Title: Tolerance of warmseason turf grasses to herbicides
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076428/00001
 Material Information
Title: Tolerance of warmseason turf grasses to herbicides
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Burt, E. O.
Publisher: Plantation Field Laboratory, University of Florida
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076428
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 143417254

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Plantation Field Laboratory Mimeo Report PFL65-1 August, 1964

TOLERANCE OF WIEMSEASON TURF
GRASSES TO HIjRBjICIDESI < OCT 138 JiG4

E. 0. Burt2/ S


Five experiments were conducted to determine the tolerance of Pensacola
bahiagrass, Emerald zoysiagrass, Bitter Blue St. Augustinegrass, Common
centipedegrass, and Ormond and Tifgreen bermudagrasses to several pre- and
post-emergence herbicides and herbicidal formulations. In most cases, the
rates used were two to four times that usually required for satisfactory weed
control.

EXPERIMENT NUMBER: 123-4-109

LOCATION: Plantation Field Laboratory, Block A
APPLICATION DATE: April 18, 1964
SOIL TYPE: Pompano fine sand
DESIGN: Randomized complete block with two replications. Plots were 2 x 7
feet, with an untreated check on either side.
TURFGRASSES: Pensacola bahia, Emerald zoysia, Bitter Blue St. Augustine,
Common centipede, Tifgreen bermuda and Ormond bermuda.

Table 1. Herbicides, rates.of active ingredient, type of formulation-
and source.


PROMETRYNE


AMETRYNE


SIMAZINE


ATRAZINE


G-36393

PROMETONE


2,4-bis(isopropylamino)-6-methylmercapto-s-triazine, 800% WP,
4 Ib/A, Geigy Chemical Co.

2-ethylamino-4-isopropylamino-6-methylmercapto-s-triazine,
50%o WP, 4 Ib/A, Geigy Chemical Company.

2-chloro-4,6-bis(ethylamino)-s-triazine, 80%f WP, 4 lb/A, Geigy
Chemical Co.

2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine, 80% WP,
4 Ib/A active, Geigy Chemical Co.

2,isopropylamino-4-(3,methoxypropylamino)-6-methylthio-s-triaz~ne,
25% WP, 4 lb/A, Geigy Chemical Company.

2-methoxy-4,6-bis(isopropylamino)-s-triazine, 2 Ib/gal EC,
4 Ib/A, Geigy Chemical Company.


1. Supported in part by grants from the Dow Chemical Company, Geigy Chemical
Company and Miller Chemical Company.

2. Assistant Turf Technologist, University of Florida, 5305 S. W. 12th.Street,
Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, 33314.
















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-5-
EXPERIMENT NUMBER: 123-4-30

APPLICATION DATE: January 30, 1964

METHODS: The methods used are the same as those outlined for the preceding
test number 123-4-109, except that turf injury is reported as percent
foliage discoloration.


HERBICIDES AND RATES: Combination of 2,4-D(l lb/A acid equivalent) and
TP (1/2 lb/A acid equivalent). This combination was applied at 1,
4 times the recommended rate. 2,4,5-TP was applied at the rate of
1 and 2 pounds acid equivalent per acre.


2,4,5-
2 and
1/2,


SUMMARY: Results of this test indicate that 2,4,5-TP alone or in combination
with 2,4.-D at the two lower rates can be safely used on Pensacola bahia,
Emerald zoysia, common centipede and Ormond bermuda. The low rate can
be used with slight discoloration to Bitter Blue St. Augustine and Tif-
green bermuda. Twenty percent or less discoloration is not serious as
the grasses soon recovered. This degree of discoloration probably would
not be detected unless untreated check plots were carefully compared.


Table 3.


Percent foliage kill of warm season turf species from
recommended and high rates of 2,4,5-TP when used alone
and in combination with 2,4-D.


Lb/A Percent foliage discoloration*
Trt. acid
No. Herbicide equiv. Bahia Zoysia St. Augustine Centipede Tifgreen Ormond

1. 2,4-D + 1
2,4,5-TP 1/2 3 4 15 5 10 6
2. 2,4-D + 2
2,4,5-TP 4 5 22 10 20 8
3. 2,4-D + 4
2,4,5-TP 2 15 14 60 25 35 20
4. 2,4,5TP 1/2 5 5 20 7 17 5
5. 2,4,5-TP 1 5 8 36 15 22 12
6. 2,4,5-TP 2 8 12 50 18 30 28


Data represent average of two replications and were obtained 21 days after
application of the herbicides.







6 |


EXPERIMENT NUMBER: 123-3-347


APPLICATION DATE: December 13, 1963.

METHODS: The methods used are the same as those outlined for test 123-4-109,
except that turf injury is reported as percent foliage discoloration or
apparent top kill.

HERBICIDES AND RATES: MCPP (potassium salt of 2-(2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy)-
propionic acid), EP-240 and EP-242. The latter two are mixtures of
chlorinated phenoxy acids. Rates used were 4 and 8 pounds acid equiv-
alent per acre.

