Title: Annual report to the Florida Department of Natural Resources on the white amur projects
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Title: Annual report to the Florida Department of Natural Resources on the white amur projects
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Sutton, David L.
Publisher: Agricultural Research Center, University of Florida
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/- Fort Lauderdale ARC Research Report FL75-2' \


Annual Report to the Florida Department o\ al Reso ces

on the White Amur ProjectSN

(1) A Combination of Herbicides and the Herbivorous \'^!

White Amur Fish for Aquatic Weed Contr6fo,\ri

(2) Utilization of Wastewater with Aquatic

Macrophytes and the White Amur


Cooperator: University of Florida, Agricultural Research Center

at Fort Lauderdale-1/2/


Report Prepared by:

David L. Sutton
University of Florida
Agricultural Research Center
3205 S. W. 70 Avenue
Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33314


March 1975


Copy Number /Z



I- In cooperation with the Agricultural Research Service, Southern Region,

Florida Area, U. S. Department of Agriculture; U. S. Army Corps of

Engineers; the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District; and

the Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission.

No portion of this report is to be reproduced in any manner without the

written consent of the University of Florida.








J










Table of Contents


Page No.

1. A Combination of Herbicides and the Herbivorous

White Amur Fish for Aquatic Weed Control

A. Introduction . . . . . 1

B. Studies Completed or in Progress . . . 1

C. Plans for the Coming Year . . . 2


11. Utilization of Wastewater with Aquatic Macrophytes

and the White Amur

A. Introduction . . . . . 2

B. Studies Completed or in Progress . . . 3

C. Plans for the Coming Year . .. . .. 4


III. Research Activities Related to the Main Study

A. Combinations for Waterhyacinth Control . . 5

B. Spawning of the White Amur... . . . 5

C. Publications . . . . . .. 6


IV. Distribution List . . . . . 7


V. Appendix

A. Tables . . . . . . 9

B. Figures . . . . . . 19


____~C~rii i









I. A Combination of Herbicides and the Herbivorous White Amur Fish for

Aquatic Weed Control

A. Introduction

Earlier studies- in'small ponds indicated that large numbers of

white amur fish (Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.) would be required to remove

dense infestations of hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata Royle). Therefore,

a study was initiated to determine the feasibility of first removing the

bulk of the weed mass with herbicides followed by stocking with the white

amur to help keep regrowth under control. Under Florida's subtropical

conditions aquatic weeds quickly regrow once the parent plants are controlled.

Herbicides provide only a temporary relief because of the rapid regrowth

of new plants from various vegetative propagules or seeds. The white amur

may provide control of the regrowth by feeding on the young tender emerging

growth. This may help to lengthen the control, and only periodic treatment

with herbicides may be necessary to keep the weeds under control.

B. Studies Completed or in Progress

The first year of the study has been devoted primarily to securing the

research area and obtaining base line data for various parameters prior to

treatment with the herbicides and stocking with the white amur. The results

from the analyses of two samples of water from each pond are presented in

Tables I to 8. Measurements for light penetration in relation to depth are

presented in Figures 1 to 9. These data will be useful in establishing the


/ Sutton, D. L. 1974. Final report to the Florida Department of Natural

Resources on the Project: Control of aquatic plant growth in earthen

ponds by the white amur. Fort Lauderdale ARC Research Report FL74-2.

75 typed pages.


~C~I~








condition of the pond prior to treatment with a herbicide and stocking

with the white amur fish.

C. Plans for the Coming Year

Plans for the coming year are to treat the nine ponds with Hydout

pellets (slow release pellets containing the dimethyl alkylamine formula-

tion of 3,6-endohexahydrophthalic acid) at the rate of 6.8 lb ai per acre-

foot of water. The chemical will be applied to one-half of each pond.

After the plants have decayed, white amur fish will be placed in six ponds

with the remaining three ponds serving as controls. White amur will be

stocked at the rate of 20 and 80 lb per surface acre. With this low and

high rate an effect of the fish on regrowth and older, mature vegetation

should be noted.

Floating rafts of waterhyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms]

will be placed in all the ponds after the herbicidal treatment. After the

white amur has been introduced, the waterhyacinths will be checked weekly

to determine for feeding activity of the fish on the plants.

Prior to the herbicidal treatment-, the plant composition in each pond

will be determined. The change, if any, will then be monitored monthly.


11. Utilization of Wastewater with Aquatic Macrophytes and the White Amur

A. Introduction

A state of accelerated eutrophication is evident in many bodies of

water in the United States. Eutrophication of a body of water is a

natural process which occurs naturally during thousands of years. The

general concept of eutrophication is the nutrient enrichment of water which

results in deterioration of water quality and fishery habitats.

Two sources of nutrient enrichment are readily evident: (1) natural

and (2) human. Some of the natural sources of nutrients include soil








erosion, fecal waste from wildlife, and tributary drainage of land areas.

Nutrient sources as the result of human activities constitute the most

serious damage to the eutrophication of water. Urbanization and the

resulting use of water-borne systems for handling municipal wastes is one

of the major sources of nutrients.- A convenient and economical method

whereby these nutrients could be removed from the water would contribute

to an abatement of the accelerated eutrophication. Additional benefits

could be expected if the method would convert the nutrients into a usable

product.

The primary purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of

using sewage effluent as a growth medium for several aquatic macrophytes,

and then using the herbivorous white amur fish to convert these plants

into a usable product. This approach would help to remove nutrients from

a source that is contributing to the aquatic plant problems as well as

converting the waste material into a valuable protein supply.

B. Studies Completed or in Progress

Waterhyacinth and a mixture of duckweed (Lemna minor L. and Lemna

gibba L.) have been grown in static sewage effluent. The results from

these experiments have been written, and two manuscripts prepared. The

first manuscript entitled "Removal of phosphorus from static sewage

effluent by waterhyacinth" by W. Harold Ornes and D. L. Sutton will appear

in the Hyacinth Control Journal, issue number 13. 'A second manuscript

entitled "Phosphorus removal from static sewage effluent using duckweed"


4/ Bartsch, A. F. 1970. Accelerated eutrophication of lakes in the

United States: Ecological response to human activities. Environ.

Pollut. 1:133-140.









by David L. Sutton and W. Harold Ornes is presently being considered by

the Journal of Environmental Quality for publication.

A study is in progress evaluating the effectiveness of giant duckweed

[Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) .Schleid.] in removing phosphorus and nitrogen

from sewage effluent under static conditions. This experiment is similar

in design to that for the waterhyacinth and duckweeds listed previously.

Small white amur are being fed duckweed collected from a perimeter

canal receiving secondarily treated sewage effluent. The fish are being

contained in 150 and 5,170 liters of flowing pondwater. Known amounts of

duckweed are fed to the fish, and growth measurements taken every 4 weeks.

The preliminary results of this experiment are presented in Table 9. In

connection with this experiment, other fish in 150-liter containers are

being fed grass clippings of the turfgrass, Tifway Bermuda (Cynadon dactylona

L.). This experiment is being conducted in cooperation with Dr. Evert Burt.

Initial results of this experiment are presented in Table 10.

-Duckweed samples collected from the sewage effluent during 18 October'

1974 to 17 January 1975 contained an average of 27.4 4.3% crude protein.

The samples ranged from a low of 17.5% to a high of 34.5% crude protein.

The Tifway Bermuda samples contained 29.5 t 4.1% crude protein.

C. Plans for the Coming Year

Growth of the giant duckweed will be completed within-the next couple

of months. The feeding trials with the sewage effluent grown duckweed and

turfgrass clippings will continue.

Duckweed will be grown in confined areas in the City of Plantation's

new sewage lagoon. Growth rates will be correlated to water quality with

emphasis on phosphorus and nitrogen. Various harvesting schedules will be

employed in an attempt to evaluate the biomass which could be expected


_ j_~__ _ij_lj _~_jf~_lr_Ill~___~ __l~d~l~


___1111









from duckweed growing in a sewage lagoon. The lagoon will also be stocked

with white amur in an attempt to control submersed weed problems.

Cattails (Typha latifolia L.) will be grown in sewage effluent for a

10-week period beginning in June. This will be a repeat of an experiment

completed in the summer of 1974.


111. Research Activities Related to the Main Study

A. Combinations for Waterhyacinth Control

In cooperation with Dr. B. David Perkins a study was completed using

the combination of the white amur and adult waterhyacinth weevils (Neochetina

eichhorniae Warner) for control of waterhyacinths growing in 5,170 liters of

fertilized pondwater. The results of this study is being organized and

statistically analyzed for preparation of a manuscript. Two talks have been

given on these data; one by Dr. David Perkins at the 1975 Southeastern

Branch of the Entomological Society of America, and another by D. L. Sutton

at the 1975 Annual Weed Science Society meeting. An abstract of these data

has been published: David L. Sutton :and B. D. Perkins. 1975. Combination

of the white amur and waterhyacinth weevil for control of waterhyacinth..

Weed Sci. Soc. Abstr. p. 35.

B. Spawning of the White Amur

During June 1974, white amur which had been transferred from the Orange

County study were used for spawning attempts using hormone injections. This

was carried out in cooperation with Mr. Tom Taylor of the USDA Aquatic Weed

Laboratory at Fort Lauderdale. Three females were injected with carp

pituitary extract plus two injections of human chronic gonadotropin and

weighed 9.1, 3.4, and 2.5 kg. Four males were given one injection of carp

pituitary extract and they weighed 1.0, 1.7, 1.7, and 5.6 kg each. The

fish produced an average of 1,105,000 eggs for the largest female,









590,000 for the intermediate size fish, and 226,000 eggs for the smallest

one. The majority of the largest female eggs were lost. However, with

the second two females, better results were obtained, and approximately

75,000 fry survived. The majority of these were transferred to the

Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission's Richloam FTsh Hatchery. The

remainder were transferred to plastic-lined, net-covered pools at the Fort

Lauderdale Research Center, and are being used in various experiments..

C. Publications

Publications not previously mentioned in this report are:

1. Sutton, D. L. 1974. Controlling aquatic vegetation with herbicides,

fish. Grounds Maintenance. August. pp. 18-22.

2. Sutton, D. L. 1975. A hoe hand with fins. Weeds Today. (in press)..

3. Sutton, D. L. 1974. Utilization of hydrilla by the white amur.

Hyacinth Contr. J. 12:66-70.

4. Baker, Gordon E., D. L. Sutton, and R. D. Blackburn. 1974. Feeding

habits of the white amur on waterhyacinth. Hyacinth Contr. J.

12:58-62.









IV. Distribution List

Copy Number

1 Dr. Alva P. Burkhalter, Coordinator
Aquatic Plant Research and Control
Florida Department of Natural Resources
Room 595, Larson Building
Tallahassee, FL 32304

2 Dr. Sherlie H. West, Assistant Dean
University of Florida IFAS
1022 McCarty Hall
Gainesville, FL 32611

3 Dr. John F. Gerber, Director
Center for Environmental Programs and Natural Resources--
University of Florida IFAS
2014 McCarty Hall
Gainesville, FL 32611

4 Dr. Edward 0. Gangstad, Chief
Aquatic Plant Control Planning Division
Department of the Army
Office of the Chief of Engineers
Washington, D. C. 20314

5 Dr. B. David Perkins
USDA, ARS
3205 S. W. 70 Avenue
Fort Lauderdale, Florida

6 Dr. William Haller
University of Florida IFAS
Department of Agronomy
304 Newell Hall
Gainesville, FL 32611

7 Mr. John W. Woods, Chief
Fisheries Management Division
Florida Game & Fresh Water Fish Commission
620 South Meridian Street
Tallahassee, FL 32304

8 Dr. James R. Whitley
Missouri Department of Conservation
Fish & Game Research Center
1110 College Avenue
Columbia, MO 65201

9 Dr. Kerry Steward
USDA, ARS
3205 S. W. 70 Avenue
Fort Lauderdale, FL 33314


_ ~I~









Copy Number

10 Dr. Jerry Shireman
University of Florida IFAS
Forest Resources and Conservation
305 Rolfs Hall
Gainesville, FL 32611

11 Representative William Fulford
Florida House of Representatives
P. 0. Box 1226
145 N. Magnolia Avenue
Orlando, FL 32801

12 Dr. Evert 0. Burt
University of Florida IFAS
Agricultural Research Center
3205 S. W. 70 Avenue
Fort Lauderdale, FL 33314

13 Dr. Peter A. Frank
University of California
USDA, ARS, CRD
Botany Department
Davis, CA 95616













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Table 9. Growth of sub-adult white amur contained in 5,710 liters of flowing

pondwater fed sewage effluent grown duckweed.


Growth factor Growth periods
11/14/74-12/12/74 12/12/74-1/10/75 1/10/75-2/7/75


A. Pool number 2

Number of fish 172 172 163

Average weight (g) 25.85 35.9 42.1

Total duckweed consumed
(kg fresh wt) 60.7 70.2 72.0

Average fish growth (g/day) 0.31 0.365 015

Conversion rate/ 1.95 1.96 5.13

B. Pool number 8

Number of fish 177 177 177

Average weight (g) 23.8 35.7 48.9

Total duckweed consumed
(kg fresh wt) 62.6 89.5 93.5

Average fish growth (g/day) 0.29 0.43 0.47T

Conversion rate/ 2-04 2.04 1.66

C. Pool number 14

Number of fish 186 186 181

Average weight (g) 24.54 35.8 47.7

Total duckweed consumed
(kg fresh wt) 61.3 77.4 88.2

Average fish growth (g/day) 0.35 0.41 0.40

Conversion rate 1.63 1.76 2.16


a/ Based on a dry weight of 4.83 g per 100 g fresh weight of duckweed.


~CI_











Table 10. Growth of sub-adult white amur contained in 150 liters of flowing

pondwater fed sewage effluent grown duckweed and turfgrass clippings.


Feed source and Growth periods
growth factor
11/13/74-12/11/74 12/11/74-1/8/74 1/8/74-1/5/75


A. Duckweed

Number of fish 21 20 20

Average weight (g) 59.8 86.4 146.0

Total feed consumed
(kg fresh wt) 17.1 22.0 33.6

Average fish growth
(g/day) 0.94 0.85 2.13

Conversion rate/ 1.50 2.25 1.36


B. Tifway Bermuda

Number of fish 17 17 17

Average weight (g) 53.4 : 65.2 127.T7

Total feed consumed
(kg fresh wt) 4.2 2.7 5.5

Average fish growth
(g/day) 0.42 0.42 2.23

Conversion rate- 6.68 4.18 1.61


Based on a dry weight of 4.83 g per 100 g of fresh weight.

Based on a dry weight of 31.17 g per 100 g of fresh weight.




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