Title: Palm species susceptible and resistant to mycoplasmalike organism - associated lethal declines in Fairchild Tropical Garden, 1971-1977
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Title: Palm species susceptible and resistant to mycoplasmalike organism - associated lethal declines in Fairchild Tropical Garden, 1971-1977
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Creator: Howard, F. W.
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I )


PALM SPECIES SUSCEPTIBLE AND RESISTANT TO
MYCOPLASMALIKE ORGANISM ASSOCIATED LETHAL DECLINES
IN FAIRCHILD TROPICAL GARDEN, 1971 1977.


14


F.W. Howard and M.E.


FL 78-5


Agricultural Research Center
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida
Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33314


1978


) \
.0* 0
I *\









COVER DESIGN. General habit of some palm species in Fairchild Tropical Garden.

Left to right: Schippia concolor Burret, Cocos nucifera L., Pseudophoenix

sargentii H. Wendl. ex Sarg., Thrinax radiata Lodd. ex. J. A. Schult,

Hyophorbe lagenicaulis (L. H. Bailey) H. E. Moore, Roystonea regia (HBK) O.F.

Cook, Chamaedorea geonomaeformis Wendl., Bismarckia nobilis Hild. and Wendl.,

Licuala grandis Wendl., Copernicia baileyana Leon, Coccothrinax fragrans

Burret, Coccothrinax argentata (Jacq.) L. H. Bailey, Sabal causiarum (0. F. Cook)

Becc., Caryota aequatorialis (Ridley) Becc.


_ I I

















PALM SPECIES SUSCEPTIBLE AND RESISTANT TO

MYCOPLASMALIKE ORGANISM-ASSOCIATED LETHAL DECLINES

IN FAIRCHILD TROPICAL GARDEN, 1971-1977.





by

F. W. Howard
Assistant Professor of Entomology
Agricultural Research Center
University of Florida
3205 S. W. 70 Avenue
Ft. Lauderdale, Florida 33314


and


M. E. Collins
Horticulturist
The Fairchild Tropical Garden
10901 Old Cutler Road
Miami, Florida 33156





FL 78-5

Agricultural Research Center
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida
Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33314


1978








2
Research Faculty, University of Florida,
Agricultural Research Center, Fort Lauderdale



W. B. ENNIS, JR., Ph.D., University of Wisconsin
Center Director

RAY ATILANO, Ph.D., University of California-Riverside
Plant Pathologist (Ornamentals & Turf)

JOSEPH K. BALCIUNAS, Ph.D., University of Florida
Assistant Research Entomologist (Aquatic Weeds)

H. GRANT BASHAM, Ph.D., Cornell University
Plant Disease Physiologist (Lethal Yellowing)

EVERT 0. BURT, Ph.D., Ohio State University
Turfgrass Management & Weed Scientist

PHILIP BUSEY, Ph.D., University of Arizona
Turfgrass Breeder & Geneticist

TED CENTER, Ph.D., University of Florida
Entomologist, USDA-FR (Aquatic Weeds)

RONALD H. CHERRY, Ph.D., University of Illinois
Entomologist (Citrus Blackfly Research)

HENRY M. DONSELMAN, Ph.D., Purdue University
Ornamental Horticulture Extension (Lethal Yellowing)

ROBERT V. DOWELL, Ph.D., Ohio State University
Entomologist (Citrus Blackfly Research)

GEORGE E. FITZPATRICK, Ph.D., Rutgers University
Entomologist (Citrus Blackfly Research)

FORREST W. HOWARD, Ph.D., Louisiana State University
Entomologist (Lethal Yellowing)

RANDOLPH E. McCOY, Ph.D., Cornell University
Plant Pathologist (Lethal Yellowing)

JAMES A. REINERT, Ph.D., Clemson University
Entomologist (Pest Management of Ornamentals, Turf, and
Citrus Blackfly)

GEORGE H. SNYDER, Ph.D., Ohio State University
Soil Scientist (Turfgrasses)

KERRY K. STEWARD, Ph.D., University of Connecticut
Plant Physiologist, USDA-FR (Aquatic Weeds)

DAVID L. SUTTON, Ph.D., Virginia Polytechnic Inst.
Agronomist (Aquatic Weeds)

DARRYL L. THOMAS, Ph.D., University of California
Plant Pathologist & Electron Microscopist (Lethal Yellowing)










