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Group Title: Field day (Potato Investigations Laboratory)
Title: Field day.
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00076392/00007
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Title: Field day.
Physical Description: Serial
Publisher: Potato Investigations Laboratory,
Publication Date: 1969
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Bibliographic ID: UF00076392
Volume ID: VID00007
Source Institution: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: 145912949 - OCLC

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Cabbage harvester and fertilizer studies
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Insect control tests -- Spring 1968
        Page 4
    Variety trials, chemical weed control tests, and direct seeding of cabbage studies
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
Full Text
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HASTINGS, FLORIDA
MARCH 26, 1S69


I HUME LIBRARY

APR 25 1969

SI.F.A.S. Univ. of Florida
.- p ..'"F t .f .


INVESTIGATIONS

LABORATORY


20T FIELD DAY


IN COOPERATION WITH FLORIDA
ARICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE













POTATO INVESTIGATIONS LABORATORY

Hastings, Florida

TWENTIETH FIELD DAY PROGRAM

March 26, 1969
1:30 P.M.


Paul Dinkins, St. Johns County Agent, Presiding

Page

Introduction, Paul Dinkins


Cabbage Harvester & Fertilizer Studies of Potatoes
and Cabbage
Dr. D. R. Hensel, Associate Soils Chemist & Head 1


Insect Control Tests Spring 1968
Dr. R. B. Workman, Associate Entomologist 4


Variety Trials, Chemical Weed Control Tests, and Direct
Seeding of Cabbage Studies
Dr. J. R. Shumaker, Assistant Horticulturist 5



Following a coffee break, a tour of the

experimental plots will be conducted.










CABBAGE HARVESTER & FERTILIZER STUDIES


D. R. Hensel


MECHANICAL HARVESTER STUDIES:

Changing from hand harvest to mechanical harvest methods in cabbage will
be primarily directed by the availability of hand harvest labor, cost of the
labor, and the degree of efficiency which a mechanical harvester will perform.

Presently, the mechanical harvester under test can be operated when other
factors are favorable. The overall efficiency of the harvester is regulated
by many factors. An increase in efficiency can be attained when the variation
in cabbage maturity date is reduced. Also, a reduction in variation of the
cabbage stem height increases the efficiency of the machine.

The harvester was tested this year at four different combinations of engine
and ground speeds. These were compared to simulated hand harvest methods.
Machine harvested cabbage coupled with a retrimming operation shows much promise.
It was proposed that a retrimming operation would make certain cabbage heads
marketable whose stems were too long. The amount of retrimming required would
be dependent upon the variation in stem length of cabbage.










FERTILIZATION OF DIRECT SEEDED CABBAGE:


Direct seeding of cabbage is relatively new to the Hastings area and is
increasing in interest. A new experiment was initiated to determine what com-
bination of fertilizer rates and method of application will be most beneficial
to direct seeded cabbage. This method possibly will lengthen the growing season,
however, it is hoped that more uniform stands can be attained. Possibly, the
cabbage will be more adaptable to mechanical harvesters.

Fertilizer treatments include a combination of broadcasting, banding and
side placement of complete fertilizers. A list of treatments is given in the
following table:



Fertilizer Treatments for Direct Seeded Cabbage

Lbs 6-8-8/A applied
Broadcast Banded Sidedressed
100 600 1100
Treatment No.

1 10 19 600 0

2 11 20 600 600

3 12 21 600 1200

4 13 22 1200 0

5 14 23 1200 600

6 15 24 1200 1200

7 16 25 1800 0

8 17 26 1800 600

9 18 27 1800 1200









EFFECT OF VARIOUS CROPPING PRACTICES ON POTATO YIELDS:


This experiment is broad in scope. It is designed to compare various
cropping practices and their effect on certain physical and chemical properties
of soil in addition to their effect on growth of potatoes.

Both virgin and old potato soils are included as variables. In certain
areas old potato soils appear to be unable to produce consistently high yields.
In cooperation with Dr. G. M. Volk of the Soils Department, IFAS, University of
Florida, Gainesville, the differences in soil organic matter and soil micro-
structure will be studied.

