Title: Tumid spider mite control on parlor palms grown in containers
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Title: Tumid spider mite control on parlor palms grown in containers
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Reinert, James Arnold,
Publisher: Agricultural Research Center, IFAS, University of Florida
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Bibliographic ID: UF00076435
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 144462471

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University of Florida IFAS
Ft. Lauderdale ARC Research Report FL-77-3

TUMID SPIDER MITE CONTROL ON
PARLOR PALMS GROWN IN CONTAINESUI L iRA

James A. Reinert and P. L. Ne 1 AUG 1978
University of Florida, ARC, IF S
Ft. Lauderdale, Fla. F.A v.S of F
February 23, 1977 L -.niv. of Florida


The tumid spider mite (Tetranychus tumidus Banks) is a serious pest of

cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), but in Florida it is primarily a pest of palms

and other environmental plants in nurseries and landscape plantings. This

mite is cosmopolitan; it was originally described from Florida and has been re-

ported from Georgia, Tennessee, Louisiana, and westward from Texas, and Arizona

to California. It has also been reported from Bermuda, Guam, Mexico, Puerto

Rico, and Trinidad, as well as Hawaii.

Among ornamental plants the tirid spider mite has been observed primarily

as a pest of palms. Coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.), Madagascar palm (Chrysali-

docarpus lutescens Wendl.), Manila palm (Veitchia merrillii '(Becc.) Moore), and

parlor palm (Chamaedorea elegans Ma ct.) appear to be its preferred hosts. It

causes severe damage and can be a limiting factor in the production of C. elegans

when it is grown under shade conditions in nurseries for interior landscaping.

This palm is widely used in the nursery trade, and it was estimated that 84 million

seedlings were produced in 1975. Fisnts only 1 m tall in pots may retail at $40-$50

and, since it is considered a slow-r-ro-viing plant, adequate protection must be pro-

vided against its major pest, the tL=ild spider mite. Most pesticide evaluations

to find controls for this pest have been done on cotton. Since many of these







Research Report FL-77-3
Page 2 continued


pesticides are not available to the nursery industry, the following research

was conducted to evaluate 15 miticides for use on C. elegans to control this

mite.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Parlor palms which were heavily infested with tumid spider mites were

obtained from a local nurseryman. Eighty 15 cm diam plastic pots containing

3 plants each 30-45 cm tall and infested with heavy mite populations were

selected for efficacy testing. An additional 48 pots of plants each with

several young developing leaves and with very light or no mite populations

were also obtained to evaluate possible phytotoxicity caused by the treat-

ments. This was necessary because mite damage was so severe on heavily in-

fested plants that sometimes subtle phytotoxicity symptoms were masked.

Three severely infested leaflets were clipped into petri dishes from each

of the 80 test pots and taken into the laboratory for evaluation of the mite

population. Mites and eggs were brushed from leaves with a leaf brushing

machine and collected on greased glass discs so they could be counted under

a dissecting microscope. Plants were then divided into 5 blocks according

to pretreatment populations means of mites, and treatments were randomly

assigned to plants within each block. Three of the additional lightly in-

fested plants were also randomly chosen to be treated with each chemical.

Plants were sprayed Jan. 8 and 22, 1976 with a 7.6 liter compressed air

sprayer to the point of runoff; aldicarb was scattered on the soil surface

and watered in. The miticides used and the rates are given in Table 1.

Chemical definitions of the proprietary compounds used in the test

which do not have approved common names are:








Research Report FL-77-3
Page 3 continued


CGA-12223, 0, O-diethyl-0-(5-chloro-l-iso = propyl-l,
2, 4-triazol-3-yl)-phosphorothioate;

Dowco-213, Tricyclohexyltin hydroxide;

R-28627, S-tricyclohexyltin 0, 0-diisopropyl phos-
phorodithioate; and

SD-14114, Hexakis (beta, beta-dimethylphenethyl)-
distannoxane.

Phototoxicity evaluations were made 3 days after each application and

21 days after the second treatment. The 3 additional low-mite infested

plants as well as the 5 replicate plants for each chemical treatment were

evaluated. Plant damage due to chemical injury was rated on a 0-5 scale,

with 0 representing no apparent damage and 5 very severe damage. Notes on

the type of damage observed were also made. Types of foliar injury symptoms

included leaf burn (B), chlorosis (C), and distortion (D).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

All miticide treatments significantly (P=0.01) reduced mite populations

compared to the untreated controls after 2 applications (Table 1). At 4 days

after the initial application, aldicarb, CGA-12223, chlordimeform, Dowco-213,

oxamyl, and R-28627 had produced significant control of mite populations. By

14 days quinomethionate, SD-14114, and tetradifon had also provided significant

control but only Dowco-213, oxamyl, quinomethionate, R-28627, and SD-14114 had

reduced the egg level below 1 egg/sampled leaflet.

Populations were completely eliminated after the second application with

Dowco-213, R-28627, and SD-14114, but severe plant damage resulted from the

R-28627 treatments. Treatments of aldicarb, dienchlor, propargite and quino-

methionaie reduced populations to less than 1 mite and 6 eggs/3 leaflet sample

with no phytotoxicity; CGA-12223, chlordimeform, and oxamyl produced equal

control but caused phytotoxicity to the treated plants. Significant control








Research Report FL-77-3
Page 4 continued


was also obtained with acephate, tetradifon, chlorbenzilate, dicofol and

formetanate, but the latter 3 also resulted in damage to the treated plants,

An excessive number of viable eggs which could result in a newpopulation wa.s

also left by these 4 treatments, Parlor palm appears to be very sensitive to

many miticides and care should be taken to use an effective but non-phytotoxic

miticide when treating this palm for tumid spider mites, C erumpens and C,

sefreitzi are being grown in increasingly large numbers by many Florida foliage

nurseries because of their more rapid rate of growth and their adaptability to

Interior environments, Although this work was done with but one species, the

other Chamaedorea species'might be expected to react similarly to these pesti-

cides, considering their similar cultural requirements to C; elegans.













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