• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Program
 History of agricultural research...
 Nematode & disease control...
 Control of nematodes attacking...
 Variety trials and chemical weed...
 Chemical weed control experiments...
 Insect trials on vegetables
 Cabbage black speck and variety...
 Fertilization of potatoes and mulching...
 Fertilization for direct-seeded...














Title: ARC, Hastings 50th anniversary field day in cooperation with AREC, Sanford, April 12, 1973.
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076396/00001
 Material Information
Title: ARC, Hastings 50th anniversary field day in cooperation with AREC, Sanford, April 12, 1973.
Physical Description: Book
Publisher: Agricultural Research Center,
Copyright Date: 1973
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00076396
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: 148047803 - OCLC

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Program
        Page i
        Page ii
    History of agricultural research center - Hastings, 1923-1973
        Page 1
    Nematode & disease control on potatoes
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Control of nematodes attacking cabbage
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Variety trials and chemical weed control of potatoes and cabbage
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Chemical weed control experiments in cabbage at Sanford
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Insect trials on vegetables
        Page 25
    Cabbage black speck and variety trials, fall and winter 1970-71
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    Fertilization of potatoes and mulching experiments on cabbage
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Fertilization for direct-seeded cabbage
        Page 39
        Page 40
Full Text
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PROGRAM FIELD DAY ACTIVITIES


ARC, Hastings and AREC, Sanford
Hastings, Florida

Thursday, April 12, 1973
10:00 A.M.


Presiding Paul Dinkins, St. Johns County Extension Director

Page


10:00 a.m.



10:06 a.m.



10:18 a.m.



10:30 a.m.



10:42 a.m.



10:54 a.m.


Welcome and Agricultural Research Center 50 Year
History D. R. Hensel, Center Director,
ARC Hastings

Nematode and Disease Control on Potatoes -
D. P. Weingartner, Asst. Prof. (Asst. Plant
Pathologist), ARC Hastings

Control of Nematodes Attacking Cabbage H. L.
Rhoades, Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Nematologist),
AREC Sanford

Weed Control and Variety Trials of Potatoes and
Cabbage J. R. Shumaker, Asst. Prof. (Asst.
Horticulturist), ARC Hastings

Chemical Weed Control Experiments in Cabbage at
Sanford W. T. Scudder, Prof. (Horticulturist),
AREC Sanford

Insect Trials on Vegetables R. B. Workman,
Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Entomologist), ARC -
Hastings


Coffee Break
















11:20 a.m.



11:32 a.m.



11:44 a.m.


11:56 a.m.


12:06 p.m.



12:30 p.m.



1:30 3:30


Page

26


Cabbage Black Speck and Variety Trials J. 0.
Strandberg, Asst. Prof. (Asst. Plant Pathologist),
AREC Sanford

Fertilization of Potatoes and Mulching Experiments
on Cabbage D. R. Hensel, Center Director, ARC -
Hastings

Fertilization of Direct Seeded Cabbage R. B. Forbes,
Assoc. Prof. (Assoc. Soil Chemist), AREC Sanford


Recognition of the Hastings Vegetable Growers who have
been Farming for 50 Years C. A. Campbell

50 Years of Research at Hastings J. W. Sites, Dean for Research,
IFAS


Lunch Donated by Northeast Production Credit Association
of Palatka, Florida


p.m. Tour of Experimental Plots and Cabbage Harvester
Demonstration








HISTORY OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER HASTINGS
1923-1973


Today, the Agricultural Research Center, Hastings is observing its 50th year
as a research facility at Hastings, Florida. In 1923, the Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station placed Dr. L. O. Gratz in charge of the disease laboratory.
In the early years, rented offices were occupied above the Coe Drug Store. Later,
the second story of the Stanton Motor Company housed the research facilities. In
1937, the present main office building, garage and greenhouse was constructed on
an acre of ground donated by the Hastings Potato Growers Association. Field
research was conducted mostly on grower-cooperator farms. In the early 1940's,
62 acres of land was purchased which provided field research area nearby. Since
much of the soil was not suitable for farming, a 50 acre farm containing 10 acres
of old land was acquired in 1959. The soil on this farm is more typical of the
surrounding area. The second office and laboratory building was added in 1955.

Only a plant pathologist was stationed at Hastings during the first 17 years.
Dr. Gratz was followed by Dr. C. M. Tucker in 1930. Then in 1931, Dr. A. H. Eddins
became in charge and remained until his retirement in 1963. Other staff members
have included: Dr. E. N. McCubbin, Horticulturist, 1940-1966; Dr. T. M. Dobrovsky,
Asst. Entomologist, 1952-1955; Dr. D. L. Myhre, Asst. Soil Chemist, 1953-1960;
Dr. D. M. Norris, Asst. Entomologist, 1956-1958; Dr. R. B. Workman, Assoc.
Entomologist 1958 to date; Dr. R. M. Hosford, Asst. Plant Pathologist, 1965-1967;
Dr. J. R. Shumaker, Asst. Horticulturist, 1967 to date; Dr. D. P. Weingartner,
Asst. Plant Pathologist 1969 to date. Dr. D. R. Hensel, Soils Chemist, joined
the staff in 1960 and has served as Center Director since 1963.

During the last 50 years, research results have provided growers with much
needed information. Disease control was the primary concern when the research
center began. The center has developed methods for controlling late blight, brown
rot, scab, and corky ringspot of potatoes. Also, it found methods of controlling
the diseases of cabbage. The late blight forecast tells growers when conditions
for development of the disease are favorable and whether a spray is needed.

The variety testing program led to introduction of the Sebago potato variety.
More recently, cooperative work with plant breeders of Penn State University and
this center resulted in release of Penn Chip variety. Pungo, which is resistant
to corky ringspot, was selected from this program. In a few short years, the
switch from open pollinated to hybrid cabbage is another benefit of variety test-
ing. This in turn led to the development of a mechanical harvester. In
cooperation with IFAS staff at Gainesville, a harvester was designed and field
tested at Hastings.

Other research includes insect control which is continuous as new chemicals
enter the market, labels from older pesticides are removed, and insects become
resistant. Many herbicides available to the grower resulted from local screening
trials. Soils research has provided information to prevent nutritional leaf
roll and has shown benefits of land leveling, breaking of hardpan, phosphorus
fertilization of new land, and other related problems.

The success of this research center has been a result of excellent cooperation
and assistance of local growers and related industry personnel. For this the
Agricultural Research Center is deeply indebted and extends thanks and looks for-
ward to another 50 years of research.








NEMATODE & DISEASE CONTROL ON POTATOES


D. P. Weingartner


NEMATODE CONTROL: Since 1969, soil fumigation for nematode control on potatoes
has been employed by many growers in the Hastings area. Even though a nematode
problem is recognized and soil fumigation has been widely used, many questions
remain unanswered concerning effective use of soil fumigants and other nematicides
under Hastings growing conditions.

Nematode control in the Hastings area presents unique problems. Frequent rain-
falls coupled with a relatively thin layer of soil sublayered by impervious clay,
necessitate use of raised or ridged rows for drainage. This practice limits
practicability of broadcast application of fumigants which is generally con-
sidered to provide superior nematode control to in-row application of these
chemicals. Use of summer cover crops further complicates fumigation practices
because heavy residues of organic matter are usually present in the soil at the
time soil is fumigated. Another problem is common occurence of heavy rains follow-
ing application of fumigants. Little is known concerning the fate of soil fumigants
in North Florida soils under these conditions.

In addition, not all fields have the same nematode population structure. Various
combinations of sting, stunt, root-knot, stubby root, spiral, ring, lesion
Dolichodorus and Scutellonema nematodes occur in area potato fields. Some of
these nematodes are more damaging to potatoes than others. The situation is
further complicated by possible interactions of nematodes, soil fungi, and viruses.
Rhizoctonia is present in Hastings area soils and is readily isolated from tuber
disorders controlled through use of soil fumigants. In recent years, Verticillium
and Fusarium have been isolated from wilting potato plants. Severity of diseases
caused by these fungi on other crops is known to be increased by feeding activity
of certain nematodes. In addition, corky ringspot disease, a virus disease trans-
mitted to potatoes by stubby root nematodes, has been severe in recent years.
Stubby root nematodes can rapidly build up on some crops following soil fumigation.

During the past three years, emphasis has been placed on chemical control of
nematodes because this is the most expeditious means of placing control practices
into hands of growers. In the future, research is needed on: (1) crop rotations;
(2) use of cover crops which reduce nematode populations; (3) resistance; (4)
timing of soil fumigation (ie at end of potato season); (5) broadcast vs row
application (ie can more than a single season's control be obtained by broadcast
treatment?); (6) pathogenicity of the various nematodes on potato; (7) interactions
of nematodes, fungi and other soil factors.


RESULTS: Results of nematode control experiments performed during the past three
seasons can be summarized as follows:

1. Depending upon the season, row application of soil fumigants increased
yields from 10-100% in soil with high populations of sting, stunt, or
root-knot nematodes.

2. Nonfumigating nematicides were less effective than soil fumigants in
1970 and 1971, however, application of these chemicals resulted in greater
yields than fumigants in 1972.







3. Nonfumigating nematicides effectively controlled corky ringspot disease
(CRS) in both 1971 and 1972. Row applications of soil fumigants,
although reducing severity of CRS when compared to nontreated controls,
were much less effective than nonfumigating chemicals.

4. Pungo was unaffected by CRS in 1971 and 1972, significantly outyielded
Sebago in 1970 and 1972, chipped as well as Sebago in 1970 and 1971, and
did not show signs of secondary tuber growth during any of the three
years it was tested.

5. Herbicides and nematicides significantly interacted in 1971 but not in
1972. In the 1971 test, combinations of herbicides and nematicides
increased yields over these chemicals alone.

6. Several USDA selections illustrated resistance to CRS in a 1972 ex-
periment.

7. In a grower's field, presence of Verticillium in potato plants was
significantly greater in nonfumigated soil than in fumigated soil. No
interaction of Verticillium and root-knot or sting nematodes was detected.
The role of Verticillium in early dying of potato plants observed in
the Hastings area during some seasons is not clear at this time.

