Title: Research progress report on chemical control of the citrus blackfly, Aleurocanthus woglumi ashby
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Title: Research progress report on chemical control of the citrus blackfly, Aleurocanthus woglumi ashby
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Reinert, James Arnold,
Publisher: Agricultural Research Center, IFAS, University of Florida
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Volume ID: VID00001
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University of Florida -'ARC
Mimeo Report ARC-FL76-2


Research Progress Report on Chemical Control of
the Citrus Blackfly, Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby


James A. Reinert IRAR
University of Florida, ARC, IFAS
Ft. Lauderdale, Fla. AUG14 i978
September 10, 1976

i.F.A.S. Univ. of Florida
I INTRODUCTION

The citrus blackfly Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby, is potentially one

of the most economically important pests of Florida Citrus. It is well

established in Mexico, Jamacia, Cuba, Panama, Costa Rica, the Bahamas,

Haiti, and parts of Texas and is primarily a pest of citrus. On

January 28, 1976, it was detected in Ft. Lauderdale, Fla., and now in-

fests portions of Broward, Palm Beach, and Dade Counties.

Research was initiated at the Agricultural Research Center in Ft.

Lauderdale to develop a chemical program for either eradication or

management of this pest. Effort is being directed to develop techniques

and strategies in various environmental situations; homeowner yards,

wholesale and retail nurseries, commercial citrus groves, and non-crop

areas.

The following summarizes the experiments completed, or in progress,

for control of citrus blackfly by chemical insecticides.










Experimental Results: ... ...

1. One experiment was conducted to compare different methods of

applying malathion." In this study a truck-mounted ULV and a hand-held

electrical powered mist blower were compared with foliar sprays applied'

with truck-mounted spray units. Five trees were treated with each method

and the larval (2nd and 3rd instar) mortality was-evaluated at weekly

intervals post-initial treatment. Treatments were reapplied weekly for

a total of three treatments.

Note in Table 1 that significant control was achieved by the foliar

sprays. The mist blower applications gave some control at the 1.25 Ib

AI/100 gal rate but apparently failed at the 2X rate. This discrepancy

cannot be explained. :The use of ULV at the rate presently used for

mosquito control provided no control in this test. All data in Table 1

were adjusted by Abbott's Formula to the untreated checks.


Table 1.


Percent control of citrus blackfly by malathion applied by
different methods.


Rate
Treatment Lb AI/100 Weeks after initial
Gal -treatment
1 2 3

Foliar spray 1.25 73 89 75
Mist Blower 1.25 43 89 -47
Mist Blower 2.5 33 0 23
ULV 0 0 0


* 2 gal maximum flow rate/hour simulateda treatments ior
mosquito control)
Adjusted by Abbott's Formula.









2. A second experiment evaluated deep-root soil injection as a

method for treating with a systemic insecticide to control the citrus

blackfly. Dimethoatle (CygonR) was metered into the root zone of each

tree at rates of 2-16 gm AI/inch of trunk:.diameter. Four trees were

treated with each rate of dimethoate. Table 2 shows that all rates of

the insecticide provided some control of the citrus blackfly larvae

(based on mortality of 2nd and 3rd instars) at 2 weeks. The 8 and -16

rates provided 95 and 91% control, respectively. The degree .of control

was greatly reduced at 3 weeks when populations .were reevaluated.

Table 2. Control of citrus blackfly by soil injection of dimethoate.


gm AI/ % Control*
Chemical in. diam. 2 Wk 3 Wk

Dimethoate 2 44 49
Dimethoate 4 29 32
Dimethoate 8 95 9
Dimethoate 16 91 33

Control represents 2nd and 3rd.instars
Adjusted by Abboft's Formula


3." A third study was made to evaluate 9 insecticides by foliar dip.

Five citrus terminals were treated with each insecticide by dipping

each terminal into the spray solution; this method simulated a foliar

drench spray treatment-with complete coverage.

