Title: Annual report to the Florida Department of Natural Resources on the project
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076447/00001
 Material Information
Title: Annual report to the Florida Department of Natural Resources on the project
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Sutton, David L.
Publisher: Agricultural Research Center, University of Florida
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076447
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 144616934

Full Text


'2l-


RY


Annual Report to the Florida Department of Natural Resources
S U Iiv. of Flornd a
on the Project: Growth RetardantfS'"--..--...,....----.....

for Aquatic Weed Control



Cooperator: University of Florida, Agricultural Research Center
a/b/
at Fort Lauderdale --



Period Covering: January, 1972 to December, 1972



Report prepared by:

David L. Sutton
Agricultural Research Center
University of Florida
3205_S. W. 70 Avenue
Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33314




Copy Number _


In cooperation with the Agricultural Research Service, Southern
Region, Florida Area, U. S. Department of Agriculture; U. S.
Army Corps of Engineers; Central and Southern Florida Flood
Control District.

No portion of this report is to be reproduced in any manner
without the written consent of the University of Florida.


Fort Lauderdale ARC Research Report FL73-1'

SE P 29 Rl7u
i









II. Objectives

A. To develop herbicides which will retard the growths.of aquatic
vegetation, primarily hydrilla.

B. To measure the concentration of the growth regulators in the plants
and in the ambient solution.

C. To determine the effect of these herbicides on the physiology of
hydrilla and desirable native aquatic plants.

D. To ascertain the influence of these herbicides on water quality.

E. To evaluate the effect of growth inhibiting herbicides on fish and
other microorganisms in the aquatic environment.


Ill. Methods and Materials

A. Culture of hydrilla and evaluation of compounds for their growth
retarding effect.

Cuttings of hydrilla 12 to 16 cm in length were collected from
canals in the Fort Lauderdale area. These cuttings were then placed
three each in a 2.5-cm plastic pot filled with approximately 100 g of
an organic muck soil, and then two pots were placed in a 3.7-liter glass
container. These containers were filled with pondwater which had
Hoagland's nutrient solution added to make a one-tenth strength nutrient
solution. Enough sodium bicarbonate was also added to make a final con-
centration of 50 ppmw of the bicarbonate ion. A sequestrene form of
iron was added to make 4 ppmw Fe in the nutrient solution. The Jars
were then placed in a contro- led environment room with 14 hr of 150 ft-C
of light. Water temperature was an average of 22 t I C.

The plants were allowed to grow for I week after which herbicides
were injected into the water. Each herbicide concentration was added to
four or more jars, and plants which received no chemical served as controls.
After 4 weeks the plants were removed from the jars, rinsed briefly with
tap water, and then dried in a forced air oven at 60 C. The plants were
also visually examined for phytotoxic effects of these herbicides.

B. Effect of carbon supply on growth.of hydrilla.

Factors affecting the growth of hydrilla are not clearly understood-
This part of the study is designed to examine several factors influencing
the growth of hydrilla, and then incorporate these with the growth
retardant screening trials.

Cuttings of hydrilla were collected as previously described. For
this experiment the cuttings were grown in the nutrient solution using
distilled water, and with various concentrations of bicarbonates. The
cuttings were either placed in sand or allowed to float in the glass


W6~'









I. Introduction


Hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata Royle), a submersed aquatic plant
not native to Florida, was first observed in this state in the late
1950's. Since that time this plant has spread throughout most of
Florida and into other states, replacing many native aquatic plants.
The manner in which hydrilla is able to replace established populations
of plants is not known. This plant has a very rapid growth rate and
thrives under many diverse environmental conditions.

Another problem associated with hydrilla is its method of vegetative
propagation. Tubers are formed at the end of stolen in the hydrosoil,
up to 6 inches or more in depth, and provide a means for regrowth of
hydrilla once the parent plant is eliminated. A control measure which
would reduce the regrowth of these tubers would help in an overall
control program of hydrilla.