JAMES H. TSAI, Ph.D., Michigan State University
Entomologist (Lethal Yellowing)

VERNON V. VANDIVER, Ph.D., North Carolina State University
Agronomist & Estension Aquatic Weeds Specialist



Fairchild Tropical Garden Staff


JOHN POPENOE, Ph.D., University of Maryland
Director

FRANCES J. CAUDILL
Greenhouse Manager

MARY COLLINS, B.S., Purdue University
Horticulturist

DONOVAN S. CORRELL, Ph.D., Duke University
Taxonomist

DON EVANS
Superintendent

JAMES ECKENWALDER, Ph.D., University of California-Berkeley
Assistant Taxonomist

JACK FISHER, Ph.D., University of California-Davis
Plant Morphologist

FELIPE GONZALEZ
Nurseryman

NANCY HAMMER, B.S., University of Connecticut
Assistant Horticulturist

DAVID MITCHELL, B.S., Brigham Young University
Curator of Education

ANN PROSPERO, M.A., University of Miami
Editor

DENNIS STEVENSON, Ph.D., University of California-Davis
Research Associate

JANICE WASSMER, B.A., University of South Florida
Research Assistant

NINA WOESSNER, B.S., Valparaiso University
Plant Recorder









INTRODUCTION. Lethal declines (LD) (McCoy and Gwin 1977) are diseasesof palms -

apparently caused by mycoplasmalike organisms (MLO). Lethal yellowing (LY) of

coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L) is a disease of this type. Twenty-five palm

species including coconut palm are known to be affected by LD in Florida

(Thomas 1974, 1978). About half of the popularly planted palms in southern

Florida are susceptible to LD.

Research is being conducted to find LD resistant palms that are well adapted

to southern Florida for replanting disease-affected areas (Donselman 1978). The

present publication is a contribution to that research effort. This publication

lists the LD-susceptible palp species in Florida, the percentage of palms of

each species that died of LD in Fairchild Tropical Garden during the period

January 1971 January 1977, and the number of palms of all species in Fairchild

Tropical Garden that were exposed to LD infection during that period. These

tabulations are being published so as to be available to researchers, nurserymen,

horticulturists, urban foresters, park superintendents, palm culturists, and

others interested in maintaining a diversity of palms in the landscape of southern

Florida.

METHODS. Data were compiled from Fairchild Tropical Garden plant records. The

Garden, located on 33 hectares in Coral Gables, has been exposed to LD since

1971, the year of the first reports of LY in Coral Gables. Coconut palm and

Pritchardia spp. were injected with antibiotic treatments quarterly from 1972

until late in 1976, using methods described by McCoy (1975). No other palm spe-

cies in the Garden were under this treatment program.

The Garden has kept records on its plants since 1939. These records were

examined, and a list of genera and species compiled. The numbers of individual

palms -of each genus, including identified and unidentified species, and the num-

bers of palms of each identified species were counted. Only palms that were

growing outdoors in the display area and at least 2 years of age between January

1971 and January 1977 were counted. (An unusually severe freeze in January 1977











confounded disease diagnoses after that date.) We made the assumption that

palms of all susceptible species do not show symptoms of LD until at least

2 years of age (hereafterreferred to as "the presumed susceptible age"), as

is the case with coconut palm (Carter 1966).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. Table 1 lists the species in Florida known to be

susceptible to LD based on field diagnoses and presence of MLO's in phloem

tissue samples (Thomas 1974, 1978), and the percentages of individual palms

of these species in Fairchild Tropical Garden that died of LD between January

1971 and January 1977. Table 2 lists 114 genera and 386 species and individual pall

of the presumed susceptible age in Fairchild Tropical Garden between January

1971 and January 1977, and the floristic regions (Fig. 1) where the species

are naturally distributed. Susceptible species in Table 2 are marked with

asterisks (*).

Table 2 may be consulted to determine whether or not particular palm

species were present and of the presumed susceptible age in the Garden. Of

the species not known to be susceptible, those represented by relatively high

numbers of specimens can be considered to be at least partially resistant to

LD. If only a few individuals of a species were present, there is less cer-

tainty whether or not it may be susceptible than if it was represented by a

large number of palms. For example, only 2 individual Ptychosperma angustifolium

were exposed to LD in the Garden. Although neither of these palms contracted LD,

we would not wish to recommend the species as LD-resistance on the basis of only

2 "samples". In contrast, no LD cases were observed in 143 Thrinax radiata. Thus,

we feel that this species must be highly resistant if not immune to LD.

