Title: Annual report to the Florida Department of Natural Resources on the project
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Title: Annual report to the Florida Department of Natural Resources on the project
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Fort Lauderdale ARPC Research Report FL72-1



Annual Report to the Florida Department of Natural Resources

on the Project: Control of Aqua-lic Plant Growth

In Earihen Ponds by the Whil-e Amur



Cooperator: University of Florida, Agricultural Research Center

at Fort LaudordaleI -/



Period Covering: July, 1971 to October, 1972


Agri


Fort


a! In cooperation with the Plant Science Research Division of the

USDA; U. S. Army. Corps of Engineers; Florida Game and Freshwaler

Fish Commission, Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District,

and Orange County.

/ No portion of this report is to be reproduced in any manner

without the written consent of the University of Florida.


i


-r/ I















Annual Report 1o the Florida Department of Natural Resources

on the Projecl: Control of Aquatic Planlt Growth

in Earthen Ponds by the While Amur


Page Nurmber


I. introduction I

A. Justi f ical ion 3

B. Objectives 4


I1. Methods and Materials 4


I I. Result-s and Discussion 15


IV. Appendix 16

A. Tables 16

B. Fi gures 66


V. Distribution List









I. Introduction


Biological agents appear to have groat potential for controlling
aquatic vegetation. The primary objective in biological control is not
complete eradication of the problem species, but a reduction in the
volume of vegetation so that it is no longer a nuisance. The biological
.control agent must become a part of the aquatic ecosystem and not become
a pest itself.

Herbivorous fish which would consume aquatic vegetation, may prove
not only to be a practical method for control of this vegetation, but
also may provide a source of much needed protein for human consumption.
This type of a fish also could provide additional recreational benefits,
if it were to possess quali ies as a sportfish.

Fish may limit the growth of aquatic vegetation either by ingesting
the tissue or by stirring the hydrosoilI to such an extent that the result-
ing turbidity decreases the amount of light available for photosynthetic
activity. Increased turbidity would have little or no effect on floating
or emersed vegetation and may result in some undesirable effects on the
aquatic environment by destroying the habitats of desirable aquatic fauna
and flora.

The success of herbivorous fish depends not only on its ability to
control the undesirable vegetation, but it must not upset the ecological
balance of the aquatic environment and become a pest. A balance must be
attained between the fish and its food supply. Other factors which must
be considered are the hardiness, ease of handling, and possible economic
value of the fish.

One factor limiting the use of most herbivorous fish in the United
States is their susceptibility to low temperatures. Such species must
be overwintered in a temperature controlled environment. The use of
heated effluents from electric generating plants may provide a partial
solution to this problem.

A herbivorous fish which can tolerate extremes in temperature is
the amur (Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.)._1/ In Arkansas, 38 amur sur-
vived in a 0.04 ha pond which had a solid ice cover for 5 weeks during
the winter, followed by a summer high of 35.6 C.2/

The amur is native to those'rivers of China, Manchuria, and Siberia
which run into the Pacific Ocean from latitudes of 50 N to 23N.3/


-I Hickling, C. F. 1965. Biological control of aquatic vegetation.
Pest. Artic. News Summ. 11:237-244.

2/ Stevenson, J. H. 1965. Observations on grass carp in Arkansas.
Prog. Fish. Cult. 27:203-206.
3/
-- Cross, D. G. 1969. Aquatic weed control using grass carp. J. Fish
Biol. 1:27-30.









It has been successfully introduced into a number of countries in South-
east Asia, Eastern and Western Europe, and into the United States for
research and field trials. The amur is also commonly called the white
amur, grass carp, and Chinese grass carp.

The amur appear to be a hardy fish. They can withstand salinities
as high as 10,000 ppmi/ and. oxygen as low as 0.5 ppm.-' Only two in-
stances of natural spawning of the amur outside their natural habitat
have been reported..Q7-/ Artificial spawning of the amur can be con-
ducted with relative ease.8/ By means of artificial spawning, the num-
ber of amur in an aquatic environment may be controlled to some extent.

Aquctic vegetation comprised the major portion of the amur's diet
after they reach a length of 2.5 cm or more. ./ The diet of the young
fry is mainly zooplankton, to a lesser extent, planktonic algae. As the
fish matures, the animal consi ituent of the diet is replaced with vegeta-
tion.

Most herbivores have a long gut relative to their body length; but the
gut of the amur is only about two and a quarter times the body length.-/
Therefore, probably because of the shortness of the gut, approximately
one-half of the ingested plant material is passed through the fish undi-
cested. 11/


4/ Dorosher, S. I. 1963. The
fry in Sea of Azor and Aral Sea
In Symp. Probl. Fish Exploit of
of the USSR. Askkhabad.


survival of the white amur and tolstobik
water of varying salinity, p. 144-149.
Plant Eating Fishes in the Water Bodies


5/
- Yeh, Y. T. 1959, A preliminary report on the oxygen consumption,
energy requirement, asphyxiation point and respiratory quotient of fish
fry and young fish. Acta Zool. Sin. 11(2):117-137.
6/
-- Anonymous. 1961. Report of the subcommittee on fisheries. Proc.
10th Pacific Sci. Cong., Honolulu. 277 p.

-- Tang, Y. A., Y. W. Hwang, and C. K. Lin. 1960. Reproduction of the
Chinese carps, Ctenopharyngodon idellus and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix
in a reservoir in Taiwan. Japan J. Ichthyology. 13(1/2):1-2.

- Lin, S. Y. 1965. Induced spawning of Chinese carps by pituitary
injection in Taiwan. Fish. Ser. Chin.-Amer. Joint Comm. on Rural Recon-
struction. Fish Ser. 5. 31 p.

9/ Lin, S. Y. 1935. Life llistory'of Waan Ue, Ctenopharyngodon idellus
(Cur. and Val.). Lingnan Sci. J. 14(I):129-135.
10/. Cross, D. G. 1969. Aquatic weed control using grass carp. J. Fish
Bidl. 1(1):27-30.