Of the three methods available at the present time, herbicides are
more effective than either mechanical or biological agents for most
aquatic plant problems. Herbicides may control some aquatic vegetation
at a much lower cost than mechanical means. The rapid growth rate of
some of the troublesome aquatic plants under Florida subtropical environ-
ment make mechanical removal of these plants very difficult. Research
has not progressed to the point where effective biological control agents
are available, except for the alligatorweed flea beetle (Agasciles sp.)
which is providing some degree of control for alligatorweed (Alternanthera
philoxeroides (Mart.) Griesb.)

The necessity of using herbicides for the control of aquatic vegeta-
tion has resulted in the development of new formulation and application
techniques which may reduce residue levels and other harmful effects of
these chemicals, but at the same time increase their effectiveness. One
of the newest formulation techniques for control of hydrilla is to use
a combination of 6,7-dihydrodipyrido(l.2-a:2',1'-C)pyrazinediium ion
(diquat) plus copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4'5H20). Recent studies
have indicated a synergistic effect when using these compounds when
compared to the effect of each individual chemical. More information on
the manner in which these herbicides affect the plant will help in for-
mulating new application techniques.

In many cases application of herbicides will result in the destruc-
tion of desirable aquatic plants in the attempt to control the growth of
hydrilla. A herbicide which would be selective toward hydrilla, or one
which would retard the growth of hydrilla while allowing the desirable
plants to grow normally, would contribute to eliminating hydrilla as a
problem plant in Florida. In the overall management of a body of water,
the complete removal of plants is not desirable since this vegetation
significantly enhances fish production. The retardation of plant growth
offers a means whereby the vegetation can be controlled so that it is no
longer a problem, and at the same time have some vegetation which is
essential in the aquatic ecosystem.


I









containers. Growth conditions were the same as those previously
described. The cuttings were allowed to grow for 4 weeks after which
they were removed from the containers, rinsed briefly with distilled
water, dried, weighed, and analyzed for phosphorus.

C. Chlorophyll content of hydrilla.

The chlorophyll content of an aquatic plant is an indirect measure
of the healthiness of that plant. Herbicides which affect plant growth
would reduce the chlorophyll content of the plant. This part of the
study is designed to formulate a technique which would help in the
screening of the growth retardants, and at the same time measure the
effect of the herbicide on the photosynthetic apparatus of the plant.
A growth retardant should not destroy the chlorophyll of an aquatic
plant, since a state of slow growth for the plant is one of the desired
characteristics of the compound.

1. Comparison with other aquatic plants.

The chlorophyll content of hydrilla grown under various growth
conditions was compared to a number of other aquatic plants. Plants
near the Research Center were immediately analyzed after collection.
Other plants were cooled and then transported to the Research Center
for analysis.

Chlorophyll was determined by extracting known amounts of tissue
(fresh weight) in a tissue grinder with 80% acetone. The extract was
filtered and then brought to a standard volume of 100 ml with additional
acetone. The resulting solution was then read.on a spectrophotometer at
663 and 645 mu.

2. Effect of copper on chlorophyll content of hydrilla.

Cuttings of hydrilla were taken from plants collected in canals
in the Fort Lauderdale area. Terminal cuttings 3 cm in length were
washed with several changes of distilled water to remove any adhering -
algae or other material. These cuttings were then placed one each in
glass tubes 25 mm in diameter by 150 mm in length. Each tube contained
50 ml of O.1-strength Hoaglands nutrient solution plus the appropriate
amount of copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO4'5H20, copper sulfate) to
give final elemental copper concentrations of 0, 2.0, and 20.0 ppmw.
Each concentration was repeated three times, and the cuttings which
received no copper served as controls. The glass tubes were placed in
a water bath at 30 C under 150 ft-C. After 4 days the cuttings were
removed from the tubes, blotted dry, weighed, and then ground in a
tissue grinder with a minimum of 80% acetone. Chlorophyll was determined
of this extract as previously mentioned.