8. Row application of low (8-10 GPA D-D and 7-8 GPA Telone) rates of soil
fumigants has been equally as effective as higher rates.

Data from several experiments performed during the past 3 seasons are shown in
Tables 1 to 5.


TESTS: Tests in progress during the 1973 growing season include:

1. Fumigation rate study (D-D and Telone each at 0, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 GPA).

2. Methods of incorporating granular formulations of nematicides (Mocap 10G,
Temik 10G, and Furadan 10G each at 3.0 lb/ai x seven incorporation methods).

3. Herbicide x nematicide x seed treatment interaction study (in cooperation
with Dr. J. R. Shumaker) (Lorox, Lasso, and Eptam x Captan and Polyram x
Furadan 10G, Temik 10G and Mocap 10G each at 3.0 lb/ai).

4. Azide-nematicide combination study. Fungicidal rates of azide (16 and 32
lb/ai) were used. Nematicides include Temik 10 and 15G, Mocap 10G,
Furadan 10G, and Nemacur 15G each at 3.0 lb/ai).

5. Nitrogen stabilizer (N-Serve) x nitrate level x nematicde (Furadan 4F)
study (in cooperation with Dr. D. R. Hensel).

6. Corky ringspot and root-knot resistance (in cooperation with Dr. J. R.
Shumaker and Dr. Raymon Webb, USDA).

7. General efficacy test (in cooperation with Dr. D. W. Dickson, Dept. of
Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, Gainesville).







8. Chemical control of CRS (being performed by Mr. Robert Harrison a graduate
student and Dr. G. S. Smart, Dept. of Entomology and Nematology,
University of Florida, Gainesville).

9. Combinations of preplant, at planting, and foliar applications of
nematicides are being studied for nematode control on five different
potato varieties (in cooperation with Dr. J. R. Shumaker).

Table 1. Effects of potato cultivar and nematicide treatments on percent tubers
with internal CRS.1/


Year_-
Treatment Rate/acre 1971-2/ 1972
Sebago Pungo Sebago Pungo
Furadan 10G 3.0 lb/ai 1.2 c 0.0 c 6.1 a 0.0 b
Vydate L 3.0 lb/ai 16.1 b 0.0 c -
Telone 8.0 GPA 20.0 a 0.6 b
Control 40.9 a 0.8 c 17.6 a 0.0 b


l/ This test series performed in cooperation with Dr. G. S. Smart, Jr.
2/ No CRS occurred in test plots in 1970.
3/ Data within a given year followed by same letter do not differ significantly
at 5% level via Duncan's Multiple Range Test.



Table 2. Effects of cultivar and nematicide treatments on yield.1/

2/
Year--
Treatment Rate/acre. 1970 1971 1972
Sebago Pungo Sebago Pungo Sebago Pungo

Furadan 10G 3.0 lb/ai 182.5 273.4 161.5 199.7 171.2 220.0
Vydate L 3.0 lb/ai 155.4 188.1 -
Telone 8.0 GPA 185.1 266.6 168.1 214.7
Control 186.1 255.1 142.7 164.4 173.7 220.4


l/ This test series performed in cooperation with Dr. G. S. Smart, Jr.
2/ Differences among treatments nonsignificant. Differences between varieties
were significant in 1970 and 1972.
3/ In 1970, Telone was applied at 7 GPA and Furadan at 2.0 lbs/ai acre.






Table 3. Effects of potato cultivar and nematicide treatment on potato chip_
color rating and specific gravity. Data are from 1970 experiment.!/


Potato Chip
Cultivar Treatment Rate Color Rating Specific Gravity


Control 5.17 be 1.0711 a
Pungo Telone 7.0 GPA 6.00 a 1.0733 a
Furadan 2.0 lb/ai 5.67 ab 1.0712 a


Cultivar x 5.61 1.0719


Control 4.50 c 1.0652 b
Sebago Telone 7.0 GPA 5.33 ab 1.0656 b
Furadan 2.0 lb/ai 5.50 ab 1.0656 b


Cultivar x 5.11 1.0655


l/ Data followed by same letter do not differ significantly at 5% via Duncan's
Multiple Range Test.


Table 4. Data from 1972 test for evaluating
disease!/.


resistance to corky ringspot (CRS)


/ Yield
Cultivar2/ % Tubers With CRS USA Size
or Symptoms Tubers Specific
Selection Internal External (Cwt/A) Gravity

Pungo 0 0 169.9 1.064
Green Mountain 0 0 129.7 1.071
Merrimack 0 0 172.1 1.064
B7158-32 0 0 49.6 1.062
B7152-1 0 0 140.5 1.065
Plymouth 0.5 0.5 153.6 1.063
Mohawk 1.0 1.6 137.2 1.067
X9656 4.3 0.0 103.5 1.069
Katahdin 2.9 4.4 105.7 1.066
B7152-22 10.6 2.1 152.5 1.062
B7158-34 8.4 2.6 60.5 1.069
B7152-30 17.8 1.6 106.2 1.066
B7152-5 16.8 9.3 130.7 1.065
B7152-40 18.3 20.1 85.0 1.065
B7158-10 18.8 13.6 58.3 1.075
Sebago 17.2 16.2 110.0 1.063
B7158-35 35.0 28.4 75.2 1.064


i/ This test was performed in cooperation with Dr. J. R. Shumaker and Dr.
Raymon Webb, USDA.
2/ All differences among cultivars and selections significant at 5% level.








1/
Results Nematicide Efficacy Test-
1972 ARC Hastings, Florida


Table 5.


Corky3/ Niematode Count-
Yield Ringspot Stubby Root- Specific
Treatment2/ Rate (Cvt/A) Index Root Sting Spiral Ring Knot Gravity


Tei-ik 10G 3.0 lb ai 114.4 a 1.8 a 1.7 be 6.2 64.8 32.8 60.0 1.056
Furadan 10G 3.0 lb ai 106.1 ab 2.3 ab 1.7 be 25.5 141.0 36.3 262.3 1.05b
'iocap 10G 3.0 lb ai 101.6 abc 3.8 bc 3.3 be 44.7 58.7 54.0 191.2 1.058
Telone C 9.2 GPA 71.5 de 4.2 c 6.3 abc 4.0 51.8 12.3 76.8 1.054
ii-85 1.4 GPA 80.4 cde 4.6 c 10.3 abc 2.2 59.2 40.0 270.5 1.056
Terr-o-cide 15 3.12 GPA 80.6 cde 4.9 cd 11.3 ab 4.0 30.7 52.2 178.4 1.055
D-D + C 11.5 GPA 70.7 de 4.9 cd 6.8 abc 9.0 70.2 6.8 70.3 1.059
1410 L 3.0 lb ai 87.7 bcd 5.1 cd 3.3 bc 30.7 315.3 34.8 178.7 1.055
D-D 10.0 GPA 70.0 de 5.6 cd 15.0 a 13.3 37.1 13.2 32.8 1.054
Telone 8.0 GPA 56.7 e 5.6 cd 10.7 abc 2.0 62.0 19.2 110.7 1.056
Vorlex 3.0 GPA 79.3 cde 5.8 cd 1.7 be 24.3 91.5 43.5 285.7 1.055
Control 68.7 de 7.2 d 1.8 be 42.4 307.2 43.6 547.3 1.054


LSD .01 27.0 185.0 NS NS -S
.05 20.4 245.0 NS 382.7 NS


This test war performed in cooperation with Dr. Don Dickson,
Data based or mean values of 6 replications. Data followed 1
Duncan's mnltiple range test.
Corky ringspct index (1-10) index represents degree of cor
from each plct rated (1 = surface unaffected; 10 = entire si
iTematode saizles taken at harvest. Counts are nematodes ext:
sugar floatation method.


Extension Nematologist.
by same letter do not vary *sigrificanlyy'via-

ky ringspot external damage to tubers. Tubers
surface affected) as they were washed aid graded.
racted from 100cc soil samples via centrifugation-








DISEASI COQITROL: Late blight Fungicides were evaluated during the 1972
season when late blight was epiphytotic in the Hastings area. The chemicals
were tested on Red LaSoda variety which is very susceptible to late blight.
Results are shown in Table 6.

Late blight was first observed in the test area 4/4 and the disease became
epiphytotic in nontreated areas by the first week in iay. All fungicides
significantly reduced late blight when compared to the nonsprayed control. All
materials except Cit-Cop provided acceptable control until 5/1, however, by
5/9 differences in control were observed auong fungicide treatments. The
organic fungicides generally provided better control than chemicals containing
copper. Inoculum pressure was very severe during 5/1 5/9. In addition, wet
conditions prohibited moving spray equipment through the test area during 4/25 -
5/4 when an additional application should have been made. As a result, fungi-
cides were evaluated under unusually severe late blight conditions. Yield dif-
ferences were primarily due to tubers decaying before harvest. Bravo 75W and
Bravo 6F provided outstanding control. Polyram, Difolatan 4F, Thynon and Man-
zate D provided very good foliage disease control. Kocide and Copper-Count-IN
provided fair control. Yields from Copper-Count-i, Hanzate D, and Cit-Cop
plots were not significantly increased over those from nonsprayed controls.

Fungicides to be evaluated during 1973 include: ianzate D, Dithane M-45,
Polyram, Difolatan, Bravo, Kocide, Duter, Copper-Count-iT, Cit-Cop and hianeb-
Kocide combinations.