We consider the losses of different LD-susceptible species in Fairchild

Tropical Garden to be conservative, compared to losses in most urban areas in

southern Florida. The antibiotic treatments of coconut palms and Pritchardia

spp. may have lessened the disease incidence in these species, although not in









the 3 species of Pritchardia which were completely eliminated from the

Garden by the disease. We did not separate data by subspecific categories

(varieties, cultivars, forms, etc.), thus resistance in certain varieties or

forms of coconut palm was partially accountable for the relatively conservative

loss in this species. In addition, we have hypothesized that the relatively

high diversity of palms in the Garden may inhibit disease spread.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. Mr. Don Evans, Superintendent, Fairchild Tropical Garden,

made field diagnoses of LD infected palms. He worked closely with Dr. Darryl

Thomas, Assistant Professor of Plant Pathology, University of Florida Agricul-

tural Research Center, Fort Lauderdale, who confirmed many of Mr. Evan's field

diagnoses with electron microscopic examination of MLO's in tissue samples

from the palms. We acknowledge the assistance of Glen Hutchinson, Nana Fowler,

and Richard Lane of the Agricultural Research Center. We also thank Dr. John

Popenoe, Director, Fairchild Tropical Garden, for his encouragement of this

study.











LITERATURE CITED


Carter, W. 1966. Susceptibility of coconut palm to lethal yellowing

disease. Nature 212 (5059): 320.

Donselman, H. M. 1978. New palms for South Florida. (Abstr.). Proc. 3rd

Meeting of the Int. Counc. on Lethal Yellowing, Univ. of Florida Agric.

Res. Cent. Fort Lauderdale. Publ. FL-78-2: 27-28.

Good, R. 1964. The geography of flowering plants. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,

NY. 518 pp.

McCoy, R. E. 1975. How to treat your palm with antibiotics. Florida Agric.

Expt. Sta. Circ. S-228 7 pp.

McCoy, R. E. 1972 and G. H. Gwin. 1977. Response of mycoplasmalike organism-

infected pritchardia, trachycarpus, and veitchia palms to oxytetracycline.

Plant.Dis. Reptr. 61 (3): 154-158.

Thomas, D. L. 1974. Possible link between declining palm species and lethal

yellowing of coconuts. Proc. Florida State Hort. Soc. 87: 502-504.

Thomas, D. L. 1978. Electron microscopy of palm species with suspected lethal

yellowing. (Abstr.). Proc. 3rd Meeting of the International Council on

Lethal Yellowing, Univ. of Florida, Agric. Res. Cent., Publ. FL-78-2: p.24.












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Table 1. Lethal decline-susceptible palm taxax), popularity in landscaping,

numbers of individuals of presumed lethal decline susceptible age in Fairchild

Tropical Garden 1971-1977y), and percentages of losses to lethal declines.


Popularity as
a landscape
plant in south- ,
Taxa eastern Floridaz

Allagoptera arenaria (Gomes) R
Kuntz

Arenga engleri Becc. M

Arikuryoba schizophylla C
(Mart.) Bailey

Borasuss flabellifer L. R

Caryota mitis Lour. C

Chrysalidocarpus cabadae R.
H. E. Moore

Cocos nucifera L. C

Corypha elata Roxb. R

Dictyosperma album (Borg.) C
H. Wendl & Drake

Gaussia attenuata (0. F. Cook) R
Becc.

Howeia belmoreana (C. Moore & R
F. Muell.) Becc.

Hyophorbe verschafeltii H. Wendl. C

Latania spp. C

Livistona chinensis (N. J. Jacquin) C
R. Br. ex Mart.

Nannorrhops ritchiana (W. Griffith) R
J.E.T.Atch.

