Title: Tolerance of warmseason turf grasses to herbicides
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Title: Tolerance of warmseason turf grasses to herbicides
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Creator: Burt, E. O.
Publisher: Plantation Field Laboratory, University of Florida
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Plantation Field Laboratory Mimeo Report PFL66-1 August, 1966

TOLERANCE OF WARMSEASON TURF
GRASSES TO HERBICIDES./

E. 0. BURT2/

Research was continued in 1966 on the tolerance of warmseason curfgrasses
to several preemergence and postemergence herbicides.

PROCEDURE

Location: Plantation Field Laboratory, Ranges A and B
Application Date: April 8, 1966
Soil Type: Pompano fine sand
Design: Randomized block with two replications. Plots were 2 x 7 feet, with
an untreated check on either side.
Turfgrasses: Floratine St. Augustine, Emerald zoysia, Tifgreen bermuda, Tifway
bermuda, FB-137 bermuda, common centipede, Argentine bahia and Pensacola
bahia.
Herbicides and Rates: The herbicides used, type of formulation and rates of
application are listed in table 1. In most cases the rates used were
2 and 4 times that normally required for satisfactory weed control. In
some cases both spray and granular formulations were compared.
Adjuvant: Sun Oil j'EL 11 was used at the rate of 2 gallons per acre with most
of the sprayable formulations. In such cases a fast-acting emulsifier,
Rohm-Haas 7207, also used at the rate of 0.5 percent by volume of total
spray.
Method of Application: A 2 gallon tank sprayer equipped with 5 Teejet (f8006E)
nozzles, adjusted to delivery 87 gallons of spray per acre (2 gallons per
1000 square feet).
Method of Evaluation: Evaluations of turf injury were made by visually esti-
mating the percent foliage kill, i.e. brown or dead foliage, in each treated
plot compared with that in the two adjacent check plots. Turf injury
ratings were made periodically. The data presented in Tables 2 and 4
represent maximum turf injury in most cases.
Weed Control: Weed control data were obtained even though the herbicide rates
were 2 and 4 times that normally required for satisfactory weed control.
Weed control data were based bn postemergence weed control only since the
weeds were present at time of application. The following weed species
were present in almost all of the plots: spotted spurge (Euphorbia
maculata), Florida pursley (Richardia scabra), rabbit tobacco (Gnaphalium
obtusifolium), water sedge (Kyllingia brevifolia)and crabgras (Digitaria
spp.). When a weed species was not present in sufficient number to evalu-
ate in a particular plot, it is so indicated by a dash (-). Weed control
data are based on a visual rating scale of 0 to 10 with 0 being no control
and 10 equal to complete control of the particular weed species.
Rainfall: The plots received a minimum of 1 to 1.5 inches of water weekly
either in the form of rain or irrigation.

RESULTS

Tolerance of Warmseason Turfgrasses to Herbicides

Atrazine at 4 Ib/acre was not injurious to Floratine St. Augustine, Emerald


1. Supported in part by grants from Sun Oil Co., Geigy Chemical Co. and Eli
Lilly Co.
2. Assoc. Turf Tech., Univ. of Fla., 5305 S.W. 12 St., Ft. Lauderdale, Fla. 33331