LATE BLIGHT FORECASTING: Late blight forecasts have been made from ARC,
Hastings, for many years. Forecasts have been based on moving seven and ten
day averages of temperatures and precipitation using a modification of Hyre's
system developed by Dr. A. H. Eddins. Sometimes this system forecasts late
blight many weeks before it occurs in the area. For the past three seasons this
system has been compared to J. Wallin's system based on relative humidity and
temperatures rather than rainfall. Wallin's system has accurately forecasted
late blight during the three years it has been evaluated. This year, relative
humidity, rainfall, and temperature data are being phoned to Dr. Ray Krause at
Pennsylvania State University. Dr. Krause has devised a computer program which
accurately forecasts occurence of late blight from an integration of rainfall,
temperature and relative humidity data. The computer program, although designed
for Pennsylvania, looks very promising for forecasting occurence of late blight
in the Hastings area. If applicable, such a system will enable us to tell
growers, at least weekly, whether or not they should spray for late blight con-
trol. In addition, if several weather stations could be maintained, the system
would issue separate forecasts for each location. The system would have saved
area growers two to four applications of fungicides during both the 1970 and
1971 seasons. ilo applications would have been saved during the 1972 season
because conditions favorable for late blight existed throughout the season.

SEED PIECE DECAY: Since 1970 fungicides and antibiotics have been evaluated
both alone and in combinations for control of seed piece decay. During the
past three seasons, the following observations have been made:

1. Dusting freshly cut seed with an effective fungicide can significantly
improve stands and yields when environmental conditions favor seed
piece decay.
2. During 3 years (1970, 1971 and 1973) seed treated with fungicides was
observed to emerge faster than freshly cut nontreated seed. This
type of response was not observed in 1972.

Portions of data from the 1973 test are shown in Table 7. These 12 treatments
listed illustrate the kind of response (ie more rapid emergence) associated
with some seed treatments during the 1973 test.

Effects of seed treatment on yield in a test performed in 1972 are shown in
Table 8.








Table 6. Results cf 1972 late blight control experiments.


2/ Marketable
1/ Disease Index-- Tubers Specific
Treatment-/ Rate 4/28 5/01 5/09 (Cwt/A) Jravity


Bravo 75W 1.5 lb 1.25 a 1.25 a 2.0 a 241.1 a 1.051 a
Bravo 6F .75 qt. 1.25 a 1.00 a 2.3 ab 234.6 at 1.04o ab
Difolatan 47 1.0 qt. 1.50 a 1.25 a 4.3 de 223.5 ab 1.048 be
Polyram 860 1.5 lb 1.25 a 1.00 a 3.8 bcde 215.0 ab 1.047 bc
iocide 101 866 1.5 lb 1.75 a 2.00 bc 6.8 f 213.7 ab 1.046 c
Thynon 75U 1.5 lb 1.75 a 2.25 c 4.8 e 212.4 ab 1.049 ao
Copper-Count-_- 3 qt. 1.00 a 1.50 ab 5.5 f 206.5 abc 1.046 c
_ianzate D 80' 1.5 lb 1.25 a 1.25 a 4.0 cde 204.5 abc 1.051 a
Cit-Cop 4 1.0 qt. 1.75 a 3.25 d 8.8 g 200.6 bc 1.046 bc
.Control 5.50 b 7.25 e 11.0 h 172.5 c 1.046 c ON


_/ All data represent mean values of 4 replications. Column values followed by same
at 5i via Duncan's multiple range test. Lack of letters denotes nonsignificance.

2/ Disease index (1-11). 1 = no plants infected; 1 = all plants severely infected.


letter do not vary significantly









Table 7. Differences in percent plants emerged observed in 1973 seed
treatment experiment.


Days after plantin-2/
Treatment .24 28 34 40 45


Polyram 7D 0 38.5 79.5 80.8 84.6
ilanzate 200 8D/ 1.3 30.8 80.8 88.5 93.6
Captan 7.5D / 1.3 38.5 83.3 83.3 84.6
Dithane M-45 OD 3.8 39.7 75.6 78.2 87.2
Bravo 8D 0 44.9 82.1 85.9 93.6
Terraclor 7.5D-/ 1.3 21.8 61.5 70.5 78.2
Dithane M-45 in-furrow (8.5 lb/ai) 1.3 42.3 91.0 93.6 93.6
Ivanzate 200 in-furrow (8.5 lb/ai) 1.3 37.2 84.6 88.5 91.0
Fresh cut nontraated 1 1.3 25.6 66.7 73.1 75.6
Fresh cut nontreated 2 0 17.9 67.9 73.1 82.1
B-Size noncut, nontreated 1.3 21.9 69.2 75.6 80.8
Talcum (Miagnesium silicate) 0 21.9 66.7 70.5 73.1


l/ Talcum in control used to dilute these fungicides.

2/ Differences among emergence values on each day significant.




Table 8. Yield differences observed associated with seed piece treatment
in an experiment performed in 1972.1


Final Yield2/
Stand (USA Size tubers)
Treatment (G) Cwt/A


Polyram 7.0 D
Captan 7.5 D
Control


152 a
154 a
142 b


1/ This test was performed in cooperation with Dr. J. R. Shumaker.

2/ Data followed by same letter do not differ significantly at 5> level via
Duncan's multiple range test. Absence of letter denotes nonsignificance.









CONTROL OF NEMATODES ATTACKING CABBAGE


H. L. Rhoades
AREC-Sanford

The primary nematode causing injury to cabbage in central Florida is
the sting nematode, Belonolaimus longicaudatus. Stubby-root (Trichodorus
christiei) and awl (Dolichodorus heterocephalus) nematodes cause some
damage under certain situations, but in general it is not nearly as extensive
as that caused by sting nematodes.

The sugar beet nematode, Heterodera schachtii, is a cyst nematode
that is also a serious pest of crucifers. This nematode was discovered in
a single commercial field of cabbage in the Sanford area in 1969, but has
since spread to other fields in that area. In early greenhouse experiments
heavy populations of this pest reduced cabbage growth by 72% and localized
areas of heavy infestations within several fields has virtually destroyed
cabbage during the 1972-73 season. It appears that this nematode is a
serious potential threat to cabbage production in central Florida.

Control.- Recommendations for nematode control has changed very little
during the past several years. Dichloropropene-dichloropropane type
fumigants (D-D, Vidden D) give good control of sting nematodes and are
recommended at 20-25 gallons per acre broadcast and Telone, the straight
dichloropropene material, is recommended at 15-20 gallons per acre.
DBCP (Nemagon, Fumazone) is recommended at 1-1 1/2 gallons per acre
broadcast. In-row applications are applied at a proportional amount
according to row width.

Although cyst nematodes are harder to kill than other nematodes
because of the protective cyst, an initial experiment indicated that 25
gallons of D-D or 1 1/2 gallons of DBCP will reduce populations sufficiently
to produce one crop of cabbage.

Experimental nematicides.-* Several organophosphate and carbamate
experimental nematicides have been developed in recent years that show
considerable promise for controlling nematodes. These are relatively
non-phytotoxic and may be applied at the time of planting. Very low rates
of them applied as granules in-the-row have greatly increased cabbage
yields in sting nematode infested soil in most instances (Tables 1 & 2).
Applying some of them in transplant water has also looked quite promising
in recent experiments.



* These materials have not yet been cleared for use on cabbage.







Table 1. Effect of some experimental nematicides on stiv ne-toei s ard
yield of transplanted cabbage.


Yield Nematode"
Treatment (lb/plot) population


Check 30 76
Furadan, 2 lb/A 94 17
Temik, 103 16
Nemacur, 101 8
Vydate, .95 22

LSD .05 .21
.01 28


* Average number of sting nematodes extracted from 100 cc of soil at harvest.


Table 2. Effect of some experimental nematicides on sting nematodes and
yield of direct-seeded cabbage.


Yield Nematode*
Treatment (lb/plot) population


Check 19 32
Dasanit, 1 lb/A 68 15
2 88 6

Nemacur, 1 111 6
2 105 6
Furadan, 1 87 3
2 82 11
Mocap, 1 92 21
2" 108 18

Tirpate, 1 100 14
S2 100 12

Vydate, 1 81 19
"2 98 14
AC 64475, 1 67 20
S2 35 3

LSD .05 10
.01 13


* Average number of sting nematodes extracted from 100 cc of soil at harvest.
Populations were much higher at the beginning of the experiment when soil
temperatures were higher.









VARIETY TRIALS AiND CHEiilCAL WEED CONTROL OF
POTATOES AND CABBAGE

J. R. Shumaker


POTATO VARIETY AND SEEDLING TRIALS:

iiethods. Potato varieties and seedlings were tested for desirable horticul-
tural characteristics at the Agricultural Research Center, Hastings, Florida,
in replicated, intermediate and observational trials. Two ounce seed pieces
were planted by hand in late January and early February on Rutledge fine
sand following a sorghum cover crop. A total of 2,500 pounds of 6-8-8 fer-
tilizer per acre was banded on the sides of the row just prior to planting.
A side dressing of 190 pounds per acre of 15-0-15 was applied approximately
four weeks after planting. Seed pieces were spaced 12 inches apart within
a row and 40 inches between rows. All plots were a single row 15 feet long.
Tubers were harvested and graded 'iay 15-18. Tuber samples were shipped to
James Watts, Horticulturist, Wise Foods, Berwick, Pennsylvania, for chip
evaluation. Tubers vere stored at an average temperature of 700 F and humidity
of 50 percent during these evaluations.

Conditions. Unseasonably wet conditions prevailed during the growing season.
Over 20 inches of rainfall was recorded during the course of these tests.
Severe reduction in quality and severe to moderate reduction in yields were
observed and attributed to both the wet conditions and sporadic incidences
of corky ring spot disease.

Replicated Trials. Thirteen named varieties, 11 seedling selections and
Sebago, the standard variety to northeast Florida, were replicated five times.
LaChipper and Peconic were statistically superior to Sebago in yield response
(Table 1).

Intermediate Trials. Thirty-five seedlings and two varieties were replicated
three times. Sebago check plots were planted so that each stock on trial
was either flanked or only two rows removed-from the.:check. Eleven of the
entries were superior to Sebago yields.

Observational Trials. Golden nematode resistant, russet, and white clones
were replicated two times in observational trials. Golden nematode resistant
clones were planted in order to observe possible resistance to southern
root knot nematodes. However, nematode infestation of tubers were insufficient
to draw a valid conclusion. In this test B6987-56 was the best performing
clone followed by B6987-29. None of the russet seedlings were superior to
Aiorgold Russet. In the white clone test, nine of the 52 entries were superior
to Sebago yields.







