Title: Small grain forage production at Ona, 1983-84
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Title: Small grain forage production at Ona, 1983-84
Series Title: Small grain forage production at Ona, 1983-84
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Publisher: Agricultural Research and Education Center
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Bibliographic ID: UF00076454
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 143363396

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Agricultural Research and Education Center

Research Report RC-1984-7 September 1984

SMALL GRAIN FORAGE PRODUCTION AT ONA: 1983-84

P. Mislevy, R. D. Barnett, F. G. Martin and D. J. Mitchell

The small grains, rye (Secale cereal L.) wheat (Triticum aestivivuL.),
oats (Avena sativa L.) and triticale (Triticosecale, Wittmack), a cross
between rye and wheat are cool season annuals. In south central Florida
these grasses may be seeded after a vegetable crop, used in a pasture
renovation program, or may be overseeded in perennial grasses under certain
conditions, thus extending the grazing season through the winter. With good
management small grains can provide high quality forage (70 to 80Z in vitro
organic matter digestibility) and substantial dry matter yield (2 to 4 t/A).
The higher dry matter yields are obtained when small grains are seeded in
cultivated soil.

Small grains are quick to establish and rpn6 p Awell to nitrogen ferti-
lization. However, their management differs rom tht.of ass. en
seeded in prepared seedbeds, initial small gr in grao ul e graz d or
clipped about 50 days after seeding or when p ants are 12 to 15 inches tall.
Deferring the first grazing much later than 5 y ayJieBfAe4dB o
regrowth of plant development. Rotational gr r ended
when plants reach 12 to 15 inches, and new developing tillers are 1 to 6
inches tall.

In locations of the state where black birds are a problem, avoid
seeding oats and substitute with rye, since this small grain is less
preferred by birds.

New small grain varieties are continually being released from public
and private sources. Additionally, plant breeders are interested in testing
experimental. It is important that these small grains be evaluated for
yield, quality, disease resistance, and persistence under south Florida
conditions.

Experimental Procedure

Small grains seeded at the Ona Agricultural Research and Education
Center (AREC) consisted of four oats, six wheat, five rye, and two triticale
(rye- wheat cross) varieties on November 8, 1983. The experimental design
was four.replications of a randomized complete block.

Seeding rates (all entries drilled in 6" rows) for rye, wheat and
triticale were 1.5 bu/A and oats was 2 bu/A.



1/ Professor, Agricultural Research and Education Center, Ona; Professor,
Agricultural Research and Education Center, Quincy; Professor, Department of
Statistics, University of Florida, Gainesville; Professor, Plant Pathology
Department, Gainesville.










Fertilization prior to seeding consisted of 510 lb/A of an 0-10-20
(N-P20 -K20) + 32 #/A TEM 300 fertilizer. Nitrogen was applied at 56 lb/A 8
days after seedling emergence on all entries. Fertilization after harvest 1
was 50 lb/A N followed by 30 lb/A N after all additional harvests.

All entries were irrigated with an over-head system applying 0.9 inches
of water, only to encourage germination.

All small grains were cut to a 3" stubble, four times with a rotary
plot harvester. The first harvest occurred 56 days after seeding, prior to
elevation of the growing point above the soil surface, with the remaining
harvests taken on an average of 31 days.

Results and Discussion

Significant differences in total dry matter yield were obtained between
small grain entries grown during the 1983-84 cool season (Table 1). Average
total yield for the wheat, oats, triticale and rye was 1.9, 2.2, 1.2 and 2.0
t/A, respectively. The 1983-84 small grain study was seeded on tilled soil
following a perennial grass crop. This soil contained a reduced number of
nematodes and seedling number infected with Pythium were also reduced.

Of all small grains tested oats provided the most uniform forage
distribution from January to early April averaging 24, 20, 20 and 32% of the
total yield in harvest 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively (Table 1).

Most small grain entries, with the exception of oats, produce their
highest dry matter yield in the first harvest. Therefore these entries would
be more desirable to seed with ryegrass. That is, wheat and rye produce high
yields in the first harvest when ryegrass yields are lower, however ryegrass
yields are high in March and April when small grain yields are decreasing.