zoysia, centipede, FB-137.and Tifway bermuda. Tifgreen bermuda, Pensacola
bahia and Argentine bahia were moderately injured from this treatment.
A triazine coded GS-36393, at 4 Ib/A was not injurious to Floratine St.
Augustine, Argentine bahia and Pensacola bahia. Very slight injury occurred
to centipede and moderate injury to Emerald zoysia and Tifgreen, Tifway and
FB-137 bermudas. Damage to the latter two grasses was temporary, with complete
.recovery in 3 weeks.
Diphenamid (Enide or Dymid) at 12 lb/A did not damage St. Augustine or
centipede but resulted in slight injury to the other grasses.
Tenoran at 12 and 16 lb/A and Cotoran and Patoran each at 4 and 8 lb/A
were reasonably safe on St. Augustinegrass, centipede and the two bahiagrasses.
Slight to moderate injury was noted on the other grasses. Cotoran was the most
injurious of these three herbicides.
Tupersan (siduron) at 16 lb/A was not injurious to any of the grasses
except the three bermudas.
U-22326 at 4 and 8 lb/A resulted in little or no injury to any of the
rg.vaases except St. Augustine and FB-137 bermuda.
4+-296-B at 10 and 20 Ib/A resulted in little or no visible damage to any
of the turfgrasses.
Tordon (picloram) at 1/2 and 1 lb/A did .not injure any of the turfgrasses
except bermuda. The 1/2 Ib/A rate affected the bermudas only slightly, while
the 1 lb/A rate caused moderate to severe injury. Tifway bermuda was injured
much more than was Tifgreen or FB-137.
Banvel D (dicamba) did not damage any of the grasses except slight, tempor-
ary injury to the bermudas.
Prometone at 1.and 2 lb/A was slightly injurious to the bermudas. The
high rate was also slightly injurious to zoysia. St. Augustine, centipede and
the bahias were not affected by either rate of the herbicide. Within four
weeks all of the grasses had recovered from the high rate.
BV-201 at 4 lb/A did not injure any of the grasses except very slight
yellowing to Tifgreen bermuda for about 10 days. The 8 lb/A.was slightly
damaging to the bermudas and zoysia but recovery was complete within two weeks.
BV-207 at rates of 4 and 8 lb/A was slightly more injurious than BV-201.
Glenbar at 8 and 16.1b/A, Benefin at 6 and 12 lb/A and UC-22463 at 8 and
16 Ib/A were not injurious to any of the turfgrasses.
Bonus for St. Augustine (atrazine on 20-0-0 fertilizer) at 4 and 8 lb/A
did not damage any of the grasses except the bermudas, the bahias and centipede.
Herban at 6 lb/A, a combination of Herban 6 Ib/A and Azak at 9 lb/A, a
combination of phenozy 4 lb/A and Azak at 9 lb/A and phenoxy at 4 Ib/A caused
little or no injury to any of the turfgrasses.
C-6989 at 4 Ib/A did.not visibly affect any of the turfgrasses.
C-7019 at 4 lb/A injured'Tifgreen bermudagrass only.
C-6313 at 4 lb/A caused slight to moderate damage to the bermudas, zoysia
and the bahias only.
Herban at 6 lb/A caused some injury to the bermudas and the bahia but not
to the other turf species.
Some of the above treatments were formulated on fertilizer carriers (See
table 1). In such cases there was a positive response from the fertilizer un-
less the herbicide caused considerable injury to the turfgrasses.

Tolerance of Warmseason Turfgrasses to Herbicides in Combination
With a Non-Phytotoxic Oil (Sun Oil EL-# 11)
When Used As An Aqueaous Spray

Research by Dr. G. C. Horn (1965) at Gainesville, Florida, has shown that
certain non-phytotoxic oils increase the activity of herbicides. Sun Oil
#EL 11 was the most satisfactory of the adjuvants tested. Research was con-










ducted at the Plantation Field Laboratory during 1966 on the effectiveness of
Sun Oil #EL 11 when used at the rate of 2 gallons per acre in combination with
several herbicides. A fast-acting emulsifier, Rohm-Haas Triton X-207 was used
at the rate of 0.5 percent by volume of total spray. The sprays were applied
at the rate of one quart per 220 square feet (approximately 9 pints per 1000
square feet).
The data (see table 2) show that the addition of Sun Oil #EL 11 plus
emulsifier increased the activity of most herbicides. In some cases the weed
control effectiveness was increased without any increase in toxicity to the
turfgrasses. In other cases the activity on both weeds and turf was increased.
In still other cases the activity of the herbicide was not affected by the
addition of the oil.
In general, the activity of foliage absorbed herbicides (postemergence)
was increased by the addition of the oil while the soil residual herbicides
(preemergence) were not affected. There were exceptions to this generaliza-
tion.
The results of this experiment indicate that with some herbicides the rate
of application can be reduced as much as 50 percent without decreasing weed
control effectiveness or increasing the possibility of turf injury.
The weed control effectiveness of the following herbicides was significant-
ly increased by the addition of Sun Oil ~EL 11 to the spray: Cotoran, U-22326,
Tordon, Banvel D and prometone.