In addition to the age of the soil, treatments include subsoiling and no
subsoiling. Four summer cover crops were established after potatoes. These
were hybrid sorghum, soybeans, cooklebur and volunteer cover. The cover crops
were tilled at two stages of growth green and mature stages. Five nitrogen
fertilization treatments were also included as follows:


Pounds N applied at Nitrogen applied on cover crop
Treatment No. potato planting Growing Turning

1 150 0 0

2 150 50 0

3 150 0 50

4 100 50 0

5 100 0 50


During last year (1967-68) the extra nitrogen applied to cover crop produced
greater amounts of cover crop. This was associated with a decrease in yield of
potatoes. Plots with soybeans and hybrid sorghum tended to have lower yields
than cocklebur or volunteer plots on old land. On new land no differences in
potato yields due to summer cover was evident. An interaction of potato yield
between stage of cutting down cover crop and age of land existed. Delay of
cutting down cover on new land increased potato yields, whereas, the reverse
was true on old land.

In cooperation with Mrs. Amegda J. Overman, Associate Soils Microbiologist
at the Gulf Coast Experiment Station, Bradenton, nematode counts were made. Pre-
liminary data indicated that possibly some relationship between the high produc-
tion of cover crop and incidence of nematodes existed. This, in turn, could help
reduce the yield of potatoes the following year. Additional studies are in pro-
gress to determine to what extend nematodes are limiting growth in this experi-
ment.






INSECT CONTROL TESTS -- SPR~TG 106


CRUCIFEROUS CROPS. Seven weekly applications: 100 gals/A, 300 psi, 6 nozzles/row
4 replicates. Looper damage rated 1-6 per 40 plants: 1=0, 2=0-1%, 3-2-5%, 4=6-10%,
5=11-30%, 6=31-100% plant injury. Aphid numbers rated 1-7 per 40 plants: 1=0,
2=1-2, 3=3-10, 4=11-25, 5=26-50, 6=51-100, 7=100+ aphids per plant.
Tr. Pesticide Dosage Cabbage Looper I Cabbage Aphid
Act./ Cabbage- Cabbage- B. Sprout- B. Sprout- Rutabaga
Acre King Cole Marion Mkt L.I. Impr. L.I. Impr. Am Pur Top
(lb.) 'Tr. Rating Tr. Rating Tr. Rating Tr. Rating Tr. Rating
1. Check (Maneb) -- 16. 1.40 16. 1.13 16. 1.05 14. 1.10 15. 1.05
2. Parathion 4E 0.5 10. 1.40 10. 1.33 18. 1.13 15. 1.28 14. 1.10
Toxaphene 8E 2.0 18. 1.45 11. 1.38 10. 1.15 4. 1.53 8. 2.25
3. DDT 2E 0.5 15. 1.53 18. 1.48 11. 1.25 8. 1.60 2. 2.78
Guthion 2E 0.5 11. 1.60 5. 1.48 5. 1.38 2. 2.93 4. 2.80
4. Parathion 4E 0.25 7. 1.63 15. 1.53 7. 1.48 9. 3.58 12. 4.18
Thiodan 2E 0.5 17. 1.90 7. 1.63 4. 1.83 5. 4.28 9. 4.23
5. DDT 2E 1.0 5. 1.90 6. 1.65 15. 1.85 10. 4.85 10. 4.60
Toxaphene 8E 2.0 2. 2.05 2. 1.85 6. 1.85 12. 5.10 16. 6.13
6. Biotrol 25W 3.0(25W) 14. 2.13 9. 1.93 9. 2.40 16. 5.65 5. 6.30
7. Thuricide 90TS 2.0 qts. 6. 2.18 17. 2.00 14. 2.50 11. 5.73 11. 6.38
8. Phosdrin 4E 0.5 9. 2.28 14. 2.20 12. 2.58 18. 5.83 13. 6.53
9. Dibrom 8E 2.0 4. 2.35 12. 2.23 2. 2.60 13. 5.88 3. 6.58
10. Lannate 90W 0.5 12. 2.43 13. 2.43 3. 2.60 3. 5.98 18. 6.88
11. DuPont 1642 90W 0.5 13. 2.48 4. 2.48 13. 3.33 1. 6.85 1. 6.90
12. G.C.6506 4E 0.5 3. 2.73 3. 2.65 17. 3.50 17. 6.90 6. 7.00
13. Ciba 9491 1.0 8. 2.80 8. 2.98 8. 3.98 7. 6.93 7. 7.00
14. Furadan 75W 1.0 1. 5.58 1. 5.53 1. 5.78 6. 7.00 17. 7.00
15. Azodrin 3.2E 0.5
16. U.C. 34096 80W 1.0
17. Nutrilite Virus 20 L.U.
18. Fundal 95W 0.5
POTATO. Three weekly applications: sprays and aphid rating as for cruciferous
crops. Temik applied 60 days after planting as a sidedressing. Tuberworm rating
indicates number of tubers damaged of 200 examined.
Tr. Pesticide Dosage Green peach aphid Potato Tuberworm
A/A(lb.) Tr. Rating Tr. Rating
1. Thiodan 2E 0.5 2. 1.00 9. 17
2. Meta-Systox-R 2E 0.4 3. 1.05 7. 31
3. Azodrin 3.2E 0.5 5. 1.05 6. 48
4. Bidrin 8E 0.5 7. 1.08 3. 53
5. Di-Syston 6E 0.4 6. 1.13 1. 59
6. Lannate 90W 0.5 11. 1.15 10. 60
7. Furadan 75W 0.5 1. 1.18 12. 65
8. Systox 2E 0.4 8. 1.18
9. Temik 10G 3.4 4. 1.25
10. Check (Maneb) - 9. 1.48
11. Bidrin 8E 1.0 12. 2.28
12. Parathion 4E 0.5 10. 2.30
CRUCIFEROUS CROPS--1969. New pesticides include Monitor, Niran, and Velsicol 506.

