Title: Small grain forage production at Ona, 1984-85
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Title: Small grain forage production at Ona, 1984-85
Series Title: Small grain forage production at Ona, 1984-85
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Publisher: Agricultural Research and Education Center
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Bibliographic ID: UF00076453
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Source Institution: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 143366269

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/OO


C5 i Central Science
Library

OCT 23 1987
Agricultural Research and Education Center

Research Report RC-1985-4 University of FIC6 bber 985

SMALL GRAIN FORAGE PRODUCTION AT ONA: 1984-85

P. Mislevy, A. J. Overman, F. G. Martin, and R. D. Barnett


The small grains, rye (Secale cereale L.) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.),
oats (Avena sativa L.) and triticale (Triticosecale, Wittmack), a cross
between rye and wheat, are cool season annuals. In south central Florida
these grasses may be seeded after a vegetable crop, used in a pasture
renovation program, or may be overseeded in perennial grasses under certain
conditions, thus extending the grazing season through the winter. With good
management small grains can provide high quality forage (70 to 80% in vitro
organic matter digestibility) and substantial dry matter yield (2 to 4 t/A).
The higher dry matter yields are obtained when small grains are seeded in
cultivated soil.

Small grains are quick to establish and respond well to nitrogen
fertilization. However, their management differs-from that of ryegrass.
When seeded in prepared seedbeds, initial small grain growth should be grazed
or clipped about 50 days after seeding or when plants are 12 to 15 inches
tall. Deferring the first grazing much later than 50 days may be detrimental
to regrowth of plant development. Rotational grazing of regrowth is
recommended when plants reach 12 to 15 inches, and new developing tillers are
1 to 6 inches tall.

In locations where black birds are a problem, avoid seeding oats and
substitute with rye, since this small grain is less preferred by birds.

New small grain varieties are continually being released from public and
private sources. Additionally, plant breeders are interested in testing
experimental. It is important that these small grains be evaluated for
yield, quality, disease resistance, and persistence under south Florida
conditions.

Experimental Procedure

Small grains seeded at the Ona Agricultural Research and Education
Center (AREC) consisted of seven wheat, five rye, four oat, two triticale
(rye-wheat cross) varieties and a rye (grain)-ryegrass mixture on November
16, 1984. The experimental design was four replications of a randomized
complete block.



1/ Professor, Agricultural Research and Education Center, Ona; Professor
(Nematology) Agricultural Research and Education Center, Bradenton;
Professor, Department of Statistics, University of Florida, Gainesville;
Professor, Agricultural Research and Education Center, Quincy.











Seeding rates (all entries drilled in 6" rows) for rye, wheat and
triticale were 1.5 bu/A, oats was 2 bu/A and the rye-ryegrass mixture at 1.5
bu + 10 Ib/A, respectively.

Fertilization prior to seeding consisted of 450 lb/A of an 0-10-20
N-P205-K20 fertilizer, respectively. Nitrogen was applied at 60 lb/A 7 days
after seedling emergence on all entries. Fertilization after each harvest
was 35 Ib/A N.

All entries were irrigated with an over-head system applying a total of
4.1 inches of water, following repair of the irrigation system (2/7/85).

All small grains were cut to a 3" stubble, four times with a rotary plot
harvester.

Following the establishment of small grain varieties in both 1983-84 and
1984-85, the entire area was monitored several times during the growing
season for nematodes.

Results and Discussion

Significant differences in total dry matter yield were obtained between
small grain entries grown during the 1984-85 cool season (Table 1). Average
total yield for the wheat, oats, triticale and rye was 1.6, 2.0, 1.6 and 2.1
t/A dry matter, respectively.

Of all small grains tested oats and rye varieties provided the most
uniform forage distribution from January to late April averaging 35, 25, 25
and 15% of total yield for harvest 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively, for oats and
43, 24, 19, and 14%, respectively for rye (Table 1). Triticales and wheat
both provided uniform forage production from January through mid-March,
followed by a drastic drop. Whereas, oats and rye continue to provide
considerable forage for an additional 45 days.