1-_/ Hickling, C. F. 1967. On the biology of a herbivorous fish, the
white amur or grass carp, Ctoenopharyngodon idella Val. Proc. R. Soc.
Edinb (B) 70 pt. 1(4):62-81.


I










The amur appears to be one of the most promising herbivorous fish
for the control of rooted aquatic vegetation.12-L Since it feeds princi-
pally on higher aquatic plants, the addition of other herbivorous fish
to control algae'may contribute to an effective biological control pro-
gram.


A. Justi f ication

The aquatic environment is a very complex and dynamic system. Its
proper management is becoming more and more critical as water for human
and livestock consumption, irrigation, navigation, industry, recreation,
and wildlife and waterfowl use is in an ever increasing demand. The
rapid growth of some species of aquatic vegetation is producing very un-
desirable conditions in the aquatic environment. Control of this exces-
sive growth of aquatic vegetation must be achieved.

Chemical and mechanical methods are available for aquatic vegetation
control, but they have their limitations. Some herbicides have been used
extensively in recent years; however, certain of these may result in un-
desirable chemical residues. A few of these herbicides are toxic to fish
and benthic organisms. Aquatic vegetation killed by chemicals remains in
the water and contributes to sediment accumulation and plant nutrients are
released into the water by decaying vegetation. Mechanical methods are
expensive, and in some cases, fragmenting of plants caused by the mechani-
cal removal results in additional spread of the undesirable species. The
hydrosoi I and its population of aquatic organisms may be disturbed con-
siderably during the mechanical removal of submersed plants.. Since aquatic
vegetation is approximately 971 water, the mechanical process requires a
great deal of energy just to transfer the water contained in the vegeta-
tion.

The amur has proved to be effective as a biological control agent
of aquatic vegetation in plastic pools. However, additional research
must be conducted under more natural conditions to determine the adapta-
bility and effectiveness of this herbivorous fish as a biological con-
trol agent. Since complete eradication of the aquatic weed species is
not the primary objective in a biological control program, studies con-
cerned with the number of amur necessary to keep the weeds in check must
be conducted. Also,'an evaluation must be made to determine the effects
of the amur on water quality and on desirable fauna and flora in the
aquatic environment.

Results of stocking ratios in plastic pools at Fort Lauderdale
showed that the equivalent of 125 fish/acre fool of water would con-
trol infestations of hydrilla in 4 weeks. This stocking rate repre-
sents one amur per pool. Therefore, enclosed bodies of water larger
than these pools will be needed to stock fish at lower ratios.


1--/ Swingle, H. S. 1957. Control of pondweeds by use of herbivorous
fishes. Proc. South Contr. Conf. 10:11-17.





4




B. Objectives

I.- To determine the effectiveness of the amur as a biological control
agent at various stocking rates.

2. To observe the aquatic plant preferences of the amur in small earthen
ponds.

3. To evaluate the' in luence of the amur on water quality.

4. To ascertain the influence of the amur on other fish and inverte-
brate organisms in the aquatic environment.


11. Methods and Materials

Four 0.08-ha (0.2 A) ponds were constructed on an old sanitary land-
fill in Orange County, Florida. Soil in the bottom and sides of the
ponds consisted primarily of clay. A safety dike and chain link fence
were placed around the ponds to protect the research project.

During July 25 to 28, 1971 each pond was divided into eight plots,
and hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata Casp.), southern naiad (Najas cuada-
luDens is (Spreng.) Magnus), chara (Chara sp.), and val I isneria (Val I I s-
neria americana Michx.) were planted in each of two plots in the ponds
(Figure 1). Coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum L.) was scattered around
the edges of each pond and cattails (Typha lat ifolia L.) were planted
along one side of each pond. The water level of each pond was approxi-
mately 0.3 m (1.0 ft) at the time of planting. Water was pumped into
the ponds from a deep well, and the water depth was raised as the plants
grevw in length. After the water level was raised to 1.5 m (4.9 ft),
this level was maintained by periodic additions of well water. Some
water quality measurements for the well water are presented in Table i;
additional measurements were made on samples collected on August 8,
September 6 and 30, 1971 (Appendix). In November, 1971, waterhyacinth
(Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) was col elected from an area close
to the ponds and placed in the ponds in an area enclosed by PVC (poly-
vinylchloride) pipe. The pipe was anchored to help prevent the wind
from blowing waterhyacinth plants over the surface of the pond.

On October 4, 1971 each pond was stocked with bass (Micropterus
salmoides Lacepede), bluegills (Lepomis macrochirus Rafinesque) redear
sunfish (Lepomis microfophus Gunther), channel catfish (Ictalurus punc-
tatus Rafinesque), and an assortment of forage fish (Table 2). During
October 27, 1971 seven white amur were transferred from holding pools
at the Agricultural Research Center at Fort Lauderdale to the ponds in
Orange County (Table 3). The white amur were placed in the ponds based
on water quality measurements and percent aquatic plant cover determina-
tions made in each pond for the months of August through October, 1971.
Ponds numbered I and 2 appeared to be more similar based on these measure-
ments than ponds 2 and 3. Since pond I and 4 contained more vegetation
than 2 or 3, ponds land 4 were chosen to be the control ponds and to
receive the highest stocking rate of while amur. These ponds, I and 4,































H = Hydril
V = Va ior
SN= Sotlh(
C = Charac.


---37 '--


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------ -----------
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i bL
.' ______ \ ^ ___


7 (:// ,


I ~


Figure I. Diagrammatic view of the ponds in Orange County showing
location of initial plantings of aquatic vegetation,
pond number, and surface dimensions of each pond.















