Title: Final report to the Florida Department of Natural Resources on the project
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Fort Lauderdale ARC Research Report FL74-2


Final Report to the Florida Department of.NaeurqaiiukeurCes

on the Project: Control of Aquatic Plant Growth 76

In Earthen Ponds by the White Amur', \


Cooperator: University of Florida, Agricultural Re earch-ICnter

at Fort Lauderdale-/b/


Period Covering: July, 1971 to January, 1974


Report prepared by:

David L. Sutton
Agricultural Research Center
University of Florida
3205 S. W. 70 Avenue
Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33314


Copy Number


1


a/ In cooperation with the Agricultural Research Service, Southern

Region, Florida Area, U. S. Department of Agriculture; U. S. Army Corps

of Engineers; Florida Game & Freshwater Fish Commission; Central &

Southern Florida Flood Control.District; and Orange County. Partial

financial support was supplied by the Rockefeller Foundation.

b/ No portion of this report is to be .reproduced. in any manner

without the written consent of the University of Florida.


--













Table of Contents


I .




III.












IV.


V.


Page No.


* I


. 2





. 2


. 3


. 4


. 4


Introduction . . . * *


Supplemental Stocking with the White Amur . .


Results and Discussion


A. Fish Biomass . . . .. ..


B. Plant Biomass . . . . .


C. Water Quality . . . . .


Summary and Conclusions . . . .


Appendix


A. Tables . ... . . . ..


B. Figures . . . . .


C. Distribution List . . . .


6


. 36


. 74









1. Introduction


Biological'control of the excessive growth of aquatic vegetation
* appears to have great potential, but has been largely unsuccessful
because of the great difficulty in finding organisms which can
significantly reduce the growth rate and reproductive ability of most
of these aquatic plants.

The herbivorous fish (Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.) commonly called
the white amur, grass carp, or Chinese grass carp is one of the most
promising organisms for the control of a number of aquatic plants,
particularly submersed ones.

As an adult, the white amur is almost exclusively a vegetarian.
The young fry feed on algae, rotifers, and crustaceans but as they
grow in size, the proportion of animal feed decreases and the amount of
vegetation eaten increases. The fish have a set of pharyngeal teeth
and a hard pad .located on the roof of the pharynx which grinds plant
material.

Even though the native habitat of the fish is cold water, it is
tolerant of warm water in the tropics and exhibits a much higher feeding
rate under warm temperatures. The .fish may grow at a rate of 5 to 10 lbs
a year with the maximum weight being from 80 to ]_Q lIbs. The fish is
native to the rivers in Northern.China and Southern Siberia. They were
imported into the United States some .12 to 15 years ago primarily for
their potential in controlling growth of aquatic plants.

On rooted submersed weeds such as hydrilla, they begin feeding at
the top of the plant and progress toward the base of the plant. Plants
like duckweed apparently are swallowed whole. They also have the ability
to take bites out of a plant, for example when feeding.on waterhyacinth
leaves.

In many countries of the world the white amur is being cultured
for human consumption and is rated as one of the better tasting fresh-
-water fish. Its flavor is very similar to that of our freshwater catfish..
In China, the white amur is one of the four major fishes used in inland
fisheries production.

In the transfer of energy from the sun in aquatic systems, organisms
lose energy as it is transferred from one organism to another. This
transfer involves some five steps in the production of an organism which
is usable by man; however, with herbivorous fish such as the white amur,
it is possible to shorten this energy transfer considerably. There are
a number of studies which show that fish production in general is higher
in a body of water containing the white amur. The white amur does not
have a stomach but rather a digestive tract which is approximately two
and one half times its body length. This is rather short for a herbivorous
animal. Because of the shortness of this digestive system, portions of
the vegetation ingested pass through undigested. This undigested material
apparently plays a major role in increasing the productivity of a body of
water.: The white amur may play an important role in releasing energy
tied up in aquatic plants so that they can be utilized by other organisms
in the aquatic ecosystem.