Phoenix canariensis Hort ex Chab. C

P. dactylifera L. M


Numbers of
Individuals
in FTG


10


Percent lost
to lethal
declines in
FTG

0


32.0

5.9


0

22.2

0


54.2

58.8

18.2


17.6


0

34.3

2.6


0

40.0










Popularity as
a landscape
plant in south-
Taxa eastern Floridaz)

P. reclinata Jacq. C

P. sylvestris (L.) Roxb. M

Pritchardia affinis Becc. R

P. pacifica Seem. & H. Wendl C

P. thurstonii F. Muell. & Prude C

Trachycarpus fortunei (Hook) Wendl. R

Veitchia merrillii(Becc) C
H. E. Moore

V. montgomeryana H. E. Moore R


Numbers of
Individuals
in FTG


29

6

7

11

12

6

99


Percent los
to lethal
Declines in
FTG

3.4

0

100.0

100.0

100.0

33.3

3.0


x Includes only lethal declines for which electron microscopic examinations of

tissue from diseased palms have shown an association with mycoplasmalike organ-

isms.

Y Presumed susceptible age is 2 years or older.

z C = Common R = Rare M = Moderate










Table 2. Palm taxa, native homes, and numbers in Fairchild Tropical Gardens.

Includes palms at least 2 years old between January 1971, and January 1977.

(* susceptible to LD. See table 1).


Taxon Native Homel)

Acoelorrhaphe wrightii (Grisebach & H. Wendl.) CARIB

Acrocomia aculeata (N.J. Jacquin) Lodd. "
ex Mart.


A. intumescens Drude in Mart.

A. mexicana Karw. ex.Mart.

A. quisqueyana L. H. Bailey

A totai Mart.

Actinokentia divaricata Dammer

Actinorhytis calapparia (Blume) H. Wendl. &
Drude ex Scheff.

A. poamau Becc.

Aiphanes acanthophylla Burret

A. caryotaefolia Wendl. in Kerchove

A. corallina (Martius) H. Wendl.

A. erosa (Linden) Burret

A. pallidispina Mart.

A. lindeniana H. Wendl.

* Allagoptera arenaria (Gomes) 0. Kuntze

A. campestris (Mart.) 0. Kuntze

Allagoptera sp.

Archontophoenix alexandrae (F. Muell.) H. Wendl.
& Drude

A. cunninghamiana (H. Wendl.) H. Wendl. & Drude

Archontophoenix sp.

Areca catechu L.


Number of Palms

47

22


BRAZILIAN

CARIB

ti

BRAZILIAN

N CAL

MALAY


11

CARIB

VEN-GUI

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A. concinna Thwaites

A. pumila Mart.

A. triandra Roxb.

A. vestiaria (= langloisiana) Giseke

Areca spp.

Arecastrum romanzoffianum (Cham.) Becc.

Arenga ambong Becc.

A. caudata (Loureiro) H. E. Mpore

A. engleri Becc.

A. microcarpa Becc.

A. obtusifolia Mart.

A. pinnata (Wurmb.) Merr.

A. porphyrocarpa (Martius) H. E. Moore

A. tremula (Blanco) Becc.

A. undulatifolia Becc.

A. westerhoutii Griff.

A. wightii W. Griff.

A. westerhoutii X A. pinnata

Arenga spp.

* Arikuryroba schizophylla (Mart.) L. H. Bailey

Astrocaryum alatum H. F. Loomis

A. awarra de Vriese

A. mexicanum Liebm. in Mart.

A. standleyanum- L. H. Bailey

Astrocaryum sp.

Attalea allenii H. E. Moore

A. amygdalina HBK

A. crassispatha (Mart.) Burret


INDIAN

MALAY

INDIAN

MALAY

11

BRAZILIAN

MALAY

CON SE ASIA

ti 11 ii

MALAY
ti













INDIAN

MALAY

it

BRAZILIAN

CARIB

VEN-GUI

CARIB

it

ANDEAN



BRAZILIAN

CARIB









A. guaranitica Barb. Rodr.

Attalea sp.

Bactris coloniata L. H. Bailey

B. gasipaes (HBK) L. H. Bailey

B. guineensis (L.) H. E. Moore

B. major Jacq (H. Wendl.)

B. mexicana Mart.

B. ottostapfeana Barb.-Rodr.

B. plumeriana

B. setosa Mart.

B. trichophylla Burret

Bactris spp.


Balaka microcarpa Burret

Bentinckia nicobarica (S. Kurz) Becc.

Bismarckianobilis Hild. & Wendl.

Borassodendron machadonis (Ridley) Beccari

* Borassus flabellifer L.

Brahea aculeata (Brandeyee)

B. armata S. Wats.

B. berlandieri H. H. Bartlett

B. brandegeei (C. Purpus) H. E. Moore

B. clara

B. dulcis (HBK) Mart.

B. edulis H. Wendl. ex. S. Wats.

Brahea spp.