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Table 2. Number and average

Orange County.


weigh-t of fish stocked in ponds in


Number/pond


Avg. weight (g)


Largemouth Bass

Bluegi ll and She Icracker

15.2 cm or less

17.8 cm

20.3 cm

Catfish (Channel)

Assortment of Minnows


24



40

45

20



I bucket full


Species


0.52


0.09

0.15

0.22

854.00


__~~I_ __














Table 3. Measure cents of the while amur placed in the ponds at

Orange County on October 27, 1971.


Pond No. Standard lengl-n (mm) Body depth (mm) Weight (g)


36')

360

345

305

370

365

350

Control


843

787

740

695

855

819

740









were then chosen to be either the control or receive the highest stocking
rate by a random number selection. Ponds 2 and 3 were assigned random
numbers and then selected to receive the medium or low stocking rate of
white amur.

Prior to introduce ion of the white amur, water samples wore collected
from the top and bottom of each pond for 11 different sampling periods.
The water samples were cooled immediately after collection, and trans-
ferred to the laboratory for various water quality determinations by
standard analytical methods.13/14/ Samples for oxygen determinations
were fixed in the field and then analyzed according to the Winkler
technique.

On October 28 and November 10, 1971, water samples were collected to
determine the variability of the water .uality measurement's. Samples on
the 28th of October were collected by securing eight plastic sampling
bottles together with tape. These were then immersed in pond I and allowed
to fill with water. The samples were immediately cooled with ice and
then transferred to the laboratory in an ice chest. On November 10, ten
plastic bottles were secured together, and after 1he bottles were fil led
with pond water, 1.0 ml of chloroform was added to five bottles. All
the bottles were cooled and transported to the laboratory. Results of
this test 'are presented in Tables 4, 5, and 6. Standard curves used for
the determination of available and total phosphorus by the stannous
chloride method are presented in Figures 2 and 3.

After the white amur were placed in the ponds, water samples were col-
lected from each side of each pond at I-week intervals for 4 weeks. Water
samples were.then collected at monthly intervals for the next 12 months.
Plant and mud samples were collected prior to introduction of the white
amur and then at 3-month intervals.

The amount and species for those aquatic plants planted in the ponds
were evaluated on October 19, 1971, and continued on a monthly basis.
Plant height was not considered in this evaluation; only the amount of
cover on each plot was estimated. Skin diving equipment was used in
connection with the evaluation of the plots.

In April and October, 1971, dissolved oxygen measurements were taken
hourly or every 2 hours for a 24-hr period. Measurements were taken from
four sampling platforms in each pond. The mean of .these four samples
was used to represent the oxygen value for any one particular oxygen mea-
surement. Water temperature was also taken at the same time the oxygen
sample was collected.


13/ Ellis, M. M., B. A. Westfall, and M. ED. El is. 1948. Determination
of water quality. U.S. Dept. Inler., Fish and Wildl. Ser., Research
Dept. No. 9, 22 pp.
14/
- American Public Health Association. 1960. Standard methods for the
examination of water and wastewater. I lth Ed. Am. Pub. Hlth. Assoc.,
Inc. N.Y. 626 pp.









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I1I. Results and Discussion

Since this study is designed to cover a 2-year period, the discussion
in. this report will be limited to a general evaluation of the progress
of the first year of study. Water quality measurements, percent aquatic
plant cover, and other results are presented in the appendix of this re-
port. A statistical analysis of the first year's data will be made, and
then reported in the Kinal report of this study.

In general, excellent growth occurred after planting the aquatic
plants. However, chara and vallisneria did not grow nearly as well as
the hydrilla and southern naiad. Coontail was fairly abundant for several
months after planting, but as the ponds cleared, hydrilla and southern
naiad began to become the dominant species. The cattails grew at such a
rapid rate that they had to be removed from the ponds on June 22, 1972,
in order to prevent them from taking over certain areas of the ponds.
Regrowth of the cattails has been rather slow.

Hydrilla has become the dominant species in all the ponds. Ponds
stocked with the white amur contain more open areas and vallisneria than
the control ponds. Oxygen values were lower in the control pond than in
the other three ponds as determined in October, 1972. Considerable oxygen
stress appears to be occurring in the control pond at the present time.

Differences in the amount of vegetation present in the ponds at the
time of stocking with the white amur has made it difficult to compare
the different stocking rates.

In general, water quality values do not appear to vary greatly from
pond to pond. The most evident differences are seen for the 24-hr oxygen
measurements taken in October, 1972. The other water quality measurements
will- be.statistically analyzed at a later date and will be compared with
measurements taken during the second year of the study.

Water samples will be taken at 3-month intervals for the remainder
of the study. Oxygen measurements will be taken for 24-hr periods at
that time. Indications of oxygen stress appear to be more pronounced
when the measurements are made over a 24-hr period, than when they are
taken only once within a 24-hr period.










Table 7-. pH of ponds al Orange County prior to introduction of the
white amur. Top (T) sample taken 0.3 m below the surface
and bottom (B) 0.3 m from hydrosoil near a stake in the
center of the plots.


P 0 N D N U M B E R
We Il
Date I 2 3 4 Water

T B T B T B T B


06/10/71


08/02/71 8.60


08/03/71


- 8.05


- 8.90


- 7.70 7.70


08/08/71 7.95
7.95=-/
7.95-/
7.95a/
8.05a/


7.80 8.20


8.10 8.45 8.40 7.95 7.95


08/16/71 8.15 7.90 8.50 8.15
8.00 7.95 8.20 8.05


8.30


8.35 8.00 8.00


08/23/71 9.10
9.201-
9.0950-

9.05-


9.00 9.25


9.35 9.15 9.20 9.00 9.00


09/06/71 9.10 9.20 9.60 9.40 9.20 9.10 9.50 9.30 7.80 7.45
7.60 7.55

09/16/71 9.60 10.00 10.00 9.85 9.90 9.65 9.60 10.10 -


09/30/71 10.10 10.00 10.00 10.00 9.90 9.90 10.10


10.10 7.70 7.70
7.70 7.65


10/14/71 9.50
9.55a-


9.60, 9.40
9.50 /


9.65 9.50 9.90
- 9.755-/ -


10.00 10.00
9.906/ -


9.40 9.10 8.90 9.00 9.35 9.35 9.50 9.70
9.10 9.40 9.10 9.10 9.50 9.50 9.70 9.65

9.75 9.90 9.50 9.30 9.70 9.60 9.80 9.80
9.80 9.70 9.30 9.60 9.60 9.60 9.80 9.90


a- Samples taken from surface approximately 1.5 m from the bank and


9.05


10/18/71/a

10/28/71 I


0.4 m down.