This report covers the second half and final phases of a study
initiated in July 1971. Results from the first year of study were
reported earlier.1/ In brief, within I year hydrilla (Hydrilla verti-
cillata Royle) had become the dominant plant in the control pond. Only
trace or no plants of the ones originally planted were present. The
rate of stocking with the white amur was not sufficient, but the fish
apparently placed sufficient pressure on the hydrilla so that vallisneria
(Vallisneria neotropicalis Marie-Victorin) was present in these ponds.
The fish had cleaned some areas of hydrilla, thus allowing the vallisneria
to be more competitive than in the control pond. Water qualify measure-
ments of samples.taken from the ponds indicated little difference between
the control and the ponds-with fish; however, dissolved oxygen in the
control pond toward the end of the first year was fluctuating greatly
because of the abundance of vegetation. The methods and materials used
in the latter part of the study are essentially the same as described
previously. Exceptions will be noted as necessary.


II. Supplemental Stocking with.the White Amur

The initial stocking with white amur was not sufficient to remove
the hydrilla present in the ponds. The fish apparently were feeding
on the regrowth of hydrilla and not on the older, mature vegetation
because of the abundance of plants. In July and August 1973 additional
white amur fish were transferred to the ponds (Tables I and 2). Pond I
received four white amur fish in September 1973. In December 1973 some
of the fish were removed by electrical shocking from ponds 2 and 3, and
four of these fish placed in pond I. A stocking schedule for placement
of the herbivorous white amur fish in the ponds is presented in Table 3.


III. Results and Discussion

A. Fish Biomass

The ponds were drained during the week of 28 January 1974 in order
to determine the fish and plant biomass. White amur fish were removed
on 21 December 1973 from ponds 2 and 3 (Table 4). Of the 32 fish in
pond 3, 23 were removed by electrical shocking at this time. Additional
shocking was conducted prior to draining the ponds. Of the 56 fish placed
in the ponds 37 were removed by electrical shocking accounting for 66%.
Only one fish was removed from pond I by this method of capture;
apparently the plant density prevented effective use of the electrical'
shocker. *The four fish which were transferred from pond 2 to pond I
are included in the totals for both of the ponds. These four were
removed from pond I after it was drained. After the ponds were drained,
all but five of the fish placed in the ponds were removed, giving a 91%


I Sutton, D. L. 1972. Annual Report to.the Florida Department of
Natural Resources on the Project: Control of Aquatic Plant Growth in
Earthen Ponds by the White Amur. Fort Lauderdale ARC Research Report-
FL72-1. University of Florida, Agricultural Research Center at Fort
Lauderdale. 77 pages.


_









survival rate for the white amur transferred to the ponds. Of the five
fish not recovered, one was found dead in pond I, and two in pond 2; the
other two in pond 2 presumably died and dropped to the bottom without
being observed.

The game fish removed from the ponds.are presented in Tables 5 to
8. A summary of all of the fish removed from the ponds is shown in
Table 9. Fish production as determined by subtracting the initial
number and weight of fish placed in the ponds from the number and we eight
of fish harvested from the ponds is presented in Table 10. Also the,
approximate productivity was estimated for number and pounds of fishlon
a per acre basis.

B. Plant Biomass

After the ponds were drained, I ft2 samples were collected from the
pond bottom (Table II). All plant 'material including as much root
material as possible was removed from within a I ft2 area. Sampling
sites were selected to represent the various densities of vegetation,
observed. The samples were washed and then dried in a forced air oven
at 60 C for a period of I week. The exposed pond hydrosoil was also'
* visually evaluated by several individuals for the percent cover by t e
aquatic plants present (Table 12). These data closely agree showing
the domination of hydrilla in the control pond and the presence of
vallisneria in the ponds with fish. The'abundance of vegetation in
relation to the presence of white amur will be discussed in more deta Il
in the fish section.

Estimates for total biomass were made using the values in TableslII
and 12 (Table 13). Considerable amounts of vegetation remained in the
pond which received the highest stocking rate of white amur, Pond 3. The
low stocking with white amur appeared to stimulate plant growth, pond I
as compared to pond 4. Definite conclusions cannot be drawn because of
the lack of replication of each of the stocking rates.

Figures I and 2 show the ponds before and after they were drained.
The presence of vallisneria in ponds 2 and 3 is much more evident after
these ponds had been drained.

A number of marginal plants were removed from the ponds (Table 14).
The white amur did not appear to be feeding on any of these plants.

Analyses of plant samples for phosphorus, crude protein, and calories
are presented in Tables 15.and 16. Figure 3 shows the crude protein in
hydrilla as sampled at various times throughout the study.

