Title: Small grain forage production at Ona, 1982-83
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Title: Small grain forage production at Ona, 1982-83
Series Title: Small grain forage production at Ona, 1982-83
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Publisher: Agricultural Research Center
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Bibliographic ID: UF00076455
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 143361884

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Agricultural Research Center

Research Report RC-1983-6 September 1983


SMALL GRAIN FORAGE PRODUCTION AT ONA: 1982-83

P. Mislevy, R. D. Barnett, F. G. Martin and A. J. Overman


The small grains, rye (Secale cereale L.), wheat (Triticwn aestivwn L.),
oats (Avena sativa L.) and triticale (Triticosecate, Wittmack), a cross between
rye and wheat) are cool season annuals. In south central Florida these grasses
may be seeded after a vegetable crop, used in a pasture renovation program, or
may be overseeded in perennial grasses under certain conditions, thus extending
the grazing season through the winter. With good management small grains can
provide high quality forage (70 to 80% in vitro organic matter digestibility)
and substantial dry matter yield (2 to 4 T/A). Higher dry matter yields are
obtained when small grains are seeded in cultivated so -

Small grains are quick to establish and respond w lto nTrog feL-
zation. However, their management differs from that of ryegrass. When seeded
in prepared seedbeds, initial small grain growth should be galedc jLjapped j
about 50 days after seeding or when plants are 12 to 1 inches tall. Deferring
the first grazing much later than 50 days may be detri ta 1 to gegrowt pf
plant development. Rotational grazing of regrowth is o l n ""eieploll:a
reach 12 to 15 inches tall, and new developing tillers are 1 to 6 inches tall.

In locations of the state where black birds are a problem, avoid seeding
oats and substitute with rye, since this small grain is less preferred by birds.

New small grain varieties are continually being released from public and
private sources. Additionally, plant breeders are interested in testing
experimental. It is important that these small grains be evaluated for yield,
quality, disease resistance, and persistence under south-Florida conditions.
















1/ Professor, Agricultural Research Center, Ona; Professor, Agricultural
Research and Education Center, Quincy; Associate Professor, Department
of Statistics, University of Florida, Gainesville; Professor, Agricultural
Research and Education Center, Bradenton.
*












Experimental Procedure


Small grains seeded at the Agricultural Research Center (ARC) consisted
of three oats, three wheat, three rye, and one triticale (rye-wheat cross) on
November 22, 1982. The experimental design was four replications of a rando-
mized complete block.

Seeding rates (all entries drilled in 6" rows) for rye, wheat and triti-
cale were 1.5 bu/A and oats was 2 bu/A.

Fertilization prior to seeding consisted of 525 lb/A of an 0-10-20
(N-P205-K20) fertilizer. Nitrogen was applied at 46 lb/A 17 days after seedlings
emergence on all entries. Fertilization after each harvest averaged 35 lb/A N.

All entries were irrigated with an over-head system; a total of 8.0 inches
of water was applied.

Entries were harvested three to five times with a rotary plot harvester
which cut plants at a 3" stubble. The first harvest occurred 51 days after
seeding, prior to elevation of the growing point above the soil surface, with
the remaining harvests taken on an average of 27 days.


Results and Discussion


Significant differences in total dry matter yield were obtained between
small grain entries grown during the 1982-83 cool season (Table 1). Average
total yield for the oats, rye, wheat and triticale was 1.3, 0.7, 0.7 and 0.2
T/A, respectively. These forage yields were among the lowest obtained in 11
years of small grain testing at the ARC, Ona. Following seeding, plants emerged
and developed tillers normally. However, for the next 40 days plant developed
little vegetative material averaging 0.3, 0.3, 0.1 and 0.1 T/A for oats, rye,
wheat, and triticale, respectively, in harvest one. Twnety-one days later harvest
two was removed averaging less than harvest one. Dry matter yields for oats,
rye, and wheat all increased in harvest three, taken on March 4, 1983. Following
the third harvest, yields of most varieties decreased andin some cases plants
decimated resulting in no additional yield.

Testing to determine the cause of poor small grain performance revealed
nematodes (stubby root 63/150 ml soil and spiral 10/150 ml soil) were present
in adequate feeding populations, but no high enough to seriously reduce dry
matter yield. Plant and soil combinations were also tested for diseases, which
confirmed the presence of Pythium spp and Rhizoctonia spp both of which can be
destructive during the cool-wet conditions. However, plant sampling did not
clearly reveal the poor dry matter yields obtained throughout the duration of
the experiment. Personal communication with plant pathologist indicate that
continuous cropping of grasses on the same land areas will result in a Pythium
buildup unless broadleaf plants are seeded into the cropping rotation.