These 198.3-84 data indicate that within each small grain specie (wheat,
oats, triticale and rye) there are superior varieties such as Fla. 302, Coker
916, Coker 762 and Hunter wheat; Coker 820, Coker 227 and Fla. 501 oats;
Wintergrazer 70 and AFC 20/20 rye which should be considered for forage.

To determine the true performance of a small grain variety, testing
must be conducted over a period of at least three years to expose the entry
to various environmental, biological and physical conditions found at this
location. Dry matter yields of rye, wheat and oats averaged 2.5, 2.3 and 2.3
t/A, respectively when averaged over a 3 to 7 year period (Table 2). These
data indicate little difference between the superior varieties of oats, wheat
and rye over years.









Table 1. Dry matter production of small grains grown as forage at the AREC,
Ona, 1983-84.
Harvest number and date
1 2 3 4
Brand Variety 1-3 2-1 3-1 4-6 Total
---------------t/A-------------


Wheat
Fla AESt
Fla AES
Coker
Coker
NAPBt
Coker


Oats
Coker
Coker
Fla AES
Fla AES


Fla 301
Fla 302
Coker 916
Coker 762
Hunter
Coker 797
Avg.


Coker 820
Coker 227
Fla. 501
Fla. 502
Avg.


Triticale
Fla AES Beagle
Fla AES FLA X-15671-Exp.
Avg.

Rye
Pennington Wintergrazer 70
Fla AES Fla FBLSRR-Ex?.
Fla AES Fla Synt-Exp.
Gurley's Inc. Gurley Grazer 2000
AFCt AFC 20/20
Avg.


.69 .49
.67 .51
.64 .56
.58 .56
.68 .52
.66 .56
.65(34%) .53(28%)


.44
.49
.67
.51
.53(24%)


.66
.42
.54(42%)


.66
.74
.51
.61
.63
.63(32%)


.16
.41
.37
.47
.42
.21
.34(18%)


.48 .48
.48 .49
.39 .43
.45 .35
.45(20%) .44(20%)


.35
.37
.36(28%)


.58
.37
.49
.54
.53
.50(25%)


.26
.23
.25(19%)


.42
.35
.38
.36
.37
.38(19%)


*
Means followed by the same letters are not significantly different at the 5%
level of probability according to Duncan's Multiple Range Test.
tFla AES, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station; NAPB, North American Plant
Breeders; AFC, Alabama Farmers Coop.
-Values in parenthesis represent percentage of total seasonal yield at that
harvest.
Experimental entry, seed not available.
Date seeded: November 8, 1983
Seeding rate: Wheat, triticale and rye 1.5 bu/A; Oats 2 bu/A.
Fertilization: At seeding 510 lb/A 0-10-20, N-P O.-KO0 + 32 lb/A TEM 300


Irrigation:


: after seedling emergence 56 lb/A N
: after harvest 1 50 lb/A N and after all other harvests 30
lb/A N
Overhead sprinkler system, applied a total of 0.9 inches in 1
application to encourage emergence.


1.5 fg
2.1 a-c
2.1 a-c
2.0 a-c
2.1 a-c
1.6 ef
1.9


2.2 ab
2.3 a
2.2 ab
1.9 c-e
2.2


.11
.52
.47
.40
.42
.18
.35(18%)


.61
.89
.73
.56
.70(32%)


.09
.09
.09(7%)


.51
.28
.48
.51
.56
.47(24%)


gh
h



ab
de
c-e
b-d
a-c


1.4
1.1
1.3


2.2
1.7
1.9
1.9
2.1
2.0










Table 1. Dry matter production of small grains grown as forage at the AREC,
Ona, 1983-84.
Harvest number and date
1 2 3 4
Brand Variety 1-3 2-1 3-1 4-6 Total
---------t/A--- ---


Wheat
Fla AESt
Fla AES
Coker
Coker
NAPB
Coker


Oats
Coker
Coker
Fla AES
Fla AES


Triticale
Fla AES
Fla AES


Rye
Pennington
Fla AES
Fla AES
Gurley's Inc.
AFC"


Fla 301
Fla 302
Coker 916
Coker 762
Hunter
Coker 797
Avg.