Most small grain entries, with the exception of oats, produce their
highest dry matter yield in the first harvest. Therefore, it would be more
desirable to seed these entire with ryegrass. That is, wheat and rye
produce high yields in the first harvest when ryegrass yields are low, but
ryegrass yields are high in March and April when small grain yields are
decreasing. To utilize this production variable between species, 'Florida
401' rye plus 'Florida 80' ryegrass was seeded together as a treatment during
the 1984-85 season. This treatment produced the highest dry matter yield
averaging 2.5 t/A. With a 44% or 1.1 t/A produced at harvest 1 and 24% or
0.6 t/A produced at harvest 4 in late April (Table 1).

This experiment was seeded in tilled soil, following a perennial grass
crop for the second straight year. Following the 1983-84 winter season, the
land area was allowed to revegetate to common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon
L.) for about 5 months, then renovated for small grains.











Nematode samples taken from the experimental area over two growing
seasons indicate two species were prevalent; 1) stubby root (Trichodorus
minor) and 2) spiral (Helichotylenchus pseudorobustus). The stubby root
population tended to remain stable over two growing seasons of small grain
production. However, the spiral nematode population increased from year to
year. These data indicate that small grains may be a host to spiral
nematodes but not stubby root.

To determine the true performance of a small grain variety, testing must
be conducted over a period of at least three years to expose the entry to
various biological, environmental and physical conditions found in central
Florida. Dry matter yields of oats, wheat, and rye averaged 2.3, 2.0 and 2.4
t/A, respectively, when averaged over a 3 to 7 year period (Table 2). These
data indicate oats and rye produce slightly higher forage dry matter yields
than wheat.

Conclusion

These 1984-85 data indicate that within each small grain species (wheat,
oats, triticale and rye) there are superior varieties such as 'Coker 916',
'Coker 983', 'Hunter' and 'Coker 762' wheat; Fla 501, Coker 227 and Coker 820
oats; 'Grace' triticale; wintergrazer 70, Fla 401 and AFC 20/20 rye. Highest
dry matter yield was produced by the mixture of Fla 401 rye plus Fla 80
ryegrass.











Table 1. Dry matter production of small grains grown as forage at the AREC,
Ona, 1984-85.


Harvest number
Total
Brand Variety 1 2 3 4 yield

------- ------- t/A--


Wheat
Coker
Coker
NAPB'
Coker
Fla AESt
Fla AES
Coker
Average

Oats
Fla AES
Coker
Coker
Fla AES
Average

Triticale
ARCOT
Fla AES
Fla AES
Average

Rye
Pennington
Fla AES
AFCt
Gurley's Inc.

Fla AES
Average


Coker 916
Coker 983
Hunter
Coker 762
Fla 302
Fla 301
Coker 797


Fla 501
Coker 227
Coker 820
Fla 502


0.5
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.5
0.7
0.7
0.6


1.0
0.6
0.8
0.5
0.7


0.8
0.9
0.9
0.8


Grace
Beagle 82
Fla 201


Wintergrazer 70
Fla 401
AFC 20/20
Gurley
Gra er 2000
Syn-T


e-g 0.3
f-g 0.4
e-g 0.4
d-f 0.4
e-g 0.3
de 0.5
de 0.5
(38%X 0.4


be
d-f
c-e
e-g
(35%)


c-e
cd
cd
(50%)


0.8 c-e
1.2 a
0.9 ed


0.4
0.5
0.5
0.7
0.5


0.6
0.4
0.4
0.5


d
cd
cd
cd
d
be
bc
(25%)


ed
be
bc
a
(25%)


b
cd
ed
(31%)


0.4 cd
0.5 be
0.4 ed


0.4
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.3
0.2
0.5


0.5
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.5


0.3
0.2
0.2
0.2


cd
a
a
a
a
de
e
(31%)


bc
b
bc
cd
(25%)


de
e
e
(13%)


0.5 be
0.2 e
0.5 be


0.8 c-e 0.5 be 0.4
0.8 b-e 0.5 be 0.4
0.9 (43%) 0.5 (24%) 0.4


cd
ed
(19%)