Table 1. Yield, specific gravity, and chip color-- results
cated trials at Hastings, Florida.


of 1972 repli-


Yield Chip Color2/
/ Specific Dates
Stock US1A Total-: Gravity 5/19 5/31


cwt/acre

LaChipper 228 251 1.061 6 5
Peconic 225 240 1.059 3 5
BR6614-1 209 223 1.053 6 9
B6712-18 203 219 1.056 6 7
Red LaSoda 193 217 1.048 7 9
B6987-57 193 208 1.061 2 3
Abnaki 193 210 1.064 6 7
B6955-35 192 217 1.063 2 7
Chieftan 187 205 1.052 6 6
Cascade 183 210 1.053 10 11
NY 41 180 195 1.057 5 8
Pa 70A-12 178 196 1.063 1 5
Sebago 176 205 1.052 4 6
Seminole 175 193 1.065 2 4
Pungo 171 192 1.048 1 6
B5141-6 168 181 1.064 3 6
Penn 71 162 188 1.056 2 4
Pa 71D-8 161 182 1.063 5 4
Wauseon 159 184 1.052 4 4
iC64C2-3 158 188 1.056 3 5
B6987-54 155 175 1.055 2 4
Superior 155 169 1.059 2 5
Norchip 154 183 1.066 2 5
Anoka 117 138 1.059 6 6
Minn. 3915 108 133 1.054 9 9


LSD .05 41


i/ Chip color evaluations were determined by James Watts,
Wise Foods, Berwick, Pa.

2/ Chip color values are based: 1-4 acceptable color; 5
6-14 color too dark 'for use.

3/ Includes both marketable and culls, size A and B.


Horticulturist,


borderline; and











CHEIICAL WEED CONTROL:


Herbicides and rates listed herein do not constitute recommendations. Growers
are urged to proceed with caution when applying herbicides. Always check the
container label for recent changes regarding crop, rate, time schedule, and
soil type approved for use.

CABBAGE: Transplanted cabbage 1971-72. Variety, King Cole. Transplanted,
October 27, 1971. Replicated, 4 times. Plots, 4-rows by 25 feet. Treat-
ments applied on October 28 and 29, 1971, over-the-top via 4-row sprayer -- 40
gpa, 3 flat-tip nozzles per row and at 30 psi. Watered at approximate rate
of 1000 gal/A directed in the row after last treatment applied. Results of
this test are shown in Table 2.



Table 2. Cabbage herbicide test 1971-72.

1/
Weed Control Rating-
Broadcast Chickweed and
Herbicide Rate Dock other broad leaf weeds Yield


lb ai/A 95% 5% cwt/acre

Lasso 4.0 8.5 ab 8.5 ab 312 a2
Lasso 3.0 8.3 ab 8.3 ab 30 a
Lasso 2.0 7.5 bc 8.0 ab 348 a
Lasso + Vegadex 1.5 + 3.0 8.0 ab 7.0 b 392 a
Lasso + Dacthal 1.5 + 6.0 8.3 ab 8.8 a 371 a
Vegadex 6.0 4.3 e 7.3 ab 346 a
Vegadex + Randox 3.0 + 3.0 2.3 f 4.5 c 318 a
Dacthal 10.5 8.3 ab 8.0 ab 380 a
Dacthal 8.0 7.5 bc 7.3 ab 402 a
Dacthal 6.0 6.3 d 8.0 ab 325 a
Dacthal + Tok 6.0 + 4.0 8.8 a 8.8 a 363 a
Planavin 1.5 6.3 d 7.5 ab 364 a
Planavin 1.0 6.8 cd 7.3 ab 350 a
Tok 4.0 8.5 ab 1.8 d 390 a
Control 1.0 g 1.0 d 258 b


l/ Ratings: 1 = no control; 7 = acceptable;


10 = excellent control.


2/ Column means not having letter in common are significantly
the 5% level.


different at










POTAT'OES: Preemergence herbicide experiments were conducted at Hastings,
Florida, in 1l70, 1971, and 1972 on Rutledge fine sand consisting of from 1.5,;
to 2.5; organic matter. The Sebago potato was planted each year. Experiments
were conducted under subsurface irrigation.

herbicide treated plots and a nontreated control plot were replicated 4 times in
a randomized block design. Cultural practices were similar to commercial prac-
tices used in the area.

All plots were 2 rows by 20 feet. herbicides were applied at the rates indicated
in Tables 2 and 3 with a tractor sprayer operated at 30 psi. Each chemical was
applied in water at the rate of 41 gal per acre. Just prior to crop emergence,
the PT'C was incorporated into the row by double disc bedders. Remaining treat-
ments were sprayed on the soil surface after bedding. Herbicide combinations were
obtained by two separate applications. Weed control ratings were made a few days
prior to tuber harvest, using a scale of 1 (no control) to 10 (excellent control).
Aontreated control plots were given ratings of 1. All herbicide treated plots
were rated relative to the nontreated plots. The results follow in Tables 3 and
4.










Table 3. Weed control in potato at tuber harvest as affected by preemergence
herbicide treatment.


Weed control ratings-/


Herbicide Rate .. 1970 1971 1972 Mean


lb ai/A


Eptaa3/ + Patoran
Eptam3/ + Lorox
Eptami3/ + Lasso
Epta / -
Lorox
Lasso
Patoran
Patoran
Mlaloran
iMaloran
Lorox
Premerge
Sencor
Sencor
Lasso
Lorox + Lasso
Patoran + Lasso
Check


Principal weed
species present


4.0 + 2.0
4.0 + 1.0
4.0 + 2.0
4.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
3.0
2.0
1.0
1.0
3.0
1.5
0.75
3.0
1.0 + 2.0
2.0 + 2.0


9.1
8.9
8.6
8.0
7.5
7.3
5.3
5.1
4.1
3.5
3.3
2.0


a2/
a
a
a
a
ab
bc
c
cd
cde
cde
de


1.0 e


9.3 ab
7.8 ab


5.3
7.8
8.3
8.3

8.0
4.8
7.8
4.0
10.0
9.8
8.8
8.5
7.0
1.0


7.0 abcd


6.3
5.5
6.5
7.3
6.8
5.8
5.0
5.3
1.5
8.0
8.5
6.5
7.0
7.3
1.0


cdef
def
bcdef
abc
bcde
cdef
f
ef
g
ab
a
bcdef
abcd
abc
g


8.5
8.4
8.6
6.5
6.9
7.4
7.0
6.0
6.0
4.4
5.5
2.5
9.0
9.2
7.7
7.8
7.2
1.0


Approximate


Annual grasses (predominantly
Digitaria sanquinalis, Crabgrass)
Amaranthus spp., Pigweed
Polygonum pensylvanicum, Smartweed
Oenothera inciniata, Primrose
lanthium pensylvanicum, Cocklebur
Rumex spp., Dock


1/ Ratings: 1 = no control; 7 = acceptable control; 10 = excellent control.

2/ Column means not having letter in common are significantly different at the
5% level.

3/ Soil incorporated by bedding.








Table 4. Yields of potato tubers as affected by preemergence herbicide
treatment.


Yield of US1A tubers


Herbicide Rate 1970 1971 1972 Mlean


lb ai/A cwt/A

Eptan~-2/ + Patoran 4.0 + 2.0 214.6 al/ 61.0 a 126.3 a 134.0
Eptama/2 + Lorox 4.0 + 1.0 197.0 ab 44.9 a 121.0
Eptaa2/ + Lasso 4.0 + 2.0 204.6 a 204.6
Eptanm/ 4.0 211.9 a 52.4 a 144.9 a 136.4
Lorox 2.0 199.2 ab 62.6 a 145.9 a 135.9
Lasso 2.0 214.6 a 60.0 a 150.7 a 141.8
Patoran 2.0 181.4 abc 44.4 a 146.1 a 124.0
Patoran 3.0 183.9 ab 144.6 a 164.3
Haloran 2.0 186.5 ab 38.2 a 140.8 a 121.8
Maloran 1.0 192.3 ab-. 47.2 a 142.3 a 127.3
Lorox 1.0 176.0 abc 50.3 a 147.7 a 124.7
Premerge 3.0 160.0 bc 50.9 a 129.6 a 117.0
Sencor 1.5 41.3 a 124.6 a 83.0
Sencor 0.75 54.2 a 152.9 a 103.6
Lasso 3.0 49.1 a 144.9 a 97.0
Lorox + Lasso 1.0 + 2.0 60.5 a 133.5 a 97.0
Patoran + Lasso 2.0 + 2.0 50.2 a 135.7 a 93.0
Check 144.1 c 38.6 a 136.6 a 106.4


1/ Column means not having letter in common are significantly different at
the 55 level.


2/ Eptam incorporated by bedding.







TESTS IN PROGRESS:

CABBAGE: Varieties are being evaluated for black rot resistance and fresh
market adaptability to this area. Measurements are also being taken to
evaluate varietal uniformity.

Replicated and observational trials are currently being conducted. Varieties
being tested are shown in the following table:



No. Variety No. Variety


Market Topper 278

Market Prize 283

King Cole

Green Boy

Superette

Little Rock

Harvester Queen

Sentinel No. 19

Red Head Hybrid

Saf-Gard No. 18

Green Back

Roundup

Atlas No. 70

Rio Verde

A & C No. 5

Stonehead

Hybrid 15

King Cole


Little Rock

Banner

Savoy King

A & C No. 1400

Blue Chip 10320

Prime Pak 10320

Gorinet

Exp. Hybrid llC-X99

" 11C-X101

" llC-X100

" 11C-X106

" 11C- X104

" 11C-X23

" 11C-X87

" 11C-X88

" 11C-X28

" 11C-X122

" 11C-X121


--








POTATO HERBICIDES: Crop planted 2/13/73. All preemergence herbicides applied
3/5/73 with a tractor sprayer operating at 30 psi at the rate of 40 gpa.