Regardless of the 1982-83 yield problem, the oat varieties 'Coker 820'
'Florida 501' and 'Florida 502' yielded 1.4, 1.4 and 1.2 T/A, respectively.
These yields averaged about 46% higher than average dry matter yields for the
rye and wheat varieties.









3

To determine the true performance of a small grain variety, testing must
be conducted over a period of at least three years to expose the entry to various
environmental, biological and physical conditions found at that location. Yields
of rye, wheat and oats averaged 2.6, 2.5 and 2.4 T/A dry matter over a three
to six year period (Table 2). These yields were 72% higher than average small
grain yield in 1983. These data indicate that little difference in dry matter
was observed between the small grain varieties listed in table 2.

Conclusion

Significant differences in dry matter yield between small grain varieties
are obtained each year. However, commercial growers should put major emphasis
on production results obtained over a three to'six year period (Table 2).
Caution should also be exercised not to seed small grains in the same land area
for more than 3-4 consecutive years in south Florida, especially when grown
in a cropping sequence with other grasses.











Table 1. Small grain forage yield at Ona ARC, 1981-82.


Harvest
1 2 3 4 5
Brand Variety 1-14 2-4 3-4 3-28 4-29 Total
--------------Dry matter T/A-------------

Oats

Coker Coker 820 0.3 0.2 0.6 0.2 0.1 1.4 a*
Florida AES Florida 501 0.3 0.2 0.5 0.2 0.2 1.4 a
Florida AES Florida 502 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.2 0.2 1.2 a
Avg. 0.3 0.2 0.5 0.2 0.2 1.3

Rye

Florida AES FBLSRt 0.5 0.1 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.9 b
Florida AES Synt 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.8 bc
Pennington Wintergrazer 70 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.4 d
Avg. 0.3 0.1 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.7

Wheat

Coker Coker 916 0.2 0.1 0.4 0.1 0.0 0.8 bc
Florida AES Fla 301 0.1 0.1 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.6 cd
NAPB* Hunter 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.0 0.6 cd
Avg. 0.1 0.1 0.4 0.1 0.0 0.7

Triticale

Florida AES Beagle 82 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 e


Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5
percent level of probability according to Duncan's Multiple Range Test.

t Experimental entry, seed not available

SFlorida Agricultural Experiment Station; North American Plant Breeders.


Date seeded: November 22, 1982

Seeding rate: rye, wheat and triticale at 1.5 bu/A and oats at 2.0 bu/A.


Fertilization


Irrigation:


: at seeding 525 lb/A 0-10-20, N-P205-K20.
:after seedling emergence 46 Ib/A N
:after each harvest 35 lb/A N

overhead system, applied a total of 8.0 inches in 8 applications
from November to May.










Table 2. Average small grain forage production of selected varieties grown at ARC, Ona, 1978 to 1983.


Year
Brand Variety 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 Avg.

----------------Dry matter yield T/A---------------------

Oats

Coker Coker 227 2.3 3.6 2.6 .2.7 2.7 t 2.9
Fla AES Fla 501 1.8 2.8 2.3 2.3 2.0 1.4 2.1
Fla AES Fla 502 t t t t 2.9 1.2 2.1
Avg. 2.1 3.2 2.5 2.5 2.5 1.3 2.4

Wheat

Coker Coker 762 t 3.1 2.5 2.6 2.4 t 2.8
Georgia AES Omega 78 t 2.9 t 2.5 2.2 t 2.6
Fla AES Fla 301 t 2.6 2.3 2.6 1.8 0.6 2.0
Avg. 2.9 2.4 2.6 2.1 0.6 2.5

Rye

NAPB Forger t 3.1 2.3 2.7 t + 2.7
AFC+ AFC 20-20 t t 2.3 2.5 2.5 + 2.6
Pennington Wintergrazer 70 1:3 3.0 2.3 2.6 2.8 5 2.6
NK Vitagraze 1.4 2.9 2.5 t 2.6 t 2.6
Gurley's Inc. Gurley Grazer 2000 1.3 3.0 2.2 2.7 t t 2.3
Avg. 1.3 3.0 2.3 2.6 2.6 2.6


t Variety not tested that year


SFlorida Agricultural Experiment Station; Georgia Agricultural
Plant Breeders; Alabama Farmers Cooperative; Northrup King


Experiment Station, North American


Entry seeded in 1982 had low germination,consequently sparse stand




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