POTATO--1969. Additional tests include Dasanit, Temik, and Thimet + Zinophos
granular preplant treatments and DD fumigation for nematode--yield observations.








VARIETY TRIALS, CHEMICAL WEED CONTROL TESTS,
AND DIRECT SEEDING OF CABBAGE STUDIES

J. R. Shumaker


VARIETY TRIALS:

Cabbage: Varieties are primarily being evaluated for their fresh market
adaptability to this area. Measurements are also being taken to
evaluate varietal uniformity. A high degree of uniformity is essen-
tial to the success of a once-over harvesting operation. Hybrid
varieties continue to show higher degrees of uniformity for market
maturity, plant type and head shape and size than open-pollinated
ones.

Both replicated and observational trials are currently being conducted.
Varieties being tested in replication are shown in the following table:



No. Variety No. Variety


1 Head Start** 13 Roundup

2 Princess (Hyb. 39) 14 Marion Market

3 Superette** 15 Greenback*

4 Kleen Cut** 16 S D Cross

5 Hybrid 42 17 Hybrid 32

6 Market Dawn 18 Rio Verde**

7 Market Topper* 19 Hybrid 21**

8 Market Prize* 20 Saf-Gard (Hyb. 18)**

9 Hybrid 59 21 A S Cross

10 King Cole* 22 A & C No. 5

11 Hybrid 63 23 Resistant Danish**

12 Little Rock** 25 Savoy Chiefton


Recommended variety.
Variety which has performed
seasons.


well during 1966-67 and 1967-68








VARIETY TRIALS:


Potatoes: Last year, Sebago was not significantly outyielded by any
of the other 22 entries in replicated trials. It continued
to perform extremely well in chip color evaluations. LaChipper,
a variety with considerable grower interest in this area, pro-
duced yields, specific gravity values, and chip color evalua-
tions essentially equal to those of Sebago. Wauseon, a recently
named variety and ND-6127-10R, a red seedling, produced tubers
of relatively low specific gravity. However, their yields and
chip color evaluations compared favorably with those of Sebago.