The ponds were sampled for the presence of hydrilla vegetative
i propagules in May 1973 and at the end of the study. A 4-inch core
sampler was used to remove a plug of hydrosoil 4 inches in diameter by
10 to 15 inches in length. The sample was washed through a small mesh
screen. *The hydrilla .-vegetative propagules were separated into tubers
and turions and the results are presented in Tables 17 to 20.
1

1


i_______________________________









C. Water Quality

Analyses of water samples for various parameters are presented in
Tables 21 to 26. A comparison of water quality values obtained during
the entire study are shown in Figures 4 to 13.

An analysis of variance was conducted for the water quality values
obtained using a two factorial design with the four water samples collected
from each pond as the replicates (Table 27). Significant values for the
observed F was obtained in all cases except for the between ponds and
time X between ponds for the available phosphorus. The observed F fbr
time was higher than those observed for between ponds and the interaction
of time X between ponds in all cases except for the observed F of the
between ponds values for phenolphthalein alkalinity and turbidity. These
high observed F values indicate the order of importance of a factor in
each set of measurements should be,given to the one with the highestL
numerical value. In general, time was of much greater importance than
the between pond factor as related to differences among the water quality
values for each set of measurements. Since the replicates used in this
analysis are subsamples of a single replicate, these results should be
considered only as trends and would be useful in designing addition
studies.

Measurements are presented in Tables 21 to 26. A comparison of i
water quality values obtained during the entire study are shown in
Figures 4 to 13. -In general, values obtained throughout the study did
not exceed the initial values obtained at the beginning of the study.

Measurements taken during a 24-hr period give a good indication
of dissolved oxygen content of the water. Data for measurements of
dissolved oxygen obtained at various times during the later part of the
study are shown in Figures 14 to 28, and in Table 28. In general the
dissolved oxygen content of the water was lowest at sunrise followed by
a gradual increase until late afternoon, and then a gradual decrease
until sunrise. Toward the later part of the study the control pond
tended to have the lowest readings at sunrise followed.by a slower
increase than the other three ponds.

Water temperatures taken during the same period as the dissolved
oxygen measurements are presented in Figures 29 to 37 and in Table 29.
A temperature profile for each of the ponds on 5 November 1973 is shown
in Figure 38. Water temperature was uniformly.distributed throughout
pond 2 and 3, but the plants in ponds I and 4 reduced the mixing of the
water by the wind thus resulting in a much higher temperature at the top
than at the bottom of the pond.


IV. Summary and Conclusions

The majority of the objectives set forth in the proposal for this
study have been completed. Because of the limited number of ponds
available for the study, the data obtained from this study probably should
be considered as trends and would be especially useful in designing
additional research studies of this type.









In situations where the white amur can be managed, this herbivorous
fish will be quite useful in reducing growth of hydrilla. However,
herbicides or mechanical means to remove the initial bulk of unwanted
plants followed by the white amur to keep the regrowth under control
will probably be more effective than using just the fish to remove all
the unwanted vegetation. This study has shown that the fish could be
used to remove an undesirable plant and not a desirable one. Once the
undesirable plant has been removed, then the fish could be caught using
electrical shocking or other live-capture methods and transported to'
other areas needing plant control. This herbivorous fish shows cons der-
able promise as a biological control 4gent for troublesome aquatic plants
and could become a valuable tool in the management of the aquatic environ-
ment. The conversion of troublesome plants into a valuable protein source
by the white amur certainly merits .considerable attention. Because of
the high cost of mechanical and herbicidal control methods, in addition
to residue questions raised in using chemicals, the white amur should
be given top priority for studies to determine the feasibility of using
this herbivorous fish as a biological method for control .of troublesome
submersed aquatic plants.







Table I List of white amur fish transferred from the Agricultural
Research Center at Fort Lauderdale to Orange County Pond
Number 3 on July 27 (12 fish) and August I (18 fish), 1973.


Standard length (mm) Body depth (mm) Weight (g)


375 73 880
374 79 895
402 85 1196
353 81 849
399 84 1064
350 73 692
430 89 1330
345 77 779
340 73 701
415 88 1218
423 85 1262
310 70. 548
365 76 781
407 .84 1134
380 80 .961
355 76 786
390 84. 1095
310 70 563
275 60 355
319 70 599
406 84 1138
394 82 1059
373 79- 864
412 86: 1186
320 70 581
350 77 757
370 79 836
395 85 1087
351 78 736
370 78 850










Table 2.


List of white amur transferred from the Agricultural

Research Center at Fort Lauderdale to Orange County Pond

Number 2 on July 27 (10 fish) and August I (5 fish), 1973.