SUMMARY: Pensacola bahia and Emerald zoysia were tolerant to relatively
high rates (4 and 8 pounds active ingredient per acre) of MCPP, EP
240 and EP 242 (Table 4). Some turf browning occurred in the centi-
pede, Tifgreen bermuda and Ormond bermuda plots with the afore-
mentioned formulations but this test indicates that the recommended
rates could be used on these species. Considerable browning of Bitter
Blue St. Augustine occurred in all plots. Results from this test
indicate that recommended rates of MCPP, EP 240 and EP 242 can be
used on Pensacola bahia, Emerald zoysia, common centipede, Tifgreen
bermuda and Ormond bermuda. Moderate to severe injury to Bitter
Blue St. Augustine occurred in all treated plots about 50 days after
application of herbicides.


Table 4. Percent foliage kill of warm season turf
species from high rates of MCPP, EP 240 and
EP 242.

Bahia Zoysia St. Augustine Centipede Tifgreen Ormond
Herbicide Active 1/9 2/3 1/9 2/3 1/9 2/3 1/9. 2/3 1/9. 2/3 179 2/3

MCPP 4 0 0 3 0 10 75 7 5 16 0 15 0
MCPP 8 0 0 7 0 15 80 25 12 30 0 14 o

EP 240 4 0 0 1 0 32 67 12 5 2 0 0 0
EP 240 8 0 0 4 0 35 82 27 12 10 0 2 0

EP 242 4 0 0 4 0 25 75 17 1o 11 2 2 2
EP 242 8 0 0 4 0 30 80 15 20 12 7 0 10



Data represent evaluations made 1-9-64 and 2-3-64 and are averages of two
replications.










EXPERIMENT NUMBER: 123-4-136
APPLICATION DATE: May 15, 1964.

Methods: The methods used are the same as those outlined for test number
123-4-109 except that turf injury is reported as percent foliage
discoloration or foliage kill.

HERBICIDES AND RATES: The chemical names of the herbicides have not been
released to the public at this date. The code numbers of these herbi-
cides are Velsicol 21944, 21693 and ACS-22. Rates used are 12.5, 12.5
and 22 pounds active ingredient per acre, respectively.

RESULTS: Velsicol 21944 at 12- lb/A active ingredient resulted in little or
no injury to warm season turf species except bermudas. Both bermudas
recovered within 35 days.

Velsicol 21693 at 12 lb/A slightly injured bahia, zoysia and St.
Augustine, with no apparent injury to centipede but severe injury to
both bermudas.

ACS-22 at 22- lb/A resulted in little or no injury to warm season
turf species except Tifgreen and Ormond bermudas. The bermudas did not
return to normal appearance until after a period of 75 days.



Table 5. Percent foliage kill of warm season turf species
to high rates of three experimental herbicides.

Percent foliage kill of turfgrasses*
Lb/A Pensacola Emerald Bitter Blue Common Bermudas
Herbicide Act. Ingr. Bahia Zoysia St. Augustine Centipede Tifgreen Ormond

21944 12.5 0 2 5 0 10 20

21693 12.5 10 10 15 0 80 70

ACS-22 22.5 0 5 10 0 30 20
,, ,


*Evaluated 3, 7, 14 and 28 days after application. Data represent maximum turf
injury which occurred at 7 days in most cases.







-8-


EXPERIMENT NUMBER: 123-4-139


APPLICATION DATE: May 18, 1964

METHODS: Same as those in test number 123-4-109. A plus(+) rating
indicates a positive response of the turf to the granular herbi-
cide-fertilizer combination. A minus(-) rating indicates turf
injury. Both ratings are based upon a scale of 0 to 10, with +10
representing maximum turf response (dark green, lush foliage)
and -10 representing complete foliage kill.

HERBICIDES AND RATES: Agrico 1-2-3 fertilizer containing zytron at 15
and 30 Ib/A, UC-22463 at 2 and 4 Ib/A and EL-110, which is an analog
of trifluralinj at 4 and 8 lb/A.


Table 6. Turfgrass response from high rates of herbicides.

Lb/A Turfgrass response ratings*
Act. Pensacola Emerald Bitter Blue Common Tifgreen Ormond
Herbicide :Ingr., bahia zoysia St. Augustine Centipede bermuda bermuda

Agrico 1-2-3 15 +5.5 +5.5 +5.5 +3.5 +7.5 + 7.5

Agrico 1-2-3 30 +8.5 +9.0 +8.0 +6.5 +10.0 +10.0

UC-22463 10 -3.5 -5.5 -2.5 -6.0 -2.0 1.5

UC-22463 20 -4.5 -7.0 -4.0 -7.5 -4.0 3.5

EL-110 4 +4.5 .+5.0 +4.5 +5.0 +6.0 + 7.5

EL-110 8 +8.5 +9.0 +8.5 +5.5 +8.0 + 9.0


*Ratings were made periodically. The data presented represent maximum turf
response which occurred: in most cases 10 days after application of the treat-
ments. Ratings are based upon a scale of 0 to 10 with 0 = same as untreated
check. A +10 indicates maximum turf response. A -10 represents all foliage
killed.
SUMMARY: The two herbicides, zytron and trifluralin analog, formulated on
fertilizer carriers resulted in a positive response to all turf species.
The higher the rate, the greater the response.
UC-22463 resulted in slight to severe turf injury. The low rate,
15 lb/A, resulted in slight to moderate injury to the two bermudas, St.
Augustine and bahia. Zoysia and centipede were severely discolored from
even the low rate. Turf in these plots later recovered but discoloration
persisted for approximately one month. Turf injury from this chemical
was apparent in the leaves being light green or white.

PFL65-1
250 copies


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