Meo. Report 62-9
Mimeo Report 62-9
March 29, 1962
POTATO INVESTIGATIONS LABORATORY
P.O. Box 728
FOURTEENTH ANNUAL FIELD DAY
Cabbage and Potato Production
Fertility and Management of Soils for Potatoes
Corky Ringspot of Potato
Potato Processing Problems
After the coffee break a tour of test plots on the Yelvington Farm
will be made. Follow county roads and S-13 to the Farm. See road
plan to Farm attached to this program.
POTATO AND CABBAGE PRODUCTION
E. N. McCubbin
Potato Variety Trials.- Twenty-two potato varieties and 30 potato seedling
selections from the USDA and other breeding stations were planted 1/17/62 in new
land in 13-hill plots replicated five times with 2,500 pounds of 6-8-8 fertilizer
per acre. Yields and tuber characteristics will be recorded at harvest time and
chipping quality of tubers of the more promising varieties will be determined.
Potato Seed and Fertilizer Rates.- Sebago potatoes were planted 1/16/62 on new
land in a balanced lattice experiment at four different seeding rates, with each
seeding rate receiving 0.9, 1.0, 1.1 and 1.2 pounds of a 6-8-8 fertilizer per
pound of seed. Two-ounce seed were planted with five replications of 16 different
seed and fertilizer treatments as noted below. Yields and grades of potatoes will
be taken and compared at harvest.
Lbs. of Spacing of Seed Pounds of Fertilizer per Pound of Seed
Seed in 40-inch Rows 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2
per Acre in Inches Pounds of Fertilizer per Acre
2,000 9.84 1,800 2,000 2,200 2,400
2,500 7.89 2,250 2,500 2,750 3,000
3,000 6.52 2,700 3,000 3,300* 3,600*
3,500 5.61 3,150* 3,500* 3,850* 4,200*
*Amounts above 3,000 Ibs./acre applied 60 days after planting.
Experiments have shown that 2-ounce seedpieces of Sebago produce best yields
of potatoes. Space seed 10 or 8 inches apart in 40-inch rows. This will require
2,000 pounds of seed at the 10-inch spacing and 2,450 pounds of seed at the 8-inch
spacing to plant an acre of potatoes. When planting 2,000 pounds of seed apply
2,200 pounds of 6-8-8 fertilizer or equivalent per acre. Average yields of 200 cwo
US 1A potatoes per acre and a minimum price of $3.00 per cwt. will make the higher
rates of seeding and fertilization profitable. For large yields and better prices
the higher rates of seeding and fertilization will be proportionately more
Control of Weeds in Cabbage and Potatoes with herbicides.* Cabbage plants trans-
planted 11/13/61 were given the following herbicidal treatments in 20-inch bands
over the row.
5. CDAA ec. 1.50 lbs./A
6. CDAA ec. 0.75 lb./A
7. Check (none)
Potato plots were planted 12/28/61 and 25 days after planting but before plant
emergence the soil was treated with preemergence herbicides as shown below. At
layby time the plots also were treated with EPTC (Eptam).
ec. 3 Ibs./A
ec. 3 lbs./A
ec. 3 Ibs./A
ec. 3 lbs./A
ec. 3 Ibs./A
ec. 4 Ibs./A
ec. 6 lbs./A
ec. 3 lbs./A
g. 6 Ibs./A
g. 3 lbs./A
ec. 6 Ibs./A
Cabbage Variety Trials.- Nineteen cabbage varieties and 6 lines of hybrid cabbage
as listed below were replicated 10 times in 25-foot single row plots transplanted
11/16/61 and fertilized with 1,900 pounds of a 6-8-8 fertilizer per acre.
Wisconsin Copenhagen Market
Glory of Enkhuizen
Early Round Dutch
Round Red Dutch
Market Winner Hybrid
Market Topper Hybrid
Market Winner Hybrid
Market Master Hybrid
Market Prize Hybrid
CC Cross Hybrid
*Resistant to cabbage yellows
Sources of Nitrogen for Cabbage.- Land uniformly fertilized with 1,900 pounds of
a 6-8-8 fertilizer per acre was transplanted to Marion Market cabbage 11/15/61.