This year, varieties and seedlings are again being tested for
desirable horticultural characteristics in both replicated and
observational plantings. Those grown in replicated trials
are shown in the following tables:



White including Red LaSoda checks
Variety Variety
or or
No. Seedling No. Seedling

1 Red LaSoda* 14 Minn. 148
2 LaChipper 15 Peconic
3 Sebago* 16 Pa-7BE-3
4 Alamo (B5066-3) 17 Monona
5 Norgold Russet 18 Hi-Plains
6 Wauseon (B5036-40) 19 F-6124
7 Pungo** 20 Superior
8 Ona 21 B5461-4
9 Norchip 22 NB-5459
10 Pa-6HS-9 23 NB-5810
11 Lenape (B5141-6) 24 NB-5850
12 B5267-2 25 B5011-7
13 Anoka

Red including Sebago & LaChipper checks
Variety Variety
or or
No. Seedling No. Seedling

30 Sebago* 35 ND-6918-14R
31 Red LaSoda* 36 Minn. 140
32 ND-6127-10R 37 Chiefton
33 LaRouge 38 ND-554
34 Norchief 39 LaChipper


* Recommended variety.
** Recommended in fields


with corky ringspot infested soils.






CHEMICAL WEED CONTROL TESTS:


Cabbage: Crop direct seeded and transplanted November 21, 1968.
Herbicide applications post-transplant and prior to weed
emergence and seeded crop on November 22, 1968, broadcast
basis, 40 gal/A, 40 psi. Three replications direct seeded
plus three replications transplanted.



% Control
No. Treatment A/A(lbs) Broadleaf Weeds

1 Treflan 4E / 1.0 79.2
2 Vegadex 4E 6.0 61.2
3 Vegadex 4E + Randox 4E 3.0 each 72.6
4 Ramrod 65w 3.9 68.4
5 Dacthal 75W 10.5 84.2
6 Tok 50W 3.0 42.5
7 Vegadex 4E + Randox 4E 2.0 each 34.4
8 Check


Treatment applied pre-plant, incorporated
with rolling cultivator and bedded.


into soil


Potatoes: Crop planted January 28,
preemergence to crop and weeds
basis, 40 gal/A, 40 psi. Four
have been made to date.


1969. Treatments applied
February 21 and 22, broadcast
replications. No weed counts


No. Treatment A/A(lbs) No. Treatment A/A(lbs)

1 Treflan 4E l/ 0.5 10 Patoran 50W 3.0
2 Treflan 4E ./ 1.0 11 Maloran 50W 1.0
3 Eptam 6E 1/ 6.0 12 Maloran 50W 2.0
4 Eptam 6E 2/ 6.0 13 Dacthal 75W 10.5
5 Eptam 6E 2/ 4.0 14 Lasso 4E 2.0
6 Premerge 3E 3.0 15 Lasso 4E 4.0
7 Lorox 50W 2.0 16 Tok 2E 4.0
8 Lorox 50W 1.0 17 Check
9 Patoran 50W 2.0 18 Ramrod 65W 3-9

1/ Treatment applied, incorporated into soil with rolling
cultivator and bedded.
2/ Treatment applied and bedded.










DIRECT SEEDING OF CABBAGE:

Last year, by precision planting of sized cabbage seed in the field,
stands of 67% and 95% were established respectively: (1) by planting-
to-stand and (2) by planting two seeds at each spacing and later thinning
to stand. Cabbage established by direct seeding in the field matured
24 days earlier than that which was first grown in a seed bed and later
established in field plantings. A firm, smooth planting bed, maintenance
of adequate moisture in the seed zone and an effective weed control
program are important to establishing stands by direct seeding.

This year's tests are currently being conducted with both direct
seeded and transplanted cabbage grown from a uniform sized seed. The
experiment is designed primarily to measure the within variation of each
treatment. Results will indicate whether or not direct seeded cabbage
grown under our present cultural program is as acceptable to a harvester
as transplanted cabbage. It should also provide information concerning
spacing, stand and thinning operations.

The tests are as follows:

Treatment

1. Direct seeded, 8" spacing, 2 seeds, selected thinning.
2. Direct seeded, 8" spacing, 2 seeds, simulated mechanical thinning.
3. Direct seeded, 8" spacing, planted-to-stand.
4. Direct seeded, 12" spacing, 2 seeds, selected thinning.
5. Direct seeded, 12" spacing, 2 seeds, simulated mechanical thinning.
6. Direct seeded, 12" spacing, planted-to-stand.
7. Sized transplants, 8" spacing.
8. Unsized transplants, 8" spacing.
9. Sized transplants, 12" spacing.
10. Unsized transplants, 12" spacing.




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