Table 1. Herbicides formulation, rate and adjuvant used for
of warmseason turfgrasses, 1966.


Herbicide Formulation


Atrazine
Atrazine
GS-36393
GS-36393
Enide(Dymid)
Enid (Dymid)
Tenoran
Tenoran
Tenoran
Tenoran
Cotoran
Cotoran
Cotoran
Cotoran
Patoran
Patoran
Patoran
Patoran
Tupersan
Tupersan
U 22326
U 22326
U 22326
U 22326
64-296-B
64-296-B
64-296-B


80% WP
800 wP
25% WP
25% WP
50% WP
50% wP
50% WP
50% WP
50V, WP
50% WP

80% WP
80% WP
80% WP
50% WP
50% w'P
50% WP
50% WP
80% WP
80% WP
50% W'
50% WP
50o WP
50% WP
50,o wP
2 lb/gal.
2 Ib/gal.
2 lb/gal.


Lb/4A
Act. Ingr.
4
4
4
4
12
12
12
12
16
16
4
4
8
8
4
4
8
8
16
16
4
14


10
10
20


Adjuvant*


oil


oil

oil

oil

oil

oil

oil

oil

oil

oil

oil


tolerance studies


Amount of Formula-
tion per 220 sq. ft.
11.8 g


37 g

56 g


56 g

74 g

11.5 g

23 g

18.3 g

37 g

46 g

18.5 ml

37 ml

97 ml

194 ml


Treat.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
f12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27











Table 1 continued. Herbicide formulation, rate and adjuvant.


Herbicide Formulation


Treat.
No.
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
3?
39
4o
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58

59

60
61
62
63
64


Lb/A


64-296-B
Tordon
Tordon
Tordon
Tordon
Banvel D
Banvel D
Banvel D
Banvel D
Prometone
Prometone
Prometone
Prometone
BV-201
BV-201
BV-201
BV-201
BV-207
BV-207
BV-207
BV-207
Glenbar
Glenbar
Benefin
Benefin
UC-22463
UC-22463
Bonus St.2
Bonus St.3
Herban
Herban /
Azak
Phenoxy /
Azak
Phenoxy
0-6989
C-7019
0-6313
Herban


Fertilizer
3 Ib/gal
50% wqP
50% wP
Attaclay


Adjuvant*

oil

oil

oil

oil

oil

oil

oil

oil

oil

oil

oil


Act. Ingr.
2 lb/gal. 20
2 lb/Cal. -
2 lb/gal.
2 lb/gal. 1
2 lb/gal. 1
4 lb/gal. 1
4 lb/gal. 1
4 lb/gal. 2
4 lb/gal. 2
2 Ib/gal. 1
2 lb/gal. 1
2 lb/gal. 2
2 lb/gal. 2
1 lb/gal. 4
14 Ib/gal. 4
11 lb/gal. 3
1T lb/gal. 8
1 Ilb/gal. 4
l- ab/gal. 4
11 lb/gal. 8
1l Ib/gal. 8
11 lb/gal. 8
5% Gran. 8
5% Gran. 16
0.55% on 16-8-4 6
0.55% on 16-8-4 12
5% Gran. 8
5% Gran. 16
0. 0.5% Gran. 4
1. 0.5% Gran. 8
0.34% Gran. 6
S 2 /-3.33%'
Gran. 6 /- 9
Fertilizer 4/


666
1144


990 g
26 ml
18.3 ml
18.3 ml
17.6 ml


* Adjuvant consisted of a non-phytotoxic oil (Sun Oil #11) at the rate of 2
gallons per acre. A fast-acting emulsifier (Rohm-Haas Triton X-207) was
used at the rate of 0.5 percent by volume. These rates are equivalent to
38 ml per plot (220 sq. ft.) of the Sun Oil #11, and 38 ml per plot of the
Triton X-207.