Brassiophoenix schumannii Becc.

Burretiokentia vieillardii (A. Brongniart et
Gris) Pichi-Sermolli

Butia capitata (Mart.) Becc.


BRAZILIAN



CARIB

CARIB-BRAZILIAN

CARIB

11

It


BRAZILIAN

CARIB

BRAZILIAN

CARIB

CARIB, BRAZILIAN,
VEN-GUI, ANDEAN

MEL-MICR

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MADAG

MALAY

INDIAN

PAC-NA



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11 "
it ii



it 11






MALAY

N CAL


BRAZILIAN









B. eriospatha Becc.

B. yatay (Martius) Becc.

Butia spp.

Calamus caryotoides Mart.

Calamus spp.

Calyptrocalyx lauterbachianus Becc. ex Burret

C. spicatus (Lam.) Blume

Calyptrogyne sp.

Calyptronoma dulcis (C. Wright ex Grisebach)
L. H. Bailey

C. occidentalis (Swartz) H. E. Moore

Carpentaria acuminata (H. Wendl. & Drude)
Beccari

Caryota aequatorialis Ridley (Becc.)

C. cumingii Lodd.

C. hendrii (Hort.)

* C. mitis Loureiro

C. ochlandra Hance

C. plumosa Hort.

C. rumphiana Mart.

C. urens L.

Caryota spp.

Chamaedorea arenbergiana H. Wendl.

C. brachypoda Standl. & Steyerm.

C. cataractarum Mart.

C. concolor Mart.

C. costaricana Oersted

C. dryanderae Burret


BRAZILIAN






AUSTRAL



MALAY

11

CARIB







AUSTR


MALAY

It

it

It


SINO-JAPN



MALAY

INDIAN



CARIB

if

it

It

It






15


C. elatior Mart. CARIB 3

C. elegans Mart. 2

C. ernesti-augustii H. Wendl. 21

C. erumpens H. E. Moore 28

C. fragrans (Ruiz et Parvon) Mart. 1

C. geonomaeformis Wendl. 2

C. glaucifolia Wendl. 5

C. graminifolia Wendl. 1

C. klotzschiana Wendl. 2

C. liebmannii var. lepidota (Wendl.) Dammer 1

C. metallica 0. F. Cook 4

C. microspadix Burret 11

C. oblongata Mart. 6

C. oreophila x C. sartorii 1

C. pacaya Oerst. 3

C. pinnatifrons Oerst. VEN-GUI 3

C. oreophila Mart. CARIB 2

C. pochutlensis Mart. 4

C. radicalis Mart. 14

C. sartorii Liebm. in Mart.. 8

C. schippii Burret 6

C. schiedeana Mart. 1

C. seifrizii Burret 22

C. stolonifera H. Wendl. 2

C. tepejilote Liebm. in Mart. 22

C. ernesti-augustii x C. sartorii 1

Chamaedorea spp. 58

Chamaerops humilis L. MED 31









Chambeyronia hookeri Becc.

C. macrocarpa Vieill. ex Becc.

Chambeyronia spp.

Chrysalidocarpus arenarum Jumelle

* C. cabadae H. E. Moore

C. decipiens Becc.

C. lutescens Wendl.

C. madagascariensis Becc.

Chrysalidocarpus spp.

Coccothrinax alta (0. F. Cook) Becc.

C. argentata (Jacq.) L. H. Bailey

C. argentea (Lodd. ex Schult. & Schult.) Sarg.
ex Becc.

C. barbadensis (Lodd.) Becc.

C. crinata Becc.

C. miraguama (HBK) Becc.

* Cocos nucifera L.

Colpothrinax wrightii Griseb. & Wendl.

Copernicia australis Becc.

C. alba Becc.

C. baileyana Leon

C. berteroana Becc.

C. burretiana Leon

C. cowellii Brit. & Wilson

C. curbeloi Leon

C. curtissii Becc.

C. ekmanii Burret

C. gigas Ekman & Burret

C. glabrescens H. Wendl. & Becc.


N CAL

it it


MADAG

CULT

MADAG

It


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C. hospital Mart.