Standard length (mm) Body depth (mm) Weight (g)


350 74 693

385 79 -954

394 81 1097

400' 87. 1198

370 78 854

355 74 731

387 84. 1073

440 93 1448

395 81 1021

304 62 448

450 95 1471

373 81 970

410 87 1166

412 88 1300

333 71 619










Table 3. Stocking schedule for placement of white amur in the

Orange County ponds.


Date Pond number
I 2 3 4

27 October 1971
Number 4 I 2 -
Weight (Ib)
Total 6.75 1.88 3.43
Average 1.68 1.88 1.71

27 July 1973
Number '10 12
Weight (Ib)
Total 20.98 25.16
Average 2.09 2.09

I August 1973
Number 5 18
Weight (Ib)
Total 12.18 34.10 -
Average 2.43 1.89 -

15 September 1973
Number 4
Weight (Ib)
Total 7.01 -
Average 1.75 -

12 December 1973
Number 4/ -
Weight (Ib)
Total 29.62 -
Average 7.40 -


a/
Fish removed from pond 2

placed in this pond.


by electrical shocking and then




.9








Table 4. White amur harvested from the Orange County ponds.


Date Pond number
2 3 4


21 December 1973

Number 5 23 -

Weight (Ib)

Total 35.62 135.87

Average 7.12 5.90


28-31 January 1974

Number II 7 9 -

Weight (Ib)

Total 123.19 59.58 45.49

Average 11.19 8.51 5.05








Table 5. Fish harvested from Orange County pond number I during the
week of 28 January 1974.


Species Class size Number Weight (Ib)
(Inches) Total Average


Largemouth
bass















Total

Bluegill and
shel Icrackers











Total

Channel catfish

Total


5.00

1.00

7.12

4.88

1.80

5.5.0

4.86

0.25

30.41


9

8

7

6

5

< 4



18.5


7

38

4

60

101

57

267

329

329


1.25

I.00

0.89

0.61

0.45

0.34

0.25

0.25

0.49


0.42

0.30

0.62

0. I1

0.08

0.03

0.12

2.12


3.00

11.55

2.51

6.85

8.11

2.02

34.04

2.12

66.56










Table 6. Fish harvested from Orange County pond number 2 during the

week of 28 January 1974.


Class size
(Inches)


Largemouth
bass


Number


Weight (Ib)


Total


Average


3 3.10 1.03

6 5.40 0.90

8 4.40 0.55



15 6.15. 0.41


Total.


Bluegill and
shel Icrackers













Total

Channel catfish

Total I


Species


2.40

21.45


0.80

3.60

13.65

10.45

41.08

16.58

4.92

91.08

4.20

116.73


0.30

0.53


0.80

0.40

0.32

0.27

0.23

0.08

0.03

0.14

4.20


1

9

42

38

173

199

164

626

667

667











Table 7.


Fish harvested from Orange County pond number 3 during the

week of 28 January 1974.


Species Class size Number Weight (lb)
(Inches) Total Average


Largemouth
bass















Total I

Bluegi.lls











Total

Channel catfish

Total I


17

12

II

10

9

8

7

6



9

8

7

6

5

S4



23


I


30

30

24

98

25

28.

20

'70

661

312

* 1,116



1,215


2.50

0.56



0.40

3.91

5.31

3.18

2.06

17.92

13.02

7.64

3.65

5.95

23.74

6.57

60.57

4.87

83.36


2.50

0.56



0.40

0.35

0.17

0.10

0.08

0.18

0.52

0.27

0.18

0.08

0.03

0.02

0.05

4.87











Table 8. Fish harvested from Orange County pond number 4 during the

week of 28 January 1974.


Species Class size Number Weight (Ib)
( Inches) Total Average


Largemouth
bass II 2 1.06 0.53 I

10 4 1.43 0.35

9 2 1.00 0.50

8 10 1.93 0.19

7 7 1.00 0.14

Total 25 6.42 0.25


Bluegills 9 I 0.56 0.56

8 16 4.68 0.29

7 8 1.43 0.17

6 10 1.12 0.11

5 99 6.87 0.06

S4 8 0.37' 0.04

Total 142 15.03 0.10


Total 167 21.45











Table 9. Summary of fish harvested from the Orange County ponds.