IV. Results and Discussion

A. Evaluation of compounds for growth retarding effects.

Evaluation for growth retarding effects of several compounds are
presented in Tables I to II. Citrus-solventC/ and Maintain CF-125-
at 5.0 ppmw reduced the dry weight of hydrilla as compared to-the
control plants. Concentrations lower than these did not inhTbit growth
of hydrilla. BAS-3512-H reduced the growth rate of hydrilla at a con-
centration of 0.5 ppmw, but at 1.0 ppmw this compound had no apparent
effect on growth of hydrilla.

In previous studies,e/ the addition of copper along with the
organic herbicide increased the phytotoxicity of the combination as
compared to the effects of the individual herbicides. Copper sulfate
was added to some of these organic compounds, but apparently had very
little effect on the growth of hydrilla.

Additional evaluation trials are in progress with new compounds.
and other compounds which have shown growth retarding effects on
terrestrial plants.

B. Effect of carbon supply on growth of hydrilla.

An increase in bicarbonate level up to 100 ppmw significantly
increased the dry weight of hydrilla plants rooted in sand CTable-12),
but the dry weight of plants which were floating was not affected by
the bicarbonate levels. Also, a significant drop in phosphorus content
of hydrilla occurred accompanied by the increase in bicarbonate level-
in the nutrient level. The cause for this decrease may be related to
the greater biomass of plant material at the higher nutrient levels.
This is not the only factor involved, since with the floating plants
this relationship is not evident.

Additional studies are planned to examine in more detail this
bicarbonate and phosphorus relationship. Alkalinity measurements are
also planned, since this measurement is related to the bicarbonate
level in a body of water.


c/ Supplied by Mr. Robert J. Gates of the Southwest Florida Water
Management District.

d/ Mention of a trademark or a proprietary product does not constitute
a guarantee or warranty of the product by the Univ. of Florida or
the U. S. Dep. of Agr., and does not imply its approval to the
exclusion of other products that may also be suitable.
e/ Sutton, David L., W. T. Haller, K. K. Steward and R. D. Blackburn.
1972. Effect of copper on uptake of diquat-14C by hydrilla. Weed
Science 20:581-583. and Sutton, David:L., L. W. Weldon, and R. D.
Blackburn. 1970. Effect of diquat on uptake of copper in aquatic
plants. Weed Science 18:703-707.









C. Chlorophyll content of hydrilla.

1. Comparison with other aquatic plants.

The determination of the chlorophyll content of hydrilla and other
aquatic plants was undertaken to evaluate the potential of using
chlorophyll determinations as a measurement which would complement the
dry weight evaluation. The chlorophyll content of aquatic plants varies
widely (Tables 13 and 14). Action spectra for three of these plants
are presented in Figures I to 3. Also, chlorophyll content of the same
plant varies according to the environmental conditions under which it
is growing, note total chlorophyll for hydrilla from Orange County and
from the fish food pool and the drainage ditch at the Agricultural
Research Center. Additional studies are planned to evaluate factors
causing this difference, and then try to control some of these factors
so that more homogenous plant material might be available for these
studies.

2. Effect of copper on chlorophyll content of hydrilla.

Copper sulfate at 20 ppmw of the elemental copper increased the
chlorophyll b content of hydrilla after a 4-day exposure period (Table 15).
Chlorophyll a appeared to be unaffected during this 4-day exposure period.
Additional studies are planned to examine in more detail the influence
of copper on the chlorophyll content of hydrilla, and also to include
some organic compounds in combination with the copper sulfate or other
copper sources.


.V. Summary and Conclusion

Three compounds have shown growth retarding effects on hydrilla as
evaluated by dry weight determinations. The addition of copper as copper
sulfate appeared to have very little influence on these and other com-
pounds evaluated. This part of the study will be continued evaluating
new compounds as well as some of the well-known compounds which have
shown growth retarding effects on terrestrial plants.

Bicarbonate levels and the status of hydrilla plants as to whether
they are floating or rooted influenced the growth rate of hydrilla.
Bicarbonate which is a part of total alkalinity measurements for water
quality may play an important role in the growth and development of
hydrilla, since the bicarbonate level influenced the uptake of phosphorus.
This water quality factor may also be involved in affecting the uptake
of other compounds by hydrilla. Additional studies are planned to
examine in more detail the influence of bicarbonate and phosphorus levels
on the growth of hydrilla, and also their influence on the uptake of some
organic compounds.