Various nitrogenous materials were used one, two or three times as sidedressings
to the cabbage in this area on 25-foot, 3-row plots replicated five times. Each
sidedressing material was applied to supply 24 pounds of nitrogen per acre per
application. Sidedressing materials used were nitrate of soda, nitrate of soda-
potash, ammonium nitrate, calcium nitrate, Nu-groen and ammonium sulfate. Number
and weight of heads cut from each sidedressing treatment were recorded and compared.
FERTILITY AND MANAGEMENT OF SOILS FOR POTATOES
D. R. Hensel
All plots are in potatoes this year after a rotation of either one year of
rye, oats, lupine, volunteer growth or continuous potatoes. Both one and two
years after the rotation crops will be compared with continuous potatoes. The
experiment is being conducted on both old and new land.
2. Cover Crops:
Winter: Winter cover crops under test at present time are: rye, oats, wh;fat
and rye grass. These are being compared to continuous potatoes on old land.
Summer: Several summer cover crops were planted last spring after potato
harvest. They are: sweet sudan grass, rice (2 varieties--Blue Bonnet and
Nato), sart, cattail millet, hairy indigo, and corn. These plots are in
potatoes this season, and yields will be taken at harvest to determine which
crops provide the best summer cover.
3. Phosphorus--Nitrogen Study:
This experiment includes three rates of phosphorus in combination with three
rates of nitrogen fertilizer. The rates of phosphorus application are 80,
160, 240 pounds P205 per acre, and the rates of nitrogen are 70, 140, 210
pounds of nitrogen per acre. This experiment is being conducted on both old
and new land. This experiment will show the best combination of phosphorus
and nitrogen for potatoes on old and new land.
4. 6-8-8 vs 8-22-8:
This experiment is a comparison of a 1-1-1 ratio with 1-3.1 ratio fertilizer.
Using 200 Ibs. of P205 per acre which is the recommended amounts needed to
grow a crop of potatoes, it will take 2,500 Ibs. of 6-8-8 or 900 Ibs. of
8-22-8 to furnish enough phosphorus. The 900 Ibs. of 8-22-8 only furnishes
about one-half of the recommended nitrogen. More nitrogen is furnished by
sidedressing with a 15-0-15 fertilizer. The various treatments included in
this study are:
1. 2,500 Ibs. of 6-8-8
2. No. 1 plus 500 Ibs. 15-0-15 sidedressed
3. No. 1 plus 450 Ibs. concentrated super
4. 900 Ibs. of 8-22-8 plus 500 lbs. 15-0-15
5. No. 4 plus muriate of potash to make 200 Ibs. K20
6. No. 4 plus 500 lbs. 15-0-15 applied 2 weeks after
first 15-0-15 application
7. 1,200 Ibs. of 8-22-8 plus 350 lbs. 15-0-15
8. 1,200 Ibs. of 8-22-8 plus 500 lbs. 15-0-15
9. 1,875 Ibs. of 8-22-8 no sidedressing
10. No. 9 plus muriate of potash to make 200 Ibs. K20
This study has various combinations of fertilization and sidedressing prac-
tices which will be compared to each other. The treatments are: 2,500 Ibs.
per acre of 6-8-8 as the check or control, 2,500 Ibs. per acre of 6-8-8 with
three sidedressing materials at 37.5 Ibs. per acre and 75 Ibs. per acre of
nitrogen. The three materials are 15-0-15, ammonium nitrate, and nitrate of
soda. In addition to these treatments, 8-22-8 fertilizer was applied at
900 Ibs. per acre in the row and sidedressed with same three sources of
nitrogen at the rate of 112 Ibs. nitrogen per acre.
Urea-formaldehyde (UF-85) was applied at 0, 50, 100, 150 gals. per acre. A
6-8-8 fertilizer was applied at two different rates in combination with each
of the U-F applications. The fertilizer was applied at the rate of 1,800 and
2,700 Ibs. per acre. Interaction between U-F and fertilizer rates will be
7. Plastic mulch:
This year the black plastic is being tested at three different fertilization
rates of 6-8-8. The rates of fertilization are 900, 1800, and 2700 pounds of
6-8-8, with and without plastic. Results will indicate whether the plastic
will make the potato plants produce same amount of potatoes using less ferti-
lizer or produce more potatoes with same amount of fertilizer than potatoes
grown with no plastic.