Table 8. Total hardness (ppmw) of ponds at Orange County
introduction of the white amur. Top (T) sample
below the surface and bottom (B) 0.3 m from the
near a stake in the center of the plots.


prior to
taken 0.3 m
hydroso I


POND NUMBER
Well
Date I 2 3 4
S---W -- after
T B T B T B T B


06/10/71 132

08/02/71 108

08/03/71 -

08/08/71 loo00

104a
'1 6
1084
104


08/16/71


08/23/71





09/06/71

09/16/71

09/30/71

10/14/71


10/18/71l/


10/28/71


84
88


96-/
84a
88-
88


128

- 112


- 140

- 108


- li -

- 120 -

- 176 176


96 120 120 132 120 124 124


100 100
100 96


100 100 104 104


90 100 96 120 120 132 136


56 36 80 60 76 56 60 60 156 152
152 152
52 64 84 88 80 76 76 76 -

48 44 52 56 44 44 60 48 140 152
148 152
52 42 80 82 72 64 72 92 -
60& 80/ 80 116 -


/_ Samples taken from the surface approximately 1.5 m from the bank
and 0.4 m down.









Table 9. Magnesium carbonate hardness (ppmw) of ponds at Orange
County prior to introduction of the white amur. Top (T)
samples taken 0.3 m below the surface and bottom (B) 0.3 m
from the hydrosoil near a stake in the center of the plot.


POND NUMBER
Date Wel I
I 2 3 4 Wateor
T B T B T B T B


06/10/71-

08/02/71

08/03/71

08/08/71


44

- 56


4

- 48


16

- 64


72 80


442
60a/
48a/
a/
52-
52


40 60 56 64 52 56 56


08/16/71


08/23/71





09/06/71

09/16/71


09/30/71

10/14/71


10/18/718/


10/28/718/


36
36

76t1
44a/

52
48


20 36 40 14


60 52 80 80 80 84


16 4 44 24 48 28 32 28 40
36
28 40 48 52 56 48 48 48 -

24 20 24 28 20 20 44 24 38
56
32 14 56 58 52 44 48 72 -
36a/ 56a/ 606/ 92a -


36 52. 32
56 40 40


-/ Samples taken from the surface approximately
and 0.4 m down.


1.5 m from the bank


--










Table 10. -Calcium carbonate hardness (pprnw) of ponds in Orange County
prior to introduction of the white amur. Top (T) samples
taken 0.3 m below the surface and bottom (B) 0.3 m from the
hydrosoil near a stake in the center of the plots.


PO ND NUMBER
Wel I
Date 1 2 3 4 Water

T B T B T B T B


84

56


06/10/71

08/02/71

08/03/71

08/08/71





08/16/71


08/23/71





09/06/71

09/16/71

09/30/71

10/14/71


10/18/712-/


10/28/712-/


136 96

- 60 56


68 68 68 68


80 64 64 90


84

52


-1

56a/
56-
56-
52

48
52

32a/
40a/
40O/
36a/
40

40

24

24

20
24a/

24
24

20
20


52

28

28

16

24
242/

24
24

16
16


a/
- Samples
and 0.4


taken from
m down.


the surface approximately 1.5 m from the bank


60

52
52





,40

36

36

28

24
248/

24-
24

28
20


40

28

24

24

20
20k.'

24
24

20
20









Table II.


Total alkalinity as mg CaCO3/L in the ponds at Orange County
prior to introduction of the white amur. Top (T) samples
taken 0.3 m below the surface and bottom (B) 0.3 m from the
hydrosoil near a stake in the center of the plots.


P 0 N D NU M B E R
Wel I
Date I 2 3 4 Water

T B T B T B T B


06/10/71 112


08/02/71

08/03/71

08/08/71




09/16/71


09/23/71





09/06/71

09/16/71

09/30/71

10/14/71


10/18/71L/


10/28/71-/


110

- 80


120

- 62


128

- .78


- 128 128


803!
8
80a/
80-
78

72
74

54a/
60a/
58a/
56
56


78 84 86 90 92 96 .92


88 86 90 90


56 58 58 60 58 70 70


42 52 26 42 40 46 40 42 122 124
124 122
40 36 30 34 30 38 36 24 -

20 20 22 22 20 20 20 20 124 120
120 122
40 40 40 40 38 34 40 40 -
38a/ 40-/ 34a/ 40a -


Samples taken from the sides of the pond approximately 1.5 m from the
bank and 0.4 m from the surface.











Table [2. Phenolphthalein alkalinity as mg CaCO,/L in the ponds at
Orange County prior to introduction oi the white amur.
Top (T) samples taken 0.3 m below the surface and bottom
(B) 0.3 m from the hydrosoil near a stake in the center
of the plots.


P.O N D N U M B E R
We I I
Date I 2 3 4 Water
T. .B T B T B T B


06/10/71

08/02/71

08/03/71

08/08/71


0

- 0


0

- 8


0

- 10


0 0


0 0 0 2 .2 0 0


08/16/71


08/23/71





09/06/71


2 2 0 0


4 3 8 10 6 8 4 6

2 6 8 8 6 2 10 10


09/16/71 12 20 22 16 16 10 8 20

09/30/71 14 12 16 14 12 12 16 10


10/14/71


10/18/71a/


10/28/71\I


a/ Samples


8 /


10
8

10
12


8


4
6

12
10


4


2
4

8
6


8 10
8a/ -


14 16
14a/ -


14 14
10 10


the bank and 0.4 m from the surface.