Species Pond number
I 2 3 4

Largemouth bass

Number 61 40 98 25

Weight (Ib) 30.41 21.45 17.92 6.42

Bluegills and
shel Icracker

Number 267 626- 1,116 142

Weight (Ib) 34.04 91.08 60.57 15.03

Channel catfish

Number I I I 0

Weight (Ib) 2.13 4.20 4.87 0

White amur

Number II 12 32 -

Weight (Ib) 123.19 95.21 181.37


Total

Number 340 679 1,247 167

Weight (Ib) 189.79 211.94 264.73 21.45


I









Table 10.


Fish production in the Orange County ponds. These values
were obtained by subtracting the initial number and weight
of fish placed in the ponds from the fish number and weights

of harvested fish.


Pond number
Species 3
S2 3


Largemouth bass

Number

Weight (Ib)

Bluegills and
shelI crackers

Number

Weight (Ib)

Channel catfish

Number

Weight (Ib)

White amur

Number

Weight (Ib)

Total

Number

Weight (Ib)

Approximate
productivity./

Number/acre

Pounds/acre


37

17.95




162

19.29



0

0.25



-1

79.80



198

117.29




1,061

628.90


16

8.97




521

76.33



0

2.32



-4

60.16



533.

147.78




3,321

920.74


74

5.44


1,011

.45.80



0

2.99


-6.04




37

0.28



-I.88

-1.88


0

118.66


1,085

172.89




5,025

800.78


37

-7.64




171


a/ Negative values obtained due to the final number and weight of
*fish being Tess than the initial.
b/ Based on surface areas of 0.1865, 0.1605, 0.2159, and 0.2159 acres
for ponds numbered I, 2, 3, and 4, respectively.











Table II.


Summary for I-ft2 samples of plant material collected from the

Orange County ponds during the week of 28 January 1974.


Pond No. of Plant composition (%) Mean dry Range
No. samples Hydrilla Vallisneria wt (g) Low High


1 16 74 26 23.21 10.72a/ 8.23 49.85

2 4 0 100 32.59 11.14 18.75 46.33

3 4 0 100 49.51 20.18 29.74 76.66

4 16 100 0 16.22 t 5.64 8.74 26.14


of the samples

this value was


from plot number seven contained

not included in the mean.


3.32 g of


One

but


coontail,









Table 12.


Percent plant cover in the Orange County ponds as visually,
determined on 31 January 1974 after most of the water had
been removed.


Pond Plant species in Bare,
No. plots planted Hydrilla Vallisneria hydroslil
July 1971


Hydrilla
Chara
Southern naiad
Vallisneria
Chara
Hydrilla
Vallisneria
Southern naiad


Hydrilla
Chara
Southern naiad
Vallisneria
Chara
Hydrilla
Vallisneria
Southern naiad


Hydrilla
Southern naiad
Chara
Vallisneria
Southern naiad
Hydrilla
Vallisneria
Chara


Hydrilla
Southern naiad
Chara
Vallisneria
Southern naiad
Hydrilla
Vallisneria
Chara


73
64
73
40
59
92
84
74
Mean 70

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Mean 0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Mean 0

98
100
100
98
99
100
99
98
Mean 99













Table 13.


Plant biomass estimates for the Orange County ponds taken

during the week of 28 January 1974.


Pond number
Plant species
I 2 3 4


Plant dry wt (Ib/A)

Hydrilla 1,559 0 0 1,541

Vallisneria 401 346 1,093 0

Total 1,960 346 1,093 1,541


Plant dry wt (kg/ha)

Hydrilla 1,747 0 0 1,726

Vallisneria 449 388 1,224 0

Total 2,196 388 1,224 1,726















Table 14. Marginal plants removed from the Orange County ponds on

3 October 1973.


Pond number Plant species Plant dry wt (kg)


1 Cattails 687.20

Arrowhead/ 73.48

Pickerelweed 163.30

2 Cattails 472.20

3 Cattails 606.01

Pickerelweed 224.08

4 Cattails 75.30

Arrowhead 13.61


R/ Sagittaria graminea Michx.











Table 15.


Phosphorus (%) in plants taken from the white amur

ponds in Orange County.