Amount of Formulation
per 220 sq. feet

4.8 ml

9.6 ml

4.8 ml

9.6 ml

9.6 ml

19.2 ml

52 ml

104 ml

52 ml

104 ml

370 g
740 g
2510 g
5020 g
370 g
740 g
2 X
44x
4000 E










Table 2. Tolerance of warmseason turfgrass to preemergence and postemergence
herbicides. Injury ratings* made 5 days after treatment. Zero
equals no injury, 10 equals complete topkill.
Tr. Floratine Emerald Tifgreen Tifway FB-137 Centipede Argen- Pensa-
No. tine cola
1 0 0 0.5 0 00 0 0
2 0 0 3 0.5 1.5 0.1 0 0
3 0 3 2 3 1.5 0.2 0 0
4 2 5 5 6 0.1 0 0
5 '0 0 o o o o o
6 6 0 1.5 o 0 0 0 0
7 0 0 0 00 0 0 0
8 3 1.5 4 5 3 0.2 0 0
9 0 0 0.5 0 0 0 0 o
*10 3 2 1.5 4 2 0.2 0 0
11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
12 2 2 3 5 5 0.2 0 0
'3 13 0.5 0 1 o 0 0 0 0
14 4 3 6 5 0.5 0.5 0.5
15 0.5 4 3 4 2 0 .
16 4 5 4 6 3 0.5 o o
17 2 6 3 5 2 0.5 o o
18 5 7 3 6 3 1.5 1.5 1.5
19 0 .0 0 0 0 0 0 0
20 0 0 0.5 0 0 0 0
21 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
22 2 0 1.5 0.5 1 0 0 0
23 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
24 1 0. 2.5 0.5 1 0 0 0
25 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
26 0 0 1 1.5 2 0 0 0
27 0 0 1.5 1 3 0 0 o
28 1 1 3 2 4 2.5 0 0
29 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
30 0 0 0.5 0.2 0.2 0 0 0
31 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
32 0 0 0.5 0.1 0.1 0 0 0
33 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
34 0 o 0.5 0 0 0 0 0
35 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
36 0 0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 0 0
37 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
38 0.5 1 1.5 1 1 0 0.2 0.2
39 0 1 1 1 0.5 0 0 0
40 0.1 2 2 2 2 0 0 0
41 0 0 0.3 0 0 0 0 0
42 0.5 0.5 0.5 0 0 o o 0
43 0 0.2 1.5 1 1 0 0 0
44 4 5 3 2 2 0 0 0
45 0.2 0 1 0.5 0.5 0 o 0
46 2 1 1 0.5 0.5 0 0 0
47 1.5 2 2.5 2 2 0 0 0
48 3 4 2 2.5 2.5 0 0 0
49 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
50 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0









continued.
Floratine


Tolerance of warmseason trfgrss. to preemer. and postemer. herb.


Emerald Tifgreen


Tifway FB-137 Centipede


Table
Tr.
No.
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
b?
64


Table 3. Weed Control Ratings made 5 days after treatment. Zero equals no control,
and ten equals complete control.


Weeds


Oraphalum

10
10
10
10
0
3
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
0
3
0
2
0
2
0
2
4
6
1
2


Florida
Pusley
3
8
9
9
0
2
7
8
6
10
2
2
3
4
2
5
3
6
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2


Spurge

5
9
10
10
0
3
0
10
3
10
3
10
5
10
10
10
10
10
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2


Weeds


Treat.
No.
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
6Q
61
62


Graphalum

0
0
0
3
3
3
2
7
4
8
8
10
8
10
10
10
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0


0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0


Argen-
tine
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0


Pensa-
cola .
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0


Tr.
.Jo.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32


Florida
Pusley
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
5
0
2
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0


Spurge

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
8
0
0
2
10
0
2
0
8
o
o
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
O
2
O
8

0
0

0







-7-

Table 4. Tolerance of Warmseison turfgrasses to preemergence and postemergence
herbicides. Injury ratings* made 25 days after treatment. Zero equals
no injury, 10 equals complete topkill. A plus (/) equals a positive
response.