0.5 ab 1.7
0.2 c-e 1.7
0.1 d-f 1.7
0.0 1.7
0.1 df 1.6
0.0 1.5
0.0 1.4
0.1 (6%) 1.6


0.3
0.4
0.2
0.2
0.3


b-d 2.2
bc 2.1
c-e 2.0
c-e 1.8
(15%)2.0


0.2 c-e 1.9 c-e
0.0 1.5 fg
0.0 1.5 fg
0.1 (6%) 1.6


0.4 be 2.1 be
0.2 c-e 2.1 be
0.3 b-d 2.1 be


0.3
0.3
0.3


b-d 2.0 b-d
b-d 2.0 b-d
(14%)2.1


Florida 401 rye +
Florida 80 ryegrass


1.1 ab 0.5 be 0.3 de 0.6 a
(44%) (20%) (12%) (24%)


2.5 a











Table 1. Dry matter production of small grains grown as forage at the AREC,
Ona, 1984-85 cont.


Means followed by the same letters are not different at the 5% level of
probability according to Duncan's Multiple Range Test.

tFlorida AES, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station; NAPB, North American
Plant Breeders; AFC, Alabama Farmers Coop.; ARCO, ARCO Seed Company.

*Values in parenthesis represent percentage of total seasonal yield at that
harvest.

Experimental entry, seed not available.


Date seeded: November 16, 1984
Seeding rate: Wheat, triticale and rye 1.5 bu/A; Oats 2 bu/A.
rye mixture 10 lb + 1.5 bu/A.
Fertilization: At seeding 450 Ib/A 0-10-20, N-P205-K20
: After seedling emergence 60 lb/A N.
: After each harvest 35 lb/A N.


Irrigation:


Ryegrass +


Overhead sprinkler system applied a total of 4.1 inches in three
applications.











Table 2. Average small grain forage production of selected varieties grown
at AREC, Ona for three or more years between 1979 and 1985.


Year
Brand Variety 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 Avg.

---------Dry matter yield t/A
Oats
Coker Coker 227 3.6 2.6 2.7 2.7 + 2.3 2.1 2.7
Fla AES Fla 501 2.8 2.3 2.3 2.0 1.4 2.2 2.2 2.2
Fla AES Fla 502 t t t 2.9 1.2 1.9 1.8 2.0
Coker Coker 820 t t t t 1.4 2.2 2.0 1.9
Average 3.2 2.5 2.5 2.5 1.3 2.1 2.0 2.3

Wheat
Georgia AES Omega 78 2.9 t 2.5 2.2 t t 2.6
Coker Coker 762 3.1 2.5 2.6 2.4 t 2.0 1.7 2.4
Fla AES Fla 302 t t t 2.2 t 2.1 1.6 2.0
Fla AES Fla 301 2.6 2.3 2.6 1.8 0.6 1.5 1.5 1.8
-Coker Coker 797 + t t 1.5 t 1.6 1.4 1.5
Coker Coker 916 t t t t 0.8 2.1 1.7 1.5
Average 2.9 2.4 2.6 2.1 0.6 1.8 1.6 2.0

Rye
NAPB Forger 3.1 2.3 2.7 t t t + 2.7
NK Vitagraze 2.9 2.5 t 2.6 t 2.6
Pennington Wintergrazer 70 3.0 2.3 2.6 2.8 2.2 2.1 2.5
Gurley's Gurley Grazer
Inc. 2000 3.0 2.2 2.7 t t 1.9 2.0 2.4
AFC AFC 20/20 t 2.3 2.5 2.5 t 2.1 2.1 2.3
Fla AES Fla 401 t t t 2.1 0.9 1.7 2.1 1.7
Average 3.0 2.3 2.6 2.6 0.9 2.1 2.1 2.4


tVariety not tested that year.

*Florida Agricultural Experiment Station; Georgia Agricultural Experiment
Station; North American Plant Breeders; Alabama Farmers Cooperative; Northrup
King.

Entry had low germination when seeded, consequently sparse stand.




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