0 0
0 0


taken from the sides of the pond approximately 1.5 m from


- --









Table 13.


Turbidity (Jackson Turbidity Units) of the ponds at Orange
County prior to introduction of the while amur. Top (T)
samples taken 0.3 m below the surface and bottom (B) 0.3 m
from the hydrosoil near a stake in the center of the plots.


P O ND N U M B E R
Well
Date I 2 3 4 Water

T B T B T B T B


06/10/71 0

08/02/71 65

08/03/71 -

08/08/71 387M/
37!

39a/
39

08/16/71 45
43

08/23/71 460/
45-
38-
39-
42

09/06/71 75

09/16/71 40

09/30/71 8.3


5

- 120


S 2

- 110


0

- 88


- 0.32 0.37


63 31 42 52 62 27 26 -


81 82 80 86


40 36 33 58 67 52 52

74 46 48 130 130 84 83

36 33 27 61 66 58 56


8.1 12.0 13.0 17.0


19.0


10/14/71 5.7 5.9 6.5 6.4 6. 1 6.7
5. 7.0 6.4 -


3 3
6 4


13.0 16.0 0.4
0.4
5.0 6.2 -
6.0X -


10/18/71a/


2.5
3.5


10/28/71 6.7
5.0


/ Samples taken
0.4 m down.


3.5 5.2
3.4 7.8

4.5 10.2
4.2 10.4


6.0 4.2 5.4 2.2
8.4 5.4 4.3 2.0

9.4 9.4 9.4 10.4
9.0 .8.4 9.2 10.0


from the surface approximately 1.5 m from the bank and


2.2
2.4

9.8
10.0












Table 14. Available phosphorus (ppmw) in the ponds at Orange County
prior to introduction of the white amur. Top (T) sample
taken 0.3 m below the surface and bottom (B) 0.3 m from
the hydrosoil near a stake in the center of the plots.


P 0 N D NUM M B E R
Well
Date 1 2 3 4 Water

T B T B T B T B

09/06/71 0.03 0.02 0.00 0.04 0.03 0.06 0.03 0.04 0.25 0.22
0.22 0.22

09/16/71 0.06 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.02

09/30/71 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.19

10/18/712/ 0.005 0.048 0.000. 0.009

0.008 0.015 0.000 0.0!8

0.010 0.009 0.008 0.012

0.060 0.010 0.021 0.008

10/28/71L/ 0.000 0.003 0.001 0.003

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.003

0.004 0.010 0.000 0.020

0.000 0.001 0.000 0.005


a/ Samples taken


from each side of the pond approximately 1.5 m from


the bank and 0.4 m from the surface.















Table 15. Total phosphorus (ppmw) in the ponds at Orange County

prior to introduction of the white amur. Samples taken

from each side of the pond approximately 1.5 m from the

bank and 0.4 m from the surface.


Date P 0 OND NUMBER
1 2 3 4


10/18/71 0.033 0.090 0.095 0.036

0.038 0.062 0.035 0.031

-0.031 0.085 0.022 0.033

0.095 0.042 0.034


10/28/71 0.025 0.030 0.045 0.014

0.029 0.015 0.045 0.012

0.038 0.041 0.015 0.010

0.030 0.033 0.038 0.015















Table 16.


Dissolved Oxygen (ppm) as determined by the Winkler

method at the ponds in Orange County prior to intro-

duction of the white amur. Samples taken with a

Kemmer bottle at different locations around the pond

approximately 1.0 m from the surface and 0.6 m down.


POND NUMBER
Date
I 2 3 4


08/16/71 7.6 8.2 8.0 7.6

09/30/71 10.2 11.0 11.6 10.0

10.0 9.0 9.2 10.0

10/14/71 12.0 10.8 10.6 10.8

9.6 9.2 9.4 10.0

10/18/71 8.4 7.8 8.4 9.6

8.2 7.6 7.2 8.6

8.6 7.4

10/28/71 4.2 9.0 9.2 10.0

5.0 10.4 8.4 10.0

4.5 9.4 9.4 9.8

6.7 10.2 9.4 10.4














Table 17. Copper (ppmw) in solution in the ponds at Orange County

prior to introduction of the white amur. Samples taken

from each side of the pond approximately 1.5 m from the

bank and 0.4 m from the surface.


Date P 0 N D NUMBER
1 2 3 4

10/18/71 0.01.6 0.013 0.016 0.013

0.019 0.025 0.016 0.020

0.016 0.020 0.015 0.025

0.027 0.016 0.013 0.016


10/28/71 0.026 0.010 0.024 0.030

0.022 0.024 0.014 0.026

0.028 0.022 0.022 0.022

0.018 0.028 0.028 0.024










Table 18. 1pH of ponds at Orange County after stocking the white amur.


Weeks after
Date introduction No. Stockin rate (ish/pond)
the white amur
0 1 2 4


1 1/04/71


11/10/71


9.0

9.1

9.1

9.1


9.8

9.7

9.7

9.8


10.0

10.1

10.0

10.0


9.4

9.4

9.4

9.4


1 1/18/71


11/24/71


9. 1

9.1

9.1

9.1


9.3

9.0

9.3

9.2


9.6

9.5

9.6

9.7


8.8

8.7

8.5

8.7


8.7

8.7

9.0

9. 1


9.4

9.5

9.4

9.4


9.8

9.8

9.7

9.7


9.0

9.0

8.9

9.0


9.3

9.1

9.1

9.2


9.6

9.9

9.7

9.7


10.0

10.0

10.0

10.0


8.8

8.8

8.9

8.7


-8.7












Table 19. Total hardness (ppmw) of ponds at Orange County after

stocking the white amur.


Weeks after Sample
Date introduction of No. Stocking rate (fish/pond)
the white amur
0 1 2 4


11/04/71


64 52

60 60

64 60

60 48


68 60

76 68

56 52

56 72


1 1/10/71


11/18/71


S1/24/71


160

232

88

228


128

156.