Chlorophyll measurements of hydrilla were initiated to evaluate the
possibility of using this measurement as a complement to the dry weight
evaluations as a means of assessing compounds for their growth retardant
potential for the control of hydrilla. Studies will include combinations
as well as the individual herbicides themselves.











VI. Appendix



Page No.


A. Tables . . .. . . . 7


B. Figures . . . . . . 22


C. Abstract (which is to be included in the 26th Proc.
South. Weed Sci. Soc.) of a talk which was presented
at the 26th annual meeting of the Southern Weed Science
Society meeting in Atlanta, Georgia . . .


D. Distribution List . . . . .


. 25


. 26


_ ~CC ~ __












I.

Table I. Effect of citrus-solvent on growth of hydrilla in 3.7-liter

glass container during a 3-week period under controlled

conditions.

a/ b/
Chemical Con Visual evaluation-/ Plant dry wt-
Chemical Concentration
(ppmw) Weeks of treatment after 3 weeks
2 3 (g)


Control 0 0 0 .4692 b

Citrus-solvent 1 0 0 .4404 b

Citrus-solvent 5 5 6 .3104 a

Citrus-solvent 10 95 92 0

Citrus-solvent 20 100 100 0
c/
Tween 20- 5 0 0 .4505 b


a/ 0 no effect; 100 plants killed.
b/
SAny two means with the same letter do not differ significantly at the

5% level as determined by Duncan's Multiple Range Test. Each value

is the mean of eight replications.

c/Tween 20 added as a wetting agent for the citrus-solvent.
Tween 20 added as a wetting agent for the citrus-solvent.














Table 2.


Effect of citrus-solvent and copper sulfate on growth

of hydrilla in 3.7-liter glass containers during a

4-week period under controlled conditions.


Chemical Concentration Visual Plant dry wt-
(ppmw) Evaluation (g)


Control 0 .41 a

Citrus solvent 1.0 0 .45 a

Copper sulfate 1.0 0 .40 a

Citrus solvent +
copper sulfate I + 1 0 .40 a


a/ 0 no effect; 100 plants killed.

b/ Any two means with the same letter do not differ significantly

at the 5% level as determined by Duncan's Multiple-Range Test. Each

value is the mean of eight replications.














Table 3.


Effect of Maintain CF-125 on hydrilla grown in 3.7-liter

glass containers under controlled conditions during a

4-week period.


Concentration Dry weight/ Visual evaluation
(ppmw) (g)


0 .7705 b 0

0.5 .7165 b 0

1.0 .8064 b 5

5.0 .4053 a 20


Values followed by the same letter are not significantly.dif-

ferent at the 5% level as determined by Duncan's Multiple Range

Test. Each value is the mean of eight replications.
b/
- 0 no effect; 100 plants killed.












Table 4.


Effect of Maintain CF-125 on hydrilla grown in 3.7-liter

glass containers under controlled conditions during a

4-week period.


Concentration Dry weight!/ Visual evaluation-
(ppmw) (g)


0 .3416 a 0

0.25 .3557 a 0

0.50 .3668 a 0

1.0 .2786 a 0

a/
- Values followed by the same letter are not significantly

different at the 5% level as determined by Duncan's Multiple

Range Test. Each value is the mean of eight replications.

b/ 0 no effect.; 100 plants killed.













Table 5. Effect of Maintain CF-125 plus copper sulfate on hydrilla

grown in 3.7-liter glass containers under controlled

conditions during a 4-week period.