Turfgrasses


Treatment
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50


St. Augus-
tine
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
1
0
0
0.5
5
2.5
8
0
0
0
0.2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.2
0
0
0
0
0
0


Zoysia

0
0
3
4
2
2
0
0
0
0
3
3
8
9
3
4
8
7
0
0
0
0.5
1
1.5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0


Tifgreen

3
4
1
2
1
3
2
3
2
2
4
3
8
8
0
1
5
4
6
6
0
0
0
1.5
0.5
0
0
.5
.5
.5
3.5
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
2
0
0


Tifway FB-137
Bermuda
0 0
0 1
0 0
0 0
2 2
2 2
0 0
0 3
0 1
0 5
1.5 0
0.5 2
4 6
9 9
1 1
1 0
8 7
8 6
4 1
4 2
0 1
0 2
0 3
0 5
0 0
0 1
0 2
0 2
6 0
8 0
9 2
9 2
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0


Centipede

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

S.5
/1
0
0
0.5
/1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

/2
/2
/2
1


/4
0
0
0
0
0
0


Argentine
& Pensaco
3
3
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0.5
0.5
2
2
0
0
1.5
1.5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0








-8-

Table. 4 continued. Tolerance of Warmseason turfgrasses to preemergence and
postemergence herbicide.
Treatment St. Augus- Zoysia Tifgreen Tifway FB-137 Centipede
No. tine ___ Bermuda


51
52
53
54
55
56
57
5A
59


c2

03


/2
:' 0
0
0
/3

/3
0
0
0


/2
/3
0
0
/2
/2


/o
/2
0
0
0.5
3
/2
0
0O
o -


Table 5. Weed Control ratings made 25 days
10 equals complete control.


Treatment
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12.
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30


after treatment. 0 equals no control,


Weeds
Spurge Pusley Rabbit Water Crabgrass
Tobacco Sedge


9
5
1.5
0
0
9
10
9.5
10
1
5
9
9
0
0
2.5
7.5
0
0
0
0
0
5
0
0
0
0
10
10


2
5
1
2
0
0
0
0
2
2
0
2
2
8
0
0
2.5
2
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0


1
2
2
3
0
0
0
2.5
2
4
0
2
5
7
0
0
2
4
0
0
0
2
2.5
4
2
2
2
2
0
0


Argentine
& Pensace

/1
0
0
5
7

o
0
0
o
0
0
2
3









Table 5 continued.


Treatment
No.
31
32
33
34
35
S36
37
38
39
4o
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64


Weed


Spurge

10
10
0
2
1
7.
0
5
8
9.5
0
0
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
7.5
10
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
2


control ratings made
Weeds


Pusley Rabbit
Tobacco


25 days after treatment.


Water
Sedge


Crabgrass


10 10 1
10 10 1
0 5 1
2 5 0
7.5 10 0
7 10 0
0 0 0
0 0
0 0
2.5 10 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 10 0 0
.0 10 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
7.5 10 0 0
10 10 .3 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
7.5 10 o
4 10 o









The Effect Of Pre- And Postemergence Herbicides
On Seedhead Production Of
FB-137 Bermudagrass

FB-137 bermudagrass produces an abundance of seehheads especially during
the spring. Some herbicides greatly reduced the production of seedheads with
no visible symptoms of turf injury. Other herbicides, at the rates used, did
not affect seedhead production.

Table 6. Herbicide treatments that gave 80 or more percent reduction in
_.__. the number of seedheads produced by FB-137 bermudagrass.


Herbicides

Tenoran*
Cotoran*
Patoran
Patoran*
64-296-B
64-296-B*
Atrazine*
GS-36393*
Tenoran*
Cotoran*
Cotoran
Patoran
Patoran*
64-296-B*
Tordon
Tordon*
Bonus St. A.
Tenoran
Prometone*
Cotoran
U-22326
64-296-B
Tordon
BV-201*


Lb./A
Active Ingred.
16
8
8
8
20
20
4
4
12
4
8
4
4
10


4
8
10
1/2
8


% Reduction
of Seedheads
100
100
100
100
100
100
95
95
95
95
95
95
90
90
90
90
90
85
85
8o
80
80
80
8o


*Sun Oil OEL 11 and Rohm-Haas Triton X207
were included in these herbicide treatments.


--




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