116

236


196

156

200

252













Table 20.


CaC03 (ppmw) of ponds at Orange County after stocking

the white amur.


Weeks after
Date introduction of Sample Stocking rate (fish/pond)
No.
the white amur
0 2 4


1 1/04/71


11/10/71








11/18/71


1 1/24/71













MgCO3 (ppmw) of ponds at Orange County after stocking the

white amur.


Weeks after Sample
Date introduction of No. Stocking rate (fish/pond)
the white amur
0 1 2 4


28

24

24

28


36

24

40

40


48

44

36

40


124.

196

52


4 196


20

32

32

20


40

40

36

32


56

56

56

44


92

1 16

76

196


28

36

24

24


32

24

48

44


56

56

68

48


156

120

160

212


Table 21.


I 1/04/71








11/10/71








11/18/71








1 1/24/71














Table 22. Carbonate alkalinity (ppmw) of ponds at Orange County

after stocking the white amur.


Weeks after
Date introduction of Sample Stocking rate (fish/pond)
the white amur No.
0 I 2 2


1 1/04/71


1 1/10/71


S1/18/71


1 1/24/71


---













Table 23. Total alkalinity (ppmw) of ponds at Orange County after

stocking the white amur.


Weeks after Sample
introduction of ample
Date introduction of No. Stocking rate (fish/pond)
the white amur I 2 4


11/04/71 II 52 42 56 36


1 1/10/71









11/18/71


1 1/24/71


------














Table 24. Nitrate nitrogen (ppmw) of ponds at Orange County after

stocking ihe white amur.


Weeks after
Date introduction of
the white amrur


1 1/04/71


1 1/10/71


Sample
No.


Stocking rate (fish/pond)

0 I 2 4


1.30

1.30


2.10

1.60

9.80

10.00


2.40

2.40

2.30


11/18/71


S1/24/71


5.10

4.80

7.50

8.00


1 .40

1.50


9.60

10.00

5.90

1.50


2.20

2.10

1.40


2.90

4.00

3.20

2.80


1.30 4.10

1.45 0.07


7.60

17.00

7.00

9.50


1.80

1.80

2.40


3.60

2.70

2.80

4.30


7.60

7.50

11.00

19.00


1.20

1.20

1.20


3.30

4.50

5.10

6.20














Turbidity (J.T.U.)

after stocking the


of ponds at Orange County after

white amur.


Weeks after Samp
Date introduction of No. Stocking rate (fish/pond)
the white amur 0 2 4
O 2 4


11/04/71


11/10/71


5.5

2.8

2.3

2.8


2.7

2.6

2.8

2.6


3.2

3.8

3.3

4.0


2.7

2.6

3.1

2.8


11/18/71


11/24/71


3.3

10.0

10.2

9.8


8.8

8.8

8.6

8.4


7.5

8.5

8.4

7.0


5.2

5.3

5.9

5.3


8.3

5.3

4.4

5.3


6.5

5.8

5.8

5.5


5.5

5.5

5.5

5.5


3.4

3.9

4.0

3. 1


5.1

3.5

3.8

3.3


3.3

.3.0

3. 1

3.5


2.3

2.7

2.7

3.2


2.6

2.3

2.5

3.2


Table 25.













Table 26. Available Phosphorous (ppmw) of ponds at Orange County

after stocking the white amur.


Weeks after Sample
Date introduction of No. Stocking rate (fish/pond)
the white amur 0 I 2 4
0 2 4


0.030

0.020

0.020

0.020


.0.020

1.180

0.030

0.035


0.055

0.000

0.000

0.004


0.000

0.000

0.000

0.017


0.080

0.000

1.000

0.000


0.041'

0.069

0.018

0.009


0.017

0.013

0.000

0.017


0.000

0.000

0.070

0.040


0.032

0.004

0.004

0.000


I 0.041 0.036 0.073

2 0.052 0.059 0.046

3 0.036 0.054 0.046

4 0.046 0.050 0.046


0.013

0.000

0.013

0.013


0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000


0.004

0.009

0.029

0.009


0.041

0.068

0.054

0.059


11/04/71


11/10/71


I 1/18/71


11/24/71


----













Total Phosphorous (ppmw) of ponds at Orange County after


stocking the white amur.


Weeks after Sample
Date introduction of No. Stocking rate (fish/pond)
the white amur
0 I 2 4


11/04/71









11/10/71









11/18/71









11/24/71


0.47

0.78

0.02

0.00


0.02

0.00

0.01

0.31


0.08

0.02

0.02

0.02


0.41

0.00

0.01

0.00


0.08

0.13

0.13

0.17


0.56

0.46

0.46

0.17


0.00

0.00

0.01

0.00


0.04

0.22

0.13

0.02


0.26

0.30

0.25

0.32


0.65

0.30

0.22

0.39


0.01

0.01

0.01

0.08


0.01

0.00

0.00

0.03


0.05

0.04

0.07

0.08


0.02

0.01

0.00

0.00


0.01

0.00

0.00

0.00


0.02

0.03

0.03

0.03


Table 27.













Table 28.


Dissolved Oxygen (ppm) of ponds at Orange County after

stocking the white amur.