Test 1. Varieties: Sebago, Pungo, Penn 71, and Red LaSoda.

Treatment and Rate (oz ai/A)


1. Sencor 16 oz Pre.
2. Sencor 12 oz Pre.
3. Sencor 12 oz Pre. + 4 oz Post.
4. Sencor 8 oz Pre. + 4 oz Post.
5. Sencor 8 oz Pre. + 8 oz. Post.

Test 2. Variety: Sebago

Treatment and Rate ( lb ai/A)


Maloran 1
Maloran 4
M4aloran + Lasso 2 + 2
Lasso 2
Lasso 3


Sencor 8 oz Pre. + 4 oz .+ 4 oz Poet.
Sencor 8 oz Pre. + 6 oz Post.
Maloran 32 oz Pre.
Check


Lasso 4
Lorox + Lasso 1 + 2
Maloran 2
Check


POTATO VARIETY JEMATICIDE TEST: Telone applied in the row 11/18/73. Crop
planted 2/14/73. Incorporated Furadan and Vy~ate L applied on 2/19/73 with a
tractor sprayer operating at 30 psi at the rate of 40 gpa. Incorporated by
bedding.


Nematicide Treatments


Hiate


1. In row Telone
2. Inc. Furadan
3. Inc. Vydate L
4. In row Telone + Inc. Furadan
5. In row Telone + Vydate L (3-post)
6. Inc. Furadan + Vydate L (3-post)
7. Inc. Vydate L + Vydate L (3-post)
8. Vydate L (3-post)
9. In row Telone + Inc. Furadan
+ Vydate L (3-post)
10. Control


8 GPA
3 lb ai/A
3 lb ai/A
8 GPA + 3 lb ai/A
8 GPA + (1+1+1) lb ai/A
3 lb ai/A + (1+1+1) lb ai/A
3 lb ai/A + (1+1+1) lb ai/A
(1+1+1) lb ai/A
8 GPA + 3 lb ai/A +(1+1+1) lb ai/A


Resistance (+) Susceptibility (-)


Tuber
Varieties Gall


Corky
Ringspot


Verticillium
Wilt


A. Sebago ---- +
B. Pungo ?- +++ ?
C. Wauseon +++ ?+ ?
D. Penn 61 ?+ --- --
E. Abnaki ? ? +++








CHEMICAL WEED CONTROL EXPERIMENTS IN CABBAGE AT SANFORD


W. T. Scudder
AREC Sanford

Several experiments have been conducted at Sanford during the past year
to compare the efficiency of several chemical herbicides for weed control in
both direct-seeded and transplanted cabbage. Practices studied include the
following:

A. Pre-plant soil incorporated herbicide treatments. Most of the
chemicals which must be used in this manner are excellent grass herbicides,
but they vary considerably with regard to control of broadleaf weeds.
Registered for use on cabbage in Florida are trifluralin (Treflan), nitralin
(Planavin), and bensulide (Prefar).

B. Post-plant treatments pre-emergence to the weeds. Labelled for
use after planting pre-emergence to the weeds are CDEC (Vegadex), CDAA
(Randox), DCPA (Dacthal), and nitrofen (Tok). Results with these materials
vary considerably with the rainfall, temperature, and weed species present.
CDAA and DCPA are most effective in controlling grasses while CDEC and
nitrofen are better for broadleaf weed control. Alachlor (Lasso) appears
very promising for controlling both broadleaf weeds and grasses, but label
approval has not yet been received. CDAA and alachlor occasionally injure
direct-seeded cabbage. Tank-mix combinations of these chemicals and
treatments involving use of pre-plant soil incorporated herbicides followed
by pre-emergence sprays appear to offer good broad spectrum weed control.

C. Early post-emergence or post-plant treatments post-emergence to
the weeds. Several herbicides may be used post-emergence or post-
transplant to cabbage. These include all of the chemicals presently labelled
for pre-emergence use. Of these, only nitrofen (Tok) is very active post-
emergence to the weeds. Therefore, CDAA (Randox), CDEC (Vegadex), and
DCPA (Dacthal) must be used only when the field is already free of weeds,
such as after hoeing or cultivating. Nitrofen (Tok) will kill small weeds and
retard the growth of several species when large. Some weeds, such as
ragweed and certain grasses, are very resistant to nitrofen and may not be
controlled by it. Post-emergence control of these will be obtained only if the
weeds are less than 3/4 to 1 inch tall at the time of the nitrofen application.
Alachlor (Lasso) is frequently toxic to young cabbage seedlings and may
injure the crop if applied before it is 3 weeks old.

D. Repeat low-dosage post-emergence treatments. This procedure,
using nitrofen at approximately 1/2 lb. ai per acre at weekly intervals appears
very promising for chemical weed control in both direct-seeded and trans-
planted cabbage. In several trials, good weed control has been obtained pro-
vided the treatments are started no laterthan 1 week after planting. Results
using this method frequently have been superior to the use of a greater total
quantity of the herbicide applied at one time pre-emergence or early post-
emergence to the weeds. Summary data from several trials conducted during
this past winter follow:









Exp. 1. (S-72-23) Rio Verde Cabbage Direct-Seeded December 12, 1972.



Treat. Rate Type of Crop tolerance Weed controlb
No. Chemical lb ai/A application Stand Growth A B C D

1 Check (not sprayed) 10 10 0 0 0 0

2 trifluralin 3/4 9 9 4 1 2 4

3 nitralin 1 1/2 7 9 5 2 7 7

4 A-820 3 pre-plant 3 7 4 4 4 4
soil incor-
5 CGA-10832 3/4 porated 9 10 4 1 3 4
2" deep
6 USB-3584 1/2 3 7 6 4 9 7

7 bensulide 6 9 9 5 1 1 3

8 EMD-IT-5914 2 1 6 8 7 7 5

9 BAS-3921 H 2 1/4 5 9 7 3 8 7

10 1 1/8 4 8 8 2 7 6

11 CDEC 6 pre- 8 9 7 8 6 8
emergence
12 CDEC + CDAA 3 + 3 on surface 7 8 6 7 6 9

13 CDEC + alachlor 3 + 2 4 7 7 9 10 10

14 + 2 + 2 5 8 9 8 10 10


Notes: a crop tolerance rating scale:


b weed control rating scale:


0 = no tolerance, crop killed
10 = no crop injury

0 = no control
10 = all weeds killed


weed species: A white sweet clover
B cutleaf evening primrose
C wandering cudweed
D eclipta







Exp. 2. (8-72-22) Rio Verde Cabbage Transplanted December 12, 1972.



Treat Rate Type of Cropa Weed control
No. Chemical lb ai/A application tolerance A B C D E


1 Check (not sprayed) 10 0 0 0 0 0

2 trifluralin 3/'1 10 5 9 4 5 6

3 nitralin 1 1/2 10 5 5 4 7 6

4 A-820 3 pre-plant 8 6 10 3 8 6
soil incor-
5 CGA-10832 3/4 porated 10 5 10 2 5 3
2" deep
6 USB-3584 1/2 9 8 10 6 9 6

7 bensulide 6 10 5 5 2 5 4

8 EMD-IT-5914 2 9 8 10 7 9 5

9 BAS-3921 H 2 1/4 9 8 10 6 9 9

10 1 1/8 10 8 10 5 9 8

11 CDEC 6 10 7 9 8 8 8

12 CDEC + CDAA 3 + 3 over trans- 10 6 10 8 7 8
plants pre-
13 CDEC + alachlor 3 + 2 emergence to 9 9 10 9 10 10
Seeds on soil
14 + 2 + 2 surface 10 9 10 8 10 10


Notes: a crop tolerance (vigor) rating scale:


0 = no tolerance, crop killed
10 = no crop injury


weed control rating scale: 0 = no control
10 = all weeds killed

weed species: A white sweet clover
B cutleaf evening primrose
C wandering cudweed
D eclipta
E smooth pigweed







Exp. 3. (S-72-24). Rio Verde Cabbage Transplanted December 14, 1972.



Treat. Rate Type of Cropa Weed control
No. Chemical lb ai/A application tolerance A B C D


1 Check (not sprayed) 10 0 0 0 0

2 CDAA + CDEC 3 + 3 10 9 10 8 9

3 alachlor (Lasso) 4 over trans- 10 8 10 10 10
plants pre-
4 3 emergence 10 7 10 10 10
to weeds on
5 2 soil surface 10 5 10 9 10

6 DCPA (Dacthal) 10 1/2 10 4 10 5 5

7 BAS-2903 (Basamaise) 4 10 9 10 10 8

8 3 10 9 10 9 9

9 EMD-IT-5914 2.4 9 9 10 9 8

10 1.6 10 10 10 8 6

11 C-6989 (Preforan) 4 1/2 10 9 10 9 8

12 3 10 9 10 9 7

13 nitrofen (Tok) 6 10 9 10 7 8

14 4 10 9 10 7 8

15 2 10 8 10 8 6


Notes: crop tolerance


weed control:


weed species:


(vigor): 0 = no tolerance, crop killed
10 = no crop injury

0 = no control
10 = all weeds killed

A cutleaf evening primrose

B lambsquarters

C common ragweed

D annual ryegrass









INSECT TRIALS ON VEGETABLES


R. B. Workman


CRUCIFEROUb CROPS: Pesticides are being tested against cabbage worms and aphids
on cabbage, collards, brussels sprouts, and rutabaga using 50 and 100 gallons
of water per acre. Treatments include:
Bacillus compounds, Fundal, Galecron, Lannate, Monitor, Orthene
and Sevin at different rates and combinations.
Long residual materials are being tested at a 14-day interval.
Foam is being added to several treatments for drift control.
A Nemacur combination is being tested for nematode control.

POTATOES: Insecticides to be tested against potato aphids and/or soil insects
include, Azodrin, Bay Hox 1901, CA 64401, DS-15647, Di-Syston, Lannate, lieta-
Systox-R, monitor, Orthene, and Pirimor.

INSECTICIDE-HERBICIDE COMBINATION TESTS:
Cabbage Dipel, Fundal, Monitor and Orthene with Tok.
Potato Azodrin, :'eta-Systox-R, Monitor, and Orthene with Sencor.

OBSERVATIONAL TESTS:
Insect problems and control will be followed on onion, pepper, and sorghum.

BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF CABBAGE INSECTS:
ir. Ru iguyen, a Vietnamese graduate student at the University of Florida, will
be studying parasite-predator relationships with cabbage insects in the Hastings
area for several seasons.

LEST TL.JAT. LiiT 1972:

Cabbage-worms (lb AI/A) Potato-aphids (lb AI/A)

Orthene .5 Orthene .5
Lannate + Fundal .5 + .25 Pirimor .5
Thuricide + Fundal .25 + .25
Orthene + Fundal .25 + .25
SN 334 .5
Dipel + Orthene .25 + .25
Dipel .5
Thuricide 90009 1 pt.
Dipel + Phosvel .25 + .5











CABBAGE BLACK SPECK AND VARIETY TRIALS
Fall and Winter 1970-71

J. 0. Strandberg
AREC Sanford

Seventy-eight hybrid cabbage varieties were evaluated in replicated
trials at Sanford, Florida, for resistance to black speck and for possible
use in Florida cabbage production areas. Data on yield and other varietal
characteristics were also obtained.

Methods. Test plots were located at the Research and Education Center,
Sanford, mon mineral soil (Leon fine sand), and were designed to simulate
field conditions encountered in most central Florida production areas.
Plot areas were fumigated with a dichloropropane dichloropropene mixture
to control nematodes and a fertilization program outlined in the Florida
Cabbage Production Guide was followed. Seeds were planted in the seedbed
on September 15 and transplanted into the field on October 13. Harvesting
began on December 29 and conthued through February. Four replicates
of each variety were planted in a randomized incomplete block design.
Each replicate contained 50 plants spaced 12 inches apart in 30 inch rows.
Black speck ratings were made after two weeks storage at 4 C which had
previously been shown to be optimum for symptom developmental/

Results and Discussion.- Although some severe extremes of temperature
were encountered, (a low of 22 F on two nights) general conditions which
prevailed during this test could be described as good. Head size and uni-
formity among standard varieties were as expected. Black speck ratings
of standard varieties were higher than normal. Ratings for several
varieties which have shown acceptable levels of black speck in previous
seasons ranged from approximately 1.5-2. A value of less than 1.0 is
desirable.

Other problems noted among many varieties this season were premature
bursting at maturity and lack of uniformity in head size and maturity.
Comments from growers indicate that a blue-green cabbage with a round
head shape and strong wrapper leaves to protect the head during harvesting
operations was preferred. Ratings in some categories were based on our
opinion of the type of plant needed for Florida growing and production and
should be considered in that regard.








Table 1. -


Summary of Data, Cabbage Variety Evaluations at University of Florida, Research and Education Center,
Sanford, Fall and Winter 1970-71.


Days % Cut
From First Av. Head Head Plant Black
Source & Trans- Har- Head Wt. In Uni- Uni- Interior Compact- Holding Speck
Line or Variety Lot No. plant vest Shape Pounds Color formity formity Quality ness Quality Index


G-3015
Verocity Cross
C-G Cross
Hybrid 1400
Red Head
Ex Hyb 6525
Ex Hyb 6526
Badger Ballhead
Ventura
Tokyo Pride #21
Sentinel #19
Savoy King
Stonehead
Hyb 31
Princess #39
Atlas #70
Hyb 72
NCX 906
Hyb 4622
Hyb 4653
Hyb 4630
Hyb 4681
Hyb 4709
Hyb 4616
Hyb 4626
NCX 905
NCX 903
NCX 902
NCX 901


NK
Takii
Takii
A&C 280
Keystone
Keystone
Keystone
Keystone
Keystone
Sak 1363
Sak 7697
Sak 8038
Sak 7687
Sak 1691
Sak 6607
Sak 6657
Sak 8075
Niag 4896
Niag
Niag
Niag
Niag
Niag
Niag
Niag
Niag4876-L
Niag 4938
Niag 4937
Niag 4908


112
88
98
112
109
112
98
111
88
98
112
107
88
109
84
106
98
112
107
84
98
107
91
98
88
106
112
107
107


3.0
1.9
2.3
2.6
2.1
2.9
2.3
2.0
1.8
2.5
2.5
2.6
1.9
2.7
1.9
3.1
2.3
2.0
2.0
1.7
1.6
2.6
2.4
2.0
1.6
2.4
1.8
1.9
2.6


2.7
2.1
2.7
2.0
0.5
2.3
2.6
1.0
2.4
0.5
0.9
0.6
1.2
0.6
1.2
3.0
2.2
3.3
1.1
1.8
2.9
3.0
2.3
2.3
1.5
2.2
1.5
2.2
2.5








00
co
Table 1. Cont'd

Days % Cut
From First Av. Head Head Plant Blac
Source & Trans- Har- Head Wt. In Uni- Uni- Interior Compact- Holding Spec
Line or Variety Lot No. plant vest Shape Pounds Color formity formity Quality ness Quality Inde

Hyb 4613' Niag 88 62 SR 2.0 G 3 4 4 4 4 2.3
Eyb 4608 107 92 R 2.4 G 3 4 2 3 3 3.1
Ex Hyb 5555 Desert 91 75 R 2.1 BG 4 3 4 4 4 1.8
Ex Hyb 5432 93 79 R 1.9 G 4 4 3 4 4 1.5
Greenboy NK 17709 121 90 SR 3.2 G 5 5 3 4 4 1.2
Rio Verde 18009 122 97 SR 3.3 BG 4 4 3 4 4 0.5
Superette FM 106 95 R 3.0 BG 4 4 3 4 4 2.4
Little Rock 107 88 R 2.2 BG 3 4 4 5 5 0.5
11 C x 83 "88 81 0 2.0 G 4 3 4 4 2 2.4
11 C x 80 88 70 0 2.1 G 4 4 2 2 1 2.3
11 C x 73 "88 82 0 1.8 DG 2 2 2 3 1 3.1
11 C x 78 "88 79 0 1.8 DG 3 4 3 3 2 2.6
11 C x 11 91 83 R 2.3 BG 4 4 4 5 4 1.6
E 6201 "107 96 SR 3.0 DG 4 4 3 3 4 2.4
11 C x 22 109 95 R 2.7 G 4 4 4 5 2 2.4
11 C x 30 109 93 R 2.8 BG 4 4 3 4 4 1.1
11 C x 69 84 74 R 2.3 G 4 5 4 4 4 3.6
11 C x 67 "84 72 R 1.9 G 3 3 3 4 2 1.8
11 C x 63 "93 94 SR 2.7 G 3 3 3 4 2 2.3
11 C x 58 "78 80 R 1.2 G 4 5 3 3 1 1.3
11 C x 28 109 96 R 2.4 BG 5 5 3 4 5 2.1
11 x 47 84 66 R 2.3 G 3 5 4 3 1 1.8
11 C x 45 "84 77 0 1.9 G 3 3 2 3 1 1.0
11 C x 29 i 107 90 0 2.6 BG 4 4 4 4 4 2.2
11 C x 55 "78 67 R 1.4 G 4 4 3 4 1 1.5
11 C x 53 "78 78 R 1.7 G 3 4 4 5 2 2.5
11 C x 52 "78 62 R 1.4 DG 2 3 3 4 1 2.6
11 C x 51 84 72 0 1.5 DG 2 3 3 2 2 2.4
3074 112 92 R 1.8 BG 4 4 3 4 3 2.7
9581 112 88 SR 2.3 BG 4 4 4 4 4 2.6
6607 112 88 SR 2.0 BG 3 4 3 4 4 2.5
9580 109 100 R 3.2 BG 4 4 4 4 3 2.6











Table 1. Cont'd.


Days % Cut
From First Av. Head Head Plant Black
Source & Har- Har- Head Wt. In Uni- Uni- Interior Compact- Holding Speck
Line or Variety Lot No. vest vest Shape Pounds Color formity formity Quality ness Quality Index


3129 obs
3073 obs
9526
Market Topper
Hyb L 3020
Ex Hyb V
Sanibel
Market Prize
P-3030
M-3010
W-2579
U-3000
Hyb 15
Xp 920-1
Xp 888-9
Xp 841-3
Hyb 5


FM
tt
it
Harris

2529
tt
II
I,
It
t


It

NK
It

A& C


93
78
112
98
109
94
98
98
98
109
109
93
109
107
98
98
120


2.2
2.3
1.6
2.4
3.0
2.3
2.8
2.7
2.9
2.7
2.8
2.3
2.5
2.1
1.9
1.8
3.7


4 3.0
3 2.0
2 2.4
3 4.0
3 0.2
2 2.7
4 2.6
4 3.0
3 3.2
2 1.6
3 3.0
2 2.3
3 1.4
3 2.0
3 1.1
3 2.0
4 0.3










Explanation of Table 1

% Cut First Harvest: Percent of heads ready for harvest at first

cutting, a figure of merit for possible mechanical harvesting. Value is

average for 25 heads from each of four replicates.

Color BG = blue-green, G = green, R-= red,. DG = dark green.

Head shape R = round, SR = semi-round, F = flattened, 0 = ovoid.

Head uniformity, plant uniformity, interior quality and compactness,

and holding quality (absence of bursting at maturity) rated 1 = least desirable

to 5 = most desirable.

Black speck index, rated 0 = no black speck to 5 = severe black speck

extending to the core. Value is for average rating of 20 heads.

Seed Source:

A & C Abbot & Cobb, Philadelphia, Pa.

Asg Asgrow Seed Co., Orange Conn.

Desert Desert Seed Co., El Centro, Calif.

FM Ferry-Morse Seed Co., Inc., San Juan Bautista, Calif.

Harris Joseph Harris Co., Inc., Rochester, N. Y.

NK Northrup King & Co., Minneapolis, Minn.

Sak T. Sakata & Co., Yokohama, Japan

Niag FMC Corp., Niagara Chem. Div., Modesto, Calif.

Key Keystone Seeds, Corneli Seed Co., St. Louis, Mo.

Takii Takii and Co., Ltd., Kyoto, Japan

References:

1. Strandberg, J. 0., J. F. Darby, J. C. Walker and P. H. Williams.
1969. Black Speck, a Nonparasitic Disease of Cabbage. Phyto-
pathology 59:1879-1883.








University of Florida
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND EDUCATION CENTER
Sanford, Florida

Cabbage Black Speck and Variety Trials, 1971-72

The 1971-72 cabbage variety and observational trials were held in con-
junction with the 1972 meetings of the CRUCIFER IMPROVEMENT COOPERATIVE on
February 28-29 at AREC, Sanford. The results presented are mostly those
from the replicated trials, but data for some promising lines in the CIC obser-
vational plots are also included.

These trials were carried out under typical irrigated field conditions
encountered during commercial cabbage production in central Florida. However,
black speck ratings were made after 14 days cold storage at 40 C, which has
previously been shown to be optimum for black speck symptom development, but
is somewhat longer than typical storage and shipment periods for fresh market
cabbage.

Plots were located at AREC, Sanford, on mineral soil (Leon fine sand).
All plot areas were checked for plant parasitic nematodes and fumigated with
25 gal/A of a dichloropropane-dichloropropene mixture where required. Plants
were fertilized according to the program for irrigated soils as suggested
in the Florida cabbage production guide (Circular 117 B). Insects were con-
trolled with weekly applications of appropriate insecticides.

Seed of all varieties were hot water treated and planted in the seedbed
on October 15 and transplanted on November 23-24. Plants were spaced 10-inches
apart in 30-inch rows. There were two replicates of 150 plants each in the
replicated trials, and one replicate in the observational trial. Numerical
values are averages for two samples of 50 plants except black speck ratings,
which were determined from 20 stored heads. Other evaluations were based on
our opinion of what type, appearance and uniformity is desired by Florida
growers and should be considered in that regard.

Black speck damage, based on indices for "Standard varieties", was less
severe this past season than for many previous years. Therefore, lower levels
and narrower ranges of values were observed. Our estimate, based on this
information, is that a variety with a rating of 1.0 or less would probably
sustain acceptable levels of black speck damage in most years.

Although precautions were taken, some lines were severely damaged by
black rot. Such damage was responsible for some of the missing data in the
summary of results. While ratings for relative black rot resistance were
not made, considerable emphasis will be placed on resistance or tolerance
to black rot in future trials.









% Cut
Days to first
maturity harvest


Avg
head
wt(lb)


Leaf
color


Plant
Head uni-
shape formity


Holding
quality


Interior
quality


Black
SStorage speck
rating index


Superboy
Elite
XP 914
XP 906
XP 913
Tastie
Hyb 7173
Hyb 7105
Hyb 7112
Hyb 7132
Hyb 5555
Hyb 7111
Hyb 5432
Green Delight
Hyb 6039
Hyb 6425
Red Head
Hyb 6040
Hyb 5926
Hyb 6036
Hyb 6037
Hyb 6038
Hyb 6526
Little Rock
Gormet
Blue Chip
11C-X22
11C-X23
11C-X28
Prime Pack


Variety


Source


Reed
Reed
NK
NK
NK
NK
Desert
Desert
Desert
Desert
Desert
Desert
Desert
Key
Key
Key
Key
Key
Key
Key
Key
Key
Key
FM
FM
FM
FM
FM
FM
FM


110
77
110
104
110
90
104
104
92
104
104
104
117
90
86
86
113
110
104
104
86
104
86
105
105
104
90
86
110
110


78
92
94
96
94
78
96
96
69
98
100
100
96
72
73
93
82
58
98
78
80
96
75
92
92
90
71
92
72
94


3.2
2.1
2.8
1.9
3.0
1.5
2.0
2.8
1.9
2.2
2.4
2.8
1.9
1.7
1.9
1.9
2.1
2.3
2.9
2.0
2.1
2.0
2.4
2.8
3.1
3.0
2.0
1.5
2.8
2.8


1.6
2.4
2.2
1.6
0.9
0.7
0.9
0.6
1.3
1.2
0.9
1.0
0.6
3,2
1.2
1.6
---
1.3
1.2
1.6
3.4
0.6
3.4
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.6
3.8
0.6
0.6









% Cut
Days to first
Source maturity harvest


Avg
head
wt(lb)


wt (ib) color shape formity quality quality rating index


Plant
Leaf Head Uni-
color shape formity


Holding
quality


Interior
quality


Black
Storage Speck
rating index


Jet Pack
Rio Verde
Green Boy
XP-1033
XP-1037
XP-1068
NCX-905
NCX-9000
NCX-907
NCX-913
NCX-9006
NCX-9005
NCX-910
W 3040
L 3000
Market Prize
Hyb X 2270
Hyb M3010
Market Topper
Res. Danish
NCX-9009
Sanibel
Hyb 0
Hyb P
Hyb B
Hyb U
Market Victor
Ruby Ball
CM Cross
C G Cross
Perfection Cross


NK
NK
NK
Asg
Asg
Asg
Niag
Niag
iiag
Niag
Niag
Niag
Niag
Har
Har
Har
Har
Har
Har
Har
Niag
Har
Jar
Har
Har
Har
Har
Tak
Tak
Tak
Tak


Variety


86
110
117
86
114
90
104
92
117
83
105
104
92
92
92
105
117
92
92
117
92
105
105
92
86
86
83
113
83
92
75


85
88
78
76
92
92
80
76
92
85
86
76
57
57
67
98
76
77
70
76
68
100
86
89
70
84
76
95
78
83
83


2.5
3.3
2.7
2.4
2.6
1.9
2.3
1.9
2.4
1.7
2.2
1.9
2.0
2.3
2.7
2.2
2.5
1.8
1.9
2.1
1.6
3.3
2.5
2.2
2.4
2.1
2.1
2.2
2.1
2.2
1.5


G
BG
G
G
G
BG
G
G
BG
G
BG
G
G
BG
G
DG'
BG
BG
G
BG
G
BG
BG
BG
G
G
BG
R
G
DG
G


SR
SR
SR
SR''
SR
R
SR
SR
R
R
SR
SR
SR
R
SR
SR
SR
R
SR
SR
SR
SR
SR
R
R
R
R
R
R
SR
R


1.9
0.2
0.5
3.0
1.4
1.0
1.3
2.1
2.2
2.6
1.4
1.7
1.5
1.8
0.5
1.3
2.3
0.8
2.4
3.2
1.6
2.9
2.1
3.0
1.6
1.2
1.3

1.5
1.0
1.6










% Cut Avg Plant Black
Days to first head Leaf Head uni- Holding Interior Storage speck
Variety Source maturity harvest wt(lb) color shape formity quality quality rating index

llC-X55 FM 86 86 2.2 G R 4 F G 3 2.7
11C-X63 FM 90 73 2.1 LG R 4 F G 4 0.8
11C-X68 FM 86 91 2.0 G R 4 F G 3 3.4
11-X69 FM 104 96 2.6 G SR 4 G G 3 2.3
llC-X89 FM 90 78 2.2 DG R 4 G F 4 1.7
11C-X87 FM 117 98 3.4 G R 4 G G 3 1.2
11C-X8b FM 110 86 2.8 BG SR 3 G F 4 1.1
11C-X93 FM 83 70 2.1 G R 4 F G 2 1.6
llC-X94 FM 90 80 1.7 G SR 3 P G 3 2.2
1C-X95 FM 90 68 2.0 BG R 4 G G 3 2.2
llC-X96 FM 83 72 2.1 G R 3 P 7 3 1.5
11C-X97 FM 92 83 2.1 DG SR 4 G G 5 0.6
11C-X98 FM 110 74 2.7 G R 3 G F 4 1.1
l1C-X99 FM 110 86 2.5 DG R 3 G G 4 0.6
11C-X100 FM 110 94 2.3 BG SR 4 G F 4 0.6
11C-X101 FM 110 76 2.1 G SR 3 G F 4 0.6
11C-X102 FM 92 70 2.2 DG R 3 F Ex 4 1.9
Red Meteor Asg 113 87 2.0 R R 3 G G --
Banner Asg 86 69 2.1 G R 3 P F 3 2.7
Headstart Asg 86 80 2.1 G R 4 P F 4 1.4
Hyb 31 Sak 110 80 2.8 BG F 3 G F 4 0.3
Stoneheau Sak 86 85 1.9 G SR 4 P F 3 2.5
Princess #39 Sak 83 65 1.9 G SR 4 P F 3 1.1
Tokyo Pride Sak 117 74 2.8 DG F 5 G F 5 0.9
Saf-Gard Sak 110 96 2.9 G F 5 G F 4 0.4
Green Express Sak 90 91 2.0 G R 4 F G 4 1.4
Superette FM 110 96 2.8 BG SR 4 G G 4 1.2
King Cole FM 92 67 2.2 G SR 3 G F 4 2.4
1lC-X29 FM 110 76 2.9 BG SR 4 G F 4 0.7
Titan Sak 105 96 2.7 G F 4 F P 3 1.1
Hyb 31 NK 110 88 2.6 G F 4 F F 3 0.5









% Cut
Days to first
maturity harvest


Avg
head
wt(lb)


Plant
Leaf Head uni-
color shape formity


Holding Interior Storage
quality quality rating


Velocity Cross
Hyb 7
XP-907
RG 29B
RG 32
XP-912
XP-903
Hyb-3129
Hyb-9542
Hyb-9580
Hyb-9581


Asgrow Seed Co., Orange Cohn.
Desert Seed Co., El Centro, Calif.
Ferry-Morse Seed Co., Ind. San Juan
Bautista, Calif.
Joseph Harris Co., Inc. Rochester,
New York
Northrup King & Co., Minneapolis,
Minn.
T. Sakata Co., Yokohama, Japan
FiC uorp., Niagara Chem. Div.,
Modesto, Calif.
Keystone Seeds, Corneli Seed Co.,
St. Louis, Mo.
Takii and Co., Ltd., Kyoto, Japan
Reed's Seeds, Courtland, New York


Days to'maturity:i .Days from transplanting'to first harvest.
Per cent cut first harvest: A figure of merit for possible ir
mechanical harvest. Value is average for 50 heads from
each of two replicates.
Leaf color: BG-bluegreen; G-green; R-red; DG-darkgreen.
Head shape: R-round; SR-semi-round; F-flattened.
Plant uniformity: Rated l=least to 5=most desirable.
Interior Quality: Rated P=poor; F=fair; G=good; E=excellent
Holding quality: absence of bursting at and after maturity
rated Poor, Fair, Good, Excellent.
Storage rating: Appearance after 14 days cold storage
for black speck rating. Rated l=poorest to 5=best appearance.
Black speck index: Rated O=no black speck to 5=severe black
speck extending to the core.


Variety


Source


Tak
Reed
NK
NK
NK
NK
NK
FM
FM
FM
FM


49
106
80
78
106
46
106
106
46
106
106


Black
speck
index


2.1
2.4
1.8
2.3
3.2
2.1
3.0
1.9
2.5
2.2
2.0


G
BG
G
G
BG
DG
BG

DG


R
SR
R
SR
R
SR
SR

R


F
F
F
F
F
F
F

G


1.7
2.4
1.8
0.7
1.5
1.4
2.2
1.9
1.3
0.9
1.6


Asg
Desert
FM

Har

NK

Sak
Niag

Key

Tak
Reed








FERTILIZATION OF POTATOES AND MULCHING EXPIIL QFITb ON CABBAGE


D. R. Hensel

FERTILIZATION OF POTATOES BY INTENSITY AiD BALANCE APPROACH: Intensity and
balance methods of fertilization have shown potential with other vegetable
crops in Florida. The amount of soluble salts in the soil is called the in-
tensity factor. This is related to the amount of fertilizer. The balance is
the ratio of the individual elements to each other and to the total salts.
This method of checking the fertilizer level during the growing season is more
adaptable where sub-surface irrigation is used.

In 1972, an experiment wras designed to produce different levels of salts in
the soil (intensity). Three rates of 6-8-8 were applied: 1250, 1875, and
2500 pounds/A. Sidedressings were applied to the growing potato crops 30 days
after planting. These sidedressing material combinations supplied two levels
of nitrogen and potassium. The combinations were: (1) sodium nitrate and
muriate of potash (2) calcium nitrate and sulfate of potash and (3) ammonium
nitrate and sulfate of potash. The salt indexes of the materials varied which
would cause a change in intensity factor but not in plant food. The sodium
nitrate and muriate of potash have comparatively higher salt indexes and supply
chlorine tore than the other tuo treatments.

Table 1 gives the soluble salt readings from soil samples taken 45 days after
planting. In general, the level of soluble salt increased as the basis rate of
fertilizer increased. Sidedressings increased soluble salts over the checks.
The soluble salt readings of the sidedressing treatments which had 1250 basic
fertilizer rate were considered below optimum and a second sidedressing
application was made.

Yield data are presented in Table 2. Without sidedressing, the yields increased
linearly with increase in fertilizer rates. With sidedressing a quadratic
response was found. Sidedressings with low salt index materials (either calcium
nitrate or ammonium nitrate with sulfate of potash) tended to produce larger
yields than those with high salt index (sodium nitrate and muriate of potash).


STRIP AND FULL BED MULCHING OF CABBAGE: Strip and full bed mulching of vegeta-
ble crops has shown some potential in certain areas of Florida. In the past,
polyethylene plastic has been used as the mulching material. Recently, paper
mulches coated with a thin layer of polyethylene have become available. The
paper mulches are bio-degradeable and do not constitute a soil hazzard after the
crop is removed. The principal advantage of mulching sandy soils is the reduc-
tion of fertilizer by leaching rains.

A mulching experiment with cabbage was designed to evaluate strip and full bed
mulches using bio-degradeable paper combined with several factors. The variables
included three rates of fertilizer, two plant populations, and two plant sources
in comparison to the standard single row of cabbage on 40 inch beds. The regular
40 inch row does not provide adequate space for strip mulching, therefore, two
regular rows were combined to make a wide row 80 inches apart. Fertilizer was
placed in bands between the cabbage rows before planting. The fertilizer was
placed on top of the bed for full bed mulch, directly under the strip mulch
and to a depth of 1 inch in the unmulched plots.








STRIP AND FULL BED MULCHING OF CABBAGE: (continued)

Two plant sources were also included in this test. Cabbage was planted in
regular plant beds at Hastings and at the same time planted in individualized
type containers in the greenhouse by Leisey & Todd Farms, Inc., Ruskin,
Florida. Plants grown in a plant bed are many times severely damaged due to
unfavorable growing conditions and occasionally are affected by mildew and
wirestem. Their root system can become damaged during the pulling and trans-
planting operation. Theoretically, greenhouse grown plants would be more
likely to have been grown under ideal conditions the entire length of time
with uniform germination, fertility, and freedom from diseases. The root
systems are not severely damaged when removed and transplanted in the field.

The variables will be evaluated for their effect on uniformity, vigor,
nutrient uptake, soil nutrient status, yield, and quality of cabbage.

80 inch rows


lulch


Plant Population


Fertilization
Rates


Plant Source


40 inch rows

Plant Source


Full bed mulch
Strip mulch
Bare

3 row cabbage
4 row cabbage

1200 lbs 6-8-8/A
1800 lbs 6-8-8/A
2400 lbs 6-8-8/A

Plant Bed
Greenhouse Speedling


Plant bed
Greenhouse Speedling








Table 1. Effect of sidedressing on soluble salt readings in soil with three
levels of fertilizer.


Sidedressing
Treatments


Fertilizer applied at planting lbs 6-8-8/A
1250 1875 2500


ppm soluble salts


1. Check


20-0-20 HaNO3 + KC1
20- 0-20 .Ca(N03)2 .-t.KS04
20-0-20 flH4NO3 + K2S04

40-0-40 NaNO3 + KC1
40-0-40 Ca(N03)2 + K2SO4
4o-o-4o H4NO3 + K2SO4


1978

2590*
2433*'
2450*-

2275""
2240o
2640*


2293

3098
2923
2940

3203
2660
2765


* The treatments received two applications of sidedressings.



Table 2. Yield of potatoes from different sidedressing and fertilizer com-
binations.


Sidedressing Fertilizer applied at planting lbs 6-8-8/A
Treatments 1250 1875 2500 Ave.


cwt /A

1. Check 134 159 186 160

2. 20-0-20 aN'03 + KC1 145* 179 174 166
3. 20-0-20 Ca(O03)2 + K2SO4 179* 185 174 180
4. 20-0-20 NH1iO3 + K2SO4 177* 189 179 182

5. 40-0-40 Na1Og3 + KC1 159* 180 161 167
6. 40-0-40 Ca(T03)2 + K2SO4 177" 204 171 184
7. 40-0-40 NH4NO3 + K2S04 179* 192 188 186


* The treatments received two applications of sidedressings.


3098

3535
3115
3168

3220
2940
3413


--








Fertilization for Direct-Seeded Cabbage

R. B. Forbes
AREC-Sanford

Over the past 3 years a number of fertilizer experiments have been
conducted with the objective of bringing the young plants past the vulnerable
early seedling stage as rapidly as possible.

The most recent trial is outlined below:



Average of 5 replicates

Height Growth1 Weight of2


Treatments N lb./A

1. Check, no fertilizer 0

2. 500 Ib/A 10-4-10-3, pre-plant 100
+500 Ib/A @24 days

3. 1000 Ib/A 5-5-8-2 pre-plant 100
+500 Ib/A @24 days

4. 500 lb/A 5-5-8-2 Pre-plant 75
+500 lb/A 5-2-9 liquid @10 & 24 days

5. 1000 lb/A 5-5-8-2 pre-plant 65
+20-20-20- drench-., 5 weekly applications

6. No pre-plant fertilizer 50
500 lb/A 5-2-9 liquid @10 & 24 days

7. No pre-plant fertilizer 50
500 Ib/A 5-5-8-2 @10 & 24 days

8. No pre-plant fertilizer 100
500 Ib/A 10-4-10-3 @10 & 24 days
4/
9. 834 Ib/A 12-3-10-3- pre-plant 100
4/
10. 588 Ib/A 17-5-11- pre-plant 100

11. 2000 Ib/A 5-5-8-2, pre-plant 100

12. 417 lb/A 12-3-10-3 pre-plant-/ 100
+417 lb/A @24 days
4/
13. 294 lb/A 17-5-11 pre-plant; 100
+294 Ib/A @24 days


inches rating plants, lb.


1.0

3.2


0.5

4.9


4.0


6.4


4.3


4.3


3.0


4.1


4.7

2.2

2.4

6.3


2.8


3.2

8.8


8.0 2.9


9.8 3.8


8.3 3.3


8.7 3.4


7.6 3.1


8.3 3.1


7.9

6.0

6.5

9.5


3.2

2.3

2.2

4.0


7.0 2.4


Footnotes on following page.










-J 0-5 rating scale: O=no growth, 5=best plants, rated on visual appearance,
size, color and vigor. Rated on February 20, 1973.

/ Weight of 24 seedlings from each plot.

3/ 5 lb/100 gallons, 5 applications, each at 300 gpa.

Mixtures containing a portion of the N from slowly available Nitroform
supplied by Chase & Co., and Hercules, Inc.

Variety: Rio Verde
Planting date: December 1, 1972
Seedling plants harvested: February 23, 1973

Summary.- The best seedling growth was obtained by a combination of
pre-planting fertilization plus one or more side-dressings of either liquid
or solid fertilizers.

In past seasons, better success has been obtained with early (September,
October or November) plantings than with direct-seedings in late December,
January or February.




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