8. Minor elements:
Five elements are under test at present time. They are boron, copper, zinc,
manganese, and molybdenum. Results of virgin soil or new land experiment
last year indicated none of the elements lacking. This year, the experiment
is being conducted on old land.
CORKY RINGSPOT OF POTATO
A. H. Eddins
Resistance of Potatoes to Corky Ringspot
Of 68 potato varieties and seedling selections tested to determine their
reaction to the tuber- and soil-borne corky ringspot virus disease during the
11 years, 28 with tuber infection ranging from 0 to 7 percent were classified
resistant to corky ringspot. Tuber infection varied from 10.5 to 100 percent
40 susceptible varieties and selections.
This year 25
location that has
varieties and selections listed below are being tested in a
been used for the past four years where the soil is known to be
with the corky ringspot virus.
Soil Treatments for Control of Corky Ringspot
Soil treatments with sulfur and two nematocides are being tested for control
of corky ringspot in replicated plots where the disease was severe in 1961. Suffi-
cient sulfur was applied to one series of plots in November 1961 to adjust the re-
action to pH 3.9 to 4.4. Two nematocides consisting of Viden D(1,3-dichloropropene)
20 gals. per acre and Dowfume W-85(ethylene dibromide) at 6 gallons per acre were
applied to other plots December 4, 1961 and the potatoes were planted December 28.
At harvest the number and weight of affected and nonaffected tubers in each treated
and nontreated plot will be recorded and the value of the treatments in controlling
the disease determined.
POTATO PROCESSING PROBLEMS
R. A. Dennison
A report will be made on some of the chemical and other factors involved in
the utilization of potatoes for processed products such as chips and french fries.
Ralph B. Workman
Control of Cabbage Insects.- Insecticides were
intervals. Most insect damage occurred during
applied seven times at two-week
the latter part of the season.
Parathion 4E plus
Parathion 4E plus
Shell 4402 1.25E
Thuricide 30 B
r Cabbage aphid
Insecticides giving excellent cabbage aphid control this year have
Dimethoate, Niagara 5767, and Phosdrin.
Control of Potato Insects.- Wireworm tests this season include Di-Syston and Thimet
granulars for the second year along with Diazinon and Parathion emulsions. All
have given good wireworm control with Di-Syston and Thimet giving systemic control
of aphids also. Spray materials giving the best control of aphids on potatoes last
year were Endrin, Thiodan, and Dimethoate.
Wireworm Notes.- More wireworm adults (beetles) were captured in the Station light
trap last year than the two previous years added together. Wireworms in the soil
varied from field to field but were generally more numerous than the previous two
years. Some light damage was reported in the area last season. Wireworms col-
lected from five locations in the Hastings area (East Palatka, Hastings, Tocoi,
Mill Creek, and Bunnell) were not controlled with Aldrin in lab tests. All were
killed with Parathion at the one pound per acre rate.
Insecticide Application.- For best insect control, cabbage must be well covered
with the insecticide. Check coverage by examining treated plants immediately after
application and make adjustments if needed. Two nozzles directly overhead are
better than one on the top of the plant where aphids and mildew are most trouble-
some. Cabbage loopers begin their development on the lower leaves and are easiest
to kill in the young stages. On large cabbage use increased gallonages and
spreaders to get sprays down inside the wrapper leaves. Dusts work well here as
they sift downwards. Cabbage worms generally develop first on the wrapper leaves
and move to the head when larger. Highest numbers of aphids on potatoes are found
on the lower leaves.
Safety Precautions.- Follow the directions on the insecticide label at all times.
Do not allow others to disregard these directions at any time.
Laboratory; \ To St. Augustine
.--- State Road S-1-3- i :
I A : 0-
_ _. __ St,.
Road from Potato Laboratory to Yelvington Farm