Weeks after Sample
Date introduction of No. Stocking rate (fish/pond)
the white amur
0 1 2 4


11/04/71


11/10/71








1 1/18/71


6.6

5.8

6.4




11.0

10.2

8.6

12.0


10.0

10.4

11.0

10.0


8.6

8.0

7.4

7.4


11/24/71


7.2

7.2

6.6




9.6

9.4

8.8

10.2


10.8

10.4

10.0

10.4


7.6

8.0

7.6

7.0


.6.2

7.2

6.0




9.6

9.8

10.0

9.6


10.6

10.4

10.4

10.8


7.8

7.6

7.4

8.4


7.0

7.8

6.8




11.4

10.2

S10.0

9.8


11.0

1 1.0

10.8

10.0


7.0

6.8

7.0

7.0











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Table 40. Analysis for various forms of nitrogen from water samples

collected from the ponds in Orange County on May 12, 1972.L/


Stocking rate Ammonia Total organic nitrogen Nitrate
(White amur (ppm) (ppm) Nitrogen
fish/pond) (ppm)


Control a .01 .47 .02

Control b .02 .35 .02


I a .02 .54 .02

I b .02 .53 .02


2 a .01 .47 .03

2 .02 .62 .02


4 a .02 .46 .02

4 b .02 .47 .02

a/
-- Determinations performed by the Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish

Commission's Fisheries Research Laboratory at Eustis, Florida.

b/
-- Sample designated as (a) collected on the east side of the pond

and (b) samples taken from west side of the pond.













Table 41. Analysis for various forms of nitrogen from water samples

collected from the ponds in Orange County on October 5, 1972.a/


Stocking rate Ammonia Total organic nitrogen Nitrate
(white amur (ppm) (ppm) nitrogen
fish/pond) (ppm)


Control a -b/ .06 1.9 .05

Control b .06 .86 .08


I a .08 .56 .08

I b .06 .84 .12 c/


2 a .09 .94 .08

2 b .06 .85 .05


4 a .09 .63 .08

4 b .08 .67 .08

a/
- Determinations performed by the Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish

Commission's Fisheries Research Laboratory at Eustis, Florida.


- Sample designated as (a) collected on the east side of the pond

and (b) samples taken from west side of the pond.

c/
-- Mistake in analysis was felt to be responsible for the higher value.












Table 42.


Water temperatures from the surface to the

hydrosoil in the white amur ponds at Orange

County on August 21, 1972.


Water temperature (C)
Pond
depth Pond number
(cm)
S2 3 4

152.40 31.1 30.8 30.5 32.7

137.16 30.8 30.2 30.2 31.6

121.92 30.2 30.0 30.1 28.9

106.68 29.1 28.6 30.0 28.3

91.44 29.1 28.3 29.4 27.8

76.20 28.9 .28.6 29.1 27.8

60.96 28.6 28.6 28.9 27.2

45.72 28.3 28.6 28.9 27.2

30.48 28.3 29.7 28.7 27.8

15.24 28.3 28.3 28.7 27.8

Hydrosoil 28.0 28.0 28'.4 27.5











Table 43. Aquatic plant cover in the ponds at Orange County

on October 19, 1971.


Pond Plot Hydrilla Southern Chara Vallisneria Coontail
No. No. Naiad


2
3
4
5
6
7
8

2 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

3 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

4 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8


was distributed throughout


a.ll the


ponds in small


amounts. The relative abundance in these ponds was on the order


of pond 3>4>I>2.


a/ Coontail




53


Table 44.


Aquatic plant cover in the ponds at Orange County on


November 24, 1971.


Pond Plot Hydrilla Southern Chara Vallisneria Coontail Bare
No. No. Naiad Hydrosoil


I 1I
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

2 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

3 I1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

4 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8


30
90
25
10
T
25
50

25
80'
80
20
50
80
80
100

5
80
50
5
75'
20
25
30

T
80
50
40
80

30
25


Ta!
25
5

25






5

T






40


25





20


20


scattered throughout the plot.


a/ Plants sparsely




54


Table 45. Percent aquatic plant cover in the ponds at

Orange County on December 20, 1971.


Pond Plot Hydrilla Southern Chara Vallisneria Coontail Bare
No. No. Naiad Hydrosoil


I I
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

2 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

.3 I
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

4 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8


Ta/

10
10


70
50'
40
80
10
30
40

-
80
50
40
80
10
10
25


a/ Plants sparsely scattered throughout the plot.












Table 46. Percent aquatic plant cover in the ponds at Orange County

on January 25, 1972.


Pond Plot Hydrilla Southern Chara Vallisneria Coontail .Bare
No. No. Naiad Hydrosoil


1 1I
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

2 I
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

3 I
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

4 I
2
3
4
5
6
7
8


15
15

5

10
10


5

10
5

10




20



10


*T a-


T





T

T
T






T




T



T

T


20


90
15
20
50
95
80
10
10

100
20
40
30
40
95
30
35

100
20
15
60
15
I100
70
60


sparsely scattered throughout the plot.


a/ Plants











Percent aquatic plant cover in the ponds at Orange


County on February 22, 1972.


Pond Plot Hydrilla Southern Chara Vallisneria Coontail Bare
No. No. Naiad Hydrosoil


I I
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

2 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

3 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

4 I
2
3
4
5
6
7
8


I

Ta/
T

T0
T
T

T


90
30
30
40
10
10
10


a/Plants sparsely scattered throughout the plot.


Table 47.














Table 48. Percent aquatic plant cover in the white amur ponds at

Orange County on March 21, 1972.


Pond Plot Hydrilla Southern Chara Vallisneria Coontail Bare
No. No. Naiad Hydrosoil


2
3
4
5
6
7
8

2 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

3 I
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

4 1
2
3
4
5
6
7.
8


90
50
25
60
70
90
50
10

-90
20
10
45
50
40
20
10

90
10
30
40
20
80
30
30

100
20
50
50
30
100
60
70


10

50
10

10
- '10
60

10
40
70
20
30
60
40
90


Ta/
T
10
10






T
10
T


10
T
T

*T
T
40


a! Plants sparsely scattered throughout the plot.












Table 49. Percent aquatic plant cover in the white amur ponds at


.Orange County on April 21, 1972.


Pond Plot Hydrilla -Southern Chara Vallisneria Coontail Bare
No. No. Naiad Hydrosoil


1 I
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

2 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

3 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

4 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8


100
10.
60
80
90
100
90
85


a/ Plants sparsely scattered throughout the plot.













Table 50 .


Percent aquatic plant cover in the white amur ponds at
Orange County on May 23, 1972.


