Title: Small grain and ryegrass forage production
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 Material Information
Title: Small grain and ryegrass forage production
Alternate Title: Research report RC-1988-8 ; Agricultural Research and Education Center, Ona, Fla.
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Stephenson, Robert John.
Barnett, R. D.
Prine, G. M.
Publisher: Agricultural Research and Education Center, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Ona, Fla.
Publication Date: June 1988
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076451
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 143401455

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lJi-



Agricultural Research and Education Center

Research Report RC-1988-8 June 1988

SMALL GRAIN AND RYEGRASS FORAGE PRODUCTION: AREC ONA 1987-88

R. J. Stephenson, R. D. Barnett, and G. M. Prine-


Small Grains

Small grains are cool-season annual grasses suited to a wide range of
soils and cropping conditions. Rye (Secale cereale L.) and wheat (Triticum
aestivum L.) are best suited to fertile well-drained soils and are more
productive than other small grains on alkaline, acidic or more poorly drained
soils. Oats (Avena sativa L.) are most productive in a cool, moist
environment and are relatively tolerant to wet soil conditions. Triticale
(Triticosecale, Whittmack), a cross between wheat grain gains a high lysine
and sulfur-containing amino acid content.

Small grains can provide a good quality forage for livestock during the
winter when most producers have little if any hay and perennial grasses are
dormant. Small grains can be grown in prepared seedbeds or overseeded in
permanent pastures extending the grazing season. Quality of small grains
varies depending on the stage of maturity at harvest. Crude protein will
generally run 12 to 17% and in vitro organic matter disappearance 65 to 75% if
cut or grazed prior to the boot stage of maturity.

Small grains respond well to N, although P and K are also important.
Large amounts of N increase the danger of lodging, but when used for grazing
is generally of little significance. Phosphorus and K should be applied just
prior to planting and N topdressed when seedlings are approximately 1 to 3
inches high and subsequently after grazing or harvesting. Initial grazing or
harvest of the forage should be done before the meristems or growing points
reach 2 to 3 inches above the soil surface. Deferring the initial harvest can
result in reduced growth, with little or no regrowth. The time of first
harvest will depend on several factors such as: varietal differences, date of
planting, rainfall, temperature and seeding rates, but is approximately 45 to
55 days after planting.

Leaf and stem rust (Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici and P. graminisi f.
sp. tritici) can be a problem on small grains. Released varieties are
generally resistant to rust, but depending on the environmental conditions
(particularly warm temperatures and high humidity), rust can become severe
enough to reduce forage yields.

New varieties are continually being released by private industry and
universities. These new releases are then evaluated in variety trials to
enable growers to make decisionB on the type and variety of small grains which
may fit their operation.



1/
Assistant Professor, Agricultural Research and Education Center (AREC) Ona;
Professor AREC Quincy; Professor Department of Agronomy Gainesville.









Ryegrass

Annual or Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) is a bunchgrass
which is often seeded in Florida to provide high quality forage during the
winter and early spring months of January through April. Ryegrass is often
seeded alone or with other species of grasses, legumes, or cereal grains to
provide about 90 to 120 days of grazing.

Ryegrass can be grown on a wide range of soil types, but if exceedingly
dry or the fertility level is poor, ryegrass is not recommended. The most
common use in Florida is to overseed warm-season perennial grass pastures.
Sod seeded ryegrass provides forage during the winter months which is replaced
in the spring by regrowth of the original warm-season grasses. Winter annual
grasses may also be used in a pasture renovation system. Perennial grass
pastures which have deteriorated, may be plowed in late fall and seeded to
winter annuals (ryegrass, etc.) in November. Pastures can then be grazed
until May, tilled, and planted back to a perennial grass in June or July.

Seeding rate depends on seedbed preparation, seed mix, etc. Ryegrass
production in a pure stand should be seeded anywhere from 15 to 20 Ib seed/A.
If grown with an associated legume, 4 to 6 lb seed/A is satisfactory. For
overseeding an existing grass pastures, 15 to 20 pounds of seed could be used.