C. humicola Leon

C. macroglossa H. Wendl. ex Becc.

C. occidentalis Leon

C. oxycalyx Burret

C. prunifera (Miller) H. E. Moore

C. rigida Britt. & Wils.

C. x sueroana Leon

C. tectorum (HBK) Mart.

C. vespertilionum Leon

C. yarey Burret

Copernicia spp.

* Corypha elata Roxb.

C. taliera Roxb.

C. umbraculifera L.

Cryosophila argentea Bartlett

C. warscewiczii (H. Wendl.) Bartlett

Cryosophila spp.

Daemonorops margaritae Hance ex Becc.

* Dictyosperma album (Bory) H. Wendl. et. Drude
ex Scheffer

D. aureum Nicholson

Desmoncus major Crueger ex Grisebach

D. polyacanthos Mart.

Desmoncus spp.

Drymophloeus beguinii (Burret) H. E. Moore

D. olivaeformis (Giseke) Mart.

Drymophloeus sp.

Elaeis guineensis Jacquin

E. oleifera (HBK) Cortes
A


CARIB

ti









BRAZILIAN

CARIB

It


INDIAN

(I




CARIB

it

it

MALAY

MADAG


It

CARIB

BRAZILIAN

CARIB

MALAY

It




H TR' AFR

BRAZILIAN









Euterpe sp.

Gastrococos crispa (HBK) H. E. Moore

* Gaussia attenuata (0. F. Cook) Becc.

G. princips Wendl.

Geonoma interrupta (Ruiz et Pavon) Mart.

Geonoma sp.

Hemithrinax sp.

Heterospathe elata Scheffer

H. humilis Becc.

H. minor Burret

H. woodfordiana Becc.

Heterospathe sp.

* Howea belmoreana Becc.

H. -forsteriana Becc.

Hydriastele douglasiana F. M. Bailey

Hydriastele spp.

Hyophorbe lagenicaulis (L. H. Bailey) H. E.
Moore


* H. vershaffeltii H. Wendl.

Hyophorbe sp.

Hyphaene benadirensis Becc.

H. coriacea Gaertn.

H. crinita Gaertn.

H. guineensis Schum. & Thoon

H. indica Becc.

H. natalensis Kuntz

H. pileata Becc.

H. schatan Bojer ex Daumer

H. ternifolia


CARIB

1t


MALAY


I!






N ZEA

it 1I

MALAY


MADAG


AFR SAV

it ti


AFR IND DES

AFR SAV

it Wi

MADAG

AFR SAV









H. thebaica (L.) Mart.

H. turbinata H. Wendl.

H. ventricosa Kirk

Hyphaene spp.

Jubaea chilensis HBK

Kentiopsis olivaeformis (Brongn. & Gris.)
Brongn.

* Latania loddigesii Mart.

* L. lontaroides (J. Gaert.) H. E. Moore

* L. lontaroides x loddigesii

* L. verschaffeltii Lem.

Licuala grandis Wendl.

L. lauterbachii Dammer & K. Schum.

L. muelleri Wendland & Drude

L. paludosa W. Griffin

L. peltata Roxb.

L. pumila Blume

L. rumphii Blume

L. spinosa Thumb.

Licuala spp.

Livistona australis (R. Br) Mart.

L. benthamii F. M. Bailey

* L. chinensis (Jacquin) R. B. ex Mart.

L. crustacea Burret

L. decipiens Becc.

L. mariae F. J. Muell.

L. merrilliiBecc.

L. muelleri F. M. Bailey

L. robinsoniana Becc.


AFR SAV

I,

11 It


ANDEAN

N CAL


MADAG

it

CULT

MADAG

MALAY

11

AUSTR

MALAY

CON SE ASIA

MALAY
I,


CON SE ASIA



AUSTR



SINO-JAPN



AUSTR
11


MALAY

AUSTR

MALAY









L. rotundifolia (Lam.) Mart.

L. sarbus (Loureiro) Merrill ex Chaval

L. speciosa Kurz

L. woodfordii Riddley

Livistona spp.

Lodoica maldivica (Groenl) Persoon

Mauritia armata Mart. 1. c.

M. vinifera Mart.

Mauritia sp.

Maximiliana maripa (Correa de Serra) Drude

Maximiliana sp.

Microcoelum insigne (Hort. ex Drude) Burret

* Nannorrhops ritchiana (Griff.) Aitch

Neodypsis decaryi Jumelle

Neoveitchia storckii (H. Wendland) Becc.

