17, 1981.
Seeding rate: wheat, rye, triticale @ 1.5 bu/A, oats @ 2 bu/A; oat/ryegrass
mixtures @ 1 bu/A/10 lb/A, respectively.
All entries drilled in rows 6" apart.
Fertilization: 1) at seeding 500 Ib/A of 0-10-20 (N-P205-K2) plus 10 Ib/A FTE 503
plus 35 Ib/A N.
2) After harvests 1 and 3, 300 Ib/A of 16-8-8. after harvest 2 and 4,
50 lb/A of N.
Irrigation: seenave with laterals on 40 foot centers.












Table 4. Average small grain forage production 1978 to 1982. Immokauee ARC.



Year

Entry 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 Average


---------dry matter yield, tons/A---------------


Oats
Coker 227
Fla AES+ Fla 501
Average

Wheat
McNair 1003
Coker 762
McNair 1813
Fla AES Fla 301
Average


Rye
Ala. Farmers Coop (AFC) 20-2(
Pennington Wintergrazer 70
Gurley Grazer 2000
McNair Vitagraze
Wrens Abruzzi
NAPBt SR 80
Average

Oat/Ryegrass mixtures


1.5 2.1 2.5 2.7 3.0
1.0 1.9 2.0 3.3 2.9
1.3 2.0 2.3 3.5 3.0


1.8
1.7
0.7
1.0
1.3


4.
1.5
1.9
1.9
1.6
1.6
1.7


2.6
2.3
2.4
1.7
2.3


2.2
2.5
2.1
2.1
2.1
2.2
2.2


3.6
3.4
3.6
3.2
3.5


3.7
3.4
3.7


3.4
3.6


2.9 2.2 2.6 5.0 2.9


tVariety not seeded in this year.


tFlorida Agric. Exp. Sta., North American Plant


Breeders.




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