Herbicide Concentration Visual Dry weight
Herbicide a/
(ppmw) evaluation- (g)


Control 0 .425 a

Maintain CF-125 0.1 0 .427 a

Maintain CF-125 1.0 0 .444 a

Copper sulfate 0.1 0 .417 a

Copper sulfate 1.0 0 .430 a

Maintain CF-125 plus
copper sulfate 0.1 plus 0.1 0 .478 a

Maintain CF-125 plus
copper sulfate 1.0 plus 1.0 0 .433 a-

a/
0 no effect; 100 plants killed.

b- Values followed by the same letter are not significantly different

at the 5% level as determined by Duncan's Multiple Range Test. Each

value is the mean of four replications.
c/oot growth on all plants in each replication.
Very little root growth on all plants in each replication.















Table 6. Phytotoxicity of DPX-1840 on hydrilla grown in 3.7-liter

glass containers under controlled environment conditions.


DPX-1840 Visual rating/ Plant dry weight/
(ppmw)
Weeks after treatment (g)

2 4 6


Control 0 0 0 0.876 a

0.5 0 0 0 0.794 a

1.0 0 0 0 0.733 a

5.0 0 0 5 0.747 a


a/ 0 no visible effect; 100 plants killed.

b/ Values followed by the same letter are not significantly different

at the 5% level as determined by Duncan's Multiple Range Test.

Each value is the mean of four replications.














Table 7.


Effect of MH-30 and Ethrel on growth of hydrilla in

3.785-liter glass containers.


Chemical Concentration Visual evaluationa- Plant dry b
(ppmw) 2 weeks 4 weeks weight (g)-


MH-30 0.5 0 0 .431 a

MH-30 1.0 0 0 .354 a

MH-30 10.0 0 0 .362 a

Ethrel 0.5 0 0 .332 a

Ethrel 1.0 0 0 .355 a

Ethrel 10.0 0 0 .416 a

Control 0 0 .388 a

a 0 = No effect; 100 = complete kill.

b/ Values followed by the same letter are not significantly different

at the 5% level as determined by Duncan's Multiple Range Test.

Each value is the mean of four replications.










Table 8.


Effect of several herbicides on hydrilla grown from cuttings

and tubers in 3.7-liter glass containers during 4-week

period under controlled conditions.


a/
Concen- Percent control-
Herbicide traction Plants grown Plants grown
(ppmw) from cuttings from tubers


Control 0.0 0 a 2 a

Copper as CuS04*5H20 0.5 14 b 16 ab
Copper as CuSO4-5H20 1.0 75 d 19 abc

Copper as cutrine 0.1 I a 8 a
Copper as cutrine 0.5 86 e 14 ab
Copper as cutrine 1.0 98 f 18 abc

BAS-3512-H 0.1 0 a 4 a
BAS-3512-H 0.5 5 ab 2. a
BAS-3512-H 1.0 5 ab 4 a
BAS-3512-H 5.0 16 b 5 a

BAS-0660-W 0.1 1 a 2 a
BAS-0660-W 0.5 2 a 5 a
BAS-0660-W 1.0 0 a 2 a
BAS-0660-W 5.0 10 ab 9 a

Diquat 0.1 100 f 99 f
Diquat 0.5 100 f 97 f

Copper as CuS04"5H20 plus diquat 0.5 + 0.5 100 f 98 f

Copper as cutrine plus diquat 0.1 + 0.1 99 f 45 d
Copper as cutrine plus diquat 0.5 + 0.5 100 f 79 e

Copper as CuS04'5H20 plus BAS-3512-H 0.5 + 0.5 55 c 33 cd
Copper as CuS04-5H20 plus BAS-3512-H 0.5 + 0.5 86 e 26 bc

Copper as cutrine plus BAS-3512-H 0.5 + 0.5 91 fe 29 bc
Copper as cutrine plus BAS-3512-H 0.5 + 0.5 96 fe 27 bc


Values within a column followed by the same letter are not

different from each other at the 5% level as determined by

Range. 0 no effect; 100 plants killed. Each value is

five replications.


significantly

Duncan's Multiple

the mean of












Table 9.