Plant Pond number Date plants collected/
October 1971 October '1972


Hydrilla I .348 f .108 b

Vallisneria I .228 d .072 ab

Hydrilla 2 .280 e .112 b

Vallisneria 2 .188 c .060 a

Hydrilla 3 .284 e .076 ab

Vallisneria 3 .184 c .086 ab

Hydrilla 4 .284 e .098 ab

Vallisneria 4 .188 c .096 ab


- Each value represents a composite of samples from each

hydrilla or vallisneria plot in each pond. Each value is

the mean of two plots and values followed by the same

letter are not significantly different at the 5% level as

determined by Duncan's Multi'ple Range Test.












Table 16.


Crude protein, phosphorus, and calories in plant samples

.collected during the week of 28 January 1974.


Pond Plant Crude protein Phosphorus Calories
No. species (%) (ug/g) (kcal/g)


S Hydrilla 13.34 ca/ 2,733 c 2,922 bc

Vallisneria 9.34 a 1,855 a 3,036 c

Coontail 13.78 c 3,111 d 2,754 ab

2 Vallisneria 13.58 c 2,444 b 2,927 bc

3 Vallisneria 10.54 b 2,455 b 2,563 a

4 Hydrilla 11.29 b 2,322 b 2,731 ab


/ Each value represents a composite of samples from each pond.

Values within each column followed by the same letter are not

significantly different at the 5% level as determined by Duncan's

Multiple Range Test.










Number of

samples 4

collected


vegetative propagules of hydrilla in eight core

inches in diameter by 10 to 15 inches in length

from the Orange County ponds during 16 May 1973.


Plant species in
Pond number plots planted Tubers Turions
July 1971


1 Hydrilla 16 4

Chara II 4

2 Hydrilla I 0

Chara 12 I

3 Hydrilla 10 4

Chara II 0

4 Hydrilla 10 2

Chara 15 6


Table 17.





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Table 19. Number of vegetative propagules of hydrilla in six core

samples 4 inches in diameter by 10 to 15 inches in length

taken from the Orange County ponds during the week of

28 January 1974.


Plant species in
Pond number plots planted Tubers Turions
July 1971


1 Hydrilla 35 8

Vallisneria 23 8

Chara 25 4

Southern naiad 10 16

2 Hydrilla 5 0

Vallisneria 10 0

Chara 9 0

Southern naiad II 8

3 Hydrilla 9 2

Vallisneria 9- 2

Chara 11 2

Southern naiad 4 3

4 Hydrilla 12 *1

Vallisneria 19 8

Chara 9 I

Southern naiad 10 2















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Table 28. Dissolved oxygen (ppm) in the white amur ponds in

Orange County.



Time Pond I Pond 2 Pond 3 Pond 4


September 26 (PM)

1:00 4.8 4.9 5.8 4.2

2:00 5.7 5.1 6.2 4.8

3:00 6.4 6.3 6.8 5.2

4:00 5.6 5.6 7.1 6.2

5:00 7.2 6.6 7.0 6.8


September 27 (AM)

7:00 0.8 2.8 3.8 0.3

8:00 0.5 2.5 3.3 0.2

9:00 0.3 2.4 3.4 0.4

10:00 0.4 2.4 3.0 1.1

S1:00 1.7 3.0 3.4 3.5

12:00 3.0 3.2 3.7 5.2


a/ Each value is the mean of four determinations from each pond.










Table 29.


Water temperature (C) in the white amur ponds in
Orange County.


Time Pond I Pond 2 Pond 3 Pond 4


September 26 (PM)

1:00 28.0 30.5 30.0 27.0

2:00 28.0 31.0 30.5 28.0

3:00 28.0 31.5 31.0 28.0

4:00 29.0 31.0 31.5 29.0

5:00 28.5 31.0 31.5 28.0


September 27 (AM)

7:00 26.0 27.5 28.0 25.0

8:00 26.0 28.0 28.0 25.0

9:00 26.0 28.0 28.0 25.0

10:00 26.0 28.0 28.0 25.0

11:00 26.0 28.0 28.0 25.0

12:00 26.0 28.0 28.0 25.0







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Figure 22. Dissolved oxygen content of ponds
and 27 July 1973.


10:30


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I and 4 during 26







































































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POND 3


7:30
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12:30
.OF DAY


Figure 26.


Dissolved oxygen content of the Orange County
ponds during 27 and 28 October 1973.


POND


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3:30


6:30


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Figure 29. Water temperature approximately 30 cm below the surface
of ponds I and 2 during 30 and 31 January 1973.













16



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0











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12
12


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Figure 30.


TIME OF DAY

Water temperature approximately 30 cm below the surface
of ponds 3 and 4 during 30 and 31 January 1973.


11:30










23



22



21



) 20


POND I


23



22



21-



2011:30


Figure 31.


6:30 11:30 6:30
TIME OF DAY


Water temperature approximately 30 cm below the surface
of ponds I and 2 as measured during 16 and 17 April 1973.


11:30










24



23



22
0


) 21


POND 3


POND 4


11:30 6:30 11:30 630


11:30


Figure 32.


Water
ponds


TIME OF DAY
temperature approximately 30 cm below the surface of
3 and 4 as measured during 16 and 17 April 1973.


21



20



19




33







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Figure 33.
S31
LJ






29-







27-


10:30


Water temperature approximately 30 cm below the surface
of ponds I and 4 during 26 and 27 July 1973.


10:30
OF


DAY


TIME












30







28

Ll
LJ


Water temperature approximately 30 cm below the surface
of ponds 2 and 3 during 26 and 27 July 1973.


10:30
OF


32


Figure 34.


33


31







29


10:30


10:30


DAY


TIME








29-



28-



27

POND I
026,





Q 30-
(9


29



28-

POND 2
27 I I I I
10:30AM 5:30PM IO:30PM 5:30AM 10:30AM
TIME OF DAY
Figure 35. Water temperature approximately 30 cm below the surface of
ponds I and 2 during 26 and 27 August 1973.








31-



30-



29-



28





28-



27V



26-



25
10:30AM


Figure 36. Water
ponds


5:30PM 10:30PM 5:30AM
.TIME OF DAY


temperature approximately 30 cm below
3 and 4 during 26 and 27 August 1973.


1030AM


the surface of








24







23






t 25

i-i
- 24



23



22


POND I o-o
POND 4 --a


I I I I


POND 2 o-o
POND 3 t--


I


11:30


4:30


TIME


10:30
OF


6:30


DAY


Figure 37..


Water temperature of the Orange County ponds approximately 30 cm
below the surface during 27 and 28 October 1973.


10:3C


_ __ __~_~_ __









Distribution List


Copy No.


Original I. Dr. Alva P. Burkhalter
Coordinator
Aquatic Plant Research and Control
Florida Department of Natural Resources
Room 595, Larson Building
Tallahassee, Florida 32304

2. Mr. Robert D. Blackburn
Location Leader
USDA, ARS, SRAO
Southern Region Florida Area
3205 S. W. 70 Avenue
Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33314

3. Dr. Walter R. Courtenay
Professor of Zoology
Department of Biological Sciences, Room 302
Florida Atlantic University
Boca Raton, Florida 33432

4. Dr. William B. Ennis, Jr.
Staff Scientist
USDA, ARS
Room 319, North Building
National Program Staff Weeds
Plant Industry Station
Beltsville, Maryland 20705

5. Dr. 0. E. Fry, Jr.
Director
Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission
620 South Meridian Street
Tallahassee, Florida 32304

6. Representative William Fulford
Florida House of Representatives
P. 0. Box 1226
145 N. Magnolia Avenue
Orlando, Florida 32801

7. Dr. E. 0. Gangstad, Chief
Aquatic Plant Control Planning Division
Department of the Army
Office of the Chief of Engineers
Washington, D. C. 20314









Copy No.


8. Dr. John F. Gerber
Assistant Dean
1022 McCarty Hall
University of Florida


- IFAS


Gainesville, Florida 32611

9. Mr. Zeb C. Grant
Director, Maintenance and Operations
Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District
P. 0. Box 1671
West Palm Beach, Florida 33408

10. Mr. Bill Haller, Research Assistant
Department of Agronomy
Basement, Newell Hall
University of Florida IFAS
Gainesville, Florida 32611

II. Chairman
Orange County Commission
65 East Central Boulevard
Orlando, Florida 32806

12. Mr. Clayton L. Phillippy, Fishery Biologist
Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission
620 South Meridian Street
Tallahassee, Florida 32304

13. Dr. R. W. Richardson, Jr.
Director
The Rockefeller Foundation
SI I West 50 Street
New York, New York 10020

14. Dr. David L. Sutton
Acting Center Director & Asst. Prof. (Agronomy)
University of Florida IFAS
Agricultural Research Center
3205 S. W. 70 Avenue
Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33314

15. Mr. J. W. "Bill" Woods, Chief
Fisheries Management Division
Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission
620 South Meridian Street
Tallahassee, Florida 32304


1~1_




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