Normanbya normanbyi (W. Hill) L. H. Bailey

Nypa fruticans Wurmb.

Oncosperma fasciculatum Thwaites

0. tigillarium (Jack.) Ridley

Opsiandra maya 0. F. Cook

Orania macropelta laut. & K. Schum.

Orbignya barbosiana Burret

0. cohune (Mart.) Dahlgr. ex Stand.

0. guacuyule (Liebm) Hernandez Xoloc

0. martiana

0. phalerata Mart.

0. speciosa (Mart.) Barb-Rodr.

Orbignya spp.

Pelagodoxa henryana Becc.


MALAY



CON SE ASIA

MALAY



MADAG

BRAZILIAN

1I

I1

CARIB

BRAZILIAN



AFR IND DES

MADAG

MEL & MICR

AUSTR

MALAY

INDIAN

CON-SE ASIA

CARIB

AUSTR

BRAZILIAN



CARIB

BRAZILIAN

ANDEAN

BRAZILIAN


MEL & MICR


7

14

1

8










Phoenicophorium borsigianum (C. Koch) Stuntz

Phoenix abyssinica Drude

P. acaulis Roxb.

* P. canariensis Hort. ex Chabaud

* P. dactylifera L.

P. formosana (no standing) Hort.

P. loureirii Kunth

P. x macrocarpa Hort. (P. canariensis x
P. dactylifera)


P. paludosa Roxb.

P. pusilla Gaetn.

* P. reclinata Jacq.

P. roebelenii O'Brien

P. rupicola T. Anders.

* P. sylvestris Roxb.

Phoenix spp.

Phytelephas macrocarpa Ruiz & Pavon

Pigafetta filaris (Giseke) Becc.

Pinanga bavensis Becc.

P. kuhlii Blume

P. maculata Porte ex Lem.

P. patula Blume

Pinanga spp.

Polyandrococos caudescens (Mart.) Barbarosa-
Rodriquez


MADAG

AFR IND DES

INDIAN

MACRON

AFR IND DES

MALAY

It

CULT


CON SE ASIA

INDIAN

H TR AFR

CON SE ASIA

INDIAN

II




ANDEAN

MALAY
11



It






BRAZILIAN


CARIB

It


Prestoea montana (Graham) Nichol.

P. pubigera Hook f. 1. c.

Pritchardia arecina Becc.

* P. affinis Becc.


HAWAIIAN

11


P. beccariana Rock









P. lowreyana Rock

P. gaudichaudii(Mart.) H. Wendl.

k P. pacifica Seem. et H. Wendl.

P. thurstonii F. Muell. et Drude

P. hillebrandii Becc.

P. remota Becc.

P. rockiana Becc.

Pritchardia spp.

Pseudophoenix lediniana

P. sargentii H. Wendl. ex Sarg.

P. vinifera (Mart.) Becc.

Ptychococcus lepidotus H. E. Moore

P. paradoxus (Scheff.) Becc.

Ptychococcus sp.

Ptychoraphis sp.

Ptychosperma angustifolium Blume

P. elegans Blume

P. hosinoi Moore & Fosberg

P. hospitum (Burret) Burret

P. kerstenianum Burret

P. lineare (Burret)

P. macarthurii (Wendl.) Nich.

P. propinquum (Becc.)

P. salomonense Burret

P. sanderianum Ridley

P. waitianum F. B. Essig

Ptychosperma spp.

Raphia farinifera (Gaetn.)

R. humilis Cheval

R. vinifera Palisot de Beauvois


HAWAIIAN

it

MEL & MICR

t "I

HAWAIIAN

It

it




CARIB



II

MALAYAN


it





INDIAN

AUSTR

MEL & MICR

i nit

MALAYAN

I"



n

"t

It






H TR AFR


ti It t1


1

5

11

12

5

2

4

2

.2

58

3

4

4

2

1

2

11

1

1

4

4

18

3

28

7

10

67

5

2

4









Ravenea hildebrandtii Bouche

R. spectabilis (Lindl.) Planch ex Griseb.

Ravenea sp.

Rehderophoenix sp.

Reinhardtia gracilis (Wendl.) Drude

Reinhardtia sp.

Rhapidophyllum hystrix (Pursh.) H. Wendl.