Coker 820
Coker 227
Fla. 501
Fla. 502
Avg.


Beagle
FLA X-15671-Exp.
Avg.


Wintergrazer 70
Fla FBLSRR-Exp
Fla Synt-Exp.
Gurley Grazer 2000
AFC 20/20
Avg.


.69 .49
.67 .51
.64 .56
.58 .56
.68 .52
.66 .56
.65(34%) .53(28%)


.44
.49
.67
.51
.53(24%)


.66
.42
.54(42%)


.66
.74
.51
.61
.63
.63(32%)


.39
.45
.45(20%)


.35
.37
.36(28%)


.58
.37
.49
.54
.53
.50(25%)


.16
.41
.37
.47
.42
.21
.34(18%)


.48
.49
.43
.35
.44(20%)


.26
.23
.25(19%)


.42
.35
.38
.36
.37
.38(19%)


.11
.52
.47
.40
.42
.18
.35(18%)


.61
.89
.73
.56
.70(32%)


.09
.09
.09(7%)


.51
.28
.48
.51
.56
.47(24%)


1.5
2.1
2.1
2.0
2.1
1.6
1.9


2.2
2.3
2.2
1.9
2.2


1.4
1.1
1.3


2.2
1.7
1.9
1.9
2.1
2.0


Means followed by the same letters are not significantly different at the 5%
level of probability according to Duncan's Multiple Range Test.
Experimental entry, seed not available.
tFla AES, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station; NAPB, North American Plant
Breeders; AFC, Alabama Farmers Coop.
*Values in parenthesis represent percentage of total seasonal yield at that
harvest.
Date seeded: November 8, 1983
Seeding rate: Wheat, triticale and rye 1.5 bu/A; Oats 2 bu/A.
Fertilization: At seeding 510 lb/A 0-10-20, N-P25-K20 + 32 lb/A TEM 300
: after seedling emergence 56 Ib/A N
: after harvest 1 50 Ib/A N and after all other harvests 30
lb/A N
Irrigation: Overhead sprinkler system, applied a total of 0.9 inches in 1
application to encourage emergence.





. I


Table 2. Average small grain forage production of selected varieties grown at AREC, Ona, three or
more years between 1978 and 1984.

Year
Brand Variety 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 Avg.
------------------ Dry matter yield T/A-------------------

Oats

Coker Coker 227 2.3 3.6 2.6 2.7 2.7 t 2.3 2.7
Fla AES Fla 501 1.8 2.8 2.3 2.3 2.0 1.4 2.2 2.1
Fla AES Fla 502 t t t t 2.9 1.2 1.9 2.0
Avg. 2.1 3.2 2.5 2.5 2.5 1.3 2.1 2.3

Wheat

Coker Coker 762 t 3.1 2.5 2.6 2.4 t 2.0 2.5
Georgia AES Omega 78 t 2.9 t 2.5 2.2 1 t 2.6
Fla AES Fla 301 t 2.6 2.3 2.6 1.8 0.6 1.5 1.9
Avg. 2.9 2.4 2.6 2.1 0.6 1.8 2.3

Rye

NAP Forger t 3.1 2.3 2.7 t t t 2.7
AFC AFC 20-20 t t 2.3 2.5 2.5 t 2.1 2.4
Pennington Wintergrazer 70 1.3 3.0 2.3 2.6 2.8 2.2 2.4
NK Vitagraze 1.4 2.9 2.5 t 2.6 t t 2.6
Gurley's Inc. Gurley Grazer 2000 1.3 3.0 2.2 2.7 t t 1.9 2.2
Avg. 1.3 3.0 2.3 2.6 2.6 2.1 2.5


Variety not tested that year.


Florida Agricultural Experiment Station; Georgia Agricultural Experiment
Plant Breeders; Alabama Farmers Cooperative; Northrup King.

Entry seeded in 1982 had low germination, consequently sparse stand.


Station; North American




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