The data in Table 3 show that acephate (OrtheneR), endosulfan (ThiodanR),
SD-43775, diazinon, dimethoate, malathion, FMC-33297, methidathion (SupracideR),

and oxydemetonmethyl gave control of the citrus blackfly when the infested

terminals were immersed into each spray solution. Based on these data, it

appears that several insecticides are highly effective in controlling this

pest, if adequate coverage is obtained.










Table 3.. Percent control of citrus blackfly following dipping
of infested terminal branches into different insecti-
cide preparations.


S % Mortality
AI/100 1 Wk 2 Wk
Chemical Gal (lb) L P L P
Acephate .0.5 98 100 100 100
Endosulfan 0.5 97 100 100 99
SD-43775 0.5 50 49 100 98
Diazinon 0.5 99 99 100 97
Dimethoate. 0.5 100 99' 99 100
Malathion 1.25 99 95 99 99
FMC-33297* 0.5 95. .64 95 79
Methidathion 0.5 98 98 85 90
Oxydemetonmethyl 0.5 83 99 83 98
Check .0 25 32 03- 14

L = 2nd and 3rd instars
P = pupae


4.-. A fourth -experiment was-conducted-to.compare-malathion foliar

spray with mist blower applications of malathion, acephate, chlorpyrifos

(DursbanR), naled (DibromR), and pyrethrin (PyrellinR). Six trees were

treated with each chemical preparation. Treatments were applied weekly

for 3 weeks. Though the rates may appear to be much higher for mist

blower treatments, the actual amount on material applied per tree was

far less than that applied by the foliar spray of malathion.

Table 4 shows that mist blower treatments of acephate and chlorpyrifos

were highly effective in controlling citrus blackfly larvae. .An added

bonus to both materials was the high pupal mortality obtained at 2 weeks

post-initial treatment. Malathion did not provide nearly as good control

as either of these materials. It is important to point out that there

was essentially no difference in control provided by the 2 methods of

application for malathion.










Table 4. Comparative control** of citrus blackfly by different
insecticides applied by mist blower.


S% Control**
AI/100 1 Wk 2 Wk /(
Chemical Gal (lb) L P L P P /
Acephate 2.5 91 82 100 97 97 Y
Chlorpyrifos 2.5 82 .69 98 94 ? '3
Malathion* 1.25 67 58 87 64 f 3
Malathion 2.5 70 69 87 61 7 919
Naled 5.0 49 63 77 65 71 7/
Pyrethrin 0.1 0 6 0 -0 7

*Applied as foliar spray
**Adjusted by Abbott's Formula
L = 2nd and 3rd instar
P = pupae


5. A soil drench experiment was initiated using nursery citrus in

containers. -Trees approximately 5 feet tall were placed under infested

trees in the field for 4 days to obtain a heavy oviposition on them.

They-.were then held in quarantine for 2' weeks at which time eggs began

hatching.. Groups of 5 plants each were then soil drenched with either

5 or 10 lbs AI/A of acephate, aldicarb (TemikR), dimethoate, oxamyl

(VydateR), oxydemetonmethyl, or azinphos-methyl (GuthionR). Populations

were evaluated at 1, 2, and 3 weeks following application;

Table 5 shows that-acephate, dimethoate, and aldicarb provide control

of this pest when container grown-plants are treated by soil drench.

Oxydemetonmethyl, azinphos-methyl or oxamyl do not provide control as

soil drenches.- This method of treatment appears to be an acceptable

means of controlling citrus blackfly on container grown citrus trees.











Table 5.


Percent control of citrus blackfly on container grown
citrus trees treated by soil drench.


AI/A % .Control of Larval*
Chemical (lb) 1 Wk 2 Wk 3 Wk
Acephate 5 34 94 95
10 85 94 100
Dimethoate 5 56 -7 71
10 91 96 99
Aldicarb** 5 12 59 89
10 '60 95 100
Oxydemethonmethyl 5 6 13 0
10 9 0 14
Azinphos-methyl 5 8 0 0
10 1 0 0
Oxamyl 5 13 0 16
10 32 10 14


* Adjusted. by Abbott's Formula
**Applied as a granular formulation.




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