As with all grasses, applying N fertilizer leads to more rapid growth and
increase of forage yield. Phosphorus and potassium should be applied prior to
seeding followed by N fertilizer when ryegrass seedlings are a few inches
tall. Be sure adequate sulphur and micronutrients are available, and the pH
should be 5.5 to 6.5.

New varieties are continually being released by private industry and
universities. These new releases are then evaluated in variety trials to
enable growers to make decisions on the variety of ryegrass which may fit
their needs.

Experimental Procedures

Small grains and ryegrass seeded at the Ona Agricultural Research and
Education Center (AREC) consisted of: eight wheat, three oat and two rye and
triticales, as well as four ryegrass varieties. Studies were seeded on a
clean tilled Ona fine sand soil November 17, 1987. After the 1986-87 winter
season, the land was allowed ho revegetate for about five months, then sprayed
with a 1% glyphosate (Roundup ) solution, mowed and disced. Experimental
design was a randomized complete block with four replications.

Prior to seeding 47 and 97 lb/A of P 05 and K20, respectively were
applied and disced into the soil. At 14 days post emergence 50 lb of nitrogen
was broadcast applied, followed by 25 lb N/A after each harvest.

Small grains and ryegrass entries were drilled in six inch rows at a
depth of 1.5 and .50 inches, respectively. Small grain seeding rates were:
oats, two bu/A and wheat, rye and triticale at 1.5 bu/A. Ryegrass was seeded
at 20 Ib/A. Trials were conducted under dryland conditions.









Entries were harvested with a rotary plot harvester to a stubble height
of three inches. Initial harvests were made when most entries were 15-18
inches. Subsequent harvests were made monthly. Small grains were harvested
four times and ryegrasses five times. Cutting dates and yields are given in
Table 1.

Results and Discussion

Small Grains

There were significant (P<0.05) differences among small grain varieties
for each harvest date and total forage production (Table 1). Average total
forage yields for oat, wheat, rye and triticale entries were 1.67, 1.53, 1.38
and 0.85 t/A, respectively.

Three harvests were made for all grain types, while enough regrowth
occurred for all oat and two wheats, warranting a fourth harvest. Small
grains generally produce their bulk of forage early in the season (January to
February) and tapers off later in the spring (March to May). Time of peak
forage production varies with variety, rainfall and other environemtnal
conditions. Rye and triticale yields were consistent and produced nearly the
same with each harvest. The greatest amounts of forage occurred in March for
most wheat and oat entries. Individual entries varied in forage yields among
harvest dates. Florida '301' normally matures earlier than '302', producing
the bulk of the forage earlier. Both wheat entries produced their highest
yields at the third harvest date (3/21) and in part was due to the cool
temperature above normal precipitation which delayed maturity.

Triticale varieties this year and in the past have produced less forage
than other small grain types (Table 2). Rainfall throughout the growing
season was 2.55 inches above normal, and disease and insects were not
problems.

Ryegrass

Only at the fifth harvest were there significant (P<0.05) differences in
forage yields among ryegrass varieties (Table 1). Considerable tillering
(visual observation) occurred after the second harvest, which brought about
increased yields at the third and fourth harvests. Yields dropped off at
mid-late May when unfavorable high temperatures, long daylength and limited
precipitation occurred. Average total dry matter yield was 3.1 t/A, doubling
that of small grain forage production. Three and four year average forage
production is given for selected varieties in Table 2.









Conclusions

Small grain forage yields were below average. Wheat, oat and rye entries
were superior to triticale entries. Florida '303', experimental entry
'7927-G29' wheat and Florida '402' rye forage yields were consistent over
harvest dates in this trial. Oat varieties and Florida '302' wheat produced
well later in the season, and have done so in the past years.

Ryegrass yields were double that of small grain varieties. There were no
forage yield differences among varieties tested, and the bulk of the forage
was produced in March and April after entries tillered.

When selecting a small grain or ryegrass variety one should consider
forage production over several years.

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Drs. Stephen Baezinger and David Marshall
from the University of Nebraska and Texas A&M Universities for supplying some
entries used in these trials.










Table 1. Small grains and ryegrass forage production at AREC Ona, 1987-88.

Harvest dates
Brand Variety 1/9 2/18 3/21 4/18 Total


Small Grains
Wheat
Fla AES 3
Agri. Pro-NAPB T
Fla AES 7
Coker 9
Fla AES 3
Tex AES# M
Fla AES 3
Neb AESC L
Average

Oats
Fla AES 5
Terrel Norris C
Fla AES 5
Average

Rye
Fla AES 4
Fla ARES 4
Average

Triticale
Fla AES 2
Fla AES F
Average


----------------t/A dry matter--------------


03
raveler
927-G29
733
02
itt
01
ancota



01
itation
02



02
01



.01
lorico


0.58
0.52
0.53
0.46
0.40
0.29
0.30
0.34
0.43


t
a
ab
ab
a-c
a-d
c-e
c-e
b-e


0.47 a-c
0.24 de
0.18 e
0.30


0.51 ab
0.37 a-e
0.44


0.42 a-d
0.27 c-e
0.34


0.56
0.47
0.50
0.42
0.38
0.35
0.31
0.31
0.41


0.33 d-f
0.25 ef
0.28 ef
0.29


0.44 a-d
0.54 a
0.49


0.22
0.27
0.24


0.56
0.63
0.53
0.66
0.76
0.59
0.83
0.44
0.62


0.86
0.79
0.82
0.82


b-d
a-d
c-e
a-d
a-c
b-d
a
d-f



a
ab
a


0.57 b-d
0.33 ef
0.45


0.25
0.26
0.25


0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.27
0.00
0.24
0.06


0.20
0.42
0.17
0.26


0.00
0.00
0.00


0.00 c
0.00 c
0.00


1.69
1.62
1.56
1.55
1.53
1.49
1.44
1.33
1.53


ab
a-c
a-d
a-d
a-d
b-d
b-d
cd


1.85 a
1.70 ab
1.45 b-d
1.67


1.53 a-d
1.24 d
1.38


0.89
0.81
0.85


Ryegrass


Pennington seed
Fla AES
Fla AES


Magnolia
FL-LR 86
Fla 80
Gulf annual


Average


1/19
0.54 a
0.59 a
0.55 a
0.52 a
0.55


Harvests dates
2/18 3/21
0.57 a 0.81 a
0.54 a 0.89 a
0.54 a 0.86 a
0.64 a 0.73 a
0.57 0.82


Means within a column followed by the same letters) are not significantly
different at the 0.05 level of probably according to Duncan's Multiple Range
Test.

Fla AES Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Tex AES Texas
Agricultural ExperiMent Station, Neb AES- Nebraska Agricultural Experiment
Station.

experimental entry, seed not commercially available.


4/18
0.94
0.90
0.87
0.84
0.89


5/24
0.28
0.21
0.24
0.22
0.24


Total
3.15a
3.14 a
3.07 a
2.96 a
3.08










Table 1. cont.


Seeding date: November 17, 1987


Seeding rates:


Small grains
- oats at 2 bu/A
- wheat, rye and triticale at 1.5 bu/A


Ryegrass
all entries at 20 Ib/A

Fertilization: At seeding 47 and 97 Ib/A P 0 and K 0
At 14 days post emergence 50 Ib N/A
After each harvest 25 lb N/A










Table 2. Average small grain and ryegrass forage production of selected
varieties grown at AREC-Ona, 1987-88.


Year tested
Brand Variety 1985 1986 1987 1988 Avg.

----------------t/A------------------


Small Grains

Wheat
Fla AES
Fla AES
Coker
Coker

Oats
Fla AES
Terrel Norris

Rye
Fla AES
NAPB

Ryegrass
Fla AES
Pennington seed


301
302
9227
9323


502
Citation


401
Forger


80
Magnolia
Annual Gulf


Entry not tested.


1.4
1.6
1.3
1.7


1.8
t


1.4
1.3


2.4
2.2
1.8


3.8
1*
t



3.1
3.1
3.0


2.8
2.6
2.3




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