Rhapis excelsa (Thunb.) Henry

R. humilis Blume

Rhopaloblaste augusta (Kurz) H. E. Moore

R. ceramic (F. A. W. Miguel) Burret

Rhopalostylis baueri Wendl. & Drude

R. cheesemanii Becc. ex Chees.

R. sapida Wendl. & Drude

Rhyticocos amara (N. J. Jacq.) Becc.

Roystonea altissima (Miller) H. E. Moore

R. borinquena 0. F. Cook

R. elata (Bartr.) F. Harper

R. hispaniolana Bailey

R. oleracea (Jacq.) 0. F. Cook

R. princeps (Becc.) Burret

R. regia (HBK) 0. F. Cook

R. venezuelana L. H. Bailey

Roystonea spp.

Sabal allenii Bailey

S. bermudana Bailey

S. causiarum (0. F. Cook) Becc.

S. domingensis Becc.

S. mauritiiformis (Karst.) Griseb. & Wendl.


MADAG

11




MALAY

CARIB

11




SINO-JAPN

it it

INDIAN

MALAY

N ZEA

it it




CARIB

11

it

If




BRAZILIAN

CARIB

11


VEN & GUI

CARIB

ti

It




it

It









S. mexicana Mart.

S. minor (N. J. Jacq.) Persoon

S. palmetto (Walt.) Lodd.

S. parviflora Becc.

S. rosei (O.F. Cook) Becc.

S. uresana Trelease

S. yapa C. Wright ex Becc.

Sabal spp.

Salacca edulis Reinwardt

Satakentia liukiuensis (Hatusima) H. E. Moore

Scheelea amylacea Barb-Rodr.

S. butyracea (Mutis ex L. F.) H. Karst ex
H. Wendl.

S. huebneri Burret

S. leandroana Barbosa-Rodriquez

S. liebmannii Becc.

S. martiana Burret

S. osmantha Barb-Rodr.

S. urbaniana Burret

S. zonensis L. H. Bailey

Scheelea spp.

Schippia concolor Burret

Serenoa repens (Bartram) Small

Siphokentia beguinii Burret

Socratea sp.

Strongylocaryum brassii Burret 1. c.

S. latius Burret

Strongylocaryum sp.

Syagrus cocoides Mart.

,S. flexuosa (Mart.) Becc.


CARIB

It

I,


II

MALAY

SINO-JAPN

BRAZILIAN

CARIB


BRAZILIAN

It

CARIB

ANDEAN

CARIB

11

I,








MALAY

BRAZILIAN

MALAY

It

It

BRAZILIAN

11








S. inajai (Spruce) Becc.

S. oleracea (Mart.) Becc.

S. orinocensis (Spruce) Burret

S. quinquefaria (Barb.-Rodr.) Becc.

S. sancona H. Karst.

S. tessmannii Burret

S. vagans (Bondar) Glassman

Syagrus spp.

Synechanthus fibrosus (H. Wendl.) H. Wendl.

Tessmanniodoxa chuco Burret

Thrinax excelsa Lodd. ex Griseb.

T. morrisii H. Wend1.

T. parviflora Swartz

T. radiata Lodd. ex J. A. Schult

Thrinax sp.

* Trachycarpus fortune (W. J. Hooker) H. Wend1.

T. martianus (Wallich) H. Wend1.

T. takil Becc.

Trachycarpus sp.

Trithrinax acanthocoma Drude

T. brasiliensis Mart.

Veitchia arecina Becc.

V. joannis Wendl.

V. mcdanielsii H. E. Moore 1. c.

* V. merrillii (Becc.) H. E. Moore

* V. montgomeryana H. E. Moore

V. sessilifolia (Burret) H. E. Moore

V. winin H. E. Moore


BRAZILIAN

it

VEN-GUI

BRAZILIAN

CARIB

ANDEAN

BRAZILIAN



CARIB

BRAZILIAN

CARIB


it







SINO-JAPN

INDIAN

It



BRAZILIAN

11

N CAL

MEL & MICR

MALAY.

It



MEL & MICR

MALAY


S

13

10

68

16

143

2

6

1

10

2

7

10

3

12

10

99

8

1

16








Veitchia spp. 44

Wallichia disticha T. Anderson INDIAN 9

Washingtonia filifera (L. Linden) H. Wendl. PACIF-NA 6

W. robusta H. Wendl. 19

Zombia antillarum (Descourtilz ex Jackson) CARIB 18
L. H. Bailey




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