Pond Plot Hydrilla Southern Chara Vallisneria Coontail Bare
No. No. Naiad Hydrosoil


I I
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

2 I
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

3 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

4 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8


100
50
15
50
80
60
60
50

100
10
10
80
85
60
80


100
10
10
35
30
100
15
80

100
15
60
80
25
I100
95
80


a/
-- Plants


sparsely scattered throughout the plot.













Table 51.


Percent aquatic plant cover in the white amur ponds at
Orange County on June 21, 1972.


Pond Plot Hydrilla Southern Chara Vallisneria Coontail Bare
No. No. Naiad Hydrosoil


I I
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

2 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

'3 I
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

4 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8


100
60
50
60
90
100
60
70

100
40
40
60
80
90
30
20

100
20
30
50
80
100
50
60

100
20
70
80
70
100
100
80


T
T


10
- 10

T
40
50
20
10
10 .
40
60

50
40

10

T



60
20
10.
30


T


T-




10



10
IT



IT
T



10
T
I
T
















20
10

T


20


a/


Plants sparsely scattered throughout the plot.













Table 52.


Percent aquatic plant cover in the white amur ponds at
Orange County on July 17, 1972.


Pond Plot Hydrilla Southern Chara Vallisneria Coontail Bare
No. No. Naiad Hydrosol I


1 !I
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

2 I
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

3.
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

4 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8


100
95
75
80
100
90
60
85

100
50
50
90
100
80
40
30

95
10
70
60
60
80
35
40

100
80
90
85
60
100
95
100


a/ ants


sparsely scattered throughout the plot.












Percent aquatic plant cover
Orange County on August 21,


in the white amur ponds at
1972.


Pond Plot Hydrilla Southern Chara Vallisneria Coontail Bare
No. Naiad Hydrosoil


I I
2
3
4
S 5
6
7
8

2 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

3 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

4 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8


10
50


20
20


100
70
80
100
90
100
100
95


30
20

10


a/ Plants


sparsely scattered throughout the plot.


Table 53.













Tab'e 54. Percent aquatic plant cover in the white amur ponds at

Orange County on September 21, 1972.


Pond Plot Hydrilla Southern Chara Vallisneria Coontail Bare
No. No. Naiad Hydrosoil


2
3
4
5
6
7
8

2 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

3 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

4 1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8


100
90
80
50
75
100
80
75

100
70
50
90
90
95
40
40

100
50
100
50
85
100
60
50

100
85
90
100
100
95
95
95


-

50
5

40
45


a/ Plants sparsely scattered


T a/


throughout the-plot.












Table 55. Percent aquatic plant cover in the white amur ponds at Orange

County on October 17, 1972.



Pond No. Plot No. Hydrilla So. Naiad Chara Vallisneria Coontail Bare
hydroso'i


3 -


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
* 8


100
100
90
60
90
95
80
90

100
60
25
90
80
70
60
20

100
10
100
50
80
90
60
60

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100


T



20
25



T
20


a/ Plants sparsely scattered throughout


the plot.














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POND I


POND 2


I I -1


6:30 PM
TIME


10:30


2:30 AM
OF DAY


Figure 12.


Water temperature in the ponds stocked with four white amur
(pond I) and one white amur (pond 2) during a 24-hr period
in October, 1972.


24.5 r


23.5


22.5


Co
bJ


LU

0


24.


23.5




22.5


I1:30AM













POND 3


1.1


I I~1 -----'-- -f- ---- -------~


11:50AM


6:30 PM


.2:30AM


TIME OF DAY




Figure 13. Water temperature in the pond stocked with two whjte amur
(pond 3) and in the control pond .(pond 4).


24.5




23.5


22.5


24.5


23.5


22.51-


10:30


x P OND 4











V. Distribution List


Copy No.


1. Mr. Robert D. Blackburn
U. S. Department of Agriculture
Crops Protection Research Branch
Plant Science Research Division
Box 9087 (3205 S. W. 70 Avenue)
Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33314

2. Dr. David P. Borgeson
Department of Natural Resources
Fisheries Division
Steven Mann Building
Lansing, Michigan 48926

3. Dr. Alva P. Burkhalter
Florida Department of Natural Resources
Room 595, Larson Building
Tallahassee, Florida 32304

4. Dr. Walter R. Courtney
Professor of Zoology
Department of Biological Sciences
Florida Atlantic University
Biological Sciences, Room 302
Boca Raton, Florida 33432

5. Dr. Peter A. Frank
U. S. Department of Agriculture
Crops Protection Research Branch
Plant Science Research Division
Building 56, Room 212, Denver Federal Center
Denver, Colorado 80225

6. Dr. 0. E. Fry, Jr., Director
Florida Game and Freshwater Fish.Commission
620 South Meridian Street
Tallahassee, Florida 32304

7. Dr. Edward Gangstad
Department of the Army
Office of the Chief of Engineers
Washington, D. C. 20314

8. Dr. John F. Gerber
Assistant Dean
1022 McCarty Hall
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32601











Copy No.


9. Mr. Zeb C. Grant
Director, Maintenance & Operations
Central & Southern Florida Flood Control District
P. 0. Box 1671
West Palm Beach, Florida 33408

10. Mr. Bill Haller
Department of Agronomy
Basement, Newell Hall
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32601

II. Mr. Rue S. Hestand
Florida Game and Freshwater Fish Commission
P. 0. Box 1903
Eustis, Florida 32726

12. Dr. Bryson L. James
Director & Professor (Orn. Hort.)
University of Florida IFAS
Agricultural Research Center
3205 S. W. 70 Avenue
Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33314

13. Mr. Mickey Sheffield
Pollution Control Officer
Orange County
2008 East Michigan
Orlando, Florida 32806

14. Mr. Bill Woods
Chief, Fisheries Division
Florida Game & Freshwater Fish Commission
620 South Meridian Street
Tallahassee, Florida 32304




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