Effect of BAS-3512-H and copper sulfate on growth of hydrilla

in 3.7-liter glass containers during a 4-week period under

controlled conditions.


a/
Herbicide Concentration (ppmw) Plant dry wt (g)-


Control 0.59 cd

BAS-3512-H 0.5 0.43 a

BAS-3512-H 1.0 0.53 bcd

Copper sulfate 0.5 0.59 cd

Copper sulfate 1.0 0.58 cd

BAS-3512-H + Copper sulfate 0.5 + 0.5 0.45 ab

BAS-3512-H + Copper sulfate 1.0 + 1.0 0.52 abc


a/ Values followed by the same letter are not significantly different

at the 5% level as determined byDuncan's Multiple Range Test. Each

value is the mean of four replications.












Table 10.


Effect of BAS-3512-H and copper sulfate on growth

of hydrilla in 3.7-liter glass containers during

a 4-week period under controlled conditions.


Herbicide Concentration Plant dry
wt (g) 2


Control 0 .381 a

BAS-3512-H 0.1 .366 a

CuSO4 0.1 .291 a

BAS-3512-H plus CuSO4 0.1 plus 0.1 .297 a

BAS-3512-H 0.5 .345 a

CuSO4 0.5 .327 a

BAS-3512-H plus CuSO4 0.5 plus 0.5 .303 a



Values followed by the saTe letter are not significantly

different at the 5% level as determined by Duncan's

Multiple Range Test. Each value is the mean of four

replications.












Table II. Effect of two copper sources on growth of three aquatic

plant species grown in 3.7-liter glass containers under

controlled conditions.

a/
Weeks after treatment-

Chemical Concentration Southern Hydrilla Eurasian
(ppmw) naiad watermilfoil

2 4 6 2 4 6 2 4 6


0.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3
Light
copper 1.0 0 12 15 0 2 3 0 5 7
carbonate
2.0 0 22 28 0 2 7 0 13 13


0.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Dense
copper 1.0 0 0 0 0 0 Q 0 2 2
carbonate
2.0 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 7


a/
- 0 no effect; 100 plants killed. Each value is the

replications.


mean of three












Table 12.


Phosphorus content and dry weight of hydrilla 4.weeks after

growth of cuttings in 3.7-liter glass containers under con-

trolled conditions.


Plant Bicarbonate level Phosphorus content of Plant dry wt/
status (ppmw) hydrilla tissue (g)
(ug/g dry wt)


Floating 0 1.72 e .5702 ab

Rooted 0 1.18 c .5069 a

Floating 25 1.76 e .5561 ab

Rooted 25 1.24 c .6669 bc

Floating 50 1.40 d .6321 bc

Rooted 50 1.18 c .6544 bc

Floating 75 1.22 c .6378 bc

Rooted 75 1.06 bc .7253 cd

Floating 100 1.14 bc .6093 abc

Rooted 100, 1.04 a .7837 d


Any two means within a column

significantly at the 5% level

Test. Each value is the mean


followed by the same letter do not differ

as determined by Duhcan's Multiple Range

of eight replications.











Chlorophyll content of various aquatic plants.


Chlorophyll (ug/g fresh wt)
Plant Origin
Total a b


Chara
Chara


Hydrilla apex
Hydrilla mid


Coontail
Coontail
Coontail


Orange County
Orange County

Orange County
Orange County


apex
mid
basal


Orange
Orange
Orange


County
County
County


0.3548 0.2821 0.0727
0.2399 0.1951 0.0448

0.4988 0.4174 0.0814
0.5914 0.4995 0.0920


0.6378
0.7099
0.6645


0.4945
0.5789
0.5749


0.1435
0.1311
0.0898


Naiad
Naiad

Small val
Large val
Large val

Duckweed
Duckweed


Orange County
Orange County


lisneria
lisneria
lisneria


Orange
Orange
Orange


0.6540 0.5884 0.0658
0.6215 0.5188 0.1028


County
County
County


Concrete tank,
Concrete tank,


Wo lfia

Wolfia


Hydrilla
HydriIla


Emersed parrot-
feather leaves

Submersed parrot-
feather:


Stem
Stem
Tip
Tip


ARCa/
ARC


Wet lab plastic
aquarium, ARC
Wet lab plastic
aquarium, ARC

Fish food pool, ARC
Drainage ditch, ARC


Drainage ditch, ARC


Pool, ARC
Pool, ARC
Pool, ARC
Pool, ARC


0.3657
0.5568
0.6943


0.2797
0.4834
0.6034


0.3144 0.2893 0.0251
0.3320 0.2921 0.0396

0.5447 0.4988 0.0460

0.4967 0.4535 0.0432


1.1661 1.0509 0.1154
0.9574 0.8668 0.0908


1.1048 0.9883 0.1167


0.7210
0.7054
0.7975
0.8733


0.6083
0.6001
0.6604
0.7248


a/
SAgri.cultural Research Center, Fort Lauderdale.


0..0860
0.0756
0.0910


1129
1055
1372
1487


Table 13.


j










Table 14. Chlorophyll content of various aquatic plants.


Fresh Chlorophyll (ug/g fresh wt)
No. Plant Origin
wt (g)
Total a b


Waterhyacinth-
Waterhyacinth
Waterhyacinth
Waterhyacinth

Parrotfeather:
Submersed tip
Submersed tip
Submersed tip
Submersed tip

Parrotfeather:
Emersed tip
Emersed tip
Emersed tip
Emersed tip

Waterhyacinth:
Large leaf
Large leaf
Large leaf
Large leaf

Waterhyacinth:
Small leaf
Small leaf
Small leaf
Small leaf

Sagateria leaf
Sagateria leaf


Greenhouse,
Greenhouse,
Greenhouse,
Greenhouse,


ARC-
ARC
ARC
ARC


Wet lab, ARC
Wet lab, ARC
Wet lab, ARC
Wet lab, ARC


Canal, ARC
Canal, ARC
Canal, ARC
Canal, ARC


Greenhouse,
Greenhouse,
Greenhouse,
Greenhouse,


Greenhouse,
Greenhouse,
Greenhouse,
Greenhouse,

Canal, ARC
Canal, ARC


ARC
ARC
ARC
ARC


ARC
ARC
ARC
ARC


0.0788
0.0910
0.0944
0.0933


0.1269
0.1250
0.1346
0.1125


0.3610
0.2634
0.2374
0.2800


0..0954
0.0748
0.0966
0.0884


0.0816
0.0674
0.0748
0.0746


1.8111
1.6254
2.0431
1.8877


1.6242
0.9915
1.3743
1.4476


1.2342
1.1694
1.2570
1.2535


1.7929
2.1051
2..0189
1.9967


1.0962
1.9359
1.6970
2.1071


0.1818 1.3010
0.1752 0.8790


0.3335
0.4844
0.6860
0.3376


0.4374
0.2481
0.5190
0.7324


0.152.1
0.1762
0.1920
0.2266


0.3497
0.7473
0.4807
0.5529


0.4284
0.5543
0.4876
0.7800


2.1441
2.1094
2.7284
2.2248


2.0610
1.2393
1.8928
2.1794


1.3860
1.3454
1.4487
1.4798


2.1422
2.8517
2.4991
2.5491


1.5242
2.4896
2-.1842
2.8865


0.3039 1.6045
0.2513 1.1300


Each sample consisted of a disc
leaf.


2 cm in diameter taken from the center of a


Agricultural Research Center, Fort Lauderdale.




21








Table 15. Chlorophyll content of hydrilla 4 days after treatment with

copper sulfate.


Herbicide concentration Plant fresh wt Chlorophyll (.ug/g fresh wt)
(ppmw) (g)
Total a b


Control .5181 .8267 .7536 .0733

Control .5419 .7774 .6941 .0835

Control .6371 .7513 .6563 .0951

2.0 .3574 .7259 .6353 .0908

2.0 .5488 .5430 .4997 .0434

2.0 .4965 .5630 .5074 .0558

20.0 .2723 1.0143 .6638 .3508

20.0 .2056 1.3868 .8131 .5742

20.0 .3579 1.0117 .5654 .4466











I


444-


I I I II I I


it III


I


SI'
i i i i


HA-4


H-f-


iTr"i' I - --


-1EEEEEEEEEEEEE


-I i i

; I i
, i ,
w-:E_ '

-tt-In


=rH-Ii:


I .' I. 4 4 'I -


I


"-.-~ I .LZIIZ




--


0


-. 0
Cd


Si I I : I i 'i .I I.


30NV8 0 S 8v


c--


m I t -- --. c-ct I I I .


- --H


, .


:-


' 1


-44-i


T


1 I


i i !


N-
I .-::-.. C
U0)-
_>, ^ 0 ,*-*:.... c C .


EE E E EE 1..:. -.: : -,
;n.


::==:= := := '- ::......-;: .i -**._
- - "' "- '* 0. :'-

, ** 7 0 ,
-" .

L.

-- *-< -*



E. '







::= :=:= =:O-:: 0 *,.. ~-
i 7 II: r" "
X0 5
~t 3:
















0
A-





- -- .. m :- :
0)



-_- .,-Uo .:-.















:zz'it ^ ^' ^ -, -


- -- -- -- --t -- -- .0: "
: zz_ __ __ _ '- 4- .



ii__ _, -- 0


















:= = =:"= 10 Lt --* ", :
:= = =, -0 -..^ ":-...- -:
.:E E E E :.. .." :... S -^ ". '..

:= -=:n = = i-ij ...8.. ."-
O







-^ ------- ^ f.
-I .

0-








'=====!== 0(U*..*
-~ IL) ) L 2-




a- --- -. -.





4-- ---- .0) *:^ **


__ I __ .-, Q:. .
H -J




___ C- U -




-- -- --- -o *.




.. -- '-._ ---- -- ;,
- V. ";
S=: 0 :.-. .

S ... ..
D ;-I-a




ZZ 0'
LI)
~~~~.- i~- I 0




.
C
_r
:"-
... ~r
r .i
:.
r


liii lii


i~iBI~EIi~P1F1


IHBh II


.j..r l l -


I I l i I I '


0
Oi
*u


' P .- I I


I


I




1
i I II: i i i


t


I I I [I I ,


I


'
-L.
T
'
"'


-4+ C*


" 30NVBEIOS8V %.',:
?'-~ ~ .. ,


I I 4-


IA-
^EE^E~IEE






^i~l~i


- ~--~-- --I


~.I.- ;-'i
~ci
L.iL .r "'
r
-.:i- :" '' '~
r
~*
- -_:__r ---- -rT


I"s- :


--m


I--r


,.L-Ce~-C~-ttr


I 1 1 1 1 1 1 !


I I I I


, l I I


:-^ ~- -- -a.
--W+rr okHH-


i : : : : ; i


I- -.b-.


R:


Hi-t~Jr~F~ytttiffjf~


- ." *' '"'O .-:.




'.- -









0,*







04
O = o- ) '- -









IL) .9
' l .: :
















0 '4- -

It)
- 0 .










: J .:- ,








4- .



s-o










:-: f;* -
-* 6 *

0 .
0 o -
* ^ t y '


" 23 -;
I,


-4+


f i


1 ; I


I I I .a


- 0,


t
r
5. ~f~--~
~f. ^
~r


r
-I-

,"




i -
-
-..-~--r
~ :
:
-
i:


0
oJ.


~ji-


.- I I


'-V


*-.


-I-I


1 ++ T


r.0


i.. -


30NV8 OS8V


0

Mf(


_- ^
'4- :'
o





4-c-
O






r)

U)



... 0
'~ ;-&.E-" -""^






4I:
C1 c: --
4- '
0' o '







'4- *: **


: .. L *,




g ', -. ;.^-:. : : ;:
10

S .





*- 0- ) .. -- -




o-
0 1-- -:

















* !- o 7 --

* *. "2" ,- "" *" "0..1-
.- a)

0. +











Ij -
0 \-* ,% '*- 7 *;


24


I I I


1 1


~zHrn~


I I I I I


;* r.\ *-.! I


u


I i


--#-


i
; ':